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A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
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Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
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      And then, as he concluded, he said the words that
I will never forget, the prophetic words that, for me,
still define the character of our nonviolent freedom
FIRST MIA MASS MEETING
A CALL TO CONSCIENCE
movement: “When the history books are written in
the future, somebody will have to say, ‘There lived a
race of people, a black people, fleecy locks and black
complexion, a people who had the moral courage to
stand up for their rights.
	A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

(All right) But the great glory of American democracy is the right to protest for right. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(That’s right) [Applause] Unity is the great need of the hour (Well, That’s right), and if we are united we can get many of the things that we not only desire but which we justly deserve. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
If we were incarcerated behind the iron curtains of a Communistic nation we couldn’t do this. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
I had the priv- ilege the other night of seeing the story in movie terms in New York City, entitled The Ten Commandments, and I came to see it in all of its beauty. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
[Recording interrupted] “I want to go back home. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Then while in London, he came, he started thinking about Pan-Africanism, and the problem of how to free his people from colonialism. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
It was the Union Jack flag of the Gold Coast, the British flag, you see. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
And when Prime Minister Nkrumah stood up before his people out in the polo ground and said, “We are no longer a British colony, we are a free, sovereign people,” all over that vast throng of people we could see tears. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
I was very happy to see already, people who have moved in and making good. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Ghana teaches us that. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
It says to us another thing. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Then I can hear Isaiah again, because it has pro- found meaning to me, that somehow “every valley shall be exalted, and every hill shall be made low; the crooked places shall be made straight, and the rough places plain; and the glory of the Lord shall be re- vealed, and all flesh shall see it together.” A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
That’s the beauty of this thing: all flesh shall see it together. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Not some from inordinate, superfluous wealth and others from ab- ject, deadening poverty. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Not some white and not some black, not some yellow and not some brown, but all flesh shall see it together. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They shall see it from Mont- gomery. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They shall see it from New York. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They shall see it from Ghana. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They shall see it from China. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
And then we will be in Canaan’s freedom land. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Moses might not get to see Canaan, but his chil- dren will see it. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Grant that we will follow Him enough to gain them. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
What we are witnessing today in so many northern communities is a sort of quasi-liberalism which is based on the principle of looking sympa- thetically at all sides. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
But one hun- dred years later, the Negro in the United States of America still isn’t free. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Now is the time to lift our nation [Applause], now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of racial justice. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Now is the time. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Now, Now) [Applause] And so this social revolution taking place can be FREEDOM RALLY IN COBO HALL 65 ~ summarized in three little words. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They are not big words. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
I say to you, there is power in this method. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Now is the time to get rid of segrega- tion and discrimination. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
And we’ve got to come to see that the problem of racial injustice is a national problem. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
And we must come to see that FREEDOM RALLY IN COBO HALL 69 ~ de facto segregation in the North is just as injurious of the, as the actual segregation in the South. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
[Applause] I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made low; the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight; and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
The day of the march there were so many people, from the reflecting pooi to the base of the Lincoln Memorial, it was impossible to see the grass. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
People crammed into the space, eager to hear every word and see every speaker. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
He made us see how “We shall overcome, black and white together.” A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
In a sense we’ve come to our nation’s capital to cash I HAVE A DREAM 81 made low; the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight (Yes); and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
We must come to see that the end we seek is a society at peace with itself, a society that can live with its conscience. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
There were no laws segregating the races then. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(R:~ht) I want you to follow me through here because this is very important to see the roots of racism and the denial of the right to vote. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
The battle is in our hands. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
To this list may be added the names of all those (Yes) who have fought and, yes, died in the nonviolent army of our day: Medgar Evers (Speak); three civil rights work- ers in Mississippi last summer; William Moore, as has already been mentioned (Yes sir); the Reverend James Reeb (Yes sir); Jimmy Lee Jackson (Yes sir); and four little girls in the church of God in Birmingham on Sunday morning. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
And we can answer with creative nonviolence the call to higher ground to which the new directions of our struggle summons us. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
He sent one of his advisors to see me in the sum- mer of 1967. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
As a United States senator from South Dakota, I had been speaking out against U.S. in- volvement in Vietnam for several years. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
A few years ago there was a shining moment in that strug- gle. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They must see Americans as strange liberators. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They wander into the towns and see thousands of the children, homeless, without clothes, running in packs on the streets like animals. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They see the children de- graded by our soldiers as they beg for food. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They see A CALL TO CONSCIENCE 148 ~ the children selling their sisters to our soldiers, solic- iting for their mothers. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
‘What of the National Liberation Front, that strangely anonymous group we call “VC” or “corn- BEYOND VIETNAM 149 ~ munists”? What must they think of the United States of America when they realize that we permitted the repression and cruelty of Diem, which helped to bring them into being as a resistance group in the South? What do they think of our condoning the violence which led to their own taking up of arms? How can they believe in our integrity when now we speak of “aggression from the North” as if there were nothing more essential to the war? How can they trust us when now we charge them with violence after the murder- ous reign of Diem and charge them with violence while we pour every new weapon of death into their land? Surely we must understand their feelings, even if we do not condone their actions. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Surely we must see that the men we supported pressed them to their violence. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Here is the true meaning and value of compassion and nonviolence, when it helps us to see the enemy’s point of view, to hear his questions, to know his as- sessment of ourselves. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
For from his view we may in- deed see the basic weaknesses of our own condition, and if we are mature, we may learn and grow and profit from the wisdom of the brothers who are called the opposition. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
The Americans are forcing even their friends into becoming their enemies. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
One day we must come to see that the whole Jericho Road must be transformed so that men and women will not be con- stantly beaten and robbed as they make their journey on life’s highway. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
It comes to see that an edi- fice which produces beggars needs restructuring. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
With righteous indignation, it will look across the seas and see individual capitalists of the West investing huge sums of money in Asia, Africa, and South America, only to take the profits out with no concern for the social betterment of the countries, and say, “This is not just.” A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Even now, with the incredible moral force and the inspiration Dr. King provided, when we honor his memory, we too often forget that he was also a champion of economic justice for all Ameri- cans. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
In consequence, Negroes are still impover- ished aliens in an affluent society. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Speak) And this is what we must see as we move on. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They fail to see that no internal revolution has ever succeeded in overthrow- ing a government by violence unless the government had already lost the allegiance and effective control of its armed forces. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
For through violence you may mur- der a murderer, but you can’t murder murder. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Yes) You may even give your goods to feed the poor (Yes sir), you may bestow great gifts to charity (Speak), and you may tower high in phi- A CALL TO CONSCIENCE 192 ~ lanthropy; but if you have not love, your charity means nothing. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Yes) And I’m simply saying that more and more, we’ve got to begin to ask questions about the whole society. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Yes) But one day we must come to see that an edifice which produces beggars needs restructuring. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(All r:ght) It means that questions must be raised. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
I’m delighted to see each of you here tonight in spite of a storm warning. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Yeah, All right) Something is happening in Memphis, some- thing is happening in our world. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
And you know, if I were standing at the beginning of time with the pos- sibility of taking a kind of general and panoramic view of the whole of human history up to now, and the Almighty said to me, “Martin Luther King, which age would you like to live in?” I would take my men- tal flight by Egypt (Yeah), and I would watch God’s children in their magnificent trek from the dark dun- geons of Egypt through, or rather, across the Red Sea, through the wilderness, on toward the Promised Land. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Yeah) I would even go by the way that the man for whom I’m named had his habitat, and I would watch Mar- tin Luther as he tacks his ninety-five theses on the door at the church of Wittenberg. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(All right) A CALL TO CONSCIENCE ~1 208 ~ Strangely enough, I would turn to the Almighty and say, “If you allow me to live just a few years in the second half of the twentieth century, I will be happy.” A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
[Applause] Now that’s a strange statement to make because the world is all messed up. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
You reveal that you are de- termined [Audience:] (Right) to go on anyhow. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Yeah) [Applause] Now we’re going to march again, and we’ve got to march again (Yeah), in order to put the issue where it is supposed to be (Yeah) [Applause] and force every- body to see that there are thirteen hundred of God’s children here suffering (That’s right), sometimes going hungry, going through dark and dreary nights won- dering how this thing is going to come out. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
We are masters in our nonviolent movement in disarming po- lice forces. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
By the hundreds we would move out, and I’VE BEEN TO THE MOUNTAINTOP 211 ~‘ Bull Connor would tell them to send the dogs forth, and they did come. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
You know, what’s beautiful to me is to see all of these ministers of the Gospel. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Go ahead) And I want to commend the preachers, under the leadership of these noble men: James Lawson, one who has been in this struggle for many years. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
And then they can move on downtown and tell Mayor Loeb to do what is right. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
You see, the Jericho Road is a dangerous road. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Yeah) And as soon as we got on that road I said to my wife, “I can see why Jesus used this as the setting for his parable.” A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
(Yes) If I had sneezed [Applause], I wouldn’t have been down in Selma, Alabama, to see the great movement there. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
If I had sneezed, I wouldn’t have been in Memphis to see a community rally around those brothers and sisters who are suffering. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
For example, family din- ners were occasions not only to discuss their school performance or work history, but also to see parents and relatives challenge their in- volvement in the Black Kings. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Field researchers are dependent on the kindness and cooperation of people who may never gain anything practical from the published studies and who may disagree with the story that is eventually told. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Until full free- dom and citizenship are achieved, Du Bois argued, their history will produce a liminal identity, a “double consciousness,” one defined in part by the victories and setbacks along the way, but perhaps more so by the “history of this strife.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Tenants recall that within a building, particular floors were more likely to help one another: “Where I was at,” said the tenant Carol Sanders, “it was [floors] three through five, we really was tight, you know, we cooked for each other, watched to see who was walking around on the floors.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
As one tenant recalled: You see, [the CHA] was letting in younger and younger people, who did- n’t have jobs and who just wanted to be “independent,” you know, have themselves a baby and get a check each month. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
In other areas of the housing development, residents formed their own opposition to the Housing Authority, but not always via a union of council officers and tenants such as the alliance of Huddle, Lenard, Woodson, and Walton. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
As a precinct worker for the powerful Cook County Democratic Party chairman George Dunne, Marlow was one of the many street-level faithful who worked for elected leaders in exchange for patronage (in the form of a govern- ment job). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Indeed, it appears that a minimal level of collaboration actually characterized contacts between tenants and law enforcement agents. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Police often turned to them during distress calls and in routine investigations. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Police also benefited from this arrangement, says the LAC officer Edith Huddle: “[The po- lice were saying] ‘We can’t stop crime around here without your help.’ American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Tenant leaders wanted to retain control over social activity in and around their buildings, and law enforcement wished to be liberated from the difficulties of providing enforcement in a densely populated, verti- cally structured development. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
In Judy’s parlor, attendants conversed at a cash-bar and danced to music or lobbied LAG officers—and of course women came to find johns to escort to their apartments. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
You had gamblers between the seventh and the ninth, in the stairwells, and you could always find a game. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
As Cathy Blanchard ar- gued, “[Those leaders] usually got our support because we knew they could get stuff done for us, not because we respected them or, you know, because they was for what we was for.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
One needed to look no further than the domicile to see the turn for the worse that many inner-city blacks had taken.3 American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Tenants alleged that LAG and GAG officers were responsible for the declining state of affairs. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
What folks call mob action, you see, that was the best tool we had because we could get to a bunch of them and surprise them. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
However, this conclusion should be drawn cautiously. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
As the shorties aged and became potential “core” members, the lead- ers entrusted them with specific duties, such as keeping drugs on their person, to see whether they were comfortable with entrepre- neurial pursuits. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
It was not common, but also not entirely unusual, to see BKs helping tenants in their buildings with a small cash disbursement. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Tenants had few misgivings that, at root, the Black Kings were pri- marily interested in revenue generation and would not hesitate to use intimidation and violence to maintain their income. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
“Just because you got a house and I live in the projects, white folk still see you as a nigger.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
They do not forgo the dominant symbols of success—for ex- ample, a house and a family—but politicize them in such a way that their pursuit justifies the use of non-mainstream paths. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The BK leaders understand economic mobility in terms of three forms of income generation: gang-dominated drug economies, “shit work” for low wages in the service sector, and inaccessible “down- town jobs,” which they see as high-paying, relatively secure posi- tions.24 American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The others enumerated different factors: lack of respect and autonomy in available work, failure to see the work-related benefits of their education, and white privilege that de- nies blacks job-promotion and career opportunities. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Prince states that the larger world has placed them in a “catch-22” dilemma: You can’t win. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
He got kids now and I try to tell him he needs to stay working, stop dealing the drugs and banging with these niggers.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Pas de Deux of Gang and Community “See, when you put an animal in a cage and then let it out, it’ll kill you,” said Kenny Davenport. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
In the words of their high school principal: See, folks think you got good and bad around here, but you got good and bad in the same person. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
That’s what you see if you stay around here long enough. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Anthony and Prince, they’re decent kids and they can do good things if they put their minds to it [Even as gang leaders?] Yeah, they still take care of people, but they’re lost, so they don’t see that life isn’t about what you do until you’re thirty. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Kids don’t see that what it takes to be successful when you’re forty, that’s something different than twenty. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Davenport believed that the BKs chose underground activity to show- case their control because it was so common in the development: “Everyone hustles, so you hassle lots of folks, that means everyone got to respect you, you dig?” The BKs had their reasons for taxing people, but Kenny’s explanation attributes too much forethought and strategizing to the leaders, who instead see the practice as a way of “keeping the peace” so that everyone could benefit from hustling. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Shit, we watching out for ‘em, keeping the peace, and they bitching about giving up a little something for that. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The arrangements between the LAG leadership and the BK leaders did not escape the notice of tenants. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
They felt that their leaders’ receipt of the gang’s money did little for most of the residents in a high-rise. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
“When they say they want to help the community, [we] want to see if they mean it.’ American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Street-Gang Diplomacy I 195 196 I AMERICAN PROJECT To secure his “rank,” Jamie tried to reduce some of the raids, but his assertiveness amounted to too little, too late. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
These cats talk a lot about help- ing the community, but if people start complaining and they can’t sell the drugs, they beat them up. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
A principal of a nearby high school stated, “Yeah, you can criticize us for doing nothing, but you probably don’t see all that we do inside the school. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Lot of people see real hard kids, gangbangers. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
I see sheep wandering, babies.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
It is understandable that tenants in Robert Taylor were circum- spect when the Grace Center entered into some of the most politi- cized aspects of community life.18 American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
And they lamented the re- duced use of “friendly policies” that enabled them to remain in contact with tenants through constant attention to maintenance: If you can get an LAG president to listen to you, you’re going to have more success managing these large developments. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Let’s see if Will and them can stop all the drugs and the shooting. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
In fact, even with the intervention of Jeremy Goals and Will Jackson, gang wars still erupted; the primary (and no doubt valuable) service of the two mediators was to limit their dura- tion. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The Grace Cen- ter’s posture was ultimately tragic and instructive: gang members who stood in public, selling drugs and harassing passers-by with lit- tie resistance from tenants (who justifiably feared them) and with Street-Gang Diplomacy 231 232 AMERICAN PROJECT minimal challenge from the LAG (who were fighting one another over whether to support No More Wars), showed the limits of an approach that worked within the gang structure but did not directly challenge the gang’s drug trafficking. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
They failed to provide a perspective from which to see how daily needs were being met, if ever so tenuously and imper- fectly, through negotiation, struggle, and cooperation. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For a population hovering around twenty thousand, it was striking to see the dearth of providers Street-Gang Diplomacy I 235 236 AMERICAN PROJECT at tenants’ side. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Although some tenants may have preferred the reformist effort to Chicago law enforcement’s “gang suppression,” this prefer- ence did not necessarily translate into actual, widespread tenant sup- port for the center and its “Band-Aid” diplomacy. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Once they found out that the gangs were in- volved to such a great degree, said Harris, the agencies flatly stated that they feared the safety of their own staff and so could not enter the community. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
“[Your superiors] told you all you can’t be doing that shit no more.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
It don’t pay nothing and you just hear people complain all day! American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Huddle and Walton ex- ercised somewhat poor political judgment by arguing that the prac- tice of lobbying law enforcement agents for better service provision was independent from the use of gang members for security. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
are part of a seemingly endless cycle of disadvantaged youth, fraught with developmental challenges, who have few opportunities and who see the gang as a source of social and economic capital. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Mayor Richard J. Daley exclaimed proudly as he guided Chi- cago’s reconstruction, “When I walk down the street where I live, I see every street in the city of Chicago.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
There is no community in which ongoing col- lective labor is not required to ensure livability, though the resources available to communities will differ. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
It respects their established ways of ensuring a high quality of life. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
People did not record history in some linear way as a series of mental notes that could be accessed, but in the case of Robert Taylor, the community’s ever-changing col- lective culture generally surfaced in events and behavior. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Ethnography is no less a peculiar mode of engaging with others than is interviewing. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Ibid., p. 4.4. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
have taken measures to safeguard the identities of the participants. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
290 Notes to Pages 6—8 The concern with community life and the production of social order has4. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
“Suburbia and the single-family house became the dominant setting for5. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Morris Janowitz, The Community Press in an Urban Setting: The Social7. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See W. E. B. Du Bois, The Philadelphia Negro (Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus-Thomp- son Organization, Ltd., American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For a recent discussion of method and nar- rative in the context of Diasporic Africa, see Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge, Mass.: American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For an inquiry into the methodological problems posed by using participant observation alongside historical research tech- niques, see John and Jean Comaroff, Ethnography and the Historical Imagination (Boulder, Cob.: American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For a comparative study of social dynamics similar to this study of tenants and the state, see John L. Comaroff, “Dialectical Systems, History, and Anthropology: Units of Study, Questions of Theory,” Journal of Southern African Studies, 8 (1982): 143—172. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See also Jeffrey K. Olick and Joyce Robbins, “Social Memory Studies: From ‘Collective Memory’ to the Historical Sociology of Mne- monic Practices,” Annual Review of Sociology, 25 (1998): 105—140. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Peter Marcuse, “Interpreting ‘Public Housing’ History,” Journal of Ar-3. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
13. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
18. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Kenneth E. Hinze, Donald J. Bogue, and Pierre Devise, Population21. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Local Community Fact Book, 1960. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See also the Near South Development Area Report (Chi- cago: City of Chicago’s Department of Development and Planning, 1967). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
They leased apartments to outside agencies, such as the school board for temporary classroom space, that wished to deliver services to tenants (see Gus W. Master to William E. Bergeron, July 22, 1969, Chicago Housing Au- thority Management files [Chicago: Chicago Housing Authority Ar- chives]). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
28. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Most ethnographic studies of the ghetto poor did not see political activity as central in their study; see, for example, Rainwater, Behind Ghetto Walls (Chicago: Aldine, 1970); and Elliot Liebow, Tally’s Corner: A Study of Negro Streetcorner Men (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Ulf Hannerz (Soulside [New York: Columbia University Press, 1969]) ar- gues that most ghetto dwellers in the 1960s did not participate in orga- nized political activity, but their consciousness about everyday life suggested that the basic aspects of making ends meet were deeply politi- cized. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Hunt, “What Went Wrong?” for an extended discussion based on cor- respondence between CHA management officials. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Curtis Skinner, “Urban Labor Markets and Young Black Men: A Literature Review,” Journal of Economic Issues, 39 (1995): 4 7—65, see p. 57; Andrew Brimmer, “Economic Situation of Blacks in the United States,” Review of Black Political Economy, 2 (1972): 34—52. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Joyce Ladner, Tomorrow’s Tomorrow: The Black Woman (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Although these regulations were altered after 1967 to permit some additional income supplementation, the public-aid recipient would still have to relinquish part of each dollar earned by a member of the household. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
58. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See “Stages II & III” Correspondence, June 26, 1959, CHA Project Ill 2—37 File, SMA Project 5176 (Chicago: Chicago Housing Authority Archives). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See also Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (Cambridge, Mass.: American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
77. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
5. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See HUD Project Files, 2—37 (Chicago: Chicago Housing Authority Archives). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See numerous letters written by Gus W. Master, the director of manage- ment, to tenants between 1971 and 1976. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
29. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
31. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Cities in the United States (New York: Columbia University Press, 1987). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Adolph Reed, “Black Particularity Reconsidered,” Telos (Spring 1979), pp. 71—93. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
class to wield any political power, the role of Negro politicians has been restricted to attempting to satisfy the demands of Negro voters while act- ing as the servants of the political machines supported by the propertied classes in the white community.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
44. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
45. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
In a critique of this research tradition during that era, the anthropologist Richard Fox writes, “Once anthropologists of the ghetto find such hetero- geneity [among the lifestyle of excluded and under-privileged popula- tions] to exist, they commonly pursue its content and expression within the boundaries of the excluded populations rather than use it as an in- sight into the nature of industrial cities in their societies.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Carl Taylor, Dangerous Society (East Lansing: Michigan State Univer- sity Press, 1990). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Lusane, Pipe Dream Blues, for data that dispel the myth that blacks were more prone to crime than whites in the 1980s. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See also Editorial, Chicago Tribune, December 14, 1986. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See “CHA Establishes Framework for Support from Business Charity,” and “CHA Seeks $75.8 American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See also “Tenant Management No Public Housing Cure,” Chicago Tribune, December 10, 1986. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For a study of these dynamics in another large Chicago high-rise public housing complex, see Ed Marciniak, Reclaiming the Inner City: Chicago’s Near North Revitalization Confronts Cabrini Green (Washington, D. C.: National Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs, 1986). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Chicago Tribune between December 14 and December 21, 1986. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See “Crime Rate up in CHA by 9 Percent,” Chicago Tribune, June 23, 1988. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See “Tenant Management No Public Housing Cure,” Chicago Tribune, De- cember 12, 1986; “Leadership Battle Keeps CHA in Basement,” Chicago Tribune, December 11, 1986; and “CHA’s Councils Don’t Aid Tenants, Critics Contend,” Chicago Tribune, October 4, 1987. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See “CHA Chief Links Project Managers to Gangs,” Chicago Tribune, July 2, 1988. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See John Hagedorn, People and Folks: Gangs, Crime and the Underclass in a Rustbelt City (Chicago: Lake View Press, 1988), p. 151, for a compari- son with Milwaukee, Wisconsin. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See The American Street Gang: Its Nature, Prevalence, and Control (New York: Oxford Uni- versity Press, 1995), p. 134. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For the written bylaws of most of the well-known Chicago gang families, see Appendix C in George W. Knox, An Introduction to Gangs (Bristol, md.: American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Irving A. Spergel, “Youth Gangs: Continuity and Change,” Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 12 (1990): 202. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For general considerations, see Martin Gold and Hans W. Mattick, Experiment in the Streets: The Chi- cago Youth Development Project (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, In- stitute for Social Research, 1974). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For an overview of this process, see Spergel, “Continuity and Change”; Felix Padilla, The Gang as an American Enterprise (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992); J. Michael Olivero, Honor, Violence and Upward Mobility: A Case Study of Chicago’s Street Gangs during the 1970s and 1980s (Edinburg, Tex.: American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For an insightful analysis of the role of gangs in prison during the 1960s and 1970s, see James B. Jacobs, Stateville: The Penitentiary in Mass Soci- ety (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For a more detailed analysis of the “corporatization” of Chicago’s street gangs after 1970, see Sudhir Venkatesh and Steven D. Levitt, “Are We a Family or a Business?”: History and Disjuncture in the Urban American Street Gang,” Theory and Society, 29 (2000). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Horowitz, Honor and the American Dream: Culture and Identity in a Chicano Community (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1983). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Ruth Horowitz, “Community Tolerance of Gang Violence,” Social Problems 34(5) (December 1987), p. 449, and Honor and the American Dream, p. 197. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See “CHA Chief Blasts Guards at Projects,” Chicago Tribune, August 13, 1988; “Managers Challenge CHA Chief over Gang, Drug Accusations,” Chicago Tribune, July 8, 1988; “CHA Chief Links Project Managers to Gangs,” Chi- cago Tribune, July 2, 1988. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Mike Davis, Prisoners of the American Dream: Politics and Economy in the History of the U.S. Working Class (London: Verso, 1986). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Richard A. Cloward and Frances Fox Piven, “The Welfare State in an Age of Industrial Working Class Decline,” Smith College Studies in Social Work (March 1986). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Steven D. Levitt and Sudhir Venkatesh, “The Financial Activities of an Urban Streeet Gang,” Quarterly Journal of Economics (Summer 2000). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
An excellent comparative study of drug dealing by dif- ferent ethnic groups is Mercer L. Sullivan, Getting Paid: Youth, Crime, and Work in the Inner City (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The quote appears in D. Garth Taylor, Minority Housing in Chicago (Chi- cago: Chicago Urban League, 1988). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
4. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
7. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
8. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Robert A. Slayton, The Reagan Approach to Housing: An Examination of Local Impact (Chicago: Chicago Urban League, 1987), p. 1. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
17. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
19. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Ibid., p. 1. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The agency explained this fiscal policy by suggesting that the federal government requires too much paperwork and non-productive ac- counting. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
22. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
27. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
we propose to implement a security program at two contiguous high rise developments, Robert Taylor Homes and Stateway Gardens. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Letter from CHA Chairman Charles R. Swibel to Lawrence B. Simons (Chicago: Chicago Housing Authority Archives, August 22, 1979). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Chicago Tribune, July 18, 1987. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
40. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vin- tage, 1961), p. 402. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
51. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Wyndham Hall, 1991). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
59. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
I conducted an informal survey of consumers by observing drug pur- chasing at one of the Black Kings’ most lucrative sales spots, near Twenty-ninth Street. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
61. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
They haul it out and they take it.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
11. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
A noteworthy publication, co-authored with John H. Laub, is Crime in the Making: Pathways and Turning Points through Life (Cambridge, Mass.: American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
In slight contrast to his account, the BK leaders actually turned to the gang in order “to adopt the dominant culture” (“Vietnamese Youth Gangs in Southern California,” in C. Ronald Huff, ed., American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For example, Spergel argues that “changes in the structure of the econ-14. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
(For an extended discussion, see Joel Rast, Remaking Chicago: The Political Ori- gins of Urban Industrial Change [DeKalb, Ill.: American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
This could occur in different ways, including direct preference for whites, such as hiring by municipal departments or acceptance to un- ion-controlled training and vocational apprenticeship programs, the cre- ative redirection of government financing for areas of “severe economic distress” into projects benefiting largely white middle-class constituents, and subsidization of redevelopment outside of inner-city areas. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Working with Joyce Seltzer at Harvard Univer- sity Press to complete the book was a truly rewarding experience. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The members of my dissertation committee were tireless in their motivation and demonstrated unending patience as I muddled through my doctoral studies. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
I was fortunate to have learned sociol- ogy from Moishe Postone, a gifted thinker and a thoughtful and pas- sionate teacher. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Jean Comaroff provided encouragement throughout the project and granted intellectual clarity when I could not see the forest for the trees. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
William Julius Wilson was my mentor, providing counsel and wisdom with his characteristic generosity and grace. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The Junior Fellowship provided me with an unencumbered space for reflection and the constant com- pany of gifted scholars who taught me that the mindful life begins at the borders of one’s discipline. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Professors Daniel Aaron and Bernard Bailyn were especially encouraging, as were my colleagues Gavin Jones, Kristin Ardlie, and Jeffrey Dolven. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Dissertation research funding was provided by the National Sci- ence Foundation, the Johann Jacobs Foundation, and Chapin Hall Cen- ter for Children at the University of Chicago. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Subsequent fieldwork grants were awarded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foun- dation, the Milton Fund at Harvard University, and the Graham Foun- dation for the Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
A Five College Fellowship from Amherst College, and the friendship of the faculty in its Department of Anthropology and Sociology, gave me the opportu- nity to translate fleidnotes into narratives. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The support of my col- leagues at Columbia University, in the Department of Sociology and the Institute for Research in African-American Studies, enabled me to revise the manuscript. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
I owe a particular debt to my colleagues Rizwan Ahmad, Ra- phael Cohen, Dan Cook, Nathaniel Deutsch, Baron Pineda, Vijay Prashad, Alford Young Jr., and James Quane. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Autry Harrison, my friend and collaborator, taught me to marry research and practice. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For some areas in our lives, thinking Black is automatic. How To Make Black America Better
I see attitude manifested most clearly in our behavior toward our own families. How To Make Black America Better
Far too many Black Americans in the post—World War II generations see our parents as tickets to a rent-free, responsibility-free existence. How To Make Black America Better
But there is a difference in the two cases. How To Make Black America Better
Challenge #4 17 There is an old adage that goes: “When and where I enter, the whole race enters with me.” How To Make Black America Better
Iverson, on the other hand, recognized his mistake when he was confronted with it and both apologized and agreed to pull the lines out of the song. How To Make Black America Better
Every day we see disproportion- ate numbers of Black people on the Street, homeless and sick, and we just dismiss them. How To Make Black America Better
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• Give in-kind gifts, such as clothing, furniture, or office equip- ment. How To Make Black America Better
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If you have a chance to ex- amine the Great Wall of China closely, you’ll see that the bricks, in and of themselves, are rather ordinary. How To Make Black America Better
Today there is still little sense of kinship among the different tribes of African peo- ples. How To Make Black America Better
Somewhere along the line, we were con- History, Heritage, and Hope Cathy Hughes 55 History is what has happened to us in the past. How To Make Black America Better
Through this portal we see that God has given us a new mind, a new spirit, and a new life. How To Make Black America Better
Another way to achieve empowerment is to assist every sister and brother with whom we come in contact by enabling them to see the potential for business in the things that they would gladly do for free. How To Make Black America Better
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I see the new civil rights frontier as seeking economic empowerment on behalf of all African Americans in the twenty- first century. How To Make Black America Better
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We must see ourselves as giants, with vision enough for an entire nation, not just one part of it. How To Make Black America Better
At the first pep rally the Black students turned out en masse and made sure Dionne and I got the loudest applause. How To Make Black America Better
If we don’t make a conscientious decision to help HBCUs, someday we’ll be talking about them in the past tense like the Black banks and newspa- pers that our communities once depended on. How To Make Black America Better
cially when we see and greet each other. How To Make Black America Better
And I think in the next two, three years you are going to see a widespread move to really change the nature of criminal justice in America. How To Make Black America Better
Because we want people to understand that we have that much economic clout. How To Make Black America Better
What is your thought about the na- ture of passing this torch [of leadership]? Jamal Bryant: I’m afraid with the antiquated leadership we have, that we have changed from a movement to a museum. How To Make Black America Better
That we see some leaders almost as a “Smithsonian.” How To Make Black America Better
But there’s no reference to what’s go- ing on in Brooklyn, what’s going on in Compton. How To Make Black America Better
And I can’t let that pass without talking about gender. How To Make Black America Better
You can’t pay for the spiritual malaise to which we have been subjected and that we see manifested in our own communities. How To Make Black America Better
And let me say this, this is why we see the moral devastation and the economic deprivation and the economic restructuring going on in American society. How To Make Black America Better
Dyson:.. How To Make Black America Better
We’ve compromised so darn much they have no respect for us. How To Make Black America Better
They’re gonna let us play. How To Make Black America Better
We have entertained them for years. How To Make Black America Better
They got to get in the community like Master P and struggle. How To Make Black America Better
R. Brown: Magic, part of this discussion is about you in the sense people like yourself who had amazing success in the cultural arena, or in sports or entertainment, have some obli- gation to give back. How To Make Black America Better
We should give back be- cause of that. How To Make Black America Better
Whether that pain deals with the disproportionate number of African Americans who don’t have health insurance. How To Make Black America Better
They talk about it. How To Make Black America Better
If we can envision a world the way that we want to see it, envision a kind of employment situation that we want to have, envision the kind 188 Advocacy in the Next Millennium of ownership opportunities that we want to create, then that can drive some of our public policy. How To Make Black America Better
This term “Black middle class,” this 25 percent of our race that earns over $50,000 a year, if they do not live, spend, volunteer, invest, or contribute back to the Black com- munity, what good is it to have that kind of class? Mr. Johnson [mentioned] the need to build institutions. How To Make Black America Better
I own a publishing company, I own a bookstore, I own an independent Black school, but here’s my concern. How To Make Black America Better
You see. How To Make Black America Better
So we have got to pool together, put your dollar with another Black person’s dollar, and on and on and on, and take a hold of our community. How To Make Black America Better
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That’s our money. How To Make Black America Better
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We have be- come so quick to become massaged in our emotions that we 200 Advocacy in the Next Millennium I leave out of here and buy some incense and some oils and say we’re Black today and then we go back to business as usual and not go back on the front line. How To Make Black America Better
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The biggest problem that we have is those people who have a platform for power are literally giving it away, throwing it away, compromising it away. How To Make Black America Better
What do you see as the first step in the new paradigm, Professor West, that Black people need to deal with for the twenty-first century and the new millennium? Come! How To Make Black America Better
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And August 6, last Sunday, was the thirty-fifth anniversary of the right to vote. How To Make Black America Better
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When I say God, I mean looking at who you are, your cellulite, your little bit of hair, your crooked teeth; look at that and say, “Damn, look at that, ain’t that good.” How To Make Black America Better
So the question becomes: ‘What kind of love do we have for ourselves?” And this reader said to me the other day, he said, “Malik, you have the ability to convince a bunch of strangers to go into a dark room for two hours and take them on a journey and make them laugh, make them cry.” How To Make Black America Better
The old paradigm is ‘60s, 1960s, as a frame for or- ganizing, when the new paradigm, at least from my perspective, should be from the 1 860s as the basis for organiz- I How to Make Black America Better 217 ing. How To Make Black America Better
you are the spiritual leader of higher education. How To Make Black America Better
And now we’re changing those images. How To Make Black America Better
And so, I think a fair start- ing point for transition to another generation of leadership would be to talk about how to build upon those things at How to Make Black America Better 223 224 Advocacy in the Next Millennium which we failed. How To Make Black America Better
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So I want to go back to the idea that I started. How To Make Black America Better
I’m not making any particular brief against the Clinton Administration. How To Make Black America Better
One of the problems is that we have not as a community acknowl- edged the reality of slavery. How To Make Black America Better
So, for example, in Texas, after the Fifth Circuit outlawed affirmative action at the University of Texas, a group of Black and Latino professors, community activists, and legislators got together to figure out: What should access to higher educa- tion in Texas look like? And they discovered that even though affirmative action was a policy they had supported, that affir- mative action was, in some ways, camouflaging the way in which 150 privileged suburban and private schools had domi- nated access to the flagship schools in Texas. How To Make Black America Better
We must provide all four of those guys in Texas, that African American and those three white guys, and all Americans, with the constitu- tional right to have a job and not be sending our jobs overseas to foreign labor markets, undercutting organized and working men and women in this country. How To Make Black America Better
Black Men and Women: partnership in the 1990s 2. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
2. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
3. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Black Women and Men: Partnership in the 1990s bh We also come to you as two progressive Black people on the Left. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
bh I will read a few paragraphs to provide a critical frame- work for our discussion of Black power, just in case some of you may not know what Black power means. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Often it does not serve as a constructive force. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Attempts by Black peo- ple to understand that suffering, to come to terms with it, are the conditions which enable a work like Toni Morrison’s Beloved to re- ceive so much attention. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
West Interviewed 3 by bell hooks 27 Letter December, 1961 Frantz Fanon 28 to be an intellectual come from? One is not born with the sense of what an intellectual is. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
That’s why it is so very good to have an interview such as this. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
And I was very privileged to be raised in that church and also why I see the roots of my intellec- tualism as emerging from the traditional Southern Black Baptist Church. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
And I think this hunger and thirst that you talk about has much to do with not only the changing forces in the world, changing contexts in the world. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
orous book. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
So that it does not wallow in a cynicism or a paralyzing pessimism, but it also is realistic enough not to project excessive utopia. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
told me she would go back and read my work to see if she had, in fact, unwittingly taken ideas from me without citing them as mine. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
We have to see that the same thing can happen with intellectual labor, so that sometimes confronting that situation in a positive way can make for a meaningful critical intervention. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
And I see this primarily in popular culture. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
CW I want to argue that music and rhetorical practices, espe- cially Black preaching practices, have been the two major tr~di- tions owing to the exclusion of Black people in other spheres, even though many of us venture in those fields. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
On one hand, as positive because we so rarely see the Black male body represented as positive sex symbol on na- tional television. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Hence we see individuals failing because the anxiety of possible failure after attempted success is so intense. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
And, to that degree, it freed us up. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
There is a fear of failure deeply in- grained in the Black psyche, because the stereotypical image, which we have largely internalized, is that Black people are always failing. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
So we have many individuals who fear success, fear that if you are too successful you will be alienated from Black people. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
CW In that sense Malcolm and Martin are quite distinct from most of the contemporary Black leaders. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
bh Come!, Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
They don’t want to give a critique of multinational corporations, partly because these corporations are helping undergird their own organizations. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
cerned with being elected to office, that are not concerned with being somehow curtailed by corporate support, but at the same time are deeply moral, deeply ethical, and deeply analytical. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
bh How can Black intellectuals re-awaken concern with that CW This is hard, given that the ethic of buying and selling is bh You have said that you continue to find Christian narra- CW Well, I feel enabled because I think that when you look 54 on this. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
You don’t see that kind of self-love affirmed in many works by Black male writers. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
eroding, then it’s no accident that we are going to see less and less qualitative relations between Black men and women. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
We actually see some of the best of this in the traditions of contemporary Africa that has a more de- romanticized, or less romanticized, conception of relationship, talk- ing more about partnership. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
about the roles people play musically, I think that we have to re- member that there has always been in the realm of Black cultural production an acceptance of certain forms of radical behavior, be- havior that, within the status quo of everyday life, people might object to, but certainly when we look at the tradition of blues sing- ers, the Black women who were cross-dressing, if we look at the career of someone like Josephine Baker, I mean, we see an open- ness, a tolerance within the sphere of cultural production that may not have made itself known in other spheres of Black life. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
CW With all this debate nowadays about public intellectuals, it is fascinating to see someone like yourself whose texts sell thirty, and forty thousand copies, whose texts sell across the academy and the community, who receives letters from Black prisoners-a bell hooks interviewed by Comel West 71 CW I remember she came to your class at Yale. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
bh It was an unforgettable moment when she stood there The Street also gives us that powerful intertwining of race, I also came to Morrison believing that White critics, and many CW But you haven’t published any of this work. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Ideally, what I’m trying to do is bridge these two things, as I say in my essay “Postmodern Blackness,” it’s not like I’m going to be talking about deconstruc- tion in the academy and then go home to basic working-class Black life and not talk at all about the essay I’m writing on, say, postmodernism. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
This is a very impressive amount of work for someone in their thirties to have achieved, and this corpus does not include your fiction, which remains as yet unpublished. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
When the inner call to write that book came to me it was very much like an angel I had to wrestle with. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
work, that in your four volumes critiquing European imperialism, critiquing patriarchy, critiquing class exploitation, critiquing misog- yny, critiquing homophobia, what I discern, as well, is a preoccu- pation with the dynamics of spiritual and personal change so that there is a politics of conversion shot through the political, eco- nomic, and social critiques. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
What I wanted so much to do in my first book was to say there is a history that has produced this circumstance of devalua- tion. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
As African Americans, we have yet to talk enough about how individuals actually change, the conver- sion of the soul that must occur before the role of love and care and intimacy can be meaningfully talked about. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
CW Do you think this raises the question of sexual taboo? bh The pervasiveness of AIDS in our community is really re- quiring that we have some open discussion of how we have sex, who we have sex with, and what sexuality means in our lives. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
CW Part of this comes from White supremacist discourse as- sociating Black being with Black bodies, as if we have no minds, no intelligence, are only the sum total of our visible physicality, and therefore the issue of whether Black people actually like and love their bodies becomes a crucial thing. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
I ask them to think about whether or not she falls to her death because in a White supremacist country, the Black person who is most threatening is the one who loves Blackness, who loves the embod- iment of Blackness, the mark of Blackness on the skin, in the body. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
And this is the tension we see in a figure like Marvin Gaye, who has a range of issues, including substance abuse, yet still iden- tifies the crucial spiritual/sexual question for healing as coming to terms with the body. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
How are people, beginning in their earliest years, nurtured to act with self-respect and self-responsibility? How are they encouraged to move through the world with a spirit which un-self-righteously challenges everything that threatens to crush the human spirit, the human ability to love ourselves and others? Can we explore such fundamental questions with our students, wondering aloud with them about the fascinating possible -spiritual connections between the capacity to love ourselves and the willingness to love and serve others? bh Do you think this resurgence of narrow Black nationalism CW On the one hand, it’s a positive move to once again Dialogue Between bell hooks and Cornel West 6 93 Vincent Harding Hope and History 94 BREAKING BREAD narrow and tends to want to recover historical icons without seri- ously recovering the historical context in which these icons emerged. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
bh Let’s discuss in greater depth the issue of Spin, guest ed- ited by Spike Lee, because we both had a similar response to it. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
This is probably the major factor in ever rising rates of Black addic- tion, the lack of ability to invest oneself in a project larger than oneself that brings with it recognition and feelings of self-valuation. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
And this is fundamentally transforming Black community in very ugly ways. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
It evoked an easy, mainstream Black solidarity. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
But most importantly, it is symptomatic of a need for community and all of its meanings: primordial bonding, support, sustenance, projection of a future and, of course, preservation of hope. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
CWlagree. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
To be a people without an immediate sense of direction aggravates already present feelings of powerlessness. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
chele Wallace’s work in relation to Shahrazad Mi’s, we see that Mi’s invokes a narrow sexist Black nationalism in the same way that Wallace’s book represented a narrow radical feminism that re- fused to address male pain. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
reerist Black, symbolic of what we might see as a liberated Black woman. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
That is what you see with Isbmael Reed, one bh If we look at the seminal work, however problematic it is, C’W You mean non-fiction book. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
CW The image foremost in their minds is a kind of vulgar bh Yes, but the Black community was not reading the BREAKING BREAD Dialogue Between bell hooks and Comel West Mi comes forward to speak, in a reactionary and divisive way, to the reality of Black male pain. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
I wonder how many of us will get off the boat, ready to withstand and resist that capitalist, White supremacist context? Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman by Michele Wal- lace, which also sold more than any other book by a Black femi- nist... Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
More important than brief telçvision slots like the Arsenio Hall show or the Oprah Winfrey show are organizations and groups which provide public and private forums for debate. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Feminist theory does not emerge as a discourse rooted in any kind of discussion of Blackness, so to some extent, Black women, like myself, who entered that discourse did not enter it through the door of gender, race, and class. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
And now I see what I did not see as a young woman studying and de- veloping intellectually in predominantly White institutions: that if we want to seriously intervene on destructive tendencies in the Black community, then we have to produce texts and narratives that directly address the issues confronted by Black communities. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
tify themselves as victims of male domination in various arenas of their lives. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
So what you get is Black men and women on the same leaky boat floating in the larger capitalist and White supremacist context, but now we have license to be at each other’s throats during the journey. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
CW I agree, but as critics we must also ask what audience we will be reaching. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
One of the reasons prophetic Black churches are so very important is because they are one of the few remaining public spheres where ideas can be discussed and disseminated among ordinary people who are struggling with these issues in their everyday lives. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Black women are trying to establish a healthier foundation from which to assert agency. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
So we have these men bitterly complain- ing that Black male pain is thoroughly overlooked by Black femi- nists, and here comes Ms. Mi to confirm their ideas as a Black woman. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
That Black feminism is first and foremost an attack upon the Black man, not an attack upon sexism, because sexism does not appear to enter into the debate, but an attack upon the Black man by the Black woman as agent acting in collusion with White men and women against the Black man. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
bh Yes, a book of feminist social critique. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
We have to move in both directionsT—televisual and grassroots. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
On the grassroots level, we ensure potential change, and on the televisual level, we broad- cast quickly and in abbreviated form information regarding social movements. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
In fact, more than anything else, they have become public spectacle, representing and reinforcing the spirit of divisiveness between Black men and Black women. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
If you have a White woman on your arm telling you how CW I think a significant number of Black men do view them- So, given the myth of Black male sexual prowess, they view The Last Poets used to talk about White thighs versus Black bh Absolutely. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
For example, most of the psychic pain many CW Today, TV is, in many instances, pornographic, if one bh In terms of the construction of Black femaleness in fash- CW Aesthetics have substantial political consequences. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
That sense of “A Love Su- preme” was really about the combination of all of those forces, and it was a real movement away, if people know his career, from ro- mantic notions of love that suggest love is not an act of will. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
We certainly see the extreme attack on Black lesbianism in Shahrazad Mi’s book, where she wants to argue that all lesbians are really trying to be Black men. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
So that at the end of this novel we can see Celie and Albert, both of whom have grown in their capacity to be more self-loving, say to one another, we are truly companions of the spirit now. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
I CW I can see that, but I think one of the dangers in both of BREAKING BREAD Dialogue Between bell hooks and Comel West sarily manifest themselves in the same way, but they won’t disap- pear either. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Even with lesbian re- lationships, to think they are somehow free from domination, rac- ism, internalized sexism, tension, anxiety, and possibly abuse is naive. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
The tensions in these alternative relationships won’t neces- To my mind, The Color Purple was the first fictional work to CW In terms of popular culture? bh Yes. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
And I think it really shook many Black people up. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
bh But that’s why I said a commitment. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
because he loved you would never oppress you, though he would not necessarily subscribe to the principles of feminism. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
press a woman within patriarchy is already subscribing to the prin- ciples for feminism. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Which means they don’t have to be perfect, they don’t have to have wiped out every trace of sexism, homophobia, classism, and internalized rac- ism. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Because pa- triarchy is always willing to reward him for the subjugation of women. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Yet the insurgency model refuses to conceive of this will and effort in individualistic and elitist terms. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
19th century Black women intellectuals, it is shocking that they do not know the work of contemporary Black women thinkers like Hortense Spillers, Hazel Carby, Patricia Williams, and Beverly Guy- Sheftall, to name a few. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
During adolescence, i underwent a conversion process that pushed me towards intellectual life. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Right- fully complaining that they lack time to pursue intellectual work freely and fully, they also expressed fear that too passionate pursuit of intellectual goals would cut them off from meaningful relational activity. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Accounts of Black fe- males being interrogated by those seeking to ferret out whether the individual was capable of completing work, of thinking logically, of writing coherently were a norm. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Early sexist socialization that teaches Black women, and indeed most women, that mind work must always be secondary to housework, childcare, or a host of other caretaking activities has made it difficult for women to make intellectual work a central priority even when our social circum- stances would indeed offer rewards for this activity. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Lee, Don L., Black Pride, Poems, Detroit: Broadside Press, 1968. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
I want to be able to take special pride in a Jessye Norman aria, a Muhammad Au shuffle, a Michael Jordan slam dunk, a Spike Lee movie, a Thurgood Marshall opinion, a Toni Morrison novel, James Brown’s Camel Walk. Colored People
Bach and James Brown. Colored People
When you are old enough to read what follows, I hope that it brings you even a small measure of understanding, at long last, of why we see the world with such different eyes. Colored People
If you go west, up the hill toward the colored VFW (where Pop goes every day at four in the afternoon to see his old buddies and drink water glasses of gin and orange juice on crushed ice for seventy-five cents), you’ll see one of the two Italian neighborhoods, home to the Barbaritos, the DiPilatos, the DiBualdos, and a whole lot of other people whose names end in o. (The new colored VFW was the old Knights of Columbus when I was a kid.) Colored People
We dressed up when we went to see the doctor. Colored People
And it felt good in there, like walking around your house in bare feet and underwear, or snoring right out loud on the couch in front of the TV—swaddled by the comforts of home, the warmth of those you love. Colored People
And, if you were a student: You can get a good education anywhere. Colored People
Everybody, of course, watched sports, because Piedmont was a big sports town. Colored People
My brother, Rocky, kept a transistor radio by his bed, and he’d listen to it all night, for all I knew, long after I’d fallen asleep. Colored People
Lord knows, we weren’t going to learn how to be colored by watching television. Colored People
Every night we’d wait until the news to see what “Dr. Colored People
She wanted the world to see what they had done to her baby. Colored People
Starched shirts, white, and creased pants, shoes shining like a buck private’s spit Prime Time 25 WILL THE CIRCLE BE UNBROKEN? shine. Colored People
Daddy was jaundiced about the civil rights movement, and especially about the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He’d say all of his names, to drag out his scorn. Colored People
And so they’d dress up, too, the women, and traipse on over to the PTA, just to see Mama read her minutes, just to represent the race, just to let those white people know that we was around here too, just to be proud that one of us could do it. Colored People
But most important of all, for Piedmont and for me, she did not seem to fear white people. Colored People
One thing is for sure: you can bet that when Wheatley went to England to see the Countess of Huntington, she did not stop by the Queen’s Coiffeur on the way. Colored People
Grown men still wear stocking caps, especially older men, who generally keep their caps in their top drawer, along with their cufflinks and their see-through silk socks, their Maverick tie, their silk handkerchief, and whatever else they prize most. Colored People
In the Kitchen 47 48 WILL THE CIRCLE BE UNBROKEN? The most famous process, outside of what Malcolm X de- scribes in his Autobiography and maybe that of Sammy Davis, Jr., was Nat King Cole’s. Colored People
He also had an uncanny affinity for and knowledge of hunting dogs. Colored People
You see, one day Boke announced that Theresa Price, a black woman who was much younger than he was, was coming on the bus to meet him at the bus stop at the bottom of the hill in Piedmont. Colored People
The Colemans, by contrast, were the force of self-right- eousness, teetotalers, non-smoking, non-gambling souls, who seemed to equate close-cropped, well-oiled hair and well- washed automobiles with the very purpose of life itself. Colored People
The farm at Patterson’s Creek has two hundred of the most beautiful acres of bottomland you’ll ever see. Colored People
Daddy never learned to drive, so about once a month, on his day off, he, my brother Rocky, and I would take the yellow-and-orange Osgood bus from East Hampshire Street to Cumberland. Colored People
Years later, Helen found the Gates family Bible, which was falling apart, and she hauled it out to see if I knew how to get it fixed. Colored People
I remember reading James Agee’s A Death in the Family and being moved by a description of the extra pepper that the father’s wife put on his eggs the very morning that he is killed in a car. Colored People
They’re Stride-Rite. Colored People
Still, I guess they did what they were meant to do, because I have good arches now. Colored People
Colored people might call each other Miss, Mrs., or Mr., to show respect. Colored People
To me, they have it exactly wrong. Colored People
I wouldn’t call her very much; but when the time was right, when an excuse offered itself; I would be on it, as we’d say, and it would work. Colored People
I’d search her face furtively and hunt in her voice for whatever had been so magical the night before, whatever had made me understand she loved me, knew that my heart was true and that I admired her. Colored People
Picking up a new book at Red Bowls’s newsstand was almost as exciting as smelling a new textbook or the mimeo- graphed handouts we used to get in grade school. Colored People
I used to go up Keyser to see Tern Sawyer. Colored People
Reverend Mon-roe would come to see me as his heir apparent. Colored People
Uncle Nemo used to say that you could see the prayers bouncing off unbelievers, espe- cially my mama. Colored People
So what had the Devil looked like? Red, with horns and a tail and pitchfork, of course. Colored People
You see, I had developed all sorts of rituals. Colored People
Each time in the service when Reverend Mon-roe would invite all who wished to make Jesus their personal Savior to come for- ward and enter the circle, I had been tempted to go. Colored People
I tried elastic wraps and lini- ment, Deep Heat and Aspercreme, exercising it and resting Eternity 137 138 SAVED it, and still it would not go away. Colored People
I went to see one Dr. Reeves, and he said I had pulled a muscle. Colored People
This kind of pain lived in its own dimension, and I could hardly see because of it. Colored People
What’s next? I liked my medical team, mostly because they answered my questions. Colored People
Father Smith seemed to understand all this. Colored People
Anything even remotely like this would have been heresy to Miss Sarah. Colored People
It happened on the afternoon that Rocky prevailed upon me to flout my renunciation of cinema in favor of Heaven and dragged me down to Searstown at Cumberland to see A Hard Day’s Night. Colored People
I almost wanted to see a heavenly show of displeasure. Colored People
Water’s got to move for trout to be in it. Colored People
I enjoyed fishing and Uncle Jim’s company most when I was a college student. Colored People
We always went to the same fishing hole, and we’d always stop to ask permission of the lady of the house, whom we’d always wake up. Colored People
You know you don’t have to ask, and her voice would trail off. Colored People
I think he wanted to raise Big Mom from the dead, so only the truly faithful could be standing by. Colored People
On Saturday nights or Sundays at church, he was sharp: like Uncle Joe, he wore those see-through ribbed silk socks, always black or dark gray. Colored People
What I didn’t yet know was that according to the town, Shattering the Sugar Bowl 177 178 NEGRO DIGEST Miss Ezelle went to see Mr. Bootsie one day and proposed a business arrangement: her favors in return for his cash. Colored People
It was Christmas Day, and on Christmas Day everybody visits everybody, to look at people’s trees, to see the best thing that Santa Claus brought them, to sample the goodies out of their kitchens, but especially to take a nip. Colored People
He said he had just made love to his woman, and when she went to the bathroom to wash, he sneaked a phone call to his other woman, just to say he loved her, did she love him, and see you tomorrow. Colored People
You could see his whole demeanor change, the worldly knowledge he started to wear 16 I Abandoning Ship sixteen, I became one of the founding members olAt the Fearsome Foursome, a group consisting of Roland Fisher (called Ben or Fisher), Jerry Price (Roy’s oldest i8i 182 NEGRO DIGEST on his face. Colored People
The Fearsome organized the first school boycott in the history of Piedmont. Colored People
On weekends during the summer of 1969, I’d drive over to Rehoboth Beach, in Delaware, to see Maura, who was work. Colored People
Our good friends from Keyser and Potomac State were still frozen, embarrassed that we were in there, that we had violated their space, dared to cross the line. Colored People
Rocky and his wife, Paula, and their two girls drove down from New Jersey. Colored People
From a distance, I could see the pink message slips taped all over my door. Colored People
There were red and black and green dashikis every- where, blousing over bell-bottomed trousers. Colored People
Involun- tarily, I rubbed the back of my neck with my left hand, to see if they had disappeared yet. Colored People
This means that the data could come from any field or place and be examined Afrocentrically. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
of Higher Education, in March 1992, as saying that Afrocentrists would not agree with the conclusions in a paper he wrote on the birth of African- American culture. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
But what existed before was not African American Studies but rather Eurocentric study of Africans. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
So the Afrocentrists do not claim that historians, sociologists, literary critics, philosophers, com- municationists, and others do not make valuable contributions. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
The historian, sociologist, psychol- ogist, and political scientist may examine the Gettysburg Battle and see different elements and aspects because of the different emphases of the disciplines. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
but an Nzingha who goes to fight the Portuguese and when she speaks to the Portuguese in her role as military queen and is refused a seat, her soldiers compete for the opportunity to have her sit on their backs. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
say to you to gather seven Thus, the African woman is not a Joan of Arc waiting to be burned, I have discussed this at length to explain that transformations, 13 are taught to interpret all of the nuances of culture in the process of our humanization. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Mintz and Price can see a degree of cultural similarity and agreement in European culture that they can- not see in African culture. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
It is my contention that they cannot see it because they do not know where to look. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
In the first place, to Africans who were brought from Africa came with certain common What is most difficult for Eurocentric writers to see is that if you Malcolm X as Cultural Hero 20 see clearly the problem that we are dealing with in the context of enslave- ment, the writers would have to view the people not as “slaves” but as “Africans.” Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
have a priest and priestess they hold the priesthood and temple in their heads. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
They believe that it is in the institution that one finds culture. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
He wanted to see Africans in America transformed, changed, and perfected in resistance to oppression. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
And when you do come in contact with him, you’re shocked, because you didn’t know that this type of black man existed.”1 Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
It is Malcolm’s posture toward self-hatred, culturicide, and menticide that governs his cultural ideology. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
9 Richards, Dona Marimba. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
17 Illo, 1966, p. 8. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Malcolm X as Cultural Hero 35 AND CRITICISM what is wrong with Molefi Asante and Leonard Jeifries is that we “do not have a subtle enough sense of history.” Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
It reminds me of the conser- vative attack on group entitlements, namely, the idea that African Americans should not see themselves nor be seen as a group but rather as individuals. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Those who attack Afrocentrists as espousing separatism would never conceive of attacking the many Little Italys, Chinatowns, and Little Havanas, as separatist communities. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
2 See Cornel West, Race Matters. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
We seek not merely an accommo- dation with defeatism or with second-class racial status but the reaffir- mation of our place among peoples of the world. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Diop was insisting upon intel- lectuals viewing reality from an Afrocentric point of view. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
In the United States, through the agency of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilizations, this has already started under the leadership of Maulana Karenga and Jacob Carruthers. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
There is no more correct place for any human being than centrality, particularly in regard to explanation, interpretation, and analysis. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
However, with a commitment to an Afrocentric future it will become increasingly possible for us to turn the situation around in favor of devel- opment. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
example, he writes of me as “having attributed the terrible intellectual plight of the Western world to positivism.” Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
For I can only wish of my reviewer’s truly remarkable examinations of On Intellectual Dislocation 63 game from a certain spot a long way from their village. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Sea; we must see the same freedom break out in Sudan, Mauritania, and South Africa, also called Azania. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
This division is sharpened by appeals to biol- ogy and to physical looks, though many times I have been unable to dis- We see the freedom spirit in the Baltics, the Balkans, and the Black Human changes are not only suggested in association with free- We are increasingly confronted with two problems: (1) assuring We are all custodians of the earth. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
We see that happening in the cases of enslavement in Africa. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
In another way, we see them as enslaver and enslaved, controller and controlled. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
But that has become extremely difficult for them to make such declaration because of the Fanon warned that biological arguments would become cultural Ultimately there is a calamitous conflict which brews and simmers To be Arab is to stake out a certain political and cultural history It is thus that we see the complexity of the present situation in On Genocide in Africa 67 legacy and maintenance of slavery in those countries. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
If we want it for ourselves then we must treasure it for others. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
These two central factors in the dislo- cation of the Sudanese regime will be explored in an Afrocentric context with the aim of proposing a way out of the abyss. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Inherent within the political configuration of the nation were the seeds of its own destruction: Islamic religious fundamentalism and ethnic ani- mosity. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Both of these seeds of destruction have been fertilized by one of the most severe crises in identity in the whole of Africa. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
I certainly do not want to be in the position of saying that the British and the Europeans, including missionaries from several European countries, did not contribute to the breakdown of order and peace in the Sudan. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
ple: they were infidels who could be taken into captivity, stripped of their belongings, and reduced to enslavement. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Furthermore, because of the likelihood of rebel- lion and revolt Africans were not considered good slaves. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Indeed, the breakup of the European nation-state, an artificial concept in the first place, that is, a patched-together concept that had abstract speculative value which allowed the dominance of certain people and their ruling ideas over many peoples, is a good sign. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
It was carried out, as Keto records, by the control of resources and the exercise of power. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
In Africa and among African people this meant that the British Empire or the French Imperial Army or the American Navy had to go anywhere and punish any group of Africans who challenged the power of the whites in dictating the memory, the names, the spaces, and the time. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
In his vision there is little history of enslavement, oppression, dispossession, racism, or exploita- ON ARTHUR Chapter Eleven AMERICA 85 tion. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
How, they ask, can one have such a vision of America with what we know of our history? Yet this is Schlesinger’s perspective in his book on the American society. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
DISUNION AND DISBELIEF for disuniting America—unequal protection under the law, taxation with- out representation, gender strife, economic class antagonisms, corrupt politicians, rampant anti-Africanism, growing anti-Semitism, pollution of the environment—he finds the African-American challenge to the educational system a disuniting element. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Hegemonic thinking is like a person standing on the lid of a manhole. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Trapped in his own cultural prison, Schlesinger is unable to see the present American cultural reality, and one believes he has missed the point of the past as well. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
They did not see a mountain of pos- sibility but a valley of despair. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Neither Schlesinger nor Lichtheim name or quote any African or African- American scholar as saying anything “about the Egyptians being Nubians.” Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Does Lichtheim mean to imply that they were what we would call white today? Does she mean they were lighter- complexioned blacks? Or does Lichtheim mean to suggest, as some white Egyptologists suggested in the past, that the people were black- skinned whites? The problem here is racialist thinking. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
The attendant propositions suggest cre- ativity, innovation, genius, and authority in disciplines. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
During the past twenty or so years since I am a child of the Black Studies Movement having been born to Malcolm X as Cultural Hero 104 CONTEXT OF METHODS African American Studies is a discrete discipline with certain crit- ical perspectives, theories, and methods which are necessary for its role in discovery and understanding. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
ISSUES IN INQUIRY I am not sure whether it is necessary any longer to debate the ques- tion of perspective in terms of the Africological discipline as had been the case during the past twenty years; at least in the circle of scholars with whom I am associated it is pretty well agreed that the fundamental basis for Africology as a separate discipline is its unique perspective. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
The aim is to see what conduct has been sanctioned and, if sanctioned, carried out. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
See Bellegarde-Smith, Patrick, Haiti: The Breached Citadel, Boulder: Westview Press, 1990 for an authentic articulation of the Afrocentric analysis in the case of Haiti. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
See Bradley, Michael, The Ice Man Inheritance, Toronto: Dorset, 1980; Gould, Stephen J., The Mismeasure of Man, New York: Norton, 1981; and Mosse, George, A History of Racism in Europe: Toward the Final Solution, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
See Kariamu Welsh Asante, “Commonalities in African Dance Aesthetics,” in M. K. Asante and K. W. Asante (eds.) Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Here Africans were forced to lie down shackled together in chains fastened to staples in the deck. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Unable to nurse these children or to care for them, they often returned from work at night to find their children dead (Feldstein, p. 49). Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
I contend that the violent abusers, both verbal and physical abusers, are but the extreme reflections of many African Americans. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Such was the case in Africa prior to the separation and division of the continent by Europe. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Roads have to be maintained and expanded into rural areas, small farmers must be encouraged to be creative, and the political and social climate has to remain stable. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
And so it shall be, we hope, when the present leaders of Africa are asked, they will have already begun the task of dis- cussing this modest Pan-African proposal. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
The Norse are said to have reached America in the eleventh century A.D. and some British claim to have reached Newfoundland around 1480. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Having retained a positive relation- ship—not idealistic and fantastic but realistic and creative—of our African origins, we shall develop more open lines of communication with others. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
This he could say without shame of the sec- ond greatest colonizer of the African continent. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
So the people of African descent of whom I speak are those who share a common origin, a common aspi- ration, and a common struggle. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
But since he was a historian and not an Africologist, he could not see the redundancy. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Since the inception of television, we have been a “seeing” people even if in those early days it meant going a mile down the road or ten blocks away to the home of a friend or relative to see. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Television, how- ever, has always had a rather white orthodoxy, one could scarcely see a black face on the screen in the early days. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Some writers have begun to see a crisis in the field of social sciences. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
I see no such cri- sis, because those who profess belief in the system are inclined to con- tinue their faith. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Perhaps what we see is a need for a new world voice. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
The special character of this view as it related to free- dom, even in a European sense, had been possible to a greater degree even in classical Africa. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Stranger still is the fact that they cannot see the problem because they are so closely tied to it, adopting the same justifying phrases, upholding the same positions, and arguing on the same pathological grounds, without knowing the origin or the cause of the model; they embarrass themselves. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
It does not take much imagination to see what happens to the society because of this unnatural arrangement. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
The communication person repu- diates cryptic views of humanity. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
In just this manner, communication serves as the gluon of society, binding all its parts. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Since the traditional court announcer or news carrier or drummer was attached to the palace, we have some idea of what the people expect. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Taking note of the remarkable ideological gulf between the views pre- sented in his most recent autobiography, Dusk of Dawn, some twenty years earlier and those of the Autobiography, conceived at the height of the cold war and Du Bois’s estrangement from the United States, he adds: “One must then see these varying views as contradictions to truth, and not as final and complete authority. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Much as his visit to Africa gave Du Bois experiential as well as ideological grounding for his Pan-Africanism, his trip to the Soviet Union galvanized his long-standing inclination to see the historical sit- uation of American blacks in the context of a global economic structure. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
“Race” and “Africa” were no more synony- mous for Du Bois than were “race” and “nation.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
“We see the Pha- raohs, Caesars, Toussaints, and Napoleons of history,” he writes, “and forget the vast races of which they were but epitomized expressions” (Du Bois, Reader, 40). The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In a famous expression of his Victorian sensibilities, Du Bois had stated in “The Primitive Black Man” (1924) that during two months in West Africa, when he routinely saw “children quite naked and women usually naked to the waist,” he witnessed “less of sex dalliance and appeal than I see daily on Fifth Avenue” (Du Bois, Writings in Periodicals, II, 231). The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
This formula- tion is a succinct index of the way in which the whole of the volume functions as a rewriting of previous self-conceptions. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We, who have been reared and trained under the individualistic philosophy of the Declaration of Indepen- dence and the laissez-faire philosophy of Adam Smith, are loath to see and loath to acknowledge this patent fact of human history. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We see the Pharaohs, Caesars, Toussaints and Napoleons of history and forgel the vast races of which they were but epitomized expressions. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It should continually impress the fact upon the Negro people that they must not expect to have things done for them—they must do for themselves; that they have on their hands a vast work of self- reformation to do, and that a little less complaint and whining, and a little more dogged work and manly striving would do us more credit and benefit than a thousand Force or Civil Rights bills. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We believe it the duty of the Americans of Negro descent, as a body, to maintain their race identity until this mission of the Negro people is accomplished, and the ideal of human brother- hood has become a practical possibility. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In this we can see progress-tremendous progress from the time5 when New England deacons invested their savings in slave trade ven- tures, passed the Dred Scott decision and the fugitive slave act dowr to the lynchings and discriminating laws of to-day. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And that we may see just what this task means and how men have accomplished similar tasks, I turn to the one part of the world which we have not visited in our quest of the color line—Europe. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Her own great population of Slays stands midway racially be- tween the white Germans and the yellow Tartar, and this makes the whole progress of the Bear a faint reflection of the color line. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Colored folk, like all folk, love to see themselves in pictures; but they are afraid to see the types which the white world has caricatured. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
On THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER It is not legitimate to argue from differences in physical charac- teristics to difference in mental characteristics. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Off with these thought-chains and inchoate soul-shrinkings, and let us train ourselves to see beauty in black. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He regards me with puzzled astonishment and says confidentially: “Do you know that sometimes I am half afraid that you really be- lieve this? At other times I see clearly the inferiority complex.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I see abso- lutely no proof that the average ability of the white man’s brain to think clearly is any greater than that of the yellow man or of the black man. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Not blindly; but I should be mildly surprised to see a dog born of a cat. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Look around and see the pageantry of the world. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Oay The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And secondly, to see that there is noth- Concepts of Race 71 ing about that race which is worth contempt; your contempt, my con- tempt; or the contempt of the wide, wide world. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I lived to see every assumption of Hoffman’s “Race Traits and Tenden- cies” contradicted; but even before that, I doubted the statistical method which he had used. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I began to see that the cultural equipment attributed to any people depended largely on who estimated it; and conviction came later in a rush as I realized what in my education had been suppressed concerning Asiatic and African culture. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And it was interesting to see Odum, McDougall and Brigham eventually turn somersaults from absolute scientific proof of Negro in- feriority to repudiation of the limited and questionable application of any test which pretended to measure innate human intelligence. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I see the last village fading away; they are plastering the wall of a home, leisurely and carefully. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Have you ever met a crowd of children in the east of London or New York, or even on the Avenue at Forty-second or One Hundred and Forty-second Street, and fled to avoid their impudence and utter ignorance of courtesy? Come to Africa, and see well-bred and courte- ous children, playing happily and never sniffling and whining. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And in those sixty days I saw less of sex dalliance and appeal than I see daily on Fifth Avenue. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
If the plat- Concepts of Race 93 forms of Western cities had swarmed with humanity as I have seen the platforms swarm in Senegal, the police would have a busy time. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I think it was in Africa that I came more clearly to see the close connection between race and wealth. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is difficult to let others see the full psychological meaning of caste segregation. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
After the Egyptian and Indian, the Greek and Roman, the Teuton and Mongolian, the Negro is a sort of seventh son, born with a veil, and gifted with second-sight in this American world,—a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Away back in the days of bondage they thought to see in one divine event the end of all doubt and disappointment; few men ever wor- shipped Freedom with half such unquestioning faith as did the Ameri- can Negro for two centuries. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Some see all significance in the grim front of the destroyer, and some in the bitter sufferers of the Lost Cause. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The Bureau invited continued cooperation with benevolent soci- eties, and declared: “It will be the object of all commissioners to intro- duce practicable systems of compensated labor,” and to establish schools. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Amid it all, two figures ever stand to typify that day to coming ages,—the one, a gray-haired gentleman, whose fathers had quit themselves like men, whose sons lay in nameless graves; who bowed to the evil of slavery because its abolition threatened untold ill to all; who stood at last, in the evening of life, a blighted, ruined form, with hate in his eyes;—and the other, a form hovering dark and moth- erlike, her awful face black with the mists of centuries, had aforetime quailed at that white master’s command, had bent in love over the cradles of his sons and daughters, and closed in death the sunken eyes of his wife,—aye, too, at his behest had laid herself low to his lust, and borne a tawny man-child to the world, only to see her dark boy’s limbs scattered to the winds by midnight marauders riding after “cursed Niggers.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is full easy now to see that the man who lost home, fortune, and family at a stroke, and saw his land ruled by “mules and niggers,” was really benefited by the passing of slavery. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Nevertheless, the questions involved are so fundamental and serious that it is difficult to see how men like the Grimkes, Kelly Miller, J. W. E. Bowen, and other representatives of this group, can much longer be silent. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They advocate, with Mr. Washington, a broad system of Negro common schools supplemented by thorough industrial training; but they are surprised that a man of Mr. Washington’s insight cannot see that no such educational system ever has rested or can rest on any other basis than that of the well-equipped college and university, and they insist that there is a demand for a few such institutions throughout the South to train the best of the Negro youth as teachers, professional men, and leaders. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They do not expect that the free right to vote, to enjoy civic rights, and to be educated, will come in a moment; they do not expect to see the bias and prejudices of years disappear at the blast of a trumpet; but they are absolutely certain that the way for a people to gain their rea- sonable rights is not by voluntarily throwing them away and insisting that they do not want them; that the way for a people to gain respect is not by continually belittling and ridiculing themselves; that, on the contrary, Negroes must insist continually, in season and out of season, that voting is necessary to modern manhood, that color discrimination is barbarism, and that black boys need education as well as white boys. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
To-day even the attitude of the Southern whites toward the blacks is not, as so many assume, in all cases the same; the ignorant South- erner hates the Negro, the workingmen fear his competition, the money-makers wish to use him as a laborer, some of the educated see a menace in his upward development, while others-usually the sons of the masters-wish to help him to rise. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I see now the white, hot roads lazily rise and fall and wind before me under the burning July sun; I feel the deep weariness of heart and limb as ten, eight, six miles stretch relentlessly ahead; I feel my heart sink heavily as I hear again and again, “Got a teacher? Yes.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
As I lingered there in the joy and pain of meeting old school-friends, there swept over me a sudden longing to pass again beyond the blue hill, and to see the homes and the school of other days, and to learn how life had gone with my school-children; and I went. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It grieved Josie, and great awkward John walked nine miles ev- ery day to see his little brother through the bars of Lebanon jail. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Uncle Bird was grayer, and his eyes did not see so well, but he was still jovial. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
South of the North, yet north of the South, lies the City of a Hun- Once, they say, even Atlanta slept dull and drowsy at the foot-hills It is a hard thing to live haunted by the ghost of an untrue dream; The Souls of Black Folk CHAPTER V Of the Wings of Atalanta 0 black boy of Atlanta! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In winter’s twilight, when the red sun glows, I can see the dark figures pass between the halls to the music of the night-bell. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Even to-day the masses of the Negroes see all too clearly the anomalies of their position and the moral crookedness of yours. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
of the North the train thundered, and we woke to see the soil of Georgia stretching away bare and monotonous right Here and there lay straggling, unlovely villages, and lean men The Souls of Black Folk C H A P T E R VII Of the Black Belt 157 The Song of Solomon loafed leisurely at the depots; then again came the stretch of pines and clay. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The sun is setting, but we can see the great cotton country as we enter it,—the soil now dark and fertile, now thin and gray, with fruit-trees and dilapidated buildings,—all the way to Albany. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
mined heat that seems quite independent of the sun; so it took us some days to muster courage enough to leave the porch and venture out on the long country roads, that we might see this unknown world. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Of course Harrison Gohagen,—a quiet yellow man, young, smooth-faced, and diligent,—of course he is lord of some hundred acres, and we ex- pect to see a vision of well-kept rooms and fat beds and laughing chil- THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER 162 dren. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Dougherty County is the west end of the Black Belt, and men once called it the Egypt of the Confederacy. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The Jew is the heir of the slave-baron in Dougherty; and as we ride westward, by wide stretching cornfields and stubby orchards of peach and pear, we see on all sides within the circle of dark forest a Land of Canaan. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
See yonder sad-colored house, with its cabins and fences and glad crops? It is not glad within; last month the prodigal son of the struggling father wrote home from the city for money. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
There we sat, after the long hot drive, drinking cool water,—the talkative little store- keeper who is my daily companion; the silent old black woman patch- ing pantaloons and saying never a word; the ragged picture of helpless misfortune who called in just to see the preacher; and finally the neat matronly preacher’s wife, plump, yellow, and intelligent. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I see now that ragged black man sitting on a log, aimlessly whittling a stick. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In Dougherty County, Georgia, one can see easily the results of this experiment in huddling for protection. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Above all, they cannot see why THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER 180 they should take unusual pains to make the white man’s land better, or to fatten his mule, or save his corn. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
On the other hand, the masters and the masters’ SOnS have never been able to see why the Negro, instead of settling down to be day-laborers for bread and clothes, are infected with a silly desire to rise in the world, and why they are sulky, dissatisfied, and careless, where their fathers were happy and dumb and faithful. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is, then, the strife of all honorable men of the twentieth century to see that in the future competition of races the stirvival of the fittest shall mean the triumph of the good, the beautiful, and the true; that we may be able to preserve for future civilization all that is really fine and noble and strong, and not continue to put a premium on greed and impudence and cruelty. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It thus happens that in nearly every Southern town and city, both whites and blacks see commonly the worst of each THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER 186 other. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
One thing, however, seldom occurs: the best of the whites and the best of the Negroes almost never live in anything like close proximity. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I will not stop here to inquire whose duty it was,—whether that of the white ex-master who had profited by upaid toil, or the Northern philanthropist whose persistence brought on the crisis, or the National Government whose edict freed the bond- men; I will not stop to ask whose duty it was, but I insist it was the duty of some one to see that these workingmen were not left along and unguided, without capital, without land, without skill, without economic organization, without even the bald protection of law, order, and decency,—left in a great land, not to settle down to slow and care- The Souls of Black Folk 187 ful internal development, but destined to be thrown almost immedi- ately into relentless and sharp competition with the best of modern workingmen under an economic system where every participant is fighting for himself, and too often utterly regardless of the rights or welfare of his neighbor. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Now if one notices carefully one will see that between these two worlds, despite much physical contact and daily intermingling, there is almost no community of intellectual life or point of transference where the thoughts and feelings of one race can come into direct con- tact and sympathy with thoughts and feelings of the other. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And when, by proscription and prejudice, these same Negroes are classed with and treated like the lowest of their peo- ple, simply because they are Negroes, such a policy not only discour- ages thrift and intelligence among black men, but puts a direct pre- mium on the very things you complain of,—inefficiency and crime. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Nor does the paradox and danger of this situation fail to interest and perplex the best conscience of the South. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Thus one can see in the Negro church to-day, reproduced in micro- cosm, all that great world from which the Negro is cut off by color- prejudice and social condition. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
To-day he is gone, but who is to blame for his going? Is it not those very persons who mourn for him? Is it not the tendency, born of Reconstruction and Reaction, to found a soci- ety on lawlessness and deception, to tamper with the moral fibre of a naturally honest and straightforward people until the whites threaten to become ungovernable tyrants and the blacks criminals and hypo- crites? Deception is the natural defence of the weak against the strong, and the South used it for many years against its conquerors; to-day it must be prepared to see its black proletariat turn that same two-edged weapon against itself. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I can see him now, changing like the sky from sparkling laughter to darkening frowns, and then to wondering thoughtfulness as he watched the world. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
All that day and all that night there sat an awful gladness in my heart,—nay, blame me not if I see the world thus darkly through the Veil,—and my soul whispers ever to me, saying, “Not dead, not dead, but escaped; not bond, but free.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And when that thin, half-grotesque figure still haunted their doors, they put their hands kindly, half sorrowfully, on his shoulders, and said, “Now,—of course, we—we know how you feel about it; but you see it is impossible,—that is—well—it is premature. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I sometimes fancy I can see that tableau: the frail black figure, ner- vously twitching his hat before the massive abdomen of Bishop Onder- donk; his threadbare coat thrown against the dark woodwork of the book-cases, where Fox’s “Lives of the Martyrs” nestled happily beside “The Whole Duty of Man.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I seem to see the wide eyes of the Negro wander past the Bishop’s broadcloth to where the swinging glass doors of the cabinet glow in the sunlight. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I can see his face still, dark and heavy-lined beneath his snowy hair; lighting and shading, now with inspiration for the future, now in innocent pain at some hu- man wickedness, now with sorrow at some hard memory from the past. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Perhaps we imagined it, but someway it seemed to us that the serious look that crept over his boyish face that afternoon never left it again. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He scanned their rich and faultless clothes, the way they carried their hands, the shape of their hats; he THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER 222 peered into the hurrying carriages. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
All this John did not see, for he sat in a half-maze minding the scene about him; the delicate beauty of the hall, the faint perfume, the moving myriad of men, the rich clothing and low hum of talking seemed all a part of a world so different from his, so strangely more beautiful than anything he had known, that he sat in dreamland, and started when, after a hush, rose high and clear the music of Lohen- grin’s swan. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
A proud man was the Judge, and it was a goodly sight to see the two swinging down Main Street together. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Now the one cherished ambition of the Judge was to see his son mayor of Altamaha, representative to the legislature, and—who could say?—governor of Georgia. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Nevertheless, he struggled hopefully on, and seemed to see at last some glimmering of dawn. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
There was only a black man hurrying on with an ache in his heart, seeing neither sun nor sea, but starting as from a dream at the fright- ened cry that woke the pines, to see his dark sister struggling in the arms of a tall and fair-haired man. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER •:• 242 JEFFERSON Jefferson Davis was a typical Teutonic Hero; the history of civiliza- tion during the last millenium has been the development of the idea of the Strong Man of which he was the embodiment. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
One is the thought of a small but not unimportant group, unfortunate in their choice of spokesman, but nevertheless of much weight, who represent the old ideas of revolt and revenge, and see in migration alone an outlet for the Negro people. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The first was his clear sightedness—the way that he could brush aside cobwebs of convention and of difficulty and see with perfect clearness the right and justice and logic of life. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But he did not always see the right at first, and in that very fact lies his second claim to greatness and that is his capacity for growth. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
If there is one thing upon which the modern world has spent time and thought and money and great anxiety of soul it is upon the matter of training men. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But when we look at the life of this first American we see something that gives us pause. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And if therefore, we have seen and known in America something to love and live for, then we must try and see that the ideals which Abraham Lincoln typified, the ideals on which America was founded be not be lowered on account of us, suffer in no way because of our neglect, but by our coming and our being here, by our joint heritage in this vast and wonderful coun- try, these ideals must grow greater and purer and better. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We have come to see a day here in America when one citizen can deprive another of his vote at his discretion; can restrict the education of his neighbors’ children as he sees fit; can with impunity load his neighbor with public insult on the king’s highway; can deprive him of his property without due process of law; can deny him the right of trial by his peers, or of any trial whatsoever if he can get a large enough group of men to join him; can refuse to protect or THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER 262 safeguard the integrity of the family of some men whom he dislikes; finally, can not only close the door of opportunity in commercial and social lines in a fully competent neighbor’s face, but can actually count on the national and state governments to help and make effective this discrimination. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He kissed the girls, slapped the boys on the back, threw his arms about his friends, scattered his money in charity; only now and then behind the Veil did his nearest comrades see the Hurt and Pain graven on his heart; and when it appeared he promptly drowned it in his music—his beloved music, which always poured from his quick, nervous fingers, to caress and bathe his soul. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Hard as this was to Europe and America, it was far harder to Stalin and the Soviets. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In the Second World War, we again joined Western capital against Fascism and failed to realize how the Soviet Union sacrificed her blood and savings to save the world. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Beyond these political provisions, he turned attention toward the economic; the island was divided into dis- tricts with inspectors who were to see that the freedmen returned to their work. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In each essay I sought to speak from within—to depict a world as we see it who dwell therein. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
All them that come to see the light and listen to the tale of the bravest and truest of the races of men, whose faces be black. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The black Shakespeare must portray his black lagos as well as his white Othellos. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
while in others it is viewed as individual. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We fear that our shortcom- THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER “The play is done!” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But we especially see in the influence of the Negro’s condition in the work of the masters of the 19th century, like Ralph Waldo Emerson, John Greenleaf Whittier, James Russell Lowell, Walt Whitman, Julia Ward Howe, Harriet Beecher Stowe and Lydia Maria Child. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
To appraise rightly this body of art one must remember that it rep- resents mainly the work of those artists whom accident set free; if the artist had a white face his Negro blood did not militate against him in the fight for recognition; if his Negro blood was visible white relatives may have helped him; in a few cases ability was united to indomitable will. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
You and I have been breasting hills; we have been climbing upward; there has been progress and we can see it day by day looking back along blood-filled paths. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But when gradually the vista wid- ens and you begin to see the world at your feet and the far horizon, then it is time to know more precisely whither you are going and what you really want. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We who are dark can see America in a way that white Americans can not. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In after life once it was my privilege to see the lake. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I seem to see her there then one hundred sixty-five years ago, with hands holding the three lilies of her thought; the tall, white lily of her faith—faith despite the world’s paradox, which she saw all too well; the tiger lily, gold and black and typifying her inward frightened re- volt; and finally the little purple flower of her sorrow. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Nobody Knows the Trouble I See, Dark Midnight Was My Cry; I Been Listening All the Night Long, I Couldn’t Hear Nobody Pray. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Continuing my allegory, I see the seven stars in Phillis’ hair, set like rare jewels in the dense and clinging mass that crowned her woman- hood, as points of utter light, upward towards which strove little un- born souls for whom the soul of Phillis strove and yearned. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
“See your declaration, Americans!!! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He dedicated the beautifully printed volume “to the fair sex of Louisiana,” and said: In the introduction he explained: “One begins to understand that in the position that fate has placed us, a sound education is the shield to blunt the arrows of scorn and calumny aimed at us. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
She was there the first of a series of Negro American visitors and must have been stirred by ambition. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He was William Wells Brown. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The colored Janet is facing her white sister, who hitherto has ig- nored her but now begs Janet’s husband, a skilled physician, to save her child, speaks: you—one last word—and then I hope never to see your face again! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
0 Earth, 0 Sky, 0 Ocean, both surpassing, O heart of mine, 0 soul that dreads the dark! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We still yield the well-born the advantages of birth, we still see that each nation has its dangerous flock of fools and rascals; but we also find most men have brains to be cultivated and souls to be saved. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
If, therefore, the American people are sincerely anxious that the Negro shall put forth his best efforts to help himself, they must see to it that he is not deprived of the freedom and power to strive. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Not all men—indeed, not the majority of men, only the exceptional few among American Negroes or among any other people—are adapted to this higher training, as, indeed, only the exceptional few are adapted to higher training in any line; but the significance of such men is not to be measured by their numbers, but rather by the num- bers of their pupils and followers who are destined to see the world through their eyes, hear it through their trained ears, and speak to it through the music of their words. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is not a matter of mere emphasis, for we would be glad to see ten industrial schools to every college. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But the danger lies in the fact that the best of the Negro colleges are poorly equipped and are to-day losing support and countenance, and that, unless the Nation awakens to its duty, ten years will see the annihilation of higher Negro training in the South. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is, however, difficult to see how under the long continuance of the present system anything but degeneration into hopelessness, immorality, and crime could ensue. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The essence of modern democracy is the placing in the hand of the individual the power and responsibility for maintaining his right and liberty; and even in the larger social democracy which we see in the future the corner-stone must be that no social group is to be placed at the mercy of, or in entire dependence upon, the sense of justice of another group. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Let us consider first the dependent variables; they are the social condition of the Negro on the one hand, and public opinion or social environment on the other. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
“Oh, say, can you see by the dawn’s early light” that soap box of blackened bones and dust, standing in the dew and sunlight on the King’s highway to the City of Brotherly Love, while, as the press re- ports, “all day long, not only from Coatesville, but from all Chester County, and even from Philadelphia, people walked and drove out to the scene of the burning. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They see England today, despite her splendid past, as one of the great foes of human liberty, and they do not propose that this power shall be felt this side the water. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is a fact, and those who do not wish to believe the sinister meaning of its existence should go to the nearest movie and see that Washington parade, that tremendous outpouring of hosts, white-gowned and hooded if not masked. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Some seem to see today anti-Christ in Catholicism, and in Jews, inter- national plotters of the Protocol. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And suddenly we began to see what results widespread ignorance of mod- ern science not only had brought but could bring under the leadership of the demagogue. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Such were the elements that make for secret mob law: economic rivalry, race hatred, class hatred, sex rivalry, religious dogmatism and before all the Shape of Fear. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
These people see in the Ku Klux Klan a way of doing and saying that which they them- selves are ashamed to do and say. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
see these Cath- olics, rich, powerful, silent, organized. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Are you going to allow the colored people in the United States and the colored races in the world to go forward toward the goals of civilization free and unhampered, or are you going to organize to see that these people are kept in the places where you think they ought to stay? Here is a great decision, a decision which the white world has got to face. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
One can see examples of this the world over. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And this is a different program than a similar function would be in a white university or in a Russian university or in an English univer- sity, because it starts from a different point. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Lack of faith in Negro enterprise leads to singular results: Negroes will fight frenziedly to prevent segregated schools; but if segregation is forced upon them by dominant white public opinion, they will sud- denly lose interest and scarcely raise a finger to see that the resultant Negro schools get a fair share of the public funds so as to have ade- quate equipment and housing; to see that real teachers are appointed, and that they are paid as much as white teachers doing the same work. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The N.A.A.C.P. and other Negro organizations have spent thou- sands of dollars to prevent the establishment of segregated Negro schools, but scarcely a single cent to see that the division of funds between white and Negro schools, North and South, is carried out with some faint approximation of justice. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He lived to see industry more and more concentrated, land monopoly extended and industrial technique changed by wide introduction of machinery. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
This threat which many Negroes see is no mere mirage. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
So much so that the very cogency of my facts would make me hesitate, did I not seem to see plain reasons. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Finally it must be stressed that the discrimination of which we complain is not simply discrimination against poverty and ignorance which the world by long custom is used to see: the discrimination prac- THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER 458 ticed in the United States is practiced against American Negroes in spite of wealth, training and character. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Enough of this hysteria, this crazy foolishness! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I never thought I would live to see the day that free speech and freedom of opinion would be so throttled in the United States as it is today. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I promised faithfully that when I went on my vacation that summer, I would stop to see him in his home at Krakow, Poland, where his father was librarian of the uni- versity. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Here there was not much to see. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They see the light. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We see the danger of European capital and are slowly extricating ourselves, by seeking to establish control of capital by the political power of taxation and regulation. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We climb the mountain to see irrigation being widened today, yet started 2,200 years ago. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I felt a certain glad- ness to see her, at last, at peace, for she had worried all her life. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I see in and through them. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Rather I see these souls undressed and from the back and side. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I see the working of their entrails. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And yet as they preach and strut and shout and threaten, crouching as they clutch at rags of facts and fancies to hide their nakedness, they go twisting, flying by my tired eyes and I see them ever stripped,— ugly, human. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
On the pale, white faces which the great billows whirl upward to my tower I see again and again, often and still more often, a writing of human hatred, a deep and passionate hatred, vast by the very vagueness of its expressions. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
What do we see today? Machine-guns against assegais; conquest sugared with religion; mutilation and rape masquerading as culture,— all this, with vast applause at the superiority of white over black sol- diers! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We see Europe’s greatest sin precisely where we found Africa’s and Asia’s,—in human hatred, the despising of men; with this differ- ence, however: Europe has the awful lesson of the past before her, has the splendid results of widened areas of tolerance, sympathy, and love among men, and she faces a greater, an infinitely greater, world of men than any preceding civilization ever faced. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is curious to see America, the United States, looking on herself, first, as a sort of natural peace-maker, then as a moral protagonist in this terrible time. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And this, too, in spite of the fact that there has been no actual failure; the Indian is not dying out, the Japanese and Chinese have not menaced the land, and the experi- ment of Negro suffrage has resulted in the uplift of twelve million peo- ple at a rate probably unparalleled in history. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is, therefore, of singular importance after disquieting delay to see the real Pacifist appear. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Colored America demands that “the con- quered German colonies should not be returned to Germany, neither should they be held by the Allies. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
If we fail to embrace this opportunity now, we fail to see how we will be ever able to solve the race question. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
So she was glad to see a moving in Yonder Kingdom on the mountainside, where the sun shone warm, and when the king of Yonder Kingdom, silken in robe and golden-crowned and warded by his hound, walked down along the restless waters and sat beside the armpost of her throne, she wondered why she could not love him and fly with him up the shining mountain’s side, out of the dirt and dust that nested between the This and Now. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
“You’ll come and see my gold?” And then in sudden generosity, he added: “You’ll have a golden throne,—up there—when we marry.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
You walk into a room: to the left is a tall window, bright with colors of crimson and gold and sunshine. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
What did they see? They saw something at which they had been taught to laugh and make sport; they saw that which the heading of every newspaper column, the lie of every cub reporter, the exaggera- tion of every press dispatch, and the distortion of every speech and book had taught them was a mass of despicable men, inhuman; at best, laughable; at worst, the meat of mobs and fury. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
What did they see? They saw nine and one-half millions of human beings. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He stepped back with a gesture of disgust, hardly listening to and yet hearing the black bishop, who spoke almost as if in apology: “She’s not really white; I know Lucy—you see, her mother worked for the governor—” The white bishop turned on his heel and nearly trod on the ye!- The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
She had stolen down the stairs to see the stranger again, and the nurse above was calling in vain. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Seems like when I see things, I just must—but, yes, I’ll try!” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
“Now see here,” said he. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
She was gone but a little while, and when she came back she started to see a dark figure on the doorsteps under the tall, red oak. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Darkwater 549 He did not hear. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
From this point of view we can easily see the weakness and strength of current criticism of extension of the ballot. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is the business of a modern government to see to it, first, that the number of ignorant within its bounds is reduced to the very smallest number. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
You may not see the necessity, you may easily argue that women do not need to vote. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They cannot “understand” the Negro; they cannot protect him from cheating and lynching; and, in general, instead of loving guardianship we see anarchy and exploitation. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
That this method is virtually coming in vogue we can see by the minority groups of modern legislatures. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Grown up I see the problem of these women transfused; I hear all about me the unanswered call of youthful love, none the less glorious THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER C H A P T E R VII The Damnation of Women 564 because of its clean, honest, physical passion. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
To be sure, custom and religion replaced here and there what the law denied, yet one has but to read advertisements like the following to see the hell beneath the system: Da rkwater 567 and Frank. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
She stated she was going to see her mother at Maysville. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The Presbyterian synod of Kentucky said to the churches under its care in 1835: “Brothers and sisters, parents and children, husbands and wives, are torn asunder and permitted to see each other no more. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
George Washington wrote in grave and gentle courtesy to a Negro woman, in 1776, that he would “be happy to see” at his head- quarters at any time, a person “to whom nature has been so liberal and beneficial in her dispensations.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
What does this mean? It forecasts a mighty dilemma which the whole world of civilization, despite its will, must one time frankly face: the unhusbanded mother or the childless wife. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And continually we see worthier men turning to the pettier, cheaper thing—the popular portrait, the sensational novel, the jingling song. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
When, therefore, we see a man, working desperately to earn a living and still stooping to no paltry dickering and to no unwor- thy work, handing away a “Hiawatha” for less than a song, pausing for glimpses of the stars when a world full of charcoal glowed far more warmly and comfortably, we know that such a man is a hero in a sense never approached by the swashbuckling soldier or the lying patriot. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
For three hun- dred years we have denied black Americans an education and now we exploit them before a gaping world: See how ignorant and degraded they are! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Softly, quite softly— For I hear, above the murmur of the sea, Faint and far-fallen footsteps, as of One Who comes from out beyond the endless ends of Time, With voice that downward looms thro’ singing stars; Its subtle sound I see thro’ these long-darkened eyes, I hear the Light He bringeth on His hands— Almighty Death! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The milkman has neglected me. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
out beyond the covering in the rain or sun or dust. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
His information is for white persons chiefly. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
See yon- der peak! No human foot has trod it. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Is yonder wall a hedge of black or is it the rampart between heaven and hell? I see greens,—is it moss or giant pines? I see specks that may be boulders. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I have seen what eye of man was never meant to see. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Humanity stands and flies and walks and rolls about—the poor, the priceless, the world-known and the forgotten; child and grandfather, king and leman—the pageant of the world goes by, set in a frame of stone and jewels, clothed in scarlet and rags. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We would hear the birds sing and see how the rain rises and blushes and burns and pales and dies in beauty. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We would see spring, summer, and the red riot of autumn, and then in winter, beneath the soft white snow, sleep and dream of dreams. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Was everybody dead? He must search and see. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
“There’s a dead girl in here and a man and—and see yonder dead men lying in the street and dead horses—for the love of God go and bring the offi- cers—” And the words trailed off into hysterical tears. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I see the dead strewn before my window as winnowed by the breath of God,—and see—” She dragged him through great, silken hangings to where, beneath the sheen of mahogany and silver, a little THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER 614 French maid lay stretched in quiet, everlasting sleep, and near her a butler lay prone in his livery. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
She must escape—she must fly; he must not see her again. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But here—here in the white Silence of the Dawn, Before the Womb of Time, With bowed hearts all flame and shame, We face the birth-pangs of a world: We hear the stifled cry of Nations all but born— The wail of women ravished of their stunted brood! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We who resent the attempt to treat civilized men as uncivilized, and who bring in our hearts grievance upon grievance against those THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER MANIFESTO OF THE SECOND PAN-AFRICAN CONGRESS 640 who lynch the untried, disfranchise the intelligent, deny self- government to educated men, and insult the helpless, we complain; but not simply or primarily for ourselves—more especially for the mil- lions of our fellows, blood of our blood, and flesh of our flesh, who have not even what we have—the power to complain against mon- strous wrong, the power to see and to know the source of our op- pression. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
What do those wish who see these evils of the color line and racial discrimination and who believe in the divine right of suppressed and backward peoples to learn and aspire and be free? The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
One can see in all these postwar plans-al- though often, I know, the implication is not intentional or even sus- pected—the persistence of the old pattern of thought: the white man’s need of African labor and raw materials and the assumption that these must be cheap in order to yield maximum profits. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They are well aware that the worst oppressors and enslavers of Africa are in vast majority dead, and cannot today be harmed by belated revenge. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They know that there are white people in France, Britain, and America who can be just, and Negroes see also that the Soviet Union, China, Poland, and Czechoslovakia have proved that some white nations can treat colored people as brothers_—can view men as men even though they are black, yellow, or red as Russia. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The persons who saw Liverpool virtually built on the bodies of black slaves may not have realized who the people were committing this crime; but the rich and respectable folk who today see the open attempt of two and a half million white South Africans to rule ten mil- lion black and colored folk, and know the demand of 215,000 whites of the Rhodesias and Nyasaland to control the land and labor of seven million Negroes and Asiatics, those Europeans who base their own support, comfort, art, and culture on the profits which accrue from this outrageous denial of elementary democracy, must be conscious of what THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER 672 is happening. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It will be because Dr. Schweitzer would not only treat disease but train Negroes as assistants and helpers, sur- round himself with a growing African staff of scientifically educated natives who can in time carry on and spread his work and see that it is supported by the new African states and does not continue to be dependent on European charity. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He always looked for the best of what others offered, shunning and downplaying the worst on their best qualities and tried to strengthen the weaker traits. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
That is very much what I am. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Ambiguous legacies, hybrid cultures. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
By hybrid, of course, we mean cross-cultural fertilization. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
in pointing out human hypocrisy, and one must point out human hypocrisy while remaining open to having others point out that of your own. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
But it still takes a stand. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
In this essay, William James raises the question of why it is that so many of his fellow citizens are unable to empathetically identify with Filipinos as human beings, but rather cast them as pictures and por- traits—often stereotypical pictures and portraits. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Always attempting to re- main in contact with the humanity of others. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
By keeping track of human hypocrisy, I mean accenting boldly, and defiantly, the gap between principles and practice, between promise and performance, between rhetoric and reality. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
We can call it an analytical moment. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
It’s about human connection. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
This is why a conception of the prophetic in our time cannot be one that claims we have unmediated access to Cod. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Which means that the very terms themselves, multi- culturalism and eurocentrism, are for me not analytical cat- egories, they are categories to be analyzed with a nuanced historical sense, and also a subtle social analysis. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Empathy is something that is, unfortu- nately, waning in our time. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
So when we talk about Europe, we are not talking about anything monolithic or homogeneous. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
When we talk about multiculturalism we are talking about a par- ticular critique of something which is already multicultural. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
It doesn’t mean that those who suffer have a monopoly on truth, but it means that the condition of truth to emerge must be in tune with those who are undergoing social misery—socially induced forms of suf- fering. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
But I want to begin first by defining what I mean by the term “prophetic thought.” Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
This is what it means to look at the world from the vantage point of those below. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
PROPHETIC THOUGHT IN POSTMODERN TIMES I have selected representative presentations out of the The principle theme that echoes throughout the vol- I want to thank Janet Corpus and John Hoffmeyer for Cornel West December 1992 Part I Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times thought in postmodern times, in these very, very deep and difficult crises of our day, to always view ourselves as part of a tradition. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
been struggling and doing so very well and she is unable to be here today. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
The grand spiritual godfathers of pragmatism, Thomas Jefferson, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Abraham Lincoln, laid the foundation for the meaning and value of democracy in America in the modern world. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
That is a complex cluster of ques- tions and queries regarding the meaning and value of de- mocracy. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
These foundations consist roughly of, first, the irre- ducibility of individuality within participatory communi- ties. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
The reason that I am preoccupied with a sense of the tragic is that I am preoccu- pied with our moment in which we must look defeat, disil- lusionment and discouragement in the face and work through it. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
You see that is a certain conception of the good which is surreptitiously tucked away in the truth talk of that community. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Now, see, I would opt for the latter. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
That is the begin- ning it seems to me. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
1~ Agapish of Peirce is all about an evolutionary love. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Pragmatism, on the other hand, looks like comme~~sm and so forth. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Well, yes and no, Russell. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
West: I think that you are onto something very impor- tant. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
We are not talking about absolute truth, and so forth and so on. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
You see it is an appropria.. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
There was less to give up. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
It fundamentally shapes around the Boer War in the 1890s. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Ella Baker did as The empire is still here in economic form, but colonies 58 PROPHETIC THOUGHT IN POSTMODERN TIMES In this book—in the same year Du Bois was talking about the problem of the twentieth century, the problem of the color line—Hobhouse says that the problem of the twentieth century will be the relation of democracy to white racial domination and the women’s struggle. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Let me say that again—economic growth by means of cor- porate priorities. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
This corporate sector and this entrepre- neurial sector—our economy—is a relatively fluid social structure, giving the possibility of social mobility for those who are prepared—for those who have accessed educatioi, and skills. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Yet the distribution of wealth and power is rarely questioned. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
tonight because it seems to me any serious reflection about the possibilities for expanding freedom and democracy in the USA have to do with coming to terms with this hard case. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
These people of African descent, many of whom have been here nine generations—it is the best of times and the When talking about the future of prophetic thought, Human discernment is in a very very deep and pro- I am going to be using as a case study black America The Future of Pragmatic Thought 59 60 PROPHETIC THOUGHT IN POSTMODERN TIMES worst of times for black America. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
The best of times for those who now have access to unprecedented opportunities, making their quick entre into the middle classes. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
And the worst of times for 31 percent who still live in dire poverty and violence ridden conditions with very little access to resources. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
And then there is the majority of people of African descent. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
I know it is getting late and we need to go eat lunch. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
you recall last night, I began by highlighting those four fundamental components: human discernment, human connection, human hypocrisy and human hope. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Most societies we know in human history has been patriarchal. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
But the point I want to make here is that those who will be explicitly open about their anti-racist and anti-sexist stands will be cutting against the grain. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
These have to do with frying to deepen those four components that I talked about last night. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
I would add that the business of Amer- ica has been primarily big business, from agribusiness to transnational corporations. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
I also want to acknowledge the degree to which any reflection about human hope has as much to do with the battle of ideas as it does the battle for resources. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
But I had impurified the pool, you see. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
You see what I am saying? That is not solely economics. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
It has to do with a certain conception of human bodies and impurity. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
This is very important. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
He lived only 13 years longer. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
See what I am saying. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
In fact I debated whether I would come yester- day or whether I should go to the Mt. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
I think Homi Bhabha is right; I think Foucault is indispensable, but his Eurocentrism and his Francocentrism stare at you on every page. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
So I thought that I would just attempt to speak directly. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Because none of us can actually justify our pursuit of the life of the mind on sheer hedonistic grounds—be- cause we like it, because it gives pleasure. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
So the academy is only one terrain among many others. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
And that’s in part what we’re dealing with today, it seems to me. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
It’s not just the acuity of their analyses. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
But they’re crucial because, when Simmel talks about objectification in the philosophy of money in 1900, he’s talking about the degree to which there is an eclipse not simply of subjectivity but an eclipse of agency in which people no longer feel they can make a difference, so they view themselves as objects in the world. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
This is a very important cultural phenomenon it’s the first attempt, not even on the left as I understand it but on the left liberal side of the ideological spectrum, to provide a phenomenological description of the lived experience in capitalist society. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
I don’t advise stopping there, but he’s got useful figures on corporate control within the most crucial forms of public expression, from the 32,248 The Postmodern Crisis of Black Intellectuals 91 “public” malls, which are not public in any serious sense— despite being among the few spots of public space left in late capitalist society—private property where the right to hand out political leaflets is denied, to his study of the American Library Association—the transformation of knowledge into a salable commodity as opposed to a social good; and why in New York City at this very moment libraries are only open four days a week And they talk about black kids and brown kids not wanting to read. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
That is not, of course, a kind of catechis- tic retelling of Marx; it’s an attempt to update where capital is and what’s it doing and to what degree it is a source of so much social misery in the world. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
And I must say that I actually did write a paper, but I decided it became relatively obsolete after this afternoon. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Zion Baptist Church that helped produce one of the most subtle and nuanced voices of intelligence, insight, and pleasure-giving ever pro- duced by this country and working within, of course, the great art form produced by working-class people in this century, namely, jazz. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
“postmodern crisis” and what does it have to do with intel- lectuals of African descent at this particular historical and cultural moment? Well, actually I think it has to do with the fact that we are struggling with the vocation of political intellectuals, or what it means to be a political intellectual at the moment. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
political intellectual is antiquated and outdated; and that’s the challenge. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
black intellectual. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
That’s called parochialism; no matter how sophisticated and subtle and nuanced it is, it’s still parochialism, especially in the light of the call for Atlanticism, internationalism, and hybridity that Paul Gilroy and a whole host of others have talked about. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
I don’t want to—as I said before I don’t want to talk about black men independent of black women. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
I’m talking about none other than Sarah Vaughan, who was buried just yesterday in Newark, New Jersey. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Is it any longer a credible notion? And this is a very important question for me because, though I could be self-deceived, I understand myself to be first and foremost an intellectual freedom fighter. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Just as we need Weber, we need Marx; among other things his concept of commodification is indispensable. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Marxism remains im- portant in part because it theorized commodification, and the process of commodification, especially in the form of big capital, especially in the form of oligopolies and monop- olies, remains fundamental if we are to have any clue about how to talk about culture. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
We have a very different state but they go hand in hand. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
The Future of Pragmatic Thought I think there are some real faults of separate black Of course, we are talking about the failure of public Question. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
With his early roots in Irish Catholicism he was a Pascalian Marxist who wagered boldly on the capacity of ordinary men and women to cre- ate and sustain a socialist future. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
became the shining knight and activist intellectual of the democratic left for nearly three decades. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Let me begin with an epigram: I see we had best look our times and lands searchingly in the face like a physician diagnosing some deep disease. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
What penetrating eye does not everywhere see through the mask? The spectacle is appall- ing, we live in an atmosphere of hypocrisy throughout: the men believe neither in the women nor the women in the men. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
It’s hard to capture that moment now of this unprecedented economic boom, world hegemony, the subordination of Latin American markets~ as a support of usually anti-democratic regimes to ensure access to those markets. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Never was there perhaps more hollowness at heart than at present, thanhereinthe UnitedStates.Genuine Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
My governor said taxes and you saw what happened, Mr. Florio you see. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
This is very important for children, although Pro- fessor Lasch and I may disagree on how we end up generat- ing new ways for nurturing children. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Discontinuous with so much; the American past, not the black American past, not much of the southern American past, but much of the American past, discontinuous, the future won’t be better? My God! Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
I read their book in May, it took me back to the library to read Mr. Lippmann. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Given my own Democratic Left tradition, I had read A Preface to Politics and Drifting Mastery. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Race was the visible catalyst, not the underlying cause. Race Matters
ments among blacks, especially among young people, is a revolt against this sense of having to “fit in.” Race Matters
If America has consciousness and she will see the living past living in the today, through the recollections of our black parents, and those that separate us. Race Matters
are primarily economic and political creatures—an idea that sees culture as an ephemeral set of behavioral at- titudes and values. Race Matters
Rather, it is because most blacks conclude that while racial discrimination is not the sole cause of their plight, it certainly is one cause. Race Matters
We should see it as primarily playing a neg- ative role—namely, to ensure that discriminatory prac- tices against women and people of color are abated. Race Matters
Instead of critical dialogue and respectful exchange, we have witnessed several bouts of vulgar name-calling and self-righteous finger-pointing. Race Matters
This can be uncomfortable for white people accustomed to being the custodians of power. Race Matters
ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE, Democracy in America (1840) ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE, Democracy in America (1835) ItVII alcoim X articulated black ‘35 Americans to acknowledge the sheer absurdity that confronts human beings of African descent in this coun- try—the incessant assaults on black intelligence, beauty, character, and possibility. Race Matters
Malcolm was on the alert, he wished to see every person who entered the restaurant. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Malcolm refused to see the impossibility of the white man conceding secession from the United States; at this stage in his career he contended it was the only solution. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
INTRODUCTION XV New York, June 1965 THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X When my mother was pregnant with me, she told me later, a party of hooded Ku Klux Klan riders galloped up to our home in Omaha, Nebraska, one night. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It was two miles outside the city limits, and I guess there was no problem about our attending because we were the only Negroes in the area. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
We children adjusted more easily than our mother did. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I think he had the sense to see, when the rest of us didn’t, what was in the wind for us. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
But that was nothing compared to what I felt when I found out later that he had cheated. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
He just stopped coming to see her. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
To this day, I can see the trap that Mother was in, saddled with all of us. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
My last visit, when I knew I would never come to see her again—there—was in 1952. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I knew I wouldn’t be back to see my mother again because it could make me a very vicious and dangerous person— knowing how they had looked at us as numbers and as a case in their book, not as human beings. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I’ll never forget him. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The only thing better about the rematch was that hardly any- one I knew was there to see it; I was particularly grateful for Reginald’s absence. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“That way,” he said, “everyone can see you. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
He said the school was really a place where boys like me could have time to see their mistakes and start a new life and become somebody everyone would be proud of. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I suppose that in their own minds, they meant no harm; in fact they probably meant well. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
But it has historically been the case with white people, in their regard for black people, that even though we might be with them, we weren’t considered of them. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I don’t care how nice one is to you; the thing you must always remember is that almost never does he really see you as he sees himself, as he sees his own kind. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I couldn’t dance a lick, anyway, and I couldn’t see squandering my few dimes on girls. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Ev- erybody with legs would come out to see any performer who bore the magic name “New York.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Though some, including the teachers, called me “nigger,” it was easy to see that they didn’t mean any more harm by it than the Swerlins. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
But I can see now why the class might have done it. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
In fact, by then, I didn’t really have much feel- MASCOT ~ 38 ThE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X ing about being a Negro, because I was trying so hard, in every way I could, to be white. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Wilfred worked wherever he could, and he still read every book he could get his hands on. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I was one of his top students, one of the school’s top students—but all he could see for me was the kind of future “in your place” that almost all white people see for black people. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I went every Saturday to see my brothers and sisters in Lan- sing, and almost every other day I wrote to Ella in Boston. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I could see, though I didn’t say, how any average man would find it almost impossible to live for very long with a woman whose every instinct was to run everything and everybody she had anything to do with—including me. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Ella still seemed to be as big, black, outspoken and impres- sive a woman as she had been in Mason and Lansing. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Downtown Boston, I wrote them, had the biggest stores I’d ever seen, and white people’s restaurants and hotels. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I roamed everywhere. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Why a city would have two big railroad stations—North Station and South Sta- tion—I couldn’t understand. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I told him I wanted to see the shoeshine boy, Freddie. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“Here, you can take over the whiskbroom,” he said, “just two or three licks—but let ‘em feel it.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The long coat and swing- ing chain and the Punjab pants were much more dramatic if you stood that way. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
When Shorty let me stand up and see in the mirror, my hair hung down in limp, damp strings. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Look around today, in every small town and big city, from two-bit catfish and soda-pop joints into the “integrated” lobby of the Waldorf-Astoria, and you’ll see conks on black men. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And r you’ll see black women wearing these green and pink and pur- ple and red and platinum-blonde wigs. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
You’ll see the conk worn by many, many so-called “upper class” Negroes, and, as much as I hate to say it about them, on all too many Negro entertainers. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I don’t know which kind of self-defacing conk is the greater shame—the one you’ll see on the heads of the black so-called “middle class” and “upper class,” who ought to know better, or the one you’ll see on the heads of the poorest, most down- trodden, ignorant black men. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It’s generally among these poor fools that you’ll see a black kerchief over the man’s head, like Aunt Jemima; he’s trying to make his conk last longer, between trips to the barbershop. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
But I don’t see how on earth a black woman with any race pride could walk down the street with any black man wearing a conk—the emblem of his shame that he is black. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
White customers on the shine stand, especially, would laugh to see my feet suddenly break loose on their own and cut a few steps. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Even the young ones, my age, whom Ella was always talking about. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
They soon had me ready to quit, with their accents so phonied up that if you just heard them and didn’t see them, you wouldn’t even know they were Negroes. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
But I could see they didn’t know her too well; they said “hello’ ‘—that was about the extent of it. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And if Ella had ever thought that she could help any member of the Little family put up any kind of professional shingle—as a teacher, a foot-doctor, anything—why, you would have had to tie her down to keep her from taking in washing. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
prayers woven into tapestries, statuettes of the cruci- fixion, other religious objects on the mantel, shelves, table tops, walls, everywhere. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Since the old lady wasn’t speaking to me, I didn’t speak to her, either. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
She asked me to pick her up at her house this time. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I began to see less of Shorty. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
When I did see him and the gang, he would gibe, “Man, I had to comb the burrs out of my homeboy’s head, and now he’s got a Beacon Hill chick.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
What Ella didn’t know, of course, was that I would continue to see Sophia. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
But I did talk to Shorty, urging him to at least go to see the Big Apple music world. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Anyway, Pappy Cousins loved whisky, and he liked everybody, even me. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And I dropped over to Mason to see Mrs. Swerlin, the woman at the detention home who had kept me those couple of years. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I had just turned seventeen. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
These tough women said that it worked with them. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
All women, by their nature, are fragile and weak: they are attracted to the male in whom they see strength. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
This was my best early lesson in how most white men’s hearts and guts will turn over inside of them, whatever they may have you otherwise believe, whenever they see a Negro man on close terms with a white woman. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Now he’s making his living being funny as a nationally known stage and nightclub come- dian. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
At night, when I usually did my selling, any suspicious person wouldn’t be likely to see the trick. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
So I began to pick up some of the street trade, the people you could see looked high. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The day before, his merchant ship had put into port over in New Jersey. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I was pleased to see that Reginald, though he said little about it, admired my living by my wits. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
So many of those so-called “upper class” Negroes are so busy trying to impress on the white man that they are “different from those others” that they can’t see they are only helping the white man to keep his low opinion of all Negroes. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
With tips, which were often heavy, sometimes I would make over a hundred dollars a night steering up to ten customers in a party—to see anything, to do anything, to have anything done to them, that they wanted. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I had some money, but the madam gave me some more, and I told Sammy I was going to see my brother Philbert in Michigan. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And I had no gun. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I began to wonder whether West Indian Archie might not be right. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
She and Jean, who hadn’t seen each other in a long time, hugged each other. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I can’t imagine how I looked when I got to the hotel. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
We were really glad to see each other. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
When Reginald came to Roxbury visiting, he was shocked at what he’d found out upon returning to Harlem. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
All of a sudden, I pulled out my gun, shook out all five bullets, and then let them see me put back only one bullet. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“Now, I’m ,going to see how much guts all of you have,” I said. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I could see in Shorty’s and Rudy’s eyes some idea of rushing me. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And they had taken more cash than usual out of their banks. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It’s a shame to tell on a man, but Shorty was so obsessed with the white girl that even if the lights were out, he would pull up the shade to be able to see that white flesh by the street lamp from outside. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
All they could see was that we had taken the white man’s women. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It made me feel good to see that my not eating it had especially startled the white convicts. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I remember him turning, looking sur- prised at me. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It had an all but electrical effect upon me to see the signature of the “Messenger of’ Allah.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I had to force myself to bend my knees. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And if you look at the globe, you will see for yourself that America is only an extension of Asia. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And it seems that some Chinese chickens will soon come home to roost, with China’s recent successful nuclear tests. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I have often reflected upon the new vistas that reading opened to me. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
How is the black man going to get “civil rights” before first he wins his human rights? If the American black man will start thinking about his human rights, and then start thinking of himself as part of one of the world’s great peoples, he will see he has a case for the United Nations. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I would watch their faces when I told them about that, because the white man had completely erased the slaves’ past, a Negro in America can never know his true family name, or even what tribe he was descended from: the Mandingos, the Wolof, the Serer, the Fula, the Fanti, the Ashanti, or others. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
He may take a day to react, a month, a year; he may never respond, openly; but of one thing you can be sure—when he thinks about his own life, he is going to see where, to him, personally, the white man sure has acted like a devil. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
(Homer and Omar and Moor, you see, are related terms; it’s like saying Peter, Pedro, and petra, all three of which mean rock.) The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I could see him as plainly as I see anyone I look at. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
From that day on, as far as I am con- cerned, everything that my brother Reginald has done is wrong. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
After Elijah Muhammad himself was later accused as a very immoral man, I came to believe that it wasn’t a divine chastise- ment upon Reginald, but the pain he felt when his own family totally rejected him for Elijah Muhammad, and this hurt made Reginald turn insanely upon Elijah Muhammad. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
SAVED 211 218 THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X It’s impossible to dream, or to see, or to have a vision of someone whom you never have seen before—and to see him exactly as he is. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It was the same kind of cheap, gaudy- looking junk that you can see in any of the black ghetto furniture stores today. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I caught a bus to Detroit. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“Well, now, our good brother Malcolm’s hedge is removed and we will see how he does,” Mr. Muhammad said. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“. . The Autobiography of Malcolm X
He said that a man in the office was waiting to see me. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
As a young minister, I would go to Chicago and see Mr. Elijah Muhammad every time I could get off. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The stores were examples to help black peo- ple see what they could do for themselves by hiring their own kind and trading with their own kind and thus quit being ex- ploited by the white man. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Or how one of those students, Ar- istotle, had his students following behind him, walking through the Lyceum. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Whenever able, now and then, he slipped home to see his wife and his eight young children, who were fed by other poor Mus- lims who shared what little they had. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“I want you, when you leave this room, to start to see all this whenever you see this devil white man. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“Every time you see a white man, think about the devil you’re seeing! The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I told him enough about Islam to see from his reactions that he didn’t really want to hear it. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I’m so glad to see you!” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And then we agreed that it wasn’t worth even talking about, it didn’t mean anything anymore. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
But neither of us would say that it was not too late. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I would start to speak and sometimes be so emotionally charged I had to explain myself: “You see my tears, brothers and sisters. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And every Thursday I scheduled my teaching there. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
You see, Islam is the only religion that gives both husband and wife a true understanding of what love is. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I went in, as the minister of Temple Seven, and demanded to see our brother. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Then they admitted he was, but said I couldn’t see him. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
For the man who is not white, Islam is the hope for justice and equality in the world we must build tomorrow.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
On the wire of our relatively small Nation, these two big de- velopments—a television show, and a book about us—naturally were big news. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
title was pri- marily responsible for the reaction. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I had a receiver against my ear five hours a day. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
We who follow him know that he has been divinely taught and sent to us by God Himself. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The front two or three press rows were filled with the black reporters and cameramen representing the Negro press, or those who had been hired by the white man’s newspapers, magazines, radio, and television. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“When you recognize who your enemy is, he can no longer brainwash you, he can no longer pull wool over your eyes so that you never stop to see that you are living in pure hell on this earth, while he lives in pure heaven right on this same earth!— The Autobiography of Malcolm X
You don’t know nothing about your true culture. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“We black people don’t know what we can do. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It grieves me that I don’t care where you go, you see this symbol of ignorance and self-hate on so many Negroes’ heads. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
No Muslim smokes—that was another of our rules. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
You’re going to stand tall, man! The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Today, in many ways the black man sees the collective white man in America better than that white man can see himself. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I would slide right over the reporter’s question to drop into his lap a logical-extension hot potato for him. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I’m talk- ing about these Negroes you will see who can’t get enough of nuzzling up to the white man. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
What it is, simply, is that black and brown and red and yellow peoples have, after hundreds of years of exploitation and imposed “in- feriority” and general misuse, become, finally, do-or-die sick and tired of the white man’s heel on their necks. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The white people patron- izing those places can afford it. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
associate professor I never will forget; he got me so mad I couldn’t see straight. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“And ~ see again that not ideologies, but race, and color, is what binds human beings. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
She burst out crying, and ran out and up Lenox Avenue and caught a taxi. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
If I harbored any personal disappointment whatsoever, it was that privately I was convinced that our Nation of Islam could be an even greater force in the American black man’s overall strug- gle—if we engaged in more action. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It could be heard increasingly in the Negro communities: “Those Muslims talk tough, but they never do anything, unless somebody bothers Muslims.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
There was no one I could turn to with this problem, except Mr. Muhammad himself. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I felt that Wallace was Mr. Muhammad’s most strongly spiritual son, the son with the most objective outlook. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
In all of the cases I reviewed, the positive outweighed the negative. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
If I was relaxed, then I knew he was relaxed. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I went to see Dr. Leona A. Thrner, who has been my family doctor for years, who practices in East Elm- hurst, Long Island. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“It’s the Cross and the Crescent fighting in a prize ring—for the first time. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I began to see, wherever I went—on the streets, in business places, on elevators, sidewalks, in passing cars—the faces of Muslims whom I knew, and I knew that any of them might be waiting the opportunity to try and put a bullet into me. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
These ghetto teen-agers see the hell caught by their parents struggling to get somewhere, or see that they have given up struggling in the prejudiced, intolerant white man’s world. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The ghetto teen-agers make up their own minds they would rather be like the hustlers whom they see dressed “sharp” and flashing money and displaying no respect for anybody or anything. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Labbayka!” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I refused to let myself think how ridiculous I must have looked to them. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Removing the dishes and cloth, they sat on the rug—a living room. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The West has always helped to keep the Christian government in power. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“You must rest,” Dr. Azzam said. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Always in my life, if it was any white person, I could see a selfish motive. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“Ma sha’a-llah”—which means, “It is as Allah has pleased.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I knew that she would see what I had seen—that in the land of Muhammad and the land of Abraham, I had been blessed by Allah with a new insight into the true religion of Islam, and a better understand- ing of America’s entire racial dilemma. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
My whole life had been a chronology of— changes. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“During the past eleven days here in the Muslim world, I have eaten from the same plate, drunk from the same glass, and slept in the same bed (or on the same rug)—while praying to the same God—with fellow Muslims, whose eyes were the blu- est of blue, whose hair was the blondest of blond, and whose skin was the whitest of white. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Among them was Elijah Muham- mad’s son Wallace Muhammad, who had expressed to me his conviction that the only possible salvation for the Nation of Is- lam would be its accepting and projecting a better understanding of Orthodox Islam. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I told him that I dreamed to see the day when shiploads and planeloads of Amer- ican Muslims would come to Mecca for the Hajj. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I talked with the Mayor of Mecca, Sheikh Abdullah Eraif, who when he was a journalist had criticized the methods of the Mecca municipality—and Prince Faisal made him the Mayor, to see if he could do any better. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It is the job of the enlightened leaders to raise the people’s intellect.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
As for the “Blood Brothers,” I said I considered all Negroes to be my blood brothers. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
This wasn’t the last time I’d see the Africans’ almost fanatic expression of their political emotions. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
In America, Afro-Americans are struggling for integration. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
After this unforgettable luncheon, Mrs. Shirley Graham Du Bois drove me to her home, so that I could see and photograph the home where her famed late husband, Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois, had spent his last days. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The “Malcolm X Committee” and I were exchanging good- byes at the Accra airport when a small motorcade of five Am- bassadors arrived—to see me off! The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It blessed me with a new insight. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And I had known, too, that Negroes would not rush to follow me into the orthodox Islam which had given me the insight and perspective to see that the black men and white men truly could be brothers. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
So, in the “public invited” meetings which I began holding each Sunday afternoon or evening in Harlem’s well-known Au- dubon Ballroom, as I addressed predominantly non-Muslim Ne- gro audiences, I did not immediately attempt to press the Islamic religion, but instead to embrace all who sat before me: “—not Muslim, nor Christian, Catholic, nor Protestant - Baptist nor Methodist, Democrat nor Republican, Mason nor Elk! The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I am in agreement one hundred percent with those racists who say that no government laws ever can force brotherhood. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I knew, better than most Negroes, how many white people truly wanted to see American racial problems solved. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I never have felt that I would live to become an old man. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
In fact, it runs in my fam- ily. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Irv Kupcinet in Chicago, and Barry Farber, Barry Gray and Mike Wallace in New York—people like them. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Sometimes, after the pro- grams, we would sit around and talk about all kinds of things, current events and other things, for an hour or more. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
When I am dead—I say it that way because from the things I know, I do not expect to live long enough to read this book in its finished form—I want you to just watch and see if I’m not right in what I say: that the white man, in his press, is going to identify me with ‘‘hate.’’ The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I expressed willingness, an appointment was made, and I flew to Chicago. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
So I flew again to see Mr. Muhammad, but this time to Phoe- nix, Arizona, where the Nation of Islam had bought him the house in the hot, dry climate that relieved his severe bronchial condition. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Cause BM condition WM won’t face. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Elijah Muhammad It was through a clue from one of the scribblings that finally I cast a bait that Malcolm X took. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
You studied what he wanted you to learn about him in schools, I studied him in the streets and in prison, where you see the truth.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I would see him coming along with his long, gangling strides, and wearing the wide, toothy, good-natured grin, and as he drove me into New York City he would bring me up to date on things of interest that had happened since I left. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Lomax, he admired for his ferreting ear and eye for hot news. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
‘I want to see Jimmy Booker. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
When I did not see him for several days, a letter came. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
So within that period it should be possible to finish this book. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Malcolm X was “away briefly,” Sister Betty said on the phone—and she spoke brusquely. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Mr. Muhammad reportedly had said at an- other time, “Malcolm is destroying himself,” and that he had no wish whatever to see Malcolm X die, that he “would rather see him live and suffer his treachery.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
They asked him about that, did he plan to keep it? He said he hadn’t decided yet, he would have to see if he could get used to it or not. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
If some men are in a car, driving with a destination in mind, and you know they are going the wrong way, but they are convinced they are going the right way, then you get into the car with them, and ride with them, talking—and finally when they see they are on the wrong road, not getting where they were intending, then you tell them, and they’ will listen to you then, what road to take.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Malcolm X was busy, busy, busy; he could not visit my hotel room often, and when he did, it shortly would get the feeling of Grand Central Station. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
We had intensive sessions in my hotel room, where he read what he selected from the diary, and I took notes. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I called out “See you!” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
There was no way to know that it was the last time I would see him alive. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Saturday morning, he drove Sister Betty to see a real estate man. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
For the first time in nearly two years, I did not recognize immediately that the voice on the other end of the phone be- longed to Malcolm X. He sounded as if he had a heavy, deep cold. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
One woman who was seated near the front says, “The commotion back there diverted me just for an in- stant, then I turned back to look at Malcolm X just in time to see at least three men in the front row stand and take aim and start firing simultaneously. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Those that shop along 125th Street during the hours that the stores are to be closed identify with the murderous stooge that allowed the power structure to use his hands to kill Brother Malcolm.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
First, in a high drama for the Muslims, Elijah Muhammad’s son, Wallace De- laney Muhammad, who once had sided with Malcolm X, faced the audience and begged forgiveness for his defection. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
When the word spread, numbers of persons who had come before returned for another wait in the long, slowly mov- ing line, wanting to see the Moslem burial dress. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
When the Faith Temple doors were opened at 9:20, a corps of OAAU members entered. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Malcolm, as you can see, was refreshing excitement; he scared hell out of the rest of us, bred as we are to caution, to hypocrisy in the presence of white folks, to the smile that never fades. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
But he had not aban- doned his shock-effect statements, his bristling agitation for immediate freedom in this country not only for blacks, but for everybody. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Al- though Cleaver presumptuously announced at “Free Huey” rally in Oakland that SNCC had merged with the Panthers, he and Panther leaders wrongly assumed that former SNCC chairman Carmichael and other SNCC officers spoke for the SNCC rank-and-file. The Black Panthers Speak
During the late 1960s and early 1970s the ~ the repression campaign against the Panthers, see “To Judge Murtagh: From the Panther 21,” and Charles R. Carry, “The Old Rules Do Not Apply,” in this volume (p. The Black Panthers Speak
See also Lee Lockwood, Conversation with Eldridge Cleaver, Algiers (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970). The Black Panthers Speak
The result is that most Americans have obtained their impression of the Panthers from statements issued by those who wish to see them eliminated as a factor in American life. The Black Panthers Speak
One has but to reflect back a few years to the raid on con- servative ‘Minutemen’—all white—to see that social justice is against armed camps of revolutionaries and not against Black Panthers per se.” The Black Panthers Speak
(See the document issued by the American Jewish Committee, February, 1970, entitled “The Black Panther Party—the Anti- Semitic and Anti-Israel Component,” and the article by Gerald Emanuel Stern in the New York Times Magazine, March 8, 1970.) The Black Panthers Speak
While one can certainly argue that this is a simplistic view of a complex issue, it is difficult to see how being anti-Zionist and anti- Israel makes one ipso facto anti-Semitic. The Black Panthers Speak
Three black members of Local 1199 (Drug and Hospital Workers Union), interviewed by the union’s magazine in January, 1970, as to their reaction to the Black Panthers, expressed admiration for them. The Black Panthers Speak
The report noted: THE BLACK PANTHERS SPEAK Introduction When asked about the charges that the Panthers are a violent group, the feelings of all three men were summed up in the comnient of one of them, Ed Mayo of Clara Maass Hospital in New Jersey: “They’re fighting for the same cause as we are in the union—to be free and have human dignity. The Black Panthers Speak
Not content to remain classroom theoreticians, they began working in the black community, knocking on doors and asking the residents of Oakland’s ghetto what they needed and wanted. The Black Panthers Speak
8 Cultural nationalists see the white man as the oppressor, and make no dis- tinction between racist whites and nonracist whites. The Black Panthers Speak
In the ghetto disorders of the past few years, blacks have often been exposed to indiscriminate police assaults and, not infrequently, to gratuitous brutality. The Black Panthers Speak
The headline was WHY WAS DENZIL DOWELL KILLED? (See page 9 below.) The Black Panthers Speak
Patterson points out that the Panther leadership challenged the “illusion that the black people, of historical necessity, had to go it alone . The Black Panthers Speak
Four Black men wearing “We’re the other half, the equal half,” explained Artie Scale [Mrs. The Black Panthers Speak
The public attention given to the trial, resulting in large part from the 6 See Eldridge Cleaver’s letter to Stokely Carmichael, page 104 below. The Black Panthers Speak
(See page 168 below.) The Black Panthers Speak
The statement of the BPP, read by Chief of Staff David Hilliard, declared, “The end result of the Emancipation Proclamation was supposed to be the freedom and liberation of the black people from the cruel shackles of slavery; The story unfolded by the Chicago grand jury makes it appear that Against a background of doctored evidence and coached police wit- xxxvii xxxviii yet one hundred and seven years later black people still are not free. The Black Panthers Speak
Did you like that section about robbing and raping?” The reference (a perfect example of the “big lie”) was actually to the “8 Points of Attention” which the Panthers print in every issue of their weekly newspaper, and, as the reader will see if he turns to page 6, these “commandments” actually encourage the opposite of what the Mayor of San Francisco charged. The Black Panthers Speak
The family of Densil Dowell has been denied the right to see or have the clothes that Denzil was murdered in. The Black Panthers Speak
They went the clothes to see how many bullet holes the clothes have in them. The Black Panthers Speak
The Black Panther documents for all humanity to see, how the wretched slaves of Amerikkka moved fearlessly to establish ALL POWER TO THE PEOPLE. The Black Panthers Speak
Being deeply committed to the struggle for black liberation, and not feeling compromised by the use of white lawyers, I wonder how many of these people who complain about the white attorney are really concerned about the black movement, really concerned about Huey’s life, really concerned about the Black Panther Party, really concerned about putting an end to the racist exploitation of black people, really concerned about putting an ending to the wanton murder of black people by the police, and if they are so concerned, what are they doing to show it? Are these the same people who 15 16 have contributed to the Huey P. Newton Defense Fund, helped the Black Panther Party to grow, made constant personal sacrifices and endured serious danger to see their commitment bear fruit? Or are these people onlookers of a liberation struggle being waged for their benefit who just generally dislike white people and don’t like the way it looks in court? Are these people black lawyers and their friends who want to cash in on the prestige associated with this historic case? Whose benefit are they concerned with, Huey P. New- ton’s or black lawyers? Revolutionary Art/Black Liberation Besides fighting the enemy, the Black Panther Party is doing prop- aganda among the masses of black people— The form of propaganda I’m about to refer to is called art, such as painting, sketching, etc.— The Black Panthers Speak
This is revolutionary art—pigs lying in alley ways of the colony dead with their eyes gouged out—autopsy showing cause of death: “They fail to see that majority rules.” The Black Panthers Speak
We call upon black people and white people who want to see the dawn of a new history in this land. The Black Panthers Speak
We call upon people who want to see an end to the flow of blood. The Black Panthers Speak
Some party members regard military affairs and politics as op- They don’t understand that the Black Panther Party is an At the same time in propaganda work they overlook the They become conceited when a battle is won and dispirited Selfish departmentalism—they think only of the Black Pan- Unable to see beyond their limited environment within the Some Panthers disregarding the subjective and objective con- THE BLACK PANTHERS SPEAK The Black Panther: Voice of the Party The sources of the purely military viewpoint are 1. The Black Panthers Speak
Who can see the mountains since the windstorm is gone? I can see many, they still stand. The Black Panthers Speak
More people are waking up to the facts of capitalism’s true nature, and as these peo- ple do so, they see that capitalism is the oppressor. The Black Panthers Speak
From this basic understanding, we can see who the police are to “protect and serve”. The Black Panthers Speak
They see the police for what they are— oppressive forces that are keeping the American people in a repressed state. The Black Panthers Speak
We see the Cuban revolution as a great achieve- ment in the world revolution by establishing an island of socialism in an ocean, the western hemisphere, of capitalist exploitation, im- perialist aggression and fascist suppression. The Black Panthers Speak
to resist by going into the streets in large numbers, and when they see the advantage in the activities of the guerrilla warfare method, they will quickly follow this example. The Black Panthers Speak
But first, they must respect the party which is transmitting this message. The Black Panthers Speak
If these imposters would investigate the history of revolution, they would see that the vanguard group always starts out above ground and is later driven underground by the aggressor. The Black Panthers Speak
The community will have to erect revolutionary courts and also a community militia to protect the community and see that the community gets justice. The Black Panthers Speak
The Black Panther Party is a revolutionary Nationalist group and we see a major contradiction between capitalism in this country and our interests. The Black Panthers Speak
And so they identify with the power structure and they see their interests as the power structure’s interest. The Black Panthers Speak
In doing this they see the people who are really fighting for freedom. The Black Panthers Speak
They see the people who are really standing for justice and equality and peace, throughout the world. The Black Panthers Speak
The cultural na- tionalist doesn’t understand the white revolutionaries because he can’t see why anyone white would turn on the system. The Black Panthers Speak
We are saying they must withdraw. The Black Panthers Speak
Therefore we should decide what measures and what tools and what programs to use to become liberated. The Black Panthers Speak
MOVEMENT: perience it is impossible for them to work with whites and impossible for them to form alliances. The Black Panthers Speak
HUEY: Would you be willing to extend this formula in Yes. The Black Panthers Speak
They had to act and the people could see and hear about it and therefore become educated on how to respond to oppression. The Black Panthers Speak
The younger people of course are the ones who are seen on the streets. The Black Panthers Speak
Then it won’t really be necessary for us to go underground because you can see black anywhere. The Black Panthers Speak
But anything more than that they will have to do on their own. The Black Panthers Speak
And this equipment is expendable, because this is the purpose of it: To explode it and then build new ones, you see. The Black Panthers Speak
It forced out Juan Bosch for the simple reason, they know that as long as war goes on, then they can exploit the people through taxation and also exploit the people through human lives, because we sent soldiers, you see brothers, because they’re expendable too; people are expendable. The Black Panthers Speak
So, therefore this is the favored argument of the capitalist: “So, we must be there to stop communism or wars of subversion, you see, subversive wars.” The Black Panthers Speak
And this is not so at this point, see. The Black Panthers Speak
When we see what happened to brother Fred Hampton and brother Mark Clark in the pre-dawn raid. The Black Panthers Speak
When we see this kind of action we see the smack of fascism. The Black Panthers Speak
You see when they charge a person with a crime the mass media will tend to discredit a person completely. The Black Panthers Speak
We see this happen in the Panther cases in Connecticut and New York. The Black Panthers Speak
But I would not only localize this conspiratorial at- tempt to part of the avaricious demogogic ruling class, which ex- tends from the Nixon regime on down. The Black Panthers Speak
You see an important thing to understand is that the system itself is white. The Black Panthers Speak
In that same jail recently, one of the deputies tried to beat a brother up and the brothers had to defend themselves against the deputies, so one can see that the unconstitutionality of the judicial system applies to all levels, in- cluding the penal. The Black Panthers Speak
Looking back in history, it is easy to see that women have received the blunt end of European prejudice against sex. The Black Panthers Speak
We see the taboo concept as being closely linked to racism. The Black Panthers Speak
So you brothers who are dreaming about coming back home, when you get back home, you’re going to see that same oppression. The Black Panthers Speak
But what in essence is it? I think Black people if we go over the concrete ex- periences that we’ve had in America and what’s going on now against us we can understand exactly what it is—to be corralled in wretched ghettoes in America and look up one day and see numerous police- men occupying our community, and brutalizing us, killing brother Linthcombe, murdering young Bobby Hutton. The Black Panthers Speak
For a man to stand up and demand his constitutional rights and in turn the court looks at him and denies him that is to say he’s not intelligent enough to see what’s going on. The Black Panthers Speak
And I’m aware that it has been a problem in all organizations in Babylon to structure our struggle in such a way that our sisters, our women are liberated and made equal in our struggle and in regard to sister Erica, I know that the Minister of Defense, Huey P. Newton has spoken out many times that the male chauvinism that is rampant in Babylon in general, is also rampant in our own ranks. The Black Panthers Speak
But I’m saying that it’s manda- tory, the Minster of Defense Huey P. Newton has said that it is mandatory that all manifestations of male chauvinism be excluded from our ranks and that sisters have a duty and the right to do whatever they want to do in order to see to it that they are not relegated to an inferior position, and that they’re not treated as though they are not equal members of the Party and equal in all regards. The Black Panthers Speak
So Sister Erica—Right On. The Black Panthers Speak
If the nations of Asia, Latin America, and Africa are strong and free, the black man in America will be safe and secure and free to live in dignity and self-respect. The Black Panthers Speak
But when you see the squalor in which people live as a result of the policies of the exploiters, when you see THE BLACK PANTHERS SPEAK Eldridge Cleaver Speaks from Exile —The Black Panther, March 23, 1969 the effects of exploitation on the emaciated bodies of little children, when you see the hunger and desperation, then these terms come alive in a new way. The Black Panthers Speak
I know these terms are kicked around like lifeless bodies and that it is easy to allow the grisly realities behind them to become obscured by too frequent repetition. The Black Panthers Speak
You were unable to distinguish your friends from your enemies because all you could see was the color of the cat’s skin. The Black Panthers Speak
You are peeved because the Black Panther Party informs itself with the revolutionary principles of Marxism-Leninism, but if you look around the world you will see that the only countries which have liberated themselves and managed to withstand the tide of the counterrevolution are precisely those countries that have strong Marxist-Leninist parties. The Black Panthers Speak
I don’t think there is necessarily a distinction between, or should I say a conflict between, nationalism and proletarian internationalism, because it’s been shown many times that if you can’t love those around you, which is a form of nationalism, relate to those within your own Being critical of cultural nationalism, how do you see Well I think it brought together all of the experienced Do you think the role of nationalism in the movement I think it will have a continuing importance and there 111 112 entity, then you can’t relate to those beyond you, and by the same token if you can relate to those beyond you, and not be able to relate to those near you, then there’s still a problem. The Black Panthers Speak
The people in SDS who we work with have related to the analysis we have made and they see that it is functional because in the United States you have Mexican—Americans, Puerto-Ricans, Indians, Eskimos, Chinese- Americans, black Americans, white Americans and many other ethnic groups. The Black Panthers Speak
After coming into contact with other people who are revolutionaries but are not black, you see how important it is in order to work with them. The Black Panthers Speak
These are some of the very positive aspects that I see in this. The Black Panthers Speak
The brothers who are here now are brothers who have been in the Party almost from its beginning and I had a chance to watch them develop, see in them resistance to the direction we were trying to take, in terms of relations with white revolutionaries, so that there has been a complete change in that. The Black Panthers Speak
When you think of 21 people in New York, 16 people in Chicago, it adds up to a king’s ransom, and we don’t have that kind of money, we have no process for getting that kind of money, so I think the people who are dedicated to functioning in a revolutionary manner will start adopting the attitude that they will not be arrested. The Black Panthers Speak
The latter arose out of a remark made by Hilliard during a speech on November 1 ~, 1969, at San Francisco for which he was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury. The Black Panthers Speak
So we see that as being victorious. The Black Panthers Speak
You see, what you people do is you turn the terminology around. The Black Panthers Speak
They had a problem in the community because people was being run over— kids were being run over—at a certain intersection.” The Black Panthers Speak
They hiding—can’t nobody even see ‘em. The Black Panthers Speak
You can see the pressures the Black Panther Party goes through by making a coalition with whites. The Black Panthers Speak
I say that we’re the first group to come above ground where the people can follow you and see you. The Black Panthers Speak
As a matter of fact we rather you didn’t move until you see we ready to move, and when you see we ready to move you know we not dealing with a few, we not dealing with some more. The Black Panthers Speak
Very early in the history of the Black Panther Party, Huey Newton, Bobby Seale and others moved to eliminate male chauvin- ism in the Party. The Black Panthers Speak
A man who lives under slavery and any of its extensions rarely regains his dignity by rejecting the clothiers of his enslaver; he rarely regains his dignity except by a confrontation on equal grounds with his enslaver. The Black Panthers Speak
We have to understand that by peaceful demon- strations, by trying to negotiate, that we are not going to get any- where. The Black Panthers Speak
You can see what has been going on in Chicago and I can tell you that the so-called mother country radicals have been a disap- pointment. The Black Panthers Speak
You want to see what is going on in Vietnam. The Black Panthers Speak
All the men have had to go to the front and you should see how those women and children safeguard their villages. The Black Panthers Speak
It is probably very difficult for you in the middle of all this to see it clearly, but this is why you have the greatest responsibility. The Black Panthers Speak
The U.S. that we see is not one of freedom, beauty, and wisdom, but of fear, terror, and hate. The Black Panthers Speak
We see that inhuman treatment but are told that we do not. The Black Panthers Speak
We see men beaten to death in jail but are told that they died of “natural causes” but we are liars. The Black Panthers Speak
We admit that we do not want you to “elevate” us to be workers THE BLACK PANTHERS SPEAK Black Panther Women Speak who are only free enough to see our labors to you. The Black Panthers Speak
You see for one thing we study Malcolm X—and he said: “I believe in anything that is necessary to correct unjust conditions . The Black Panthers Speak
Yes, mothers and fathers, I would like to say to you that you have listened to the television, the radio, and you have read the news- papers, but you have not walked out of your doors to the Breakfast Centers to see what your children are trying to do. The Black Panthers Speak
And when you see the tremendous forces that are working against the beautiful work your children are trying to do, I think you will be very glad to stand up and be counted. The Black Panthers Speak
But the Black Panther Party says that this type of thing must be halted, because we must survive this evil govern- ment and build a new one fit for the service of all the people. The Black Panthers Speak
They set tables, clean facilities, cook and prepare the food, they direct traffic to see that the children cross the streets safely. The Black Panthers Speak
After a day’s breakfast has been completed, the Panthers at- tend to the constant task of procuring food fromn the merchants who do business in the community, to see that the program is constantly supplied with the necessary food. The Black Panthers Speak
What is so fascinating for the teachers and parents is to see how quickly their —The Black Panther, July 5, 1969 171 172 minds work, and are able to elaborate and go into detail. The Black Panthers Speak
Most of the Liberation Schools are in areas where poor people of all colors live who are being exploited and oppressed, because of this it is easier for them to relate to the class struggle when they see people of different races who are just as poor as they. The Black Panthers Speak
As a response to the racism that took his life, and as a tribute to the man, we make the follow- ing demands upon those who now hold power in this country: You must be allowed to hire and see an attorney immediately. The Black Panthers Speak
You don’t want to investigate it to see whether the THE BLACK PANTHERS SPEAK Black Panthers in Court people get their constitutional rights. The Black Panthers Speak
What kind of court is this? Is this a court? It must be a fascist operation like I see it in my mind, you know,—I don’t understand you. The Black Panthers Speak
And to stand up here and say, “Look, I have the right to defend myself,” continuously over and over, even to the point just recently on Friday you recognized that I did have only one lawyer by letting this man and Thomas Hayden to go and to talk to Charles R. Garry to see about coming out here for mc, which begin to show me that I was beginning to persuade you to do something, at least allow somebody to investigate my situation. The Black Panthers Speak
You can see I’m talking. The Black Panthers Speak
Now let’s see, first you said that I couldn’t stand. The Black Panthers Speak
“Traditional American justice,” its very application has created what it claims to remedy, for its eyes are truly covered: it does not see the Black reality, nor does it consider or know of the Black experience, least of all consider it valid. The Black Panthers Speak
What fool cannot see that the “justice” of which you speak has a dual interpretation quite apart from the legal definition and is in keeping with “slave-master” traditions. The Black Panthers Speak
We can see the yesterday in today and the history of our particular case runs upon the same tracks as does our people’s long struggle. The Black Panthers Speak
We see that we are still considered chattel. The Black Panthers Speak
We see how the Fugitive Slave Act has been modified in words, but is still being used, how the Dred Scott decision was never really re- versed. The Black Panthers Speak
We see that things have not gotten better, but only progressively 203 204 worse, and that includes tyranny. The Black Panthers Speak
D) When our attorneys learned of our arrest, they attempted to Black Panthers in Court205 see us, as we were being held in your District Attorney’s office. The Black Panthers Speak
Did you see in any one of the things the difficulties that he had ever gotten into, where he had stolen so much as a loaf of bread, a pencil? Did you see anything about 213 214 his past, his juvenile record was even brought in, which is sup- posed to be sacred, and the only juvenile difficulty he got into was when lie was sixteen years of age when lie was transferred to another school, in Berkeley where they were all strangers and seven people beat him up the day before. The Black Panthers Speak
I see the northern and western part of the United States creating ghettos where ghettos did not exist before, segregate and divide people, great and beautiful friends being ham- strung to the stake. The Black Panthers Speak
As for the Vietnamese people, for the peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America as well. The Black Panthers Speak
We demand the right to self-determination for all third-world peoples and we call for a United Nations-super- vised plebiscite to be held throughout the black colony in which only the black colonial subjects will be allowed to participate for the purpose of determining the will of black people as to their national destiny. The Black Panthers Speak
They see clearly the colonial status of blacks and the dual oppression from which they suffer: national oppression as a people and class exploitation as a superexploited part of the working class. The Black Panthers Speak
To do less would be a mockery of the word “revo- lutionary.” The Black Panthers Speak
The oppression is there, the people see it but they don’t know what to do about it, so that’s why the Y.L.O. is there. The Black Panthers Speak
We rec- ognize that this is the last thing the pigs want to see, and we know that we’re educating the white community around the trial of our brother, Chairman Bobby Scale of the Black Panther Party. The Black Panthers Speak
We’re talking about the community people— people nobody’s ever seen before being moved and beginning to scream til they release Bobby Scale, because they understand by class oppression how Bobby’s being framed, the same way they see Tom Dostou, our Field Marshal as their white brother being framed. The Black Panthers Speak
They see Bobby Scale being framed as their black brother. The Black Panthers Speak
The Black Panther Party is against this kind of separatism, opportunism, individualism, this very subjective approach to a problem that is in reality a world- wide problem. The Black Panthers Speak
I said, “May I see the affidavit?” One of the cats said, “No.” The Black Panthers Speak
I said, “I’d like to see it.” The Black Panthers Speak
We see very clearly that whereas White America has escalated its policy of repression and containment of Black people inside the United States itself, on a world scale, the United States is playing the leading role in organizing the White race against the people of the world who have a color. The Black Panthers Speak
Within the domestic confines of the United States of America, we see clearly that a well-planned, calculated Fascist Genocidal Conspiracy is being implemented against our people. The Black Panthers Speak
In their quest for freedom, and in their attempts to prevent the oppressor from stripping them of all the things they need to exist, the people see things as moving from A to B to C; they do not see things as moving from A to Z. In other words they have to see first some basic accomplishments, in order to realize that major successes are possible. The Black Panthers Speak
When the Party went to Sacramento, when the Party faced down the policemen in front of the office of Ramparts magazine, and when the Party patrolled the police with arms, we were acting (in 1966) at a time when the people had given up the philosophy of non-violent direct action and were beginning to deal with sterner stuff. The Black Panthers Speak
Because the Black Panther Party grows out of the conditions and needs of oppressed people, we are interested in everything the people are interested in, even though we may not see these particular con- cerns as the final answers to our problems. The Black Panthers Speak
So we lead the peo- ple by following their interests, with a view toward raising their consciousness to see beyond particular goals. The Black Panthers Speak
For an exposition of Williams’s views, see the interview with him in The Black Scholar, May, 1970. The Black Panthers Speak
For Bobby Scale’s report of his tour, see The Black Panther, March 31, 1970. The Black Panthers Speak
For his speech in Scandinavia, see ibid., Oct. 25, 1969. The Black Panthers Speak
The Black Legion was an anti-labor, anti-black pro-fascist ter- For a full discussion of this incident, see Bobby Seale, Seize PL refers to Progressive Labor, a group of radicals who split For Eldridge Cleaver’s remark referred to, see page 113. The Black Panthers Speak
Just as we must continue to fight so that more peo- ple of color are admitted to the student bodies and hired on the faculty and staff of our colleges and uni- versities, and integrated into every phase of America’s social and commercial life, we must fight to see that Congress and the President enact a comprehensive jobs bill. The Future of the Race
You see, as long as I iden- tified the angst of youth with discovering and then shouting for all to hear just how the white man had subjugated the black man, then the matter of being a human being was not a problem at all. The Future of the Race
Henry Louis Gates, Jr. THE TIMOROUS TENTH ‘9 Certainly the data she has assembled are striking. The Future of the Race
Well-off blacks, however, think race matters more than any of those characteristics. The Future of the Race
Henry Louis Gates, Jr. 49 The joker, the hole card, was of course that none of us knew our names; we forgot what we called each other when no one else was around. The Future of the Race
If we weren’t crushed in a dialectic over what was “black” and what was “blacker,” then we were crushed by those bored administrators and jaded teachers who could not see the longing and the impatience to learn buried deep be- hind the particular mask that each of us chose to wear. The Future of the Race
Instead, Du Bois rushes to glib theodicy, weak allegory, and su- perficial symbolism (see pages 183—84 for a further ar- gument regarding this fascinating text). The Future of the Race
Certainly those fervent white supremacists who worship the Greek and Roman classics and revel in the plays of the incomparable Shakespeare weaken his case.2’ The Future of the Race
We see in Du Bois no engagement with Leo Tolstoy, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Ivan Turgenev, Alexander Herzen, Lev Shestov, Anton Chekhov, or Franz Kafka, Max Brod, Kurt Tuchoisky, Hermann Broch, Hugo Berg- mann, or Karl Kraus. The Future of the Race
~ This seminal passage spells out the basic components of black invisibility and namelessness: black people as a problem-people rather than people with prob- lems; black people as abstractions and objects rather than individuals and persons; black and white worlds divided by a thick wall (or a “Veil”) that requires role-playing and mask-wearing rather than genuine humane interaction; black rage, anger, and fury con- cealed in order to assuage white fear and anxiety; and black people rootless and homeless on a perennial journey to discover who they are in a society content to see blacks remain the permanent underdog. The Future of the Race
I am invisible, understand, simply because people refuse to see me. The Future of the Race
Like the bodiless heads you see sometimes in circus sideshows, it is as though I have been surrounded by mirrors of hard, distort- ing glass. The Future of the Race
When they approach me they see only my surroundings, themselves, or figments of their imagination—indeed, everything and anything except me.35 The Future of the Race
This distorted perception—the failure to see the hu. The Future of the Race
manity and individuality of black people—has it5, Comnel West 85 source in the historic “Veil” (slavery, Jim Crow, and segregation) that separates the black and white worlds. The Future of the Race
That if they could not see it, they would not have it. The Future of the Race
And no, they ain’t in love with your mouth. The Future of the Race
This sort of sympathetic connection makes the tempta- tion of hate grow “fainter and less sinister. The Future of the Race
I’ll be feeling and thinking that they didn’t see me and I didn’t see them.58 The Future of the Race
As the glass ceilings (limited promotions) and golden cuffs (big position and good pay with little or no power) re- main in place for most, though not all, blacks in cor- porate America, we will see anguish and hedonism intensify among much of the Talented Tenth. The Future of the Race
Was the work of these college founders successful; did it stand the test of time? Did the college graduates, with all their fine theories of life, really live? Are they useful men helping to civilize and elevate their less fortunate fellows? Let us see. The Future of the Race
It was from that experience that I assumed easily that educated people, in most cases were going out into life to see how far they could better the world. The Future of the Race
At Fisk I met a group of teachers who would be unusual in any time or place. The Future of the Race
What can Sigma Pi Phi do to see that we get it for the American Negro? So far as the group before me is con- cerned little can be done, for the simple reason that most of our present membership will soon be dead. The Future of the Race
For a dissenting view, see Adolph Reed, “Race and the Dis-4. The Future of the Race
For an argument that, in fact, blacks were never well rep- resented in the industrial sector, see Norman Fainstein, “The Underclass/Mismatch Hypothesis as an Explanation for Black Economic Deprivation,” Politics and Society I 5, flo. The Future of the Race
See also Eric J. Sundquist, To Wake the Nations: Race in the Making of American Literature (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), pp. 459—67; David Levering Lewis, W. E. B. Du Bois: Biography of a Race, 1868—1919 (New York: Henry Holt & Co., The Future of the Race
See Shamoon Zamir, “‘The Sorrow Songs’/ ‘Song of Myself’: Du Bois, The Crisis of Leadership, and Pro- phetic Imagination,” in The Black Columbiad: Defining Moments in African American Literature and Culture, ed. The Future of the Race
For Zamir’s fascinating, yet ul- timately unconvincing Hegelian treatment of Du Bois’s early thought, see Dark Voices: W. E. B. Du Bois and American Thought, 1888—1903 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995). The Future of the Race
For Du Bois on jazz, see Kathy J. Ogren, The Jazz Revolu- tion: Twenties America and the Meaning of Jazz (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), pp. 118—20. The Future of the Race
For a fascinating yet unpersuasive reading of this ne- glected moment in Du Bois which claims that “this suffering has no redemptive moment,” see Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (Cambridge: Harvard Uni- versity Press, 1993), pp. 138—39. The Future of the Race
..“ (p. The Future of the Race
For Du Bois’s direct debt to the father of Victorian social criticism, Thomas Carlyle, see Lewis, W E. B. Du Bois, pp. 74—75, 77, 78, ii~—i6, 120, 136, 148. The Future of the Race
For instance, see his 1920 classic essay, “The Damnation of Women,” from Dark- water, in Writings, pp. 952—68. The Future of the Race
For superb synoptic treatments of two exemplary figures, see Thomas C. Holt, “The Lonely Warrior: Ida B. Wells-Barnett and the Struggle for Black Leadership,” in Black Leaders of the Twentieth Century, ed. The Future of the Race
“Saint Socrates, pray for us.” The Future of the Race
z6. The Future of the Race
1967), pp. 330—36. The Future of the Race
Du Bois confronts this pessimism most strikingly in two of the most insightful and angry essays in his corpus—”The White World,” in Dusk of Dawn (1940), and “The Souls of White Folk,” in Darkwater (1920). The Future of the Race
Such teeming would I see upon this land, On acres free among free people stand. The Future of the Race
Foretasting such high happiness to come, I savor now my striving’s crown and sum. The Future of the Race
Notes 190 For Du Bois’s special love for Goethe’s work and his advice to Fisk University students and graduates to immerse themselves in Goethe in order to expedite “the rise of• the Negro people,” see Lewis, W E. B. Du Bois, p. 139. The Future of the Race
For the quote in Anna Julia Cooper, see A Voice from the South, introduction by Mary Helen Washington, Schomburg Library of Nineteenth-Century Black Women Writers, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., gen. The Future of the Race
Like the Russian intellectuals’ obsession with Hamlet—from Tur- genev’s torment in his influential essay on Hamlet (and Don Quixote) in i 86o to Tolstoy’s scorn in his infamous renunciation of Shakespeare in 1906 and Kafka’s appreciation of Shakespeare (thanks to his Anglophilic friend Emil Weiss), despite his disori- entating experience of seeing Albert Bassermann perform Hamlet in Berlin in 191o—the tragedies and absurdities bombarding black people in the New World made Hamlet’s problem even more intense and urgent. The Future of the Race
In Tennyson’s case, this intensity and ur- gency was due in part to an unhappy childhood at home and school (Louth Grammar School) and the early death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Hallam. The Future of the Race
See also Benjamin R. Barber, Jihad vs. Mc World (New York: Random House, 1995). The Future of the Race
For a powerful treatment of the negative impact of glob- alization on the most disadvantaged and vulnerable human beings on the globe, see Herb Addo (the major exponent of neoradical creative pessimism), “The Convulsive Historical Mo- I Notes ‘94 ment: Considerations from a Neoradical Third World Perspec- tive,” Macalaster International i (Spring 1995): pp. 115—48. The Future of the Race
How infinite in reason; in form and moving how express and admirable; in apprehension how like a God; in action how like an angel! The Measure of a Man
Since God made him that way there is nothing wrong with it. The Measure of a Man
Some peo- i ple stop here. The Measure of a Man
We have explained his shortcomings in terms of errors or lags of nature. The Measure of a Man
We have sometimes felt that progress was inevitable, and that man was gradually evolving into a higher state of perfection. The Measure of a Man
See how we treat each other. The Measure of a Man
The Measure of a Man —John Oxenham God, our gracious heavenly Father, we O thank thee for the inspiration of Jesus the Christ, who came to this world to show us the way. The Measure of a Man
So often we say that the priest and the Levite were in a big hurry to get to some eccle- siastical meeting and so they did not have time. The Measure of a Man
We find ourselves living in what Professor Sorokin of Harvard called a sensate civilization, believing that only those things which we can see and touch and to which we can apply our five senses have existence. The Measure of a Man
Something should remind us once more that the great things in this universe are things that we never see. The Measure of a Man
You walk out at night and look up at the beautiful stars as they bedeck the heavens like swinging lanterns of eternity, and you think you can see all. The Measure of a Man
Oh, no. You can never see the law of gravitation that holds them there. The Measure of a Man
You walk around this vast campus and you probably The Measure of a Man 48 Martin Luther King Jr. have a great esthetic experience as I have had walking about and looking at the beautiful buildings, and you think you see all. The Measure of a Man
Oh, no. You can never see the mind of the architect who drew the blueprint. The Measure of a Man
You can never see the love and the faith and the hope of the individuals who made it so. The Measure of a Man
You look at me and you think you see Martin Luther King. The Measure of a Man
You don’t see Martin Luther King; you see my body, but, you must understand, my body can’t think, my body can’t reason. The Measure of a Man
I see a young Negro girl. Why We Can't Wait
They knew something about current events. Why We Can't Wait
gave the Negro a reason to act—a reason so simple and obvious that he almost had to step back to see it. Why We Can't Wait
Finally someone spoke up and, as he spoke, I could see that he was giving voice to what was on everyone’s mind. Why We Can't Wait
I thought about the Birmingham Negroes already lining the streets of the city, waiting to see me put into practice what I had so passionately preached. Why We Can't Wait
Many hundreds of Ne- groes had turned out to see us, and great hope grew within me as I saw those faces smiling approval as we passed. Why We Can't Wait
Leaving the church, where we were joined by the rest of our group of fifty, we started down the forbidden streets that lead to the downtown sector. Why We Can't Wait
How was the movement faring? Where would Fred and the other leaders get the money to have our demonstrators released? What was happen- ing to morale in the Negro community? jailers. Why We Can't Wait
But I know that once again I could see the light. Why We Can't Wait
Like many others, we waited to see Mr. Connor de- feated, and to this end we endured postponement after postponement. Why We Can't Wait
As in so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted, and the shadow of deep disappointment set- tled upon us. Why We Can't Wait
I have hope that Mr. Boutwell will be reasonable enough to see the futility of massive resistance to de- segregation. Why We Can't Wait
But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of civil rights. Why We Can't Wait
In- dividuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture; but, as Reinhold Niebuhr has reminded us, groups tend to be more immoral than individuals. Why We Can't Wait
We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that “justice too ~ long delayed is justice denied.” Why We Can't Wait
But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sis- ters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate- filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six-year-old daughter why she can’t go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority begin- fling to form in her little mental sky, and see her be- ginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five-year-old son who is asking: “Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?”; when you take a cross-country drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile be- cause no motel will accept you; when you are humili- ated day in and day out by nagging signs reading “white” and “colored”; when your first name becomes “nigger,” your middle name becomes “boy” (however Leuerfrom Birmingham Jail 69 70 WHY WE CAN’T WAIT old you are) and your last name becomes “John,” and your wife and mother are never given the respected title “Mrs.”; Why We Can't Wait
I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out. Why We Can't Wait
I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and Jewish brothers. Why We Can't Wait
It has taken Christianity almost two thousand years to accomplish what it has. Why We Can't Wait
need. Why We Can't Wait
Some—such as Ralph McGill, Liffian Smith, Harry Golden, James McBride Dabbs; Ann Braden and Sarah Patton Boyle—have written about our struggle in eloquent and prophetic terms. Why We Can't Wait
In spite of my shattered dreams, I came to Bir- mingham with the hope that the white religious lead- ership of this community would see the justice of our cause and, with deep moral concern, would serve as WHY WE CAN’T WAIT the channel through which our just grievances could reach the power structure. Why We Can't Wait
Yes, I love the church. Why We Can't Wait
I doubt that you would so quickly commend the po- licemen if you were to observe their ugly and inhu- mane treatment of Negroes here in the city jail; if you were to watch them push and curse old Negro women and young Negro girls; if you were to see them slap and kick old Negro men and young boys; if you were to observe them, as they did on two occasions, refuse to give us food because we wanted to sing our grace together. Why We Can't Wait
For, you see, I’m not doing this only because I want to be free. Why We Can't Wait
If you do not recant, you can be held for the’ rest of your natural life. Why We Can't Wait
Less than three decades later, Negroes have discov- CHAPTER .7 Why We Can't Wait
It is true that these elements have meaning, but to ignore the concrete and specific gains in dismantling the structure of segregation is like noticing the beauty of the rain, but failing to see that it has enriched the soil. Why We Can't Wait
I see an African-American man in Manhattan. Why We Can't Wait
I see an African-American woman in California. Why We Can't Wait
I see an African-American boy in Chicago. Why We Can't Wait
I see an African-American girl in a small town in the South. Why We Can't Wait
In some tragic sense, when we see these statistics, we are reminded of the obscenity of the Missouri Compromise. Why We Can't Wait
Where Do We Go from Here: Chaos or Com- The Trumpet of Conscience. Why We Can't Wait
Harper & Row, A Testwnent of Hope, James M. Washington, The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr. New- 4 J •l1• 154 1.. Why We Can't Wait
Schulke, Flip, and Penelope 0. Why We Can't Wait
McPbee.~King Why We Can't Wait
Reddick, Lawrence D. Crusader Without Violence: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Harper & Brothers, 1959. Why We Can't Wait
Remem- bered~ W. W. Norton, 1986. Why We Can't Wait
SELECTED BIBuOGgj~P}Iy 155 Abernathy, Ralph, 41, 47—48, 59, 60—61, 85 A.C.H.R. See Alabama Christian Move- ment for Human Rights AFL-CIO, 114, 132 Africa, 8, 69, 76, 121 proposed Negro exo- dus to, 19 “Ain’t Gonna Let No- body Turn Me ‘Round” (song), 48 Alabama. Why We Can't Wait
See Bir- mingham, Alabama; Montgomery, Alabama Alabama Christian Move- ment for Human Rights (A.C.H.R.), Why We Can't Wait
37—39, 41, 52, 55, 65, 66 Alabama National Guard, 97 Alabama State College, 50 Alabama Supreme Court, 97 Index Albany, Georgia, 29—30, 40, 43, 53, 57, 58, Amendments. Why We Can't Wait
See under American Baptist Con- vention, 113—14 American Jewish Con- gress, 114 Anderson, Marian, 53 Asia, 8, 69, 76 Assassinations, year of, Atlanta, Georgia, 65, 96, 98, 105 Attucks, Crispus, ix Automation, 132 Banneker, Benjamin, ix Barnett, Governor, 79 Battle of Bunker Hill, Belafonte, Harry, 43—44, 57, 63 Belzoni, Mississippi, 135 Bevel, Diane Nash, 50 Bevel, James, 50, 86, 88 156 62, 81, 82 Constitution of the United States 134—35 104—5 Billingsley, Orzell, 62 Bill of Rights, 11, 33 See also Constitution Bill of Rights for the Dis- advantaged, 128—31 Bill of Rights, GI, 127 Billups, Charles, 90 Birmingham, Alabama, viii, ix, x, 24, 25, 33—45, bombings and burn- ings, 35, 41, 66, 95—96, civil disobedience is- sues, 57—59 discrimination, 33—36, 37, 39, 66, 69—70 (see also Segregation) Easter shopping ma- neuvers, 40—41, 43, 53, 56—57 election, 41—43, 44—45 and King’s letter from jail, 64—84 merchants, 38, 39, 40, 56, 95 moratorium, 66 planned strategy on, 29, 31—32, 47—52 police brutality, 35—36, 61, 66, 82, 89, 96, 102 segregation, 33—34, 37—38, 41, 57 union organization, 32 violence, 35, 41 of the United States INDEX 107, 122 102 voluntary jailings, 15—16, 60, 64—65, 83, 85, 87, 88,98 volunteer demonstra- tors, 48—49, 50—51, 82—83, 85, 106, 108 See also Sit-ins Birmingham News, 46 Black Muslims, 21, 75 Black nationalist groups, 75 See also Black Muslims Blough, Roger, 103 Board of Education (Bir- mingham), 97 Bombings and burnings, 35, 41, 66, 95—96, 102, 135 See also Mob violence Boston Tea Party, 72 Boutwell, Albert, 41, 42—43, Boyle, Sarah Patton, 77 Braden, Ann, 77 Brethren Church, 114 Britain, ix, 104, 121 Chartist movement, 1 and colonialism, 23 See alsa Revolution, American Brooklyn, New York, x Brutality. Why We Can't Wait
See Bir- Jackson, Mississippi, 106, Jailings, 77—78 Jefferson, Thomas, 33, Jewish rabbis, 108-9, 114 Jim-crow Job opportunities, 6, 17, Johnson, Lyndon B., 9, Johnson, Samuel, 30 Jones, Arthur, 4 Jones, Clarence B., 62 tion in, 6 mingham, Alabama; Montgomery, Ala- bama; Negro Revo- lution; Segregation 135 threat of, 15—16 voluntary, 15—16, 29, 44, 52, 56, 58, 61, 83, 85, 87, 98, 108 See also Letter from Birmingham jail 77, 81, 116, 123 institutions, 33 signs, 37, 39, 66 109, iii, 126, 130 and economic injus- tice, 79 North, 107 South, 34, 37, 92, 95, 101 See also Economic structure, United States 98, 136—37 INDEX 161 Kennedy, John F., 6, 7, 18, 134—35, 137—38, 139—41 quoted, 62, 92, 96—97, 122 death, 135 press conferences, 94 Kennedy, Robert F., 53, 62, 92, 137 King, A. D., 95 King, Coretta (Mrs. Why We Can't Wait
Institutions, discrimina- Integration. Why We Can't Wait
Mar- tin Luther, Jr.), 62 King, Tom, 41, 42 Kneel-ins, church, 56 Ku Klux Klan, 73, 95 Labor, 130—31, 132 Lavatories, segregation of. Why We Can't Wait
See under Segregation Lawson, James, 50 Leadership Training Committee, 50 Lee, Bernard, 50, 86 Lee, George, 135 Legal Defense and Edu- cation Fund. Why We Can't Wait
See under National Soci- ety for the Advance- ment of Colored People Letter from Birmingham jail, 64—84 Liberalism, 117 Libraries, segregation of. Why We Can't Wait
Moore, William, 135 Morgan, Charles, 103 Muhammed, Elijah, 75 See also Black Murray, George M., Mn. Why We Can't Wait
See Black Muslims N.A.A.C.P. Association for the Advancement of Colored People Nashville, Tennessee, 50, Nation, The, 136 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.), Why We Can't Wait
Muslims. Why We Can't Wait
19-20, 34, 43, 44, 58, 106, 135 and Legal Defense and Educational Fund, 98 National Council of the Churches of Christ, 113 74, 109, 133—34 24, 28-29, 41, 62 3, 14—15, 21, 27, 53, 58, 78, 83, 88 135 Muslims 105 See National National Urban League, Negro History Week, ix Negro Revolution Nehru, Jawaharlal, Neutrality, 114 New Jersey, 131 New Pilgrim Baptist Newsweek; iii New York City (N.Y.), Why We Can't Wait
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 68 Nonviolence, 4, 26—27, 126 (1963), 1—12, 109, 121—22, 124 bail difficulties, 59, 62—63 Birmingham demon- strations, 43, 47—50, 52, 55, 56—59, 65—66, 82—83, 85-88, 98, 107 fund-raising, 43—44, 59—60, 62—63, 98 future hopes, 117, 120, 121—23, 128—31 moratorium, 66 Negro opposition to, 31, 52—54 planning, initial, 40—41, 47, 50, 52, 57—58 progress made, 18, 94—95, 98—99, 113—14, 139-40, 141 124—25 Church (Bir- mingham), 90 43, 62, 103, 108 INDEX 163 42, 48—49, 51, 101, 111, 112, 142—43 and early Christians, 23 ethics, 28 movement, 24—25 Negro acceptance of, 23—24, 25, 27 See also Birmingham, Alabama Oxford, Mississippi, 106 Paine, Thomas, 123 Parks, Rosa, 21 Parks, segregation of. Why We Can't Wait
See under Segregation Patterson, Floyd, 101 Pitts, Lucius, 38 Plessy v. Ferguson, 121 Police brutality, 14, 15, 69, 78 in Birmingham, 35, 66, 82, 89, 96, 102 Political discrimination, 17, 133 minorities, 138 Negro power potential, 139—41 neutrality, 138—39, 141 Preamble to the Constitution. Why We Can't Wait
Randolph, A. Philip, 112, 141 Reconstruction, 19, 102 Reddick, Lawrence, 125 Religious leaders, demon- strations by, 108—9, 113—14 See also Birmingham, Alabama Republican party, 6 Restaurants, segregation of. Why We Can't Wait
See under Bir- mingham, Alabama Voter-registration drive, 56 Voting Negro potential, 35, 139—41 rights, 17, 56, 111, 117 Wagner, Robert F., 43 Wagner Act, 130—31 Walker, Anne, 96 Walker, Wyatt Tee, 42, 47, 96 Church, 108, 114 Corps, ix 17 124—25 (Nashville), 50 INDEX Wallace, George, 36, 79, 73 96 Washington, Booker T., 19 Washington, George, ix, 123 Washington, D. C., ix, 9, 108 March on, 112—15 Washington Post, 53 Water fountains, segrega- tion of. Why We Can't Wait
We must with positive action seek to remove those conditions of poverty, insecurity, and injustice, which are the fertile soil in which the seed of communism grows and develops. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
I discov- ered that Lindsay and the number-one seed, Martina Hingis, had made a ladies’ agreement in which they vowed that Serena and her older sister, Venus, wouldn’t meet in a history-making fi- nal match. How To Make Black America Better
Since culture involved struggle and struggle developed cul- ture, Malcolm understood the necessity for the African American to rec- ognize value in our traditions. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
All of the major African and American cultures on both sides of the West African Ocean were dragged into the quagmire created by the European invasion. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
To be sure, good seed proves itself in the flower and fruit, but the failure of seed to sprout is no proof that it is not good. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Granted, that when time began, there was hidden in a Seed that tiny speck that spelled the world’s salvation, do you think today it would manifest itself crudely and baldly in a dash of skin color and a crinkle of hair? Is the subtle mystery of life and consciousness and of ability portrayed in any such slapdash and obvious marks of dif- ference? “Go out upon the street; choose ten white men and ten colored men. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He used to run a successful cotton-gin, but the Cotton Seed Oil Trust has forced the price of ginning so low that he says it hardly pays him. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The merchant keeps everything,—clothes and shoes, coffee and sugar, pork and meal, canned and dried goods, wagons and ploughs, seed and fertilizer,—and what he has not in stock he can give you an order for at the store across the way. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Here, then, comes the tenant, Sam Scott, after he has contracted with some absent landlord’s agent for hiring forty acres of land; he fingers his hat nervously until the mer- chant finishes his morning chat with Colonel Sanders, and calls out, “Well, Sam, what do you want?” Sam wants him to “furnish” him,— i.e., to advance him food and clothing for the year, and perhaps seed and tools, until his crop is raised and sold. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
If Sam seems a favorable subject, he and the merchant go to a lawyer, and Sam executes a chat- tel mortgage on his mule and wagon in return for seed and a week’s rations. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The croppers are entirely without capital, even in the limited sense of food or money to keep them from seed-time to harvest. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
All they furnish is their labor; the land-owner furnishes land, stock, tools, seed, and house; and at the end of the year the laborer gets from a third to a half of the crop. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Endowed with a rich tropical imagination and a keen, delicate appreciation of Nature, the trans- planted African lived in a world animate with gods and devils, elves and witches; full of strange influences,—of Good to be implored, of Evil to be propitiated. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Until we penetrate the community and make them aware, and plant the seed of revolution, we will never have freedom at our schools. The Black Panthers Speak
Gam- bling not only as poker-playing but as a profitable career, is seeping through all kinds of American business from the stock market, factory and wholesale store, to the numbers racket, horse racing, and radio gifts. The Future of the Race
The agency’s refusal to pay attention to public-space issues stemmed partly from a nationwide shift in law enforcement strategies for urban poor neighborhoods, the seeds of which were sown in the early 1970s. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Not surprisingly, this dictum contained the seeds of potential antagonism, especially if the larger community in question did not wholeheartedly welcome the actions of the gang. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
There is no one who is willing to be pro- phetic in a bold and defiant manner with a deep, all-inclusive moral vision and a sophisticated analysis of the distribution of wealth and power and resources in our society. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Like eating watermelon in public, eating it loudly and merrily, and spitting the seeds into the middle of the street, red juice running down the sides of our cheeks, collecting under our chins. Colored People
steady downward spiral toward anarchy almost from the beginning. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Perry Hall, “Transformation in African American Musical Culture,” in Word Spring, 1991. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
We have no right to sit silently by while the inevitable seeds are sown for a harvest of disaster to our children, black and white. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But the seeds of failure were in his very first efforts. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
No man in our time aroused fear and hatred in the white man as did Malcolm, because in him the white man sensed an implacable foe who could not be had for any price—a man un- reservedly committed to the cause of liberating the black man M. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Meanwhile, the state Welfare people kept after my mother. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
You have been a victim of the evil of the devil white man ever since he murdered and raped and stole you from your native land in the seeds of your forefa- thers. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The effects of the depression were bad everywhere, but in the black ghetto they were horrible, Mr. Muhammad told me. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Any Muslim who ever moved for personal reasons from one city to another was of course exhorted to plant seeds for Mr. Muhammad. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Anyway, in letting me know about the car, Mr. Muhammad told me he knew how I loved to roam, planting seeds for new Muslims, or more temples, so he didn’t want me to be tied down. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
And now that I am back in America, my attitude here concerning white people has to be governed by what my black brothers and I experience here, and what we witness here—in terms of brotherhood. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
About the same time, one of the scribblings of Malcolm X’s that! The Autobiography of Malcolm X
For police excesses lead to tyranny of law and sow the seeds of a police state. The Black Panthers Speak
Then there’s the fact that economic advancement entails greater intimacy with whites, and so greater opportuni- ties for friction. The Future of the Race
Events in the American South and southern Africa, as well as the relatively peaceful democratic transfor- mation of eastern Europe, have proved him right in seeing nonviolence as the best way to resolve the world’s problems, while conflicts from Bosnia to Liberia continue to prove the futility of violence. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
It is not done voluntarily, but it is done through the pressure that comes about from peo- ple who are oppressed. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
By that time, both Huddle and Walton were themselves considering a more critical posture toward CHA management, and seeing that support existed among tenants for such a move, they forged an alliance with Woodson and Lenard. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
We are seeing states ag- gressively pursue using public dollars to fund private education. How To Make Black America Better
We are seeing Black churches grow larger and larger, evolving into suburban “megachurches” with thousands of members and their own television programs. How To Make Black America Better
118 ChuckD ware infrastructure within minority communities. How To Make Black America Better
Which is not what we need. How To Make Black America Better
A lot of parents love their children so much that they didn’t want to share their pain. How To Make Black America Better
We have duties and responsibilities to them. How To Make Black America Better
We are seeing a prolif- eration of people talking about retribution. How To Make Black America Better
If you look at Texas or Florida or Louisiana, or California, or Arizona or New Mexico, you are seeing a whole new set of coalitions. How To Make Black America Better
These under- mine our efforts to work for a collective good. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
We are seeing the decline of the Ameri- can empire in the 1990’s. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
cerned with how we confront death, dread, despair, disappoint- ment, and disease. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Mal- colm X was the same way. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
or my mother they would have seen strong talking women and very silent men. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Seeing these dif- bell hooks interviewed by Come! Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
What gives me some measure of hope is seeing Shahrazad Mi on the Phil Donahue show with Haki Madhubuti and hearing him say that he did not sell The Black Man’s Guide to Understanding the Black Woman in his bookstore because it advocated violence against Black women. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
So it makes sense that he was a powerful mentor for me because he grappled with history and his personal place in history. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
It is not something inherent in Black women that we don’t feel good about ourselves, that we are self-hating. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Rather it is an experience which is socially circumscribed, brought into being by historical mechanisms. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
America as a whole, is in part attributable to market forces, but by that, I also mean market mentalities that make people think the only way to achieve is to get over on someone else, to treat people as if they were simply objects hindering or benefitting one’s own advancement. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
To the extent that we have to learn that a self-loving Black person is infinitely more beautiful than a self-hating one. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
And that feeling I had, that gooseflesh sense of identity that I felt at seeing Nelson Mandela, listening to Mahalia Jackson sing, watching Muhammad Au fight, or hear- ing Martin Luther King speak, is part of what I mean by being colored. Colored People
We used to laugh at the way the disc jockey sang “Black Strap Lax-a-teeves” during the commercials. Colored People
Hard as I try, I can’t stop seeing God as that black man who played Him in The Green Pastures and seeing Noah as Rochester from the Jack Benny show, trying to bar- gain with God to let him take along an extra keg of wine or two. Colored People
Seeing the twelve Coleman children sitting together (a~ Up the Hill 57 58 FAMILY PICTURES they did at Christmas dinner Up the Hill at Big Mom’s or at the annual Family Reunion in late July) confirmed why Afri- cans in the New World soon came to be called colored people. Colored People
You’d never find a Coleman at the colored VFW. Colored People
The way they smelled, their well-styled hair, the shape of their hips; the edge of a bra under the arm or its X outline revealed under a blouse; a flash of thigh from a crossed leg or a leg uncrossing as it raised itself from a car seat—these were pleasures that struck me with a passion as real as any I’ve felt at more direct encounters. Colored People
Just seeing a deer was a wondrous thing for us, when I was growing up. Colored People
It was like seeing a white buffalo or some magical beast, like a unicorn. Colored People
There have been other such statements expressed mainly in press releases, public relations brochures, and interviews. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Malcolm was not merely “our manhood,” as Ossie Davis nobly put it at Malcolm’s funeral, but the keeper of the ancestral flames of a proactive response to the human condition. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
I recall seeing the book by Charles Wesley and Carter G. Woodson entitled The Negro in Our History and feeling that they were truly speaking from and to a Eurocentric perspective if they felt that such a title captured the essence of our experience. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
They could not get one ethnic group right. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Programs latent with racist content and comment, baggage of indecent attitudes toward Africans, burst forth in a glory not seen since the unfurl- ing of the American flags when Lindbergh crossed the Atlantic Ocean. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
a hope not hopeless but unhopeful, and seeing with those bright wondering eyes that peer into my soul a land whose freedom is to us a mockery and whose liberty a lie. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Thus our first thought is on seeing and hearing and Representative Men 249 learning of a man like Abraham Lincoln to have rather a mean con- tempt for a world that does not seem altogether responsible for him, which did not know him nor recognize him until he had become great and indeed until he was dead. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It represents something spiritual, however poor and futile today. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We are so used to seeing the truth distorted to our despite, that whenever we are por- trayed on canvas, in story or on the stage, as simply human with hu- man frailities, we rebel. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The more highly trained we become the less can we laugh at Negro comedy—we will have it all tragedy and the tri- umph of dark Right over pale Villainy. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
You realize this sooner than the average white American because, pushed aside as we have been in America, there has come to us not only a certain distaste for the tawdry and flamboyant but a vision of what the world could be if it were really a beautiful world; if we had the true spirit; if we had the Seeing Eye, the Cunning Hand, the Feeling Heart; if we had, to be sure, not perfect happiness, but plenty of good hard work, the inevitable suffering that always comes with life; sacrifice and waiting, all that—but, neverthe- less, lived in a world where men know, where men create, where they realize themselves and where they enjoy life. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
His novel Clotelle was a bold venture and had for its heroine the mulatto daughter of a president of the United States. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But I quote from Clotell: THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER The child, however, watched the chaise, and startled her mother by screaming out at the top of her voice, “Papa! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is inconceivable that any person looking upon the accomplishments of women today in every field of endeavor, realizing their humiliating handicap and the aston- ishing prejudices which they face and yet seeing despite this that in government, in the professions, in sciences, art and literature and the industries they are leading and dominating forces and growing in power as their emancipation grows,—it is inconceivable that any fair- minded person could for a moment talk about a “weaker” sex. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
If the American Negro really believed in himself; if he believe that Negro teachers can educate children according to the best standards of modem training; if he be- lieved that Negro colleges transmit and add to science, as well as or better than other colleges, then he would bend his energies, not to escaping inescapable association with his own group, but to seeing that his group had every opportunity for its best and highest development. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I would have said before seeing it that it was impossible for a civilized nation with deep religious convictions and outstanding reli- gious institutions; with literature and art; to treat fellow human beings as Warsaw had been treated. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It was the most fascinating eight weeks of travel and sight-seeing I have ever experi- enced. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And on the staggering and bitter effort of the Soviets, beleaguered by all Western civilization, and yet far-seeing enough to help weaker China even before a still weak Russia was safe—on this vast pyramid has arisen the saving nation of this stum- bling, murdering, hating world. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
As I peer back through the shadow of my years, seeing not too clearly, but through the thickening veil of wish and after-thought, I seem to view my life divided into four distinct parts: the Age of Mira- cles, the Days of Disillusion, the Discipline of Work and Play, and the Second Miracle Age. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Among some of us, I doubt not, this sudden descent of Europe into hell brought unbounded surprise; to others, over wide area, it brought the Schaden Freude of the bitterly hurt; but most of us, I judge, looked on silently and sorrowfully, in sober thought, seeing sadly the prophecy of our own souls. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Germany, at last one and united and secure on land, looked across the seas and seeing England with sources of wealth insuring a luxury and power which Germany could not hope to rival by the slower pro- cesses of exploiting her own peasants and workingmen, especially with these workers half in revolt, immediately built her navy and entered into a desperate competition for possession of colonies of darker peo- ples. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The king of Yonder Kingdom laughed, but the princess shrank on her throne, and the king on seeing her thus took a gold-piece from out of his purse and tossed it carelessly to the passing throng. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
All she had seen and dreamed of seeing in the rising, blazing sun she saw now again and with it myriads more of human tenderness, of longing, and of love. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The teacher’s life is a double one. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The judge strode in un- seeing, thinking of a puzzling case of theft. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Into the forest he leapt and crept and jumped and ran, streaming with sweat; seeing the tall form rise before him, he stopped suddenly, dropped his hands in sullen impotence, and sank panting to the earth. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And seeing, she shrank—three times she shrank and crept to the King’s feet. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
You choke and sputter, and she seeing that you are about to make a “fuss” obeys her orders and throws the tickets at you in contempt. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We see the nakedness of Toil, the poverty of Wealth, A Hymn to The Peoples 622 We know the Anarchy of Empire, and doleful Death of Life! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They see and feel each day the mighty flood rolling toward socialism and to a real communism of mankind, and that in no far distant day. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
There are four basic components, four fundamental fea- hires, four constitutive elements. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
Calvin Coolidge said the business of America is business. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
The great cities reek with respectable as well as non-respectable robbery and scoundrelism. Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times
I remember seeing the big, shiny photographs of Marcus Garvey that were passed from hand to hand. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
This was my first lesson about gambling: if you see somebody winning all the time, he isn’t gambling, he’s cheating. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Nothing thai I can imagine could have moved me as deeply as seeing hei pitiful state. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Perhaps without realizing it I became secretly envious; for one thing, I know I could not help seeing some of my younger brother Reginald’s lifelong admiration for me getting siphoned off to Philbert. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Ella said she’d help me find a job when it was time for me to go to work. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
This was the snooty- black neighborhood; they called themselves the “Four Hun- dred,” and looked down their noses at the Negroes of the black ghetto, or so-called “town” section where Mary, my other half- sister, lived. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
What wouldn’t that crowd have given, I won- dered, to be standing where Glenn Miller’s band was actually going to play? I didn’t know how familiar with Roseland I was going to become. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
She was very quiet. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I even made my living helping to guide him to the sick things he wanted. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Some others had that vinegary “worst kind of nigger” look. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Ella was my first visitor. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Little black children seeing, before they could talk, that their parents considered themselves inferior. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The furniture store that my brother Wilfred managed was right in the black ghetto of Detroit; I’d better not name the store, if I’m going to tell the way they robbed Negroes. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
My brother Wilfred counseled me to keep patience. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
But even after seeing and hearing Eli- jah Muhammad in person, only a few of the interested visitors would apply by formal letter to Mr. Muhammad to be accepted for Nation of Islam membership. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Aw, man, come off it!” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
He said, one time, that no true leader burdened his followers with a greater load than they could carry, and no true leader sets too fast a pace for his followers to keep up. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I hope I never again have to withstand seeing another case of sheer police brutality like that. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
“The Honorable Elijah Muhammad is the first black leader among us with the courage to tell us—out here in public— something which when you begin to think of it back in your homes, you will realize we black people have been living with, we have been seeing, we have been suffering, all of our lives! The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Black agents were sent to infiltrate us. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Whether or not the white man of the world is able to face truth, and facts, about the true reasons for his troubles—that’s what essentially will determine whether or not he will now survive. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
People seeing you as a Muslim saw you as a human being and they had a different look, different talk, everything. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I nearly shouted when one spoke to me in British- accented English. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I remember how before one large audience, one cabinet minister from Black Africa (he knew more about world-wide current events than anyone else I’ve ever met) told of his occasionally traveling in the United States, North and South, deliberately not wearing his national dress. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Among the twenty Negro Peace Corpsmen I talked with, a very impressive fellow to me was Larry Jackson, a Morgan State EL-HAJJ MALII( EL-SHABAZZ 403 404 THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X College graduate from Fort Lauderdale, Florida, who had joined the Peace Corps in 1962. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
His perspective was attuned not just to Algerians, but to include the Afro-Americans and all others anywhere who were oppressed. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
From Dakar, I flew to Morocco, where I spent a day sight- seeing. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Any- way, this one finally got under my skin when I found I couldn’t seem to eat a meal in the hotel without seeing him somewhere around watching me. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The issue at stake was Huey’s life, and the best legal skills and resources were needed. The Black Panthers Speak
The community is now seeing that our fight on the campuses is more than just a fight for “freedom of speech” on the campus, or Blacks gaining a knowledge of our heritage; it’s also showing the direct relationship between the reactionary government and the agencies and institutions that are only an arm of these re- actionaries. The Black Panthers Speak
The black man’s interest lies in seeing a free and independent Vietnam, a strong Vietnam which is not the puppet of international white supremacy. The Black Panthers Speak
Being an assistant teacher, I have an opportunity to be amongst the children and start a conversation, and stimulate their minds to seeing clearly the state of repression that we are living in. The Black Panthers Speak
I) animals. The Black Panthers Speak
Seeing few police- men on the streets they rushed into the Safeway, threw all the grapes on the floor and stomped all over them. The Black Panthers Speak
The fighting amongst our- selves is used by the rich white people in the government and in the schools to keep the Chinese and Puerto Ricans in their places. The Black Panthers Speak
a hope not hopeless but unhopeful, and seeing with those bright wondering eyes that peer into my soul a land whose freedom is to us a mockery and whose liberty a lie.’3 The Future of the Race
There was no lack of small and selfish souls; there were among the student body, careless and lazy fellows; and there were especially sharp young persons, who received the education given very cheaply at Fisk University, with the distinct and single-minded idea, of seeing how’much they could make out of it for themselves, and nobody else. The Future of the Race
We must have un- selfish, far-seeing leadership or we fail. The Future of the Race
They were seeing on television, hearing from the radio, reading in the newspapers that this was the one- hundredth birthday of their freedom. Why We Can't Wait
As Ralph stood up without hesitation, we all linked hands, and twenty-five voices in Room 30 at the Gas- ton Motel in Birmingham, Alabama, chanted the bat- tle hymn of our movement: “We Shall Overcome.” Why We Can't Wait
They fur- ther distinguished themselves by beating Wyatt when he was attempting to drive back home after seeing his wife to the hospital. Why We Can't Wait
The millions who viewed it on television were seeing an event his- toric not only because of the subject, but because it was being brought into their homes. Why We Can't Wait
(Go ahead) I’m not talking about eros, which is a sort of aesthetic, romantic love. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
We must re- spond to every decision with an understanding of those who have opposed us and with an appreciation of the difficult adjustments that the court orders pose for them. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
They remind us that they did not begin to send troops in large numbers and even supplies into the South until American forces had moved into the tens of thousands. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
[Sustained applause] I am BEYOND VIETNAM 155 ~ A CALL TO CONSCIENCE pleased to say that this is a path now chosen by more than seventy students at my own alma mater, More- house College, and I recommend it to all who find the American course in Vietnam a dishonorable and unjust one. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Now what has happened is that we’ve had it wrong and mixed up in our country, and this has led Negro Americans in the past to seek their goals through love and moral suasion devoid of power, and white Amer- icans to seek their goals through power devoid of love A CALL TO CONSCIENCE 186 ~ and conscience. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
New forms of work that enhance the social good will have to be de- vised for those for whom traditional jobs are not avail- able. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Through violence you may murder a hater, but you can’t murder hate through violence. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
In the pages that follow, I root the perspective on American public housing in the ongoing work of tenants in the Robert Taylor Homes to create a community. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Concerns regarding law and order in Robert Taylor were palpable early in the 1970s, and many of the earliest creative attempts to seek alternate means of ensuring the welfare of households, that is, those outside formal institutional avenues, arose in the context of policing and se- curity. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
But as one an- thropologist of 1970s ghetto life noted, hustling was the avenue for the poor to seek out the “American dream.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Like ethnic immigrants, the leaders want to leave poverty be- hind and gain independence, and their experiences as job seek- ers—and as observers of other aspiring ghetto dwellers—have not provided evidence that the legitimate labor force will support their dreams. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Instead, he adhered to the gang-structure approach and continued to seek out opportunities to work with the gang’s leaders and within its organization to effect change. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Moreover, early efforts on the part of the Grace Center to work from within the gang structure had revealed that if the local and citywide intervention strategy sought violence re- duction and peace treaties but did not seek an immediate end to drug trafficking, it might exacerbate, rather than restore, the community’s failing sense of security. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Others questioned whether the LAG had overstepped its bounds by working so intimately with gangs; perhaps the tenant advocate should seek more modest goals. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The response they received was not unlike what Will Jackson had heard when informed that the agencies did not want to address gang-related activities. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
For her, assis- tance from the gang was not ideal, but with few other alternatives, it could not be turned down: It wasn’t easy. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
They argued that the use of imprisoned and ex-gang members to settle disputes, the reliance on local gangs as manpower, and the need to seek grassroots organizational support from other communities were the “oniy choice[s]” left for them to ensure the se- curity of tenants. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Owing to the gang wars, Prince’s relationship with the new LAG officers became stilted, and he did not initiate any formal attempts to mollify them or seek collaboration. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
See Paul Willis, Learning to Labor: How Working Class Kids Get Working Class Jobs (London: Saxon House, 1977). American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
We don’t put diligence into supporting Black stockbrokers, lawyers, agents, doctors, dentists, Web sites. How To Make Black America Better
If you are too strapped for cash to afford a trip abroad, then try to seek out people from other countries—teachers, students, businessmen—when they arrive on our shores. How To Make Black America Better
We pay our bills on time and speak kindly to our children; our money gets straight, our divine-right mate appears—everything in our lives swings into balance. How To Make Black America Better
And finally, we need to return to our spiritual roots for nour- ishment and guidance as we seek to put our hands in the un- changing hands of God. How To Make Black America Better
So in our commitment to children, we must seek to rebuild the family, to reduce the number of babies having babies, to ensure that schools are small enough to know what’s going on and active enough to care. How To Make Black America Better
Rural and urban America has what investors seek: under- served markets, underutilized talent, and untapped capital. How To Make Black America Better
It should be a never-ending search with our people to constantly seek out the truth about ourselves. How To Make Black America Better
We as Black people have to be prepared to lead a fight for justice, not “just us.” How To Make Black America Better
strel, particularly B-boy culture, where certain forms of bard sug- gest a celebration of Blackness. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
But on the other hand, there is a very real sense that someone like Sharpton does not have the wherewithal to project a sense of vision or the potential to provide effective leadership on a variety of issues. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
One sees portrayed in that interview Sharpton’s own sense of sacrificial engagement with Black struggle, so one admires and appreciates Sharpton because he is willing to die for Black folk, but on the other hand, you have to bring serious critique to bear on Sharpton because he does not actively incorporate cri- tiques of capitalism, patriarchy, misogyny, and homophobia in his ideological project. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Major personages such as Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, and James Baláwin were products of this process. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Those who seek deference from Africans have one goal in mind, the undermining of our confidence and the enthronement of white supremacy. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
On the other hand, the Afrocentric study of phenomena asks questions about location, place, orientation, and per- spective. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Indeed, the American society as a techno- logical society is clearly a sexist one with all of the sexist hierarchy WOMEN, AND The convergence of issues of gender and race is uniquely confronted in the discussion of African-American males and females. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
In this regard it is a central perspective in the post-sexist construction of reality. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Malcolm X as Cultural Hero 6 AFROCENTRICITY people as a whole because of race, and (2) the participation of African males in the male oppression of females. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Since we cannot create apart from our tradition, however positive our achievements, we must seek completeness in understanding our own way. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
To hedge their bets about the cultural unity question they contend that it is not so much the unity of a broad culture area that is called into question by their crit- icism but rather the “levels at which one would have to seek confirma- tion of this postulated unity.” Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
11 Malcolm X, 1989, p. 40. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Burkovina with an interview of Josef Burg. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Theophile Obenga, formerly of the important Centre International des Civilisations Bantu (CICIBA) in Libreville, Gabon, is leading the charge in the cor- rect direction by investigating linkages between the Bantu civilizations and ancient Egypt. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
So powerful were these char- acteristics in the Sudanese African that the person who became Muslim also became Arab in ways that did not happen in other African societies where persons were Muslims but not Arabs, for example, Nigeria, Mali, and Niger. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
jects, that is, human agents, working out our own destinies within the context of our historical experiences as opposed to being objects in the margins of European experiences. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
As far as Africans are concerned, we, too, have our claims. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
A third focus of this paper is African consciousness. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
We have been in the crucible of the West for five hundred years and have found ourselves with a new African consciousness. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
cussion of communication among African Americans. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Levi-Strauss, in The Savage Mind, gloats that he seeks to “dissolve man,” whereas we seek to assist in the constitution of human beings. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
It is also a humanities because it seeks to elevate human consciousness. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Unable to fulfill the intel- lectual needs of the scholars who seek a holistic approach to the world, the compartmentalized model forces everyone into frozen blocks. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Even though their versions of Pan-Africanism were not dissimi- lar, Garvey’s implausible schemes and his intense nationalism—he ar- gued that racial mixing was “race suicide” and went as far as to seek a rapprochement with the Ku Klux Klan—turned Du Bois’s initial admi- ration for him to scorn. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Then the people within may become hysterical. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They may scream and hurl 32 they are screaming in a vacuum unheard and that their antics may actually seem funny to those outside looking in. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
As such, the Academy must, if suc- cessful, be: a. Representative in character. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Darien, Georgia, where the Delegall riot recently occurred, declared its abhorrence of the unnatural practice of slavery. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But why seek to change the name? “Negro” is a fine word. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
All colored folk had gone through the same experience, for more and more largely in the last twenty-five years, colored America has discovered itself: has discovered groups of people, association with whom is a poignant joy and despite their ideal of American assimila- tion, in more and more cases and with more and more determined object they seek each other. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Must it be changed? Should it be changed? If we seek new group loyalty, new pride of race, new racial integrity—how, where, and by what method shall these things be attained? A new plan must be built up. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I did not seek contact with my white fellow students. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They acknowledge Mr. Washington’s invaluable service in counselling patience and courtesy in such demands; they do not ask that ignorant black men vote when ignorant whites are debarred, or that any reason- able restrictions in the suffrage should not be applied; they know that the low social level of the mass of the race is responsible for much discrimination against it, but they also know, and the nation knows, that relentless color-prejudice is more often a cause than a result of the Negro’s degradation; they seek the abatement of this relic of barbarism, and not its systematic encouragement and pampering by all agencies of social power from the Associated Press to the Church of Christ. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
On one, toward the west, the setting sun throws three buildings in bold relief against the sky. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER 154 Suppose we seek to remedy this by making them laborers and nothing more: they are not fools, they have tasted of the Tree of Life, and they will not cease to think, will not cease attempting to read the riddle of the world. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The function of the Negro college, then, is clear: it must maintain the standards of popular education, it must seek the social regenera- tion of the Negro, and it must help in the solution of problems of race contact and co-operation. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And yet how little we really know of these millions,—of their daily lives and longings, of their homely joys and sorrows, of their real shortcomings and the meaning of their crimes! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In the history of this people, we seek in vain the elements of Teutonic deification of Self, and Roman brute force, but we do find an idea of submission apart from cowardice, laziness or stupidity, such as the world never saw before. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The second attitude is that of the large and im- portant group represented by Dunbar, Tanner, Chesnutt, Miller, and the Grimkés, who, without any single definite program, and with com- plex aims, seek nevertheless that self-development and self-realization in all lines of human endeavor which they believe will eventually place the Negro beside the other races. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I do not want simply to recall to your minds the facts of his life, but rather to make you realize that broader fact of his character, and of the meaning of that character for our good in America today. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We seek to turn out the finished article in fully- trained boys as we turn out so much cloth. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Has the Negro retrograded? It is his fate, why seek to help him? Thus has the spirit of repression gained attention, complacent acquiescence, and even cooperation. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The call of the spirit urges him restlessly to and fro with all men of the despised and forgotten, seek- ing, seeking. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It is ridiculous to seek to excuse Robert Lee as the most formidable agency this nation ever raised to make 4 million THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER ROBERT E. LEE 276 human beings goods instead of men. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
This determined Nkrumah to seek an education in America. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Nevertheless, as the feeling is deep the greater the impelling force to seek to express it. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Alonzo, the Negro, enters and after him Columbus and Spaniards, in mail, and one monk. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
If you tonight suddenly should become full-fledged Americans; if your color faded, or the color line here in Chicago was miraculously forgotten; suppose, too, you became at the same time rich and power- ful;—what is it that you would want? What would you immediately seek? Would you buy the most powerful of motor cars and outrace Cook County? Would you buy the most elaborate estate on the North Shore? Would you be a Rotarian or a Lion or a What-not of the very last degree? Would you wear the most striking clothes, give the richest dinners and buy the longest press notices? The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
THE OXFORD W. E. B. DU BOIS READER WHAT IS THE NEGRO PROBLEM? Two sorts of answers are usually returned to the bewildered American who asks seriously: What is the Negro problem? The one is straightforward and clear: it is simply this, or simply that, and one simple remedy long enough applied will in time cause it to disappear. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
At- lanta University and similar colleges seek to train. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We seek to do our work thoroughly and carefully. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Such are the arguments for the Negro college, and such is the work that Atlanta University and a few similar institutions seek to do. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The overwhelming weight of scientific opinion and human experience is against this assumption and it is a cruel insult to seek to transmute a perfectly permissible so- cial taste or thoughtful social advice into a confession or accusation of physical inferiority and contamination. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And here were secret midnight oath and murder seek- ing to right it all. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
It does not make any difference what the Ku Klux Klan is fighting for or against. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
By equality, I do not mean absolute identity or similarity of gift, but gifts of essentially equal values to human culture. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
If you were not familiar with the race problem in the United States or in the modern world, you would ask: Why should you not encour- age Negroes or anybody else in the wide world to seek cultural equal- ity? Is not this the aim of civilization? Is it not the ideal for which all men yearn? What could you conceive as better than a world in which all citizens were not only encouraged to cultural equality but accom- plished their aim? Would not this be the best conceivable sort of world? The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In early days Americans said frankly: the Negro should not be encouraged to seek cultural equality because he cannot reach it; he is not really human in the sense that other people are human. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The funds which sup- port this work come mainly from poor colored people, but on the other hand, we have in 20 years of struggle, enlisted the sympathy and co- operation of the rich, the white and the powerful; and so long as this co-operation is given upon the basis of the platform we have laid down, we seek and welcome it. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
For just as soon as such a system of training is established or as men seek to establish it, it dies. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Grounded in inexorable fact and condition, in Poland or Italy, it may seek the universal and haply it may find it— and finding it bring it down to earth and to us. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We want by the nicest meth- ods possible, to seek out the talented and the gifted among our constit- uency, quite regardless of their wealth or position, and to fill this uni- versity and similar institutions with persons who have got brains enough to take fullest advantage of what the university offers. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In the books on Reconstruction written by graduates of these uni- versities and others, the studies of Texas, North Carolina, Florida, Vir- ginia and Louisiana are thoroughly bad, giving no complete picture of what happened during Reconstruction, written for the most part by men and women without broad historical or social background, and all designed not to seek the truth but to prove a thesis. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The group has long been internally divided by dilemma as to whether its striving upward should be aimed at strengthening its inner cultural and group bonds, both for intrinsic progress and for offensive power against caste; or whether it should seek escape wherever and however possible into the surrounding American culture. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Remember, it is American money that owns more and more of South African mines worked by slave labor; it is American enterprise that fattens off Rhode- sian copper; it is American investors that seek to dominate China, In- dia, Korea and Burma; who are throttling the starved workers of the Near East. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
and the demand; and the real Pacifist will seek to organize, not simply the masses in white nations, guarding against exploitation and profiteering, but will remember that no perma- nent relief can come but by including in this organization the lowest and the most exploited races in the world. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
“I seek the sun,” the princess sang, and started into the west. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
What we must decide sometime is who are to be con- sidered “men.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The unit which we seek to make the center of society,.— The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In our frantic effort to preserve the last vestiges of slavery and mediaevalism we not only set our faces against such improvements, but we seek to use education and the power of the state to train the servants who do not naturally appear. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We push below this mudsill the derelicts and half-men, whom we hate and de- spise, and seek to build above it—Democracy! The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
One was an attack on the fundamental democratic foundation: modem European white industry does not even theoretically seek the good of all, but simply of all Europeans. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Many seek the reason in the content of the school program. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We must seek not to make men carpenters but to make carpenters men. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Softly, full softly, let me rise and greet The strong, low luting of that long-awaited call; Swiftly be all my good and going gone, And this vast veiled and vanquished vigor of my soul Seek somehow otherwhere its rest and goal, that unquivering Light toward which my longing Darkwater Almighty Death 593 For long years we of the world gone wild have looked into the face of death and smiled. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I seek new work. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I seek the universal mistress, Art; the studio door is locked. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Seek the cellar.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We claim no perfectness of our own nor do we seek to escape the blame which of right falls on the backward for failure to advance, but noblesse oblige, and we arraign civilization and more especially the colo- nial powers for deliberate transgressions of our just demands and their own better conscience. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In some such words and thoughts as these we seek to express oui will and ideal, and the end of our untiring effort. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
S. HANDLER INTRODUCTION Ix X ThE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X in American society rather than integrating the black man into that society. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Bimbi was known as the library’s best customer. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Seek peace, and never be the aggressor—but if anyone attacks you, we do not teach you to turn the other cheek. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
In fact, Elijah Muhammad instructed us Mus- lims against all forms of sports. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
He said that yes, certainly, a Muslim should seek to learn all that he could about Islam. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Before long, Malcolm X called a press conference, and an- nounced, “My new Organization of Afro-American Unity is a non-religious and non-sectarian group organized to unite Afro- Americans for a constructive program toward attainment of hu- man rights.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
He challenged any would-be assassins: “If you seek to snuff out the life of Elijah Muhammad, you are inviting your own doom! The Autobiography of Malcolm X
We seek no bloodbath. The Black Panthers Speak
At this time, the people know the party exists, and they will seek out further information on the activities of this underground party. The Black Panthers Speak
These are children of the beast that seek now to be redeemed because they realize that their former heroes, who were slave masters and murderers, put forth ideas that were only facades to hide the treachery they inflicted upon the world. The Black Panthers Speak
This frightened many of the white liberals who were supporting SNCC. The Black Panthers Speak
Has anybody thought of uplifting that ghetto so that it doesn’t 215 216 exist in the manner that it has? These are the things that Huey Newton and the Black Panthers and other people seek; they are not the only ones. The Black Panthers Speak
If it is our national destiny to follow the latter course, then we must declare ourselves into self-governing machinery, and seek the recognition of the freedom-loving nations of the world. The Black Panthers Speak
We were seek- ing to read and understand the canonical texts of the black tradition, which, we hoped, would enable us to tap into a vast black cultural “unconscious.” The Future of the Race
such as those put forth in Charles Mur- ray and Richard J. Herrnstein’s The Bell Curve seek to use the sanction of “scientific” or “objective” inquiry to justify the dissolution of compensatory education and entitlement programs, we both feel that it is urgent to make this argument now, to generate even deeper re- flection on the nature of the society in which we live, the sort of country that we want to inhabit, and want our children’s children to inhabit, in the century to come. The Future of the Race
Given the breach between the black leadership and its putative constituency, we shouldn’t be surprised at the motley company who seek to fill it. The Future of the Race
There was in his eyes a pensive, brood- ing amusement, as of a man who had been long confronted and tantalized by a riddle whose an- swer seemed always just on the verge of escaping him, but prodding him irresistibly on to seek its solution. The Future of the Race
While no one has ever accused Du Bois of being egali- tarian, he did seek to qualify these statements in his own rejoinder to his 1903 essay, in a speech he delivered at the Nineteenth Grand Boulé Conclave in 1948. The Future of the Race
Now it goes without saying, that it is hard to do all these things simultaneously or suddenly, and that at the same time it will not do to give all the attention to one and neglect the others; we could give black boys trades, but that alone will not civilize a race of ex-slaves; we might simply increase their knowledge of the world, but this would not necessar- ily make them wish to use this knowledge honestly; we might seek to strengthen character and purpose, but to what end if this people have nothing to eat or to wear? A system of education is not one thing, nor does it have a sin- gle definite object, nor is it a mere matter of schools. The Future of the Race
And too: we must deliberately seek honest men. The Future of the Race
[T]he feelings of the young Du Bois reproduce the same exoticism that led the white middle-class reading public at the turn of the century to seek out works that revealed how ‘the other half’ lived.” The Future of the Race
They would probably agree with Shakespeare’s Hamlet, “What a piece of work is man! The Measure of a Man
How noble in faculty! The Measure of a Man
In this chapter he says in substance that it is impossible to love other selves adequately unless you love your own self properly. The Measure of a Man
They end up with the feeling that man is the end of all things and that humanity is God. The Measure of a Man
These new advances have banished God neither from the microcosmic compass of the atom nor from the vast, unfathomable ranges of interstellar space. The Measure of a Man
Opposition toward action on other fronts had begun to harden. Why We Can't Wait
It was not a doctrine that asked an eye for an eye but one that summoned men to seek to open the eyes of blind prejudice. Why We Can't Wait
He was encouraged to seek unity with the millions of disad- vantaged whites of the South, whose ‘basic need for social change paralleled his own. Why We Can't Wait
It enabled him to transmute hatred into constructive energy, to seek not only to free himself but to free his oppressor from his sins. Why We Can't Wait
To measure what this meant to the Negro may not be easy. Why We Can't Wait
There are Negroes who will seek profit for themselves alone from the struggle. Why We Can't Wait
As a first step, some of the merchants agreed to remove the jim-crow signs from their stores, and several actually did so. Why We Can't Wait
They included the Reverend James Lawson, expelled from Vander- bilt University a few years back for his militant civil- rights work, and one of the country’s leading expo- nents of the nonviolent credo; the Reverend James Bevel, already an experienced leader in Nashville, Greenwood and other campaigns; his wife, Diane Nash Bevel, who as a student at Fisk had become an early symbol of the young Negroes’ thrust toward freedom; the Reverend Bernard Lee, whose devo- tion to civil rights dated back to his leadership of the student movement at Alabama State College; the Reverend Andy Young, our able and dedicated program director; and Dorothy Cotton, director of our ongoing Citizenship Education Program, who also brought her rich talent for song to the heart of the movement. Why We Can't Wait
It was decided that we would conduct a whirlwind campaign of meetings with organizations and leaders in the Negro community, to seek to mobilize every key per- son and group behind our movement. Why We Can't Wait
I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the myth concerning time in relation to the struggle for freedom. Why We Can't Wait
If his repressed emotions are not re- leased in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of history. Why We Can't Wait
Over the past few years I have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek. Why We Can't Wait
About ten of us, however, all leaders of the movement, had been cited for civil contempt. Why We Can't Wait
After months, its chair- man, Roger Blough, declared from New York that despite U.S. Steel’s pre-eminence in Birmingham, it would be improper for the corporation to seek to in- fluence community policies in race relations. Why We Can't Wait
Moreover, we elevated that tragic experience into a noble crusade. Why We Can't Wait
I would like to ask those people who seek to apportion to us the rights they have always enjoyed whether they believe that the framers of the Declara- tion of Independence intended that liberty should be divided into installments, doled out on a deferred-pay- ment plan. Why We Can't Wait
America must seek its own ways of atoning for the In facing the new American dilemma, the relevant ing from the defaults of the past?” Why We Can't Wait
The Negro minority will unite for political action for the same reason that it will seek to function in alliance with other groups—because in this way it can compel the majority to listen. Why We Can't Wait
white—all the patches of the great Ameri- can quilt—must seek common ground. Why We Can't Wait
Scripture tells us, “If my people who are called by my name will humble themselves and pray and seek my face and turn from their wicked ways, then they will hear from heaven and God will forgive their sins and heal their 1and.”~ Why We Can't Wait
The “angry blacks” March suddenly had been made chic. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
of conversion never lose sight of the structural condi- tions that shape the sufferings and lives of people. Race Matters
And the newspapers’ ink wasn’t dry before the big national weekly news magazines started: “Hate-teachers” . The Autobiography of Malcolm X
In the absence of con- structive and corrective platforms and actions, the support and profit from “Being Black” they become profit seekers selling ear- rings at 400% mark up and buba’s from dime store yardage at Saks 5th Avenue prices. The Black Panthers Speak
In 1954 King left Boston Univer- sity for the sleepy southern town of Montgomery, Alabama, seeking the peace and quiet of small town life. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
In this sermon Dr. King dealt with the independence of Ghana from the domination and oppression of the British Empire, tying the liberation of Ghana to the liberation and freedom needs for people in America and the world—and setting the stage for all of God’s children around the world seeking justice and equal opportunity for themselves, their children, and their THE BIftTH OFA NEW NATION During his last speech delivered in Memphis, Tennessee, prior to his as- sassination, Martin Luther King said, “I’ve been to the mountaintop.... A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
You have a hardened heart of a pharaoh to confront. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
I am mindful that only yesterday in Philadel- phia, Mississippi, young people seeking to secure the right to vote were brutalized and murdered. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
I wrote a letter seeking his advice because I wanted to attend Troy State University; an all-white state college near my home in Troy, Alabama. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
The Vietnamese people proclaimed their own indepen- dence in 1954—in 1945 rather—after a combined French and Japanese occupation and before the com- munist revolution in China. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
We must be prepared to match actions with words by seeking out every creative method of protest possible. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Only then did his spirit begin to soar across the oceans and into the hearts of people seeking freedom everywhere. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Built in the 1950s and early 1960s and located in the heart of the black ghetto, large public housing developments were an offshoot of postwar reformation, and they held the hopes of an urban citizenry seeking to revitalize its neighborhoods.8 American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
After 1966, however, tenants were not simply seeking amenities from the Housing Authority as renters. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
From Tenant Leader to Tenant Broker The consequence of a decade of hustling in Robert Taylor was the re- structuring of tenant leadership. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Its power appeared to rest in part on tenants’ fear of reprisal and detection by government agencies. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Their relationships with law enforcement agencies, to offer an example, were not wholly severed. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
They were ten- ants seeking to recover democratic representation in the face of pov- erty and political inequity. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The LAG leaders were mimicking their counterparts outside the community with their creative and some- times questionable tactics to help themselves and their constituents, and many were seeking to emulate the rising fortunes of their middle- and upper-class counterparts, albeit in unstable and dangerous un— AMERICAN PROJECT derground economies. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
These economies did not spawn large numbers of underground Gordon Geckos, that is, a new ghetto petite bourgeoisie rooted in drug trafficking and off-the-books work, but numbers and success stories were not altogether important for a community seeking to ensure its well-being. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Dangerously, for ghetto dwellers, the retrenchment of government and the “bootstrap” mentality did not coincide with ample legitimate opportunities to live out the yup- pie/buppie lifestyle; indeed, welfare provisions, sporadic menial- labor opportunities, and a growing illicit underground market defined sustenance possibilities. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The ghetto, in this usage, refers to Chicago’s contiguous poor neighborhoods, but it also marks a perceived social distance from blacks who they feel are fleeing their lower-class counterparts, liter- ally by seeking refuge in middle-class spaces and figuratively by dis- associating themselves through moral high-mindedness: “We’re all niggers,” Prince likes to say. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Each of the leaders paid almost all the grocery expenses of their respective families, and they routinely gave family members money for a variety of pressing needs, such as hospital bills and public transportation. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Tenants’ need for a two-pronged approach, that is, seeking any available outside help while creating indigenous mechanisms, took on a greater sense of urgency once the 1991 gang wars commenced. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
His reform-oriented approach did not seem adequately tailored to a corporate gang whose members were invested in drug economies, whether out of thrill-seeking or necessity. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Previously, the fights to make Robert Tay- lor viable had centered on those wishing to work within the system and those seeking change from outside. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Like our African ancestors, they were dignified women and men, steady people, copper colored, and proud. How To Make Black America Better
A future-seeking message can pave the way in dark- ness. How To Make Black America Better
Many of our youth, however, have no concept of a future- seeking message. How To Make Black America Better
But for the sake of all children, we have a clear mandate: “Try, try, try/try and try again.” How To Make Black America Better
If more states follow the lead of California, where race can no longer be factored in for admission to publicly funded universi- ties like UCLA, while at the same time HBCUs are being forced to close their doors, what options will Black kids seeking a higher education have? How To Make Black America Better
I do know that Black youth are six times as likely to be arrested for a serious crime as white youth. How To Make Black America Better
(From Ethiopian Magic Scrolls by Jacques Mercier.) Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
People need to remember that the name Isabel Humphrey took, Sojourner Truth, was rooted in her religious faith, that the truth she saw herself seeking was the truth of Oneness with God and her Comel West interviewed by bell hooks 51 One of the things that you say in Prophetic Fragments is that CW In James Cone, Delores Williams, and others. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
of our great literary talents, and an intense conservative when it comes to sexual politics. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
On Becoming a Black Intellectual The choice of becoming a Black intellectual is an act of self- imposed marginality; it assures a peripheral status in and to the Black community. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Talking with Black women, both academic and non-academic, about our relation to the world of ideas, to seeking knowledge and knowledge production, one of the consis- tent themes that emerged was the fear of appearing selfish, of not doing work that was seen as directly recognizable as extending be- yond the self and “serving” others. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Single parents must often grapple with concrete material hindrances that do not enable them to focus in- tensely on thinking and writing even if they so desired. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
The weight of this inescapable burden for Black students in the White academy has often c!etermined Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Nevertheless, we are bombarded by white authors and African Americans who have adopted the vision of whites seeking to challenge our interpretations of our own reality. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
They contend that even if you accept the cultural classification project of Herskovits, you will need to explain the process of change in African- American culture. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Anyone from psychology could have taken Ewing Goffman’s work and done the same kind of “Goffmanian” analysis. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
history of a people seeking to escape political oppression, economic exploitation, religious intolerance, or social injustice. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
Of course, we also know that Colon was not a man of some new In the fifteenth century Europe was seeking to rid itself of its infe- The old world was a superstitious world, one where Europeans The immediate result of Colon’s voyages was the establishment of Malcolm X as Cultural Hero 136 Cristobal Colon: A Lagacy of Terrorizing the Territory in the Americas. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
It is necessary to remember that the events of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries saw the rise of Europe and the beginning of the slave trade. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
To be sure the ac- tual status to-day, fan from being ideal, is in many respects deplorable and far beyond those ideals of human brotherhood which from time tc time have animated the nature; and yet we must be prepared in the progress of all reformatory movements for periods of exhalation and depression, of rapid advance and retrogression, of hope and fear. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Just what is gift and intelligence, especially of the native sort? And when we compare the gift of one human soul with that of another, are we not seeking to measure incommensurable things; try- ing to lump things like sunlight and music and love? And if a certain shadowy Over-soul can really compare the incomparable with some transcendental yardstick, may we not here emerge into a super- equality of man? At least this I can quite believe. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Are we American Negroes seeking to move against or into the face of this fine philosophy? Here then is the real problem, the real new dilemma between rights of American citizens and racial pride, which faces American Negroes today and which is not always or often clearly faced. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And there and elsewhere in two long months I began to learn: primitive men are not following us afar, frantically waving and seeking our goals; primitive men are not behind us in some swift foot-race. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I pray you, then, receive my little book in all charity, studying my words with me, forgiving mistake and foible for sake of the faith and passion that is in me, and seeking the grain of truth hidden there. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
By the poverty and ignorance of his people, the Negro minister or doctor was tempted toward quackery and demagogy; and by the criticism of the other world, toward ideals that made him ashamed of his lowly tasks. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Rich and poor they were, serious and curious. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And those men of marvellous hindsight who are to-day seeking to preach the Negro back to the present peonage of the soil know well, or ought to know, that the opportunity of binding the Negro peasant willingly to the soil was lost on that day when the Commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau had to go to South Carolina and tell the weeping freedmen, after their years of toil, that their land was not theirs, that there was a mistake—somewhere. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
votes, the changing and shifting of ideals, and the seeking of ne~ lights in the great night. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
There were army schools, mission schools, and schools of the Freedman’s Bureau in chaotic disarrangement seeking system and co- operation. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But back of this still broods silently the deep religious feeling of the real Negro heart, the stirring, unguided might of powerful human souls who have lost the guiding star of the past and are seeking in the The Souls of Black Folk 207 great night a new religious ideal. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
These three elements came, and came more often than not in the guise of humble men—an English carpenter on the Mayflower, an Amsterdam tailor seeking a new ancestral city, and a Welsh wanderer. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
And what have been the tools of the artist in times gone by? First of all, he has used the Truth—not for the sake of truth, not as a scientist seeking truth, but as one upon whom Truth eternally thrusts itself as the highest handmaid of imagination, as the one great vehicle of universal understanding. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
She came to know poverty and hardship and in seeking love found death and saw her starving children waste away. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
They had produced in Whitman, a preacher in the African Methodist Church, an agent seeking to raise funds for the new colored university at Wilberforce, a young man who tried desperately to rise above a limited training, amid the examples of mediocre expression current in America, and enter the stream of real literature. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
In this plain statement I am not seeking to minimize the vast efforts put forth for Negro education in the United States; I am simply point- ing out that, great as those efforts have been, they are strikingly inade- quate, and that under present conditions the majority of Negro chil- dren are growing up in ignorance, and without the proper moral and intellectual leadership of adequately trained teachers, ministers, and heads of families. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Instead of the university grow- ing down and seeking to comprehend in its curriculum the life and experience, the thought and expression, of lower classes; it almost in- variably tended to grow up and narrow itself to a sublimated elite of mankind. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
As President of the Board of Trustees, he said he was seeking to build not a Negro university but a University. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But what the men of big business ignored was that the industrial system which they were seeking to re-install had already met a terrible and costly reverse; that modifications of imperialism and monopoly capitalism had already been suggested and tried. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
No one knows better than I the capabilities of a system of domestic service at its best. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Whether known as Communism or Socialism or what not, these efforts are neither new nor strange nor terrible, but world-old and seeking an absolutely justifiable human ideal—the only ideal that can be sought: the direction of individual action in industry so as to secure the greatest good of all. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
I cannot forget that it is such Southern gentlemen into whose hands smug Northern hypocrites of today are seeking to place our women’s eternal destiny,—men who insist upon withholding from my mother and wife and daughter those signs and appellations of courtesy and respect which elsewhere he withholds only from bawds and cour- tesans. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
If we have today, as seems likely, over a billion dollars of accumulated goods, who shall say how much of it has been wrung from the hearts of servant girls and washer- women and women toilers in the fields? As makers of two million homes these women are today seeking in marvelous ways to show forth our strength and beauty and our conception of the truth. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
His fingers were always nervously seeking hidden keys and he was quick with enthusiasm,—instinct with life. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Instead of seeking to push the coming generation ahead of our pitiful accomplishment, we insist that it march behind. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Seeking counsels of our own souls’ perfection, we have de- spised and rejected the possible increasing perfection of unending gen- erations. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Instead of seeking to relieve the cause of such a possible feeling, most of them strain every effort to bottle up the black man’s resentment. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
There is in it nothing new or unexpected; it is the old evil stretching out and ever seeking the end it cannot find; it may coil and writhe and recur in endless battle to days without end, but it is the same human ill and bitter hurt. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Egyptian religion was in its begin- ning and later development of purely Negro character, and mulatto Egyptian priests on the stones of Egypt continually receive their sym- bols of authority from the black priests of Ethiopia. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But what is socialism? It is a disciplined economy and political or- ganization to which the first duty of a citizen is to serve the state; and the state is not a selected aristocracy, or a group of self-seeking oh- garchs who have seized wealth and power. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
He denounced Christianity as a religion designed for slaves and the Negro clergy as the curse of the black man, exploiting him for their own purposes instead of seeking to liberate him, and acting as handmaidens of the white community in its determination to keep the Negroes in a subservient position. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
It was in his role as a preacher that my father had most con- tact with the Negroes of Lansing. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
A man who, in his prime, could have stolen Dollarbill’s whole roll, blindfolded, was threadbare, comic old “Fewclothes.” The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The English are not far ahead of rich and influential Americans when it comes to seeking rarities and oddities. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I knew right there in prison that reading had changed forever the course of my life. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
In anterooms just inside the halls, more Fruit of Islam men and white-gowned, veiled mature Muslim sisters thoroughly searched every man, woman, and child seeking to enter. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
He gave the letter back, protesting—I could tell that. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
Chairman Mao Tse-tung was shown delivering his statement of that support, and the film offered sickening mo- ments of graphic white brutality—police and civilian—to Afro- Americans who were demonstrating in various U.S. cities, seeking civil rights. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I knew I was back in America again, hearing the subjective, scapegoat-seeking questions of the white man. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
I said I was seeking for the truth, and I was trying to weigh— objectively—everything on its own merit. The Autobiography of Malcolm X
This was particularly the case after Cleaver, speaking from exile in Algeria, stepped up his calls for violent revolution while Newton and Seale were seeking to moderate the Party’s image. The Black Panthers Speak
He’s going to trial on or about four or five dif- ferent alleged crimes, and the crimes are SEEKING JUSTICE. The Black Panthers Speak
Penis Envy This caused the slave-master to become very envious of the slave because he pictured the slave as being more of a man, being superior sexually, because the penis is part of the body. The Black Panthers Speak
The fourth point of the program is that the Caucus will support or select members seeking political office in the union after we’ve run a background survey of his history, union activities, sincerity, then we will support him if he will work in the interest of the workers. The Black Panthers Speak
Seeking the refuge of the group after one has been expelled is so much more urgent than that same attempt would have been had we never been members at all. The Future of the Race
For example, the Russian situation involved the humanity of de- graded impoverished peasants, the fragile stability of an identity-seeking empire, and the alienation of super- fluous intellectuals; the Central European Jewish cir- cumstance, the humanity of devalued middle-class Jews, the imminent collapse of a decadent empire, and the militant despair of self-hating intellectuals. The Future of the Race
They have, of course, met ,much color prejudice. The Future of the Race
The problem of training the Negro is to-day immensely complicated by the fact that the whole question of the effi- ciency and appropriateness of our present systems of edu- cation, for any kind of child, is a matter of active debate, in which final settlement seems still afar off. The Future of the Race
Atticus Finch, a white southern lawyer, confronts a group of his neighbors who have become a lynch-crazed mob, seeking the life of his Negro client. Why We Can't Wait
We were seeking to bring about a great social change which could only be achieved through unified effort. Why We Can't Wait
Throughout the campaign, we had been seeking to establish some dialogue with the city leaders in an effort to negotiate on four major issues: Most of the demonstrators had been cited for crimi- Abruptly the tactics were reversed. Why We Can't Wait
In asking for something special, the Negro is not seeking charity. Why We Can't Wait
I beg pardon, I said. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Mean- time, Dean Miller will pardon us for a word in answer to his argument. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
She came forward, smiling with extended hands, but when she was opposite the stranger, somewhere a chill seemed to strike her and she shuddered and cried: cordially; she forgot to ask who the stranger was. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
hind them came a young woman in the glory of youth, and daintily silked, beautiful in face and form, with diamonds around her fair neck. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
She came in lightly, but stopped with a little gasp; then she laughed gaily and said: your man”—she hesitated, but he must be a servant, she argued—”the shadow of great, white wings. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
What a turn it gave me.” The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We must pre- pare them to take up the struggle and do their part in the ad- vancement of Black people. How To Make Black America Better
You can not only beat down the price of capital as offered by the united and monopolized Western private capitalists, but at last today you can com- pare their offers with those of socialist countries like the Soviet Union and China, which with infinite sacrifice and pouring out of blood and tears, are at last able to offer weak nations needed capital on better terms than the West. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
This response comes from the eager lips of the youngsters participating in the first liberation school sponsored by the Black Panther Party. The Black Panthers Speak
And certainly, certainly, this is the glory of Amer- ica, with all of its faults. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Those who succeed are those whose community, whose families, pre- pared them to be successful. How To Make Black America Better
When we get some starch in our back and we stand up and we’re pre- pared to confront the police, [when] we’re prepared to confront How to Make Black America Better 181 182 Advocacy in the Next Millennium the political system, and we’re prepared to tell corporate America you cannot buy me, young people will respect us. How To Make Black America Better
Ultimately, it is his deep love of Black culture and Black people that surfaces in the night air; the solidarity expressed is real, the sense of brotherhood, the knowl- edge that he must sustain his connection to the oppressed as it is that bond which brings him to the deepest level of history. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
They know that when they come in, their breakfast is being pre- pared, because the Black Panther Party knows the importance of having breakfast -in the morning. The Black Panthers Speak
If you then concede it is valid (which it most definitely is), then it must be of consequence in determining what is “justice” com- pared to us, (Black people). The Black Panthers Speak
Then the organ- ized structure can guide the people to the point where they are pre- pared to deal in many ways. The Black Panthers Speak
True, substantial progress has been made: It is deeply sig- nificant that a powerful financial and industrial force has emerged in some southern regions, which is pre- pared to tolerate change in order to avoid costly chaos. Why We Can't Wait
Let us march on poverty (Let us march) until no American parent has to skip a meal so that their chil- dren may eat. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Indeed, the location of public housing projects in neighborhoods of highest poverty concentration is the result of federal toleration of extensive segregation against African Americans in urban housing markets, as well as acquiescence to organized neighborhood groups’ opposition to public housing construction in their communities. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Just as the gang member was also a nephew, a student, and so on, depending on the circumstances, so too were the men who spent time outside the local liquor store in- vested in other roles, including that of parent, advocate, and part-time laborer. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The CHA argued that Robert Taylor’s “mix” of working and poor families would help de- crease the, sense of social isolation of its poorer families because they would benefit from propinquity to their employed, two-parent neigh- bors. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
There were single women, but more common were two-parent households with children, and in some cases three and four generations of kin. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
To compound these problems, economic downturns had cast resi- dents into the ranks of the unemployed, and the majority of em- ployed, two-parent households were starting to give way to single-parent, unemployed households. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
A trope for one article was the ex- ceedingly high crime rate in the complex, yet Newman wrote that, “actually, the incidence of crime and violence within Taylor is less than in the adjacent community, according to Robert Harness of the Wabash Avenue police district.” American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
With younger household heads came fewer two-parent families, that is, the number of families that the CHA defined as “normal” (“husband, wife and at least one child”) declined precipitously from 2,615 (60 percent) in 1964 to 782 (18 percent) in 1973.60 American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
The statistics masked the fact that whereas in the early 1960s sin- gle large (one- and two-parent) families moved in at disproportion- ately high rates, by 1970 large family sizes reflected the tendency for apartments to contain several families spanning two or more genera- tions. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
It had in- tended to conduct thorough tenant screening in Robert Taylor by forming screening boards of CHA staff and tenant leaders who would review applications and ensure that each building had a mix of fami- lies with different income levels, single- as well as two-parent house- holds, some elderly and some younger leaseholders. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Moreover, many cite a connection between their local support of tenant rights and their participation in social movements around the city. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Ironically, de- spite its faith in the power of the market, Reagan’s own Commission on Housing reported that “the private market has been unwilling to house many of the [low-income, single-parent, minority, and large] families,” a moot observation given that the administration had al- ready won congressional cutbacks to low-income housing.11 American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Typically, observers assumed that a high percentage of single-parent families or low levels of formal organization indicated tenant apathy and little community involvement. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
Subsequently, gangs and crime, vandalism, single-parent families, and general disrepair reached intractable levels, well beyond the capacity of tenants and administrative agencies to cope and resteer the housing development 269End the of The Beginning 270 toward the mainstream. American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto
They have to accept the challenge to continually present a positive image, because even the slightest negativity can be devastating. How To Make Black America Better
Please read and heed: • Make charitable contributions to nonprofit organizations that you can relate to. How To Make Black America Better
If you are a teacher, reach out to your troubled Black students, don’t shirk from them in fear and dis- gust. How To Make Black America Better
Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton of the District of Columbia notes that the most successful schools in her District, regardless of race or income, have high parent involve- ment. How To Make Black America Better
As you know, Mr. Johnson, it is hard building institutions when your people hate themselves. How To Make Black America Better
This song has helped so many folk when they are feel- ing low, feeling as if they can’t go on. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
I realized for the first time that Black people, nation- ally and internationally, are not joined ideologically, politically, or culturally by virtue of skin color but that, in fact, the question of ideology, and political stance would very much determine the de- gree to which we could be joined together. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
An intelligentsia without institutionalized critical consciousness is blind, and critical consciousness severed from collective insur- gency is empty. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
Choosing to write in a traditional academic style may lead to isolation. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
How dare anyone, parent, schoolteacher, or merely literary critic, tell me not to act colored? ZORA NEALE HURSTON ARNA BONTEMPS For Henry Louis Gates, Sr., and in memory of Pauline Augusta Coleman Gates Preface I Will the Circle Be Unbroken? i Colored People z Prime Time 3 Wet Dogs & White People 4 In the Kitchen II Family Pictures 5 Up the Hill 6 Down to Cumberland 7 Playing Hardball ifi Over in the Orchard 8 Current Events 9 Love Junkie 10 Joining the Church Contents ix xi 3 17 40 51 67 78 8g 91 103 115 x IV Saved ii Change of Life 12 Eternity 13 Living Under Grace V Negro Digest 14 Just Talking to the Lord 15 Shattering the Sugar Bowl i6 Abandoning Ship VI One Day Next Tuesday 17 Sin Boldly i8 Walk the Last Mile 19 The Last Mill Picnic Acknowledgments V Contents 125 127 136 147 155 157 172 i8i i8g 191 202 211 219 Dear Maggie and Liza: I have written to you because a world into which I was born, a world that nurtured and sustained me, has mysteriously disappeared. Colored People
Same, but bigger. Colored People
Not 27Prime Time 28 WILL THE CIRCLE BE UNBROKEN? to mention try to get a job in the craft unions at the paper mill. Colored People
So with the Negroes: men have a right to object to a race so poor and ignorant and inefficient as the mass of the Negroes; but if their policy in the past is parent of much of this condition, and if to-day by shutting black boys and girls out of most avenues of decent employment they are increasing pauperism and vice, then they must hold themselves largely responsible for the deplorable results. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Once let the strength of the motive work, and it becomes the life task of the parent to guide and to shape the ideal; to raise it from resentment and revenge to dignity and self-respect, to breadth and accomplishment, to human service; to beat back every thought of cringing and surrender. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
Fred was leading a militant crusade, but Birmingham and Bull Connor fought, tooth and nail, to keep things as they were. Why We Can't Wait
However, to protect the position of A.C.H.L, he made it clear that his organization’s parent body, S.C.L.C., would be coming to Birmingham for its con- vention as planned, and informed the press that after the SteelCitytohelplaunchanactioncampaignifthe pledges of the business community were violated. Why We Can't Wait
One half of one percent of America owns twenty-two percent of the wealth, one percent owns thirty-two percent, and the bottom forty-five percent of the population has two percent of the wealth. Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life
The war in Vietnam is but a symptom of a far deeper malady within the American spirit, and if we ignore this sobering reality [Applause], and if we ig- nore this sobering reality, we will find ourselves or- ganizing “clergy and laymen concerned” committees for the next generation. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
It tells why American helicopters are being used against guerrillas in Cambodia and why Ameri- can napalm and Green Beret forces have already been active against rebels in Peru. A Call To Conscience: The Landmark Speeches of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
There was no boundary to their arrogance. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
He calls the Incan civilization a veritable “beehive.” Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
greatest by far is the score of heroic men whom the sorrows of these dark children called to unselfish devotion and heroic self-realization: Benezet, Garrison, and Harriet Stowe; Sumner, Douglass and Lin- coln—these and others, but above all, John Brown. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
We have more people than Portugal or Peru; twice as many as Greece and nearly as many as Turkey. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
When Pizarro, for instance, had been slain in Peru, his body was dragged to the cathedral by two Negroes. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
But this, as I have said, was paradoxical. The Future of the Race
Should you, my lord, while you peruse my song, Wonder from whence my love of freedom sprung; Whence flow those wishes for the common good, By feeling hearts alone best understood— I, young in life, by seeming cruel fate, Was snatched from Afric’s fancied happy seat. The Oxford W. E. B. Du Bois Reader
The apologists for Colon and the subsequent European invasions ask: If other people went to the Americas before Colon, what difference did it make? Well, the fact that they came across the ocean and left the place pretty much as they found it was itself remarkable. Malcolm X as Cultural Hero & Other Afrocentric Essays
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