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A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
A History of Modern Yemen
Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Comtemporary Yemen
Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Making of the Georgian Nation

Michael Curtis et al.,
	Arab and Israeli Terrorism

1, pp. 296—301, 312. The Making of the Georgian Nation
There could be a peace treaty or an armistice that would provide an exit from the complicated situation in the region and allow disengagement from the crisis.”82 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
fling with the biblical story of the walls of Jericho and continuing to the rise of Islam in the seventh century. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Gaza was thus handed over to the PLO along with the village of Jericho (population 15,000), as the first step in implementing the Oslo accords between Israel and the PLO. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
PLO Foreign Minister Farouq Kaddoumi granted an interview in which he added: “The Palestin- ian people know that there is a state [Israel] that was founded by compulsion of history, and that this state must be brought to an end.”7 Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Equally, the Israeli government severely impaired its operational capacity to fight terrorism by committing no fewer than six classic blunders: 1. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Despite the political conflict with the PLO and the intense struggle with it for control of the Palestinian street (ongoing since the beginning of the intifada), Hamas received the first contingents of Pales- tinian police officers in Gaza and Jericho in May 1994 in a fraternal and benevolent spirit, “because they are part of the people, they are our broth- ers.”27 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Declaration (Gaza-Jericho First Agreement) entitled “Al-Islah al-watani al-shamil huwa al-hal” [Comprehensive national reform is the solution], 28 August 1993. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Hamas Charter; see Appendix, document no. 2. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
However, this exam- ple was really the exception that proved the rule. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Furthermore, why has the relationship between them remained limited to mumarasa” [Hamas and the Gaza-Jericho First Agreement: The stance and the practice], Majallat al-dirasat al-filastiniyya, No. 16 (Fall 1993): 35. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
It is possible, in the event of the failure of the Gaza-Jericho First Agreement and of plans for a political settlement in general—which is what we are seeking—that the alliance formula will turn into a formula for the collective leadership of the Palestinian people, which is truly representative of that people and its aspirations. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Periodically, opportunities did present themselves for an alternative, such as when negotiations in Washington reached an apparent impasse or when several Arab states expressed reservations about the substance of the Gaza- Jericho First Agreement. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Later, after the Oslo Agree- ment, these same officials believed that once the PA had been established in Gaza and Jericho, it would be more important than ever for the United States to have an accurate assessment of Hamas’s strength.’28 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Theory and Practice 211 212 HAMAS rated by the movement’s actions. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Military operations became for Hamas an important source of mass appeal and political legitimacy, even as they became a source of disagreement and explosive contention with the PA after its institution in Gaza and Jericho in mid-1994. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
It should be noted that after the signing of the Oslo Agreement in Sep- tember 1993 and the establishment of the PA in Gaza and Jericho, Hamas’s military operations faced a real quandary. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
mamanasa” [Hamas and the Gaza-Jericho First Agreement: The stance and the practice], Majallat al-dirasat al-fllastmniyya, no, 16 (Fall 1993): 26—37. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Schiff, Ze’ev and Ehud Ya’ari. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Finally, those changes that were made were far too limited in scope and number to cope effectively with the emerging challenges and demands. Comtemporary Yemen
But with the emergence of a left-wing government in Somalia after 1969 both Moscow and Aden saw the possibility of the latter acquiring a regional ally for the first time, and so breaking its isolation. Comtemporary Yemen
Hahn’s entire system, jerry-built on ignorance of local history and prac- tice, soon collapsed under the combined pressure of the local nobility and the resistance of the peasants, who in 1841 rose in rebellion in Guria. The Making of the Georgian Nation
For a brief and sober discussion of the dimensions of the Great Purges, see Jerry E Hough and Merle Fainsod, How the Soviet Union Is Governed (Cambridge, Mass.: The Making of the Georgian Nation
the battleship New Jersey attack Syrian-backed forces in the Lebanese mountains. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
However, in September the United States opened fire on Druze and Syrian-backed positions near Souk al-Gharb using the large guns of the USS New Jersey. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
This decision was 18. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Holy Wars and Hollywood 189 190 Arab and Israeli Terrorism Above: Cemetery in Beirut, where, as in other Arab cities, Jews lived in large num- bers; below: Beirut’s Green Line separating east and west. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
one of the most myopic and foolish the United States ever made, indicating a low level of Middle East understanding. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
An American seaman killed during the TWA hijacking just mentioned, Robert Dean Stethem, had identification on him that said he was assigned to the New Jersey. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
See Michael Curtis et al., Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They are at the heart of international terrorism, a thing that will destroy civilization if it is not stopped.” Arab and Israeli Terrorism
New Jersey: Logos, 1981. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
These include arms of the Hamas, Hizballah, Islamic Jihad, and cells of the Sunni Mujahdeen, with centers of activity in Brooklyn, New Jersey, Tampa, Chicago, Detroit, Kansas City—and even Oklahoma City. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Haddad discovered that he was from a Christian family in Jeru- salem. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Inevitably, the host countries turned on the guerrillas, as happened in Jordan and later in Lebanon: Made to choose between helping the guerrillas and sparing themselves Israeli reprisals, the Arab states not unnaturally put their own security first. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Among the episodes added were the bringing of Our Lord’s tunic from Jerusalem to Mtskheta by Elioz the Jew, the destruction of the pagan idols by a hailstorm sent from heaven, the fashioning of crosses from the wood of a miracle-working tree, and the appearance of a fiery cross over Nino’s church, the saint’s mission to Kakheti, and her death at Bodbe.4 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
We read in the Passion of Saint Abo, put to death by the Saracens in A.D. 786: ‘Georgia is called Mother of the Saints; some of these have been inhabitants of this land, while others came among us from time to time from foreign parts to testify to A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA 12 the revelation of Our Lord Jesus Christ.’ A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Only the Kjirie eleison, which means “Lord, have mercy”, or “Lord be merciful to us”, is pronounced in Greek’. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The Georgians have always been renowned as men-at-arms. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Andreev, Russian Communist, 262 Andronik, Armenian partisan com- mander, 202 Andronikashvili, General Alexander, executed by Communists, 241 Ankara, 184, 230, 233—4 Antioch, 13 Antoni II, Catholicos-Patriarch of Georgia, deposed by Russia, ~6 Apkhaidze, Shalva, Georgian poet, i88 Arabia, Arabs, 12, 14, 19, 26, 28, 178 Aragvi, river, Ii, 23 Aragvispireli, Shio, Georgian writer, 187 Araxes, river, 55, 6, Architecture, 21 Ardahan, 6, 61—2, 104, 184, 202, 208, 234 Ardaziani, Lavrenti, Georgian novelist, 87—88 Ardebil, 6o Argentine Republic, 220 Argonauts, 2, 23 Argutinsky.Dolgorukov, A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
But Henry Kissinger, then secretary of state, ignored him. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
contentious subjects in modern history. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
In a light- fling preemptive campaign, Israel shattered the armies of its Arab neighbors, seized East Jerusalem and all that was left of Arab Palestine, as well as Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula and Syria’s Golan Heights, and emerged as the region’s superpower, evidently stronger than any combination of Arab states. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Much of this man’s career had been spent liaising with Israeli intelligence and running agents against Palestinian organizations. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Two of his men burst into the lobby of the Hilton Hotel in Nicosia and shot to death Yusuf al-Siba’i, editor of the Egyptian newspaper al-Ahram and a confidant of President Sadat, whom he had accompanied to Jerusalem. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Ostrovsky might have had a lapse of memory, or my defectors might have misled me. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Bound hand and foot, the prisoner could move his hands only enough to take and eat food thrown in to him from an opening in the cell wall. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Isa knew the real identity of the cadres; the location of the secret arms caches and bank accounts; the contents of letters Abu Nidal had exchanged with foreign governments and intelli- gence services. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
*PLO and, 5, 69—70, 79, 85—86, 92, 96, 97—100, 114—16, 131—35, 151—54, 158—78, 198, 200, 224, 271—72, 302—27; 1974 UN General Assembly address by, 94, 160; and Qaddafi, 148-49, 313—14; relations with Iraq, 96, 112, 166, 313—16; relations with Syria, 132, 134, 223—26; and Third Fatah Congress, 86—87, 99; and War of the Camps, 140—42, 159 A’raj, Bassam al-, 189 Aranki, Nabil, 118 Arens, Moshe, 235, 322 Argov, Shiomo, 223, 232, 271 Argov affair, 222—27, 232, 271 Armenia, 190, 206, 230, 273 Armenian Revolutionary Federation, 273—75 Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA), 190, 206, 272—75 Asba, Hamdi Abu, 149, 311 Assad, Hafez al-, 39—40, 42, 58, 96, 106—107, 111, 120, 125, 132, 141, 145, 166, 201, 223, 224, 234, 241, 265, 315; and Hindawi affair, 248—51, 256, 257; relations with Jordan, 121, 125—28 Ata, Amjad, 5, 18, 92, 184, 300, 301 Athens, 21, 22, 83, 184, 241; terrorist attacks in, 127, 213, 222, 235—38, 242, 266, 274 Atwan, Bajis Abu, 256 Austria, 54, 173, 204, 260; terrorist attacks in, 46, 170—71, 183, 186, 211, 228, 238—39, 243—47, 278 Awad, Mustafa, see Alaa Awad, Ramzi, 183—84, 236 Awdah, Isam, 226 Ayyat, Lakhal, 304 Aziz, Khalifa Ahmad Abd al-, 129 Aziz, Tariq, 111, 123, 145, 166, 201 Ba’ath party, 63—67, 77, 88, 95—97, 109—11 120, 214, 229—30, 239 Badawi, Abdallah Ghani, 28 Badran, Ayish, 290—91 Baghdad, 32, 37, 95, 110, 217, 230, 231, 279; Abu Nidal’s operations in, 77—80, 84, 85, 88—108, 109, 112—24, 180—86, 198, 207, 282—84; 1978 Arab summit in, 112, 166; Pact, 64 Bakr, Abmad Hasan al-, 78, 79, 88, 92, 95—96, 100, 111—12, 121, 145, 166 Bakr, Atif Abu, 35, 38, 45, 53, 141—43, 183, 188, 200, 201, 212, 213, 218—21, 255, 259, 279, 295—301, 307—12, 318—19; defection of, 307—309 Bangkok, 27, 30—31, 48 Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), 204-205 Banna, Abd al-Karim al-, 293 Banna, Khalil al-, 57, 61 Banna, Marwan al-, 223, 225 Banna, Muhammed al-, 58 Banna, Sabri al-, see Nidal, Abu Banna, Salwa al-, 199—200 Barak, Ehud, 40 Basil, 104-105, 225—27, 284—85, 290—91 Bayyari, Mujahid al-, 292—93 Begin, Menachem, 5 1—52, 71, 111, 114, 160, 167, 169, 171—72, 222—27, 232, 233 Beirut, 7, 10, 13, 15, 31, 40, 47—49, 65, 74, 83, 84, 98, 101, 102, 141, 165, 167, 169, 173, 182, 199, 217, 220, 235, 268, 273, 279, 283; Israeli invasions of, 114-16, 132, 148, 159—60, 222, 224, 227, 232, 262; 1980s terrorism in, 226, 232—41 Bekaa Valley, 131—33, 140, 226—27, 232, 253, 273, 285, 288 Belgium, 23, 165, 168—71, 280; and Silco affair, 267—69 Belgrade, 23—24, 30, 37, 52, 272, 276, 277, 279 Berlin, 277, 278, 294; 1986 discotheque bombing in, 240, 246 Bernadotte, Count, 230 Biram, 47 Bishan, Ibrahim al-, 136, 144 Bitar, Hussein al-, 146—47 Black June, 107—108 Black September, 46, 47, 48, 8 1—85, 93, 101, 105, 153, 158, 160, 167—68 Boudia, Muhammad, 48 Boumédienne, Houari, 92, 147 Bourdet, Claude, 163, 178 Bourguiba, President, 103 Bqasta, 205, 211, 285—86, 291, 312 Brahimi, Lakhdar, 304 Britain, 5, 59, 60, 64, 71, 72, 137, 191, 235; and Argov affair, 223—25, 232, 271; and Hindawi affair, 247—52; Abu Nidal’s operations in, 183—84, 192, 204, 205, 223—25, 232, 235—36, 247—52, 254, 271; terrorist attacks against, 47, 49, 52, 127, 137, 148, 159, 162—63, 165, 169, 211, 223—25, 232, 234—41, 243, 247—52, 271 British Airways, terrorist attacks on, 102—103, 235—37 Brussels, 23, 47, 49, 157, 159, 268, 269; terrorist attacks in, 165, 168—70, 231, 269, 280 Budapest, 37, 53, 278—79 Bulgaria, 36, 204, 279 Bull, Gerald, 231 Bureau of the Political Directorate Abroad, 198, 208 Bush, George, 234, 314, 315 Cabral, Amilcar, 158—59 Cadres School, 211 Cairo, 81, 90, 91, 93, 96, 230, 237, 238, 242—43, 272, 319 Camp David accords, 112, 166, 169 Carter, Jimmy, 52, 112, 114, 168, 257 Casey, William, 52, 234, 236 Cells of the Arab Fedayeen, 254, 263 Central Committee, 5, 14, 16, 18, 180—81, 187, 195, 202, 203, 206, 209, 262, 290, 296, 300 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 50, 52, 110, 145, 153, 167—68, 175—76, 178, 203, 213, 234, 236, 239, 291 China, 87—88, 276 Chirac, Jacques, 249 Chou En-lai, 87—88 City of Poros (ship), attack on, 222, 265—67, 281 Cohen, Baruch, 48, 156—58 Cohen, Gula, 322 Collett, Alec, 236, 240, 271 Committee for Arab Countries, 191—93 Committee for Foreign Countries, 191—92 Committee for Revolutionary Justice, 181, 205—206, 217—19, 285—87, 288; structure and workings of, 205—206 Committee for Special Missions, 6, 20, 24, 183—84, 186, 188, 212, 245 Counterespionage Committee, 186, 188 Cuba, 8, 52, 94, 117 Cyprus, 36, 37, 48, 54, 105, 156, 164, 187, 222—23, 245, 237, 240—43, 262—67 Czechoslovakia, 275, 279 Damascus, 6, 8, 36, 40, 63, 81, 83, 85, 97, 98, 126, 173, 239, 248—52, 279; Abu Nidal’s operations in, 107—108, 109, 119—35, INDEX / 331 143—47, 194—95, 198, 199, 201, 229, 256, 257, 280, 284—85 Damm, Sayyid Qaddaf al-, 103, 245 Dar Sabra (news agency), 125, 198—99 Darwish, Samir, 212 Dawud, Abu, 41, 48, 49, 53, 70, 86—90, 91, 92, 96—99, 106—107, 114—15, 117, 189, 289; assassination attempt on, 176—178, 180 Dayan, Moshe, 151, 322 Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), 41, 76—77, 176, 210 Desert Storm, 32, 50, 268, 281, 313—16, 319 Deutscher, Isaac, 321, 322 Dikko, Umaro, 236 Din, Mahmud Nur al-, 243 Disi, Jasir al-, 290—91 Douglas, Leigh, 240 Druqi, Salih al-, 245 Druze forces, 205, 214, 233 Duba, Au, 120, 121 East Berlin, 119, 203, 277, 278 East Germany, 89, 275, 277—78, 324 East Jerusalem, 66, 314 Egypt, 50—51, 64, 65, 72—73, 77, 102, 106, 126, 134, 137, 162, 164, 174, 223, 231, 237, 238, 242—43, 264, 266, 272, 3 19—20; Camp David accords, 112, 166, 169; Fatah in, 88; October War (1973), 50, 90, 93, 106, 126, 311; relations with Libya, 109, 147, 148, 242—43; Six-Day War (1967), 66, 72, 73, 155, 315; U.S. relations with, 112 Egypt Air hijacking (1985), 238, 242, 256 Egypt’s Revolution, 242—43, 254, 272 Eid, Guy, 48 Eitan, Rafael, 224 El Al Airlines, terrorist attacks on, 46, 48, 73—74, 83, 174, 183, 211, 228, 238—39, 240, 243—52, 271 Eldar, Efraim, 170 Eldred, Israel, 230 Emergency Leadership, 53, 2 18-19, 284, 309—12, 318—19 ETA, 16, 229, 272 Ethiopia, 94, 227, 263 Etritean People’s Liberation Front, 94 European operations of Abu Nidal, 23—25, 28, 54, 91—92, 105, 119, 130, 134, 168—78, 183—84, 190—92, 204, 231, 236, 243—52, 254, 265—72, 275—79, 294; see also spec~f1c cities and countries 332 / INDEX Fadi, Abu, 64 Fadlallah, Muhammad Hussein, 236, 281 Fahmi, Umar, 117 Faisal, King of Saudi Arabia, 88, 92 Faraj, 117, 119 Farazani, Muftah al-, 144 Fans, Adnan al-, 252, 277 Farra, Mi al-, see Kamal, Dr. Fatah, 7, 10—31, 32, 36—37, 40, 42, 48, 49, 66, 68—80, 117, 155, 176, 180, 210, 228, 275, 278, 290, 295, 310, 311, 314; and Black September, 81—85, 101, 105, 153, 158, 160, 167—68; diplomatic role of, 93—96, 101, 132, 142, 160—61; in Egypt, 88; in Europe, 156—58, 192, 243—47, 275, 276, 277; internal quarrels, 31, 75—77, 82, 85—86, 94—104, 109, 142, 155, 159—63; in Iraq, 77—80, 84, 85, 88—108, 203, 207, 283; in Jordan, 68—71, 75—83, 85—90, 93, 101, 153, 167; in Kuwait, 66; in Lebanon, 82, 83, 84, 96, 101, 102, 114—17, 122, 131—35, 165, 167, 173; in Libya, 88, 101, 102, 139, 147—48; mid-l980s reconciliation in, 142—43; mutiny of 1983, 131—35, 139, 141, 159, 208; Abu Nidal in, 66—71, 78—80, 88—99, 101, 154; Abu Nidal’s breach with, 78—80, 86, 93, 97—100, 118, 119, 142, 160—61, 182, 185, 276, 282, 303—306; penetration and manipulation of, 155—78, 210—27; in Syria, 88, 96—97, 122, 131, 132; terrorist and counterterrorist activities with Israel, 71—85, 88, 230—42; Third Congress, 85—87, 99; working methods of, 6—31 Fatah: The Revolutionary Council, 99—100, 305 Fattah, Nabil Abd al-, 283—84 Fawaris, Mustafa Abu al-, 207 Fawaris, Naji Abu al-, 186 Filastin al-thawra (journal), 7, 198—200 Finance Directorate, 181, 190, 202—205, 259, 270, 291 Fletcher, Yvonne, 137, 234 Force 17, 4, 49, 167, 237 Foreign Intelligence Committee, 186, 188, 266 France, 32, 64, 105, 175, 178, 180, 187, 190, 201, 222, 229, 293; and Silco affair, 267—70; terrorist attacks in, 47, 48, 49, 91—92, 129, 157, 159, 165, 184, 270—72, 274, 293 Free Officers movement, 137, 148 French Action Directe, 180, 229, 272 Fu’ad, Abu Ahmad, 288 Garang, John, 264 Gaza, 61, 62, 66, 82, 93, 159, 267, 314 Gemayel, Amin, 232, 234 Gemayel, Bashir, 169, 222, 227, 232 Geneva, 106, 127, 187, 205 Ghafur, Ahmad Abd al-, 100—104, 282 Ghassan al-All, Dr., 145, 177, 179, 181—85, 186, 190, 195, 202, 205, 206, 209, 215, 218—21, 310 Ghubash, Saif al-, 107, 129, 245 Gilzer, Simha, 48 Golan Heights, 66, 93, lii, 223, 233, 314—15 Goldmann, Nahum, 172 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 324 Goutierre, Christian, 274 Greece, 54, 83, 105, 127, 184, 187, 193, 213, 235, 236, 237, 242; terrorist attacks in, 127, 213, 222, 235—39, 242, 265-67, 281 Gulf Air 737 bombing (1983), 129 Gulf War (1991), 32—33, 38, 50, 110, 159, 268, 281, 313—16, 319 Habash, George, 7, 41, 47, 74, 76, 83, 95, 97, 139, 254 Haddad, Sa’d, 114 Haddad, Sami, 156—57 Haddad, Wadi, 74—75, 83, 95, 97, 199, 273 Hagana, 60, 61 Hagopian, Hagop, 273—75 Haidar, Lutfallah, 248 Haig, Alexander, 52, 223, 227, 233 Hama, 120; 1982 massacre, 223, 230 Hamadani, Adnan al-, 145 Hamdan, Mansur, 201 Hammad, Adnan, 165 Hammad, Nimr, 165 Hammami, Ahmad, 165 Hammami, Sa’id, 43, 49, 52, 148, 159; murder of, 162—66, 175, 179, 304 Hammuda, Atif, 190, 202—203, 205, 259, 270, 299 Hamshari, Mahmud al-, 47, 157 Hannun, Wasfi, 208—209, 215, 290 Hantash, Yusif Abu, 49, 165 Harb, Hisham, 24-27, 30, 266 Harzallah, Fathi, 214-17 Hasan, Abdallah, 206 Hasan, Kamal, 182 Hatem, Husni, 272 Hawatmeh, Nayif, 41, 76 Higgins, Robert, 226 Hijazi, Abdallah, 103, 245 Hindawi, Nizar, 240, 241, 247—51 Hmdawi affair, 247—52, 256—57, 265 Hindi, Ham al-, 74 Hitler, Adolf, 59 Hizballah, 7, 210, 214, 226, 236, 280—81 225, 227, 245—46, 288—91, 301, Hol, Abu al-, 32—35, 37—39, 314, 316 Holocaust, 59, 62 Honecker, Erich, 275, 278 Humaidi, Khwaldi al-, 148 Hungary, 37, 192, 275, 278—79 Hum, Abd al-Mun’im al-, 103, 148, 313 Hurok, Sol, 230 Hussein, Kayid, 163, 166, 272 Hussein, King of Jordan, 46, 64, 93, 94, 125, 159, 194, 229, 233, 238, 251; and Arab-Israeli negotiations, 126—28, 132, 142; vs. Fatah, 70—82, 83, 86—90, 91, 153; relations with Syria, 121, 125—28 Hussein, Saddam, 32, 88, 96, 107, 166; and Arafat, 112, 315—16; and Argov affair, 224—25; and Gulf War, 32, 159, 313—16, 319; and killing of Abu lyad, 313—16; and Abu Nidal, 111—13, 123, 280, 283, 313—16, 319—20; rise to power, 111—13 Ibrahim, Hamza, 130 Idris, King, 101 Ikrit, 47 India, 192, 235, 236 Intelligence Directorate, 20, 25, 125, 149, 181, 183—91, 201, 206, 208, 209, 212, 221, 243, 253, 256, 259, 266, 270, 277, 288, 293, 295; structure and workings of, 185—91 int4fada, 159, 193, 212—13, 221, 262—67, 269, 288, 310, 321 Iran, 31, 52, 94, 105, 140, 204, 227, 280-8 1; Abu Nidal’s relations with, 280—81 Iran, Shah of, 105 Irangate scandal, 241—42 Iran-Iraq war, 110, 112—13, 123, 124, 151, 204, 224, 230, 281 Iraq, 27, 32, 37, 45, 77, 92, 94, 95, 100, 148, 155, 164, 173, 174, 239, 280—81; vs. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Arafat and the PLO, 96, 166, 313—16; and Argov affair, 224-25; Ba’ath party in, 95—97, 109—11, 229—30; Fatah in, 77—80, 84, 85, 88—108, 203, 207, 283; and Gulf War, 32—33, 110, 159, 268, 281, 313—16, 319; Hussein’s rise to power in, 111—13; Abu Nidal’s expulsion from, 123—24; Abu Nidal’s operations concerning, 77—80, 84, 85, 88—108, 109, 111—24, 148, 151, 164—66, 184, 186, 193, 200—204, 207, 280—81, 282—84, 287; Syrian relations with, 96—97, 106—108, 109, 111, 120—22, 166, 223—25, 242; U.S. relations with, 112 Irgun, 51, 71—72 Irish Republican Army, 229, 254, 271, 272 Isa, Abd al-Rahman, 45, 53, 113, 120—23, 125, 128, 131, 136—37, 145, 243, 255—58, 266—67, 273, 282—83, 286, 294—300, 309—11; in Intelligence Directorate, 187—88 Islamic Association of Libya, 137 Islamic Jihad, 31, 280 Isma’il, Colonel, 132 Israel, 5 and n., 21, 26, 33, 36, 37—42, 50, 102, 104—105, 106, 109, 110, 121, 155, 230; active self-defense policy of, 83, 210—11; and Argov affair, 222—27, 232; Camp David accords, 112, 166, 169; future of, 322—24; and Gulf War (1991), 3 14-16; invasions of Lebanon, 113—16, 131—32, INDEX / 333 140, 148, 159, 189, 222—27, 232, 234, 262, 273; Jordanian relations with, 126—28, 152—53, 251; lists of attacks on Palestinians, 46—50, 232—42; negotiations with Arabs, 50—52, 93—94, 121, 126—28, 132, 142, 152, 160—63, 166—67, 169, 174, 315—16, 320—24; Abu Nidal’s connections with, 43—53, 55, 78, 152—80, 183, 206, 210—27, 246, 257, 264—67, 290, 293, 304, 307, 314, 316—24; 1980s relations with Lebanon, 169, 210—15, 230—42; October War of 1973, 50, 84, 90, 93, 94, 126; penetration of Palestinian groups, 155—59, 210—27; and the PLO, 43—53, 114—16, 142, 152, 155—58, 160—78, 189, 210, 222—27, 231—42, 315—23; Six-Day War (1967), 66, 68, 72, 73, 93, 155, 159, 315, 321; statehood of, 59—63, 68, 159; terrorist and counterterrorist activities with Palestinian groups, 7 1—85, 88, 230—42; U.S. relations with, 83, 94, 111, 114, 223, 232—42; see also Mossad Istanbul, 107, 271; synagogue attacks in, 26, 46, 183, 211, 228, 241, 271 Italy, 32, 54, 105, 187, 206, 271; terrorist attacks in, 46—49, 73, 83, 101, 102, 107, 127, 129, 157, 183, 211, 219, 228, 237—39, 243—47, 271 lyad, Abu, 32—55, 77—80, 84, 90, 93, 95, 101—104, 112, 130, 165, 166, 179, 281, 297—98; and Arafat, 114-16; and Emergency Leadership, 309—12; murder of, 33—35, 36, 38, 39, 312—18; and Abu Nidal, 33—53, 69—71, 77, 78—80, 86, 97—99, 104, 114—16, 166, 174, 227, 246—47, 302—17; and Qaddafi, 147—48, 313—14, 323 lyad, Abu Ali, 81—82, 85 Jabotinsky, Vladimir, 71 Jabr, Mustafa, 89, 90 Jallud, Abd al-Salem, 148 Japanese Red Army, 261, 272 Jarallãh, Ahmad al-, 170 334 / INDEX Jerusalem, 52, 62, 72, 287 Jibril, Ahmad, 41, 44, 76—77, 95, 97, 125, 139, 150, 244, 298, 308 Jihad, Abu, 34, 38, 39, 40-42, 49, 79, 102, 175, 213; murder of, 219 and n., 220n., Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
That blood began to flow in Jerusalem in 1920 shortly after the Balfour Declaration was made public in Palestine, in a rare year when the holy days of Passover, Easter, and Ramadan converged. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Territorial religious disputes, grand and petty, have been plentiful in Jerusalem. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Any- one who has been to Jerusalem has noticed the proximity ofJewish and Mus- lim holy places, and given the territoriality of religion mixed with the mounting Zionist/anti—Zionist tension, it is astonishing that violence did not begin sooner. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Muslims argued that this violated a long-standing agreement giving them control of holy places, and this argument gave way to rumors that the Jews were conspiring to take over the Harem al-Sharif or Temple Mount.1 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Passions were inflamed, for Muslims view the Harem al-Sharif as their third holiest shrine. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
This book, brought to Palestine by British officers under the title The Jewish Peril, was actually writ- ten in 1905 by members of the Russian tsar’s secret police, who passed it off as a secret Jewish text showing Jews conspiring to control the world, a sneaky way to fan the flames of anti—Semitism and justify the pogroms of that year. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Haj Amin al-Hussani, mufti of Jerusalem, who had become the most powerful Palestin- ian leader after the 1929 riots,’9 followed the trend, and on April 25 the Arab Higher Committee approved an indefinite general strike.20 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The strike began in Jaffa and Jerusalem, then spread around the country. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Arab General Strike 13 14 Arab and Israeli Terrorism Jewish area or vice versa—and it was usually easy to tell one side from the other—could be a provocation. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
It took a generation for new leaders to emerge. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Their coffins were laid in state in Jerusalem’s Hall of Heroism, and they were given a burial in Mount Herzl martyr cemetery with full military honors.16 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The most sensational action of the pre—1948 era took place at Jerusalem’s King David Hotel. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The devastatingly powerful blast collapsed an entire wing of the hotel at its busiest time, killing almost 100 Britons, Jews, and Palestinians, and wounding another hundred. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
A few months later, he and my mother joined the mass of terrorized Palestinians who were fleeing their homes for safety in Lebanon. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The victors then went around the country on trucks with loud- speakers telling people in Arabic that the same would happen to them if they did not leave. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
A few Arab militias tried to stand their ground, but they had no police or military of their own, no avenue for military training, no means to systematically fight the influx of European Jews. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They had snipers, organized settlement raids, and in some towns they were able to mobilize moderate defense forces, but they were no military match for the vastly superior Haganah. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
History is written by the vic- tor; thugs and murderers become heroes and liberators; atrocities are roman- ticized into a heritage. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The count, a quiet man who favored negotia- tion, supported a Jewish state, having worked for the Red Cross during World War II and saved Jews from the Nazis.49 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Fatherland Front, a name used by the Stern, took responsibility for the action in a statement to Agence France Press, and Freidman Yellin, a Stern leader, was sentenced to eight years by a Jerusalem court for the crime, though he did not do the actual shooting. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Khalil died when Sabri was about eight, and his family fled to Gaza on the eve of the declaration of statehood, when the entire population of Jaffa cleared out overnight. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
He came from a Palestinian family that wanted to think of them- selves more as European than Arab. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
His father, a Western-oriented Palestinian from Jerusalem, collaborated with the British and possibly also with the Israelis. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Both Abu Nidal and King Hus- sein had made their points. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
When Sadat landed in Jerusalem, Mohsin had declared him an enemy and exclaimed, “Spill the traitor’s blood, spit in his face.” Arab and Israeli Terrorism
It seems that an Egyptian followed Mohsin from Liberia and tipped off the Mossad on his whereabouts. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Three months after Sadat returned from Jerusalem, Yusef Sebai, the edi- tor of Al-Abram newspaper and a close friend of Sadat, went to Cyprus for a meeting of the Afro-Asian Solidarity Committee of which he was the general secretary. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
from the University of Louvain. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
After shuttle diplomacy between Damascus, Jerusalem, and Beirut, Chapter 13 Lebanon War 125 Juvenal, second century 126 Arab and Israeli Terrorism In an earlier chapter we touched on Israel’s fueling the Lebanese civil war through a dirty tricks campaign. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The second walked away coolly, but the third, Fahad Muhil al-Din, a Jerusalem-born Palestinian, was caught running from the scene and given a life sentence. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
His family had been collaborators and done well for themselves. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
210 Arab and Israeli Terrorism West Bank woman who had part of her house sealed by the Israeli military when hex son was imprisoned on security charges. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Zionism: A Basic Reader (Herzl, 1975); Leonard Stein, The Balfour Declaration (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1961). Arab and Israeli Terrorism
During the period 1917 to 1920 there were 897 pogroms in Ukraine, and the author states that this affected Jabotinsky’s attitude during the Jerusalem and Jaffa pogroms. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Harry Levin recalls that three truckloads of villagers were paraded around King George V Avenue in Jerusalem. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Al-Fajr (Jerusalem), 10 October 1986, p. 4; 17 October 1986. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
McDonald, p. 108. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Chicago Tribune, 14 May 1990, p. 3, and 15 May 1990, p. 3. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Meir, p. 289, adds, “the public was unaware of the entire top-secret episode,” calling it a security blunder. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
5, 1969—70 (Jerusalem: Israel University Press, 1977), pp. 134—36: On 22 October 1972 Maj-Gen Avraham Adan, who was in command in 1969, confirmed this story. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Chapter 7 1. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
3. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 6 August 1981, p. 1,4. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
7. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 23 June 1979, p. 1. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Time, 31 January 1986, p. 31; 5 February 1979. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Patrick Seale,Abu Nidal:A Gunfor Hire (New York: Random House, 1992), p. 293, claims that Abu Nidal killed Mohsin, but that does not seem likely. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
14. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 14 November 1979, P. 1. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 15 November 1979, p. 1. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 29 July 1980, p. 1; Le Soir, 20 September 1982, p.4, reports that he was condemned to death in March 1981. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 9 October 1981, p. 2; Brian Jenkins, International Terror- ism: A New Mode of Conflict, (Los Angeles: Crescent, 1975), P. 154. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 3 May 1981, P. 1. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 12 October 1981, P. 1. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
21. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
5. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Randal, PP. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 26 September 1985, P. 1. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 1 October 1985, p. 2. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Washington Post, 12 January 1986, p. 23. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
48. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
London Times, 5 May 1986, P. 1. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Woodward, p. 396; Nation, 19 June 1989, p. 851; Washington Post, 12 May 1985, pp. 1,23; 14 May, pp.2,lS; 23 June, p.4 Washington Post Weekly, 14 March 1988. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Raid on Libya (London: Pluto, 1986), p. 12. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Ostrovsky and Hoy explain in the first section of their book how Mossad Times of India (Bombay), 6 September 1986, p. 1; London Times, 6 Sep- Times of India, 7 September 1986, p. 1; 9 September 1986, p. 1; New York The Middle East, #142, August 1986, p. 36, adding that the 20,000 strong Jerusalem Post, 7 November 1986, P. 1; London Times, 8 September 1986, Al-Fajr, 12 September 1986, p. 7, the news conference held 7 September. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem Post, 24 July 1988, p. 1; London Times, 25 July 1988, p. 1. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
“Ter- YediotAhronot, 16 March 1987; Sunday Times, 15 March 1987, P. 1; New This incident is discussed in many Mossad books; see Israeli Foreign Sunday Telegraph, 16 December 1988; Intelligence Newsletter, 18 January London Times, 15 February 1988, p. 6; Jerusalem Post, 15 February 1988, San Francisco Chronicle, 18 February 1988, p. 15. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Five FRC members were con- victed but released after only 3 years in prison, the U.S. State Department calling the release reprehensible and an insult (14 January 1991 dispatch, p. 32). Arab and Israeli Terrorism
court in Jerusalem ruled that Manning and his wife, Rachel, must be extradited to the United States to face charges of murdering Patricia Wilkerson, who died from a 1980 letter bomb. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
0 Jerusalem. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Lawrence, T.E. The Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
London: International Commission, 1983. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Jerusalem: Carta, 1973. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
We should now briefly discuss how the Civil Service Commission and NIPA progressed. Comtemporary Yemen
Sections 9 and 100 of the Criminal Procedure. Comtemporary Yemen
My first vote of thanks must go to my gifted colleague and friend, Dr. Yoram Hazony of the Shalem Center— National Policy Institute in Jerusalem, who, not for the first time, shouldered the burden of being my editor, my research director, and my all-around sounding board. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
I am grateful to Boaz Ganor, a specialist on terrorism at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, for having read the entire manuscript, offering important comments which served to clarify and amplify many passages. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
It was in the context of these efforts that the Jonathan Institute was founded. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
What the two movements had in common was their abiding hatred of the weakness and treachery of the Arab monarchies (and of the Shah’s rule in Iran) and of the Western powers, which they believed to have dismem- bered the Islamic world, leaving it humiliated, impov- erished, divided, and culturally colonized. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
At Oslo, Israel in effect ac- cepted the first stage of the PLO’s Phased Plan: a gradual withdrawal to the pre-1967 border and the creation of the conditions for an independent PLO state on its bor- ders (except for Jerusalem and the other Jewish com- munities in Judea and Samaria, which were left for later negotiation). Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Over the years, Gaza has become a symbol to Israelis as a lair of some of the most rabid Jew-haters in the Middle East. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
When Jericho was evacuated by Israel, the commander of the PLO forces entering the city announced: “In Jericho we have taken the first step in the direction of Jerusalem, which will be returned to us in spite of the intransigence of the Zionists.”6 Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Downtown Jerusalem and central Tel Aviv became the scenes of horrible carnage as buses exploded and crowds of pedestrians were mowed down by machine-gun fire. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
As they made clear to Arafat, in no way did they give up their plan to fully resume the “armed struggle” once the additional territories had been procured. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The Israeli Army’s Deputy Chief of Intelligence explained that “he feared that once the Israeli Army evacuated West Bank towns, they too might become terrorist havens”; ‘~ moreover, even if Arafat ac- tually took real steps to prevent the launching of terrorist attacks against Israel from the cities handed over to him, “the Palestinian Authority [PLO] would lose any moti- vation to fight terrorism once Israel withdrew from those Benjamin Netanyahu 20 Yet it was this tactical interlude between bouts of terror which has been celebrated by enthusiasts the world over as proof of the success of Oslo, and of Arafat’s success in “pacifying” Gaza. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Yitzhak Zaccai, Judea, Samaria, and the Gaza District, 1967—1 987: Twenty Years of Civil Administration (Jerusalem: Carta, 1987), p. 14. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Cited in Jerusalem Post, December 12, 1993. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Jerusalem Post, March 22, 1994. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
See Boaz Ganor, “A New Strategy Against the New Ter- ror,” in Policy View (Jerusalem: The Shalem Center, Jan- uary 19, 1995), pp. 7—10. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In Jerusalem, I thank Ghalib Abu Mayyaleh for providing me with substantial material on the Palestinian Muslim Brothers before the war of 1. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
With deepest love I have to admit that without the support of Kholoud, my soul mate, Acknowledgements ix Acknowledgements friend, love, and wife, I would have not been able to publish this book as well as to keep up with other ongoing projects. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Brotherhood received simi- lar letters from ‘Awni Abdel Hadi, the Secretary General of the Higher Arab Committee in Jerusalem.” HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The two envoys, accompanied by the Tunisian leader ‘Abdel Aziz al-Tha’alibi, met with Hajj Amin al-Husayni.’~ HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Muslim Brotherhood inaugurated its central office in the Sheikh Jarrah quarter in Jerusalem with a big celebration on 6 May 1946. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Ample documents and letters show activities by the Brotherhood in Jerusalem and such other Palestinian cities as Jaffa, Lydda, and Ramlah antedating the celebration by several years. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Among these documents are the resolutions of the general conference of Muslim Brotherhood branches in Palestine, which convened in Jerusalem on 29—30 March 1946. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
in Jerusalem, 6 May 1946, see the Arabic edition of this book, Hamas: Al-Fekr wal-mamarasa aI-siyasiyya [Hamas: Its thought and political practice] (Beirut: IPS, 1997), Appendix, docu- ment no. 12, p. 342. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Saleh,AI-Tayyaral-Isl.ami, HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Brotherhood joined the Jihad al-Muqaddas in fighting in and around Jerusalem. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
‘Aref al-’Aref mentions that the Jews tried to blow up the Brotherhood’s headquarters in Jerusalem in retaliation; he adds that the Brotherhood lent the Higher Arab Committee money for the purchase of arms, with contributions coming from a fund the Brotherhood had estab- lished to build a stately house for itself in Jerusalem.3’ HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Brethren in the Gaza Strip, because of their proximity to Egypt and total Egyptian control of the [The catastrophe: The catastrophe of Jerusalem and the lost paradise, 1947—1952] (Beirut: Al-Maktaba al-’asriyya, 1956), p. 290. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
At the beginning of the new phase in the early 1950s, the Brethren busied themselves with educational and proselytizing activities, publishing, and establishing chapters of the Brotherhood throughout the cities and towns of the West Bank. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Ibid. 37. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Abd al-Fattah El-Awaisi, Al-Mu’tamar ab-Islami al-’aam bait al-maqdis [The General Islamic Conference of Jerusalem], (Jerusalem, 1989), p. 21. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This study is considered the most important and complete documentation of the proceedings of the conference, relying on oral Arrangements for convening the conference had been finalized in a cel- ebration commemorating al-isra’ wal mi’raj (midnight journey [of the Prophet to the seven heavens]) held by the Brotherhood in Jerusalem and to which it had invited a large number of participants from various coun- tries. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
It also was agreed that a permanent secretariat for the conference would be formed under the name of the Isra’ wal Mi’raj Office, which was to consist of delegates from various Arab and Muslim countries to serve as a link between Pales- tine and the Islamic world. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The conference met several times in Jerusalem and Damascus for two consecutive years, and it attracted Islamic delegates from China, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, and Pakistan, as well as from the Arab countries. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The government prevented the conference from meeting in 1955 and closed down its permanent office in Jerusalem in July of the same year.39 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Jordanian government allowed the conference to resume its meetings in June 1956 and permitted its leaders to return to Jerusalem; however, the central idea behind the conference, namely, to build bridges between the peoples of the Islamic world and Jerusalem, came to naught. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Those who remained in the Gaza Strip “were not yet fully in tune with the spirit of the Brotherhood. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
There are several similar fatwas, among them ones issued by Sheikh Yusef al-Qardhawi, a prominent Egyptian scholar with a following across the Arab world, banning travel to Jerusalem (in 1996) and forbidding partici- pation in the Israeli Knesset elections (March 1995). HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Nor did it constitute a cohesive view that Hamas could put forward, even as an abstract solution, which would have allowed the movement some room for maneuver and offered it some protection from the aggressive Israeli information campaign portraying the Arabs and Hamas as being bent on the destruction of Israel. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This differs from a peace agreement in that the armistice has a set duration, and it does not require acceptance of the usurpation of [our] rights by the enemy. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
al-mutlaqah] . HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Acceptance in Principle of an Interim Solution The first pillar is not to reject the principle of an interim solution. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The best evidence of this is found in the statements of Sheikh Yassin dur- ing the first two years of Hamas’s existence, before he was imprisoned. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The letters include a dialogue with Talab al-Sane’, one of the Arab members of the Israeli Knesset. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
He proposed a cessation of attacks by Hamas for ten years on condition that Israel agree to democra- tic elections in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank; it withdraw from those territories, including East Jerusalem; and it evacuate the Jewish settlers.83 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The situation changed once again when Hamas carried out its promise to seek revenge for the assassination of ‘Ayyash by carrying out a number of suicide bombings in Jerusalem, Asqalan, and Tel Aviv only ten days after the elections. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
from travelling to Jordan to meet the “outside” leadership of Fateh; see Al-Quafs (Jerusalem), 20 August 1992. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Meanwhile, there was a new competition and a “shift” in the identities of some of the parties engaged in conflict.60 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Years after the Charter was made public, Hamas’s releases, particularly those extending good wishes to Chris- tians on their holidays, continued to mention that historic attitude and to renew Hamas’s commitment to it, citing the concrete example of the Covenant of Omar (the pledge granted by the Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab to the Christians of Jerusalem to protect their lives, property, and churches). HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Hamas refers to this covenant with pride, saying that Omar “declared [the covenant] in Jerusalem as a historic humanitarian teacher, presaging the periods of real peace in the land of Palestine. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
One can find many similar texts in numerous leaflets, such as Peri- odic statements no. 65 of 11 October 1990 and no. 81 of 1 December 1991, as well as in the 13 April 1990 statement condemning a Zionist assault on the property of a Greek Orthodox church in the holy city of Jerusalem and the subsequent attack on the monks who demonstrated in protest against the first attack. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Such a response came from Bishop Lutfi al-Lahham, pastor of the Orthodox bishopric in Jerusalem, during a sit-in in front of the Knesset gion and faith of Islam—then we are all fundamentalists.”87 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
For example, Hamas met with Pope Shenoudeh of the Egyptian Coptic Church to express its appreciation for his stand on Jerusalem and his rejection of normalization with Israel.88 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
which coincided with the emergence of Hamas, has been their increased The situation has been particularly sensitive because most of the immi- grants have been from Jerusalem, where the demographic struggle over the status of the city is most intense. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Among the most outstanding contributions of the Islamic move- ment in Israel was its activity on behalf of the 413 Hamas and Islamic Jihad members who were deported to southern Lebanon in December 1992. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Musa Abu Marzouq, interview with author, Amman, 21 April 1995. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The third and most tense episode was in March, 1996 in the wake of the series of suicide bombings by Hamas in Jerusalem, ‘Asqalan, and Tel Aviv. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
[Iran from the Inside], 3rd ed. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
When Jerusalem Day, the annual occasion on which Iran expresses its solidarity with the Palestinian people, came around, the deportees split into two factions. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Washington released Abu Marzouq in May 1997, after Israel dropped its extradition request out of fear of retaliation by Hamas if the United States handed him over. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
istry of Defense ordered the heads of the civil administration in the Occupied Territories not to make contacts with elements of Hamas and to sever immediately all lines of communication with persons who support the movement”; reported by Al-Nahar (Jerusalem), 16 January 1990. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
155. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The presence of armed individuals on campus led to a serious crisis with Israeli authori- ties, a crisis that was resolved only after Fateh and the Israeli authorities struck a deal, according to which the four individuals were deported. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Support for eithei Hamas or Islamic bloc candidates approached the level of support Fateh enjoyed in most cases. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Al-Zahhar, a prominent Hamas member in the Gaza Strip, studied the results of 23 elections at institutions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip over a twelve-month period in 199 1_92.20 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The institutions included the Nablus, Qalqilya, and Ramallah 20. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The most outstanding example was the November 1993 Bir Zeit University student council elections, in which the Jerusalem Bloc, consisting of a Hamas-led coalition, won all nine seats on the council. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Nevertheless, the idea of Pales- Hamas first addressed the idea of general political elections when it Initially, Hamas approved of the idea of choosing Palestinian repre- 25. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
See, for example, Shimon Peres, interview, Jerusalem Post (International Edition), Theory andPractice 223 224 HAMAS as it had with professional and union elections. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Prior to the elections Hamas put out a statement to explain once more the five main reasons for the position it had adopted: the Council whose members were to be elected derived from Oslo, and it would be limited by the ceiling set by Oslo; Israel would retain the right to abrogate any Council resolution that it did not like; holding these elections meant abrogating the rights of four million Palestinians living in the diaspora because they were not permitted to participate; the man- ner in which the elections were to be conducted would consolidate the annexation of Jerusalem by Israel, given that the Palestinian residents of Jerusalem would be required to send in their ballots by mail, confirm- ing their status as foreigners residing on foreign soil; and ultimately what is required of the Council is to legitimize Oslo. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
63. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Meanwhile, the Unified National Leadership’s release no. 42 called on all teachers and schools to go on strike; according to the Jerusalem Post, 31 July 1989, many Palestinians ignored the Unified National Leadership’s leaflet because the prevalent sentiment of the population tended to support Hamas’s call for schools to remain open. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
In fact, however, Hamas did tolerate the PA’S crossing of the red line, despite the enormous significance it attaches to its social infrastructure. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
They were followed in February and March 1996 by another series of bus attacks in Jerusalem, ‘Asqalan, and Tel Aviv to avenge the assassination of Yahya ‘Ayyash. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
If a political environment is created that is favorable to a settlement that secures the basic rights of the Palestinians—a state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip that is free of Israeli domination, Palestinian sovereignty over East Jerusalem, a return of the refugees, and the dismantling of Israeli set- tlements—then Hamas would be obliged to give up its armed operations to avoid being isolated. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This is because they are a people devoid of understanding. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
We should not lose this opportunity to remind every Muslim that when the Jews occupied immaculate Jerusalem in 1967, they stood on the stairs of the blessed al-Aqsa Mosque and loudly chanted: ‘Muhammad has died and left girls behind.” HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Whosoever ofyou chooses a coastal site of Syria or Jerusalem, then he is in constant Ii had till the day of resurrection. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
We regard the Israeli presence in all its forms in the West Bank, Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip to be an occupational presence—this being consistent with the text of successive UN resolutions and with the announced official positions of most governments in the world since 1967. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Al-Nakba: Nakbat bait al maqdis wal-firdows al-mafqood, 1947—1952 [The catastrophe: The catastrophe of Jerusalem and the lost paradise, 1947—1952]. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Al-Int~fada al-mubaraka wa mustaqbaluha [The Al-Mu’tamar al-Islami al’aam bait al-maqdis [The general Islamic conference of Jerusalem]. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Jerusalem: N.p., 1989. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Nazzal, Muhammad. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Paper presented to the symposium on Palestinian self-rule elections, by the Center for Middle East Studies, Amman, 17—18 August 1994. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Al-Islamiyoonflfllastin: qira’at, mawaq~fwa qadhaya ukhra [The Islamists of Palestine: Readings, positions, and other matters]. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Amman: Al-Bashir, 1994. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Washington: Sayigh, Yezid. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949—1993. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Banners denouncing Israel and pledging to reclaim al-Quds, Jerusalem, are a common sight. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Ultimately, Hezbollah envisages reclaiming Palestine and al- Quds, Jerusalem, the third holiest city of Islam. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Arieh O’Sullivan, the distinguished defence analyst of the right-wing Jerusalem Post, made the same point when he wrote: ‘Despite all its bravado and state-of-the-art weapons systems, the IDF’s attempts to stop Hezbollah from firing Katyushas into northern Israel is like a tiger trying to catch a mosquito in his teeth.’ Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
At a press conference in Jerusalem, on a pre-scheduled visit to Israel during ‘Operation Grapes of Wrath’, he said: Ti-rn GRAPES OF WRATH 189 I would not describe the Israeli reaction as disproportionate. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The leadership of Hezbollah has in fact departed from its manifesto by declaring that the goals of liberating South Lebanon and al-Quds, Jerusalem, are two different enterprises. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
It stipulates that armed struggle is the only way to deal with the occupation of South Lebanon, but concedes that the question of Jerusalem is a Palestinian issue. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The leadership now talks of co-operating with the Palestinian rejectionists instead of chanting that it will fight until Jerusalem is liberated. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
I. I A MODERN HISTORY OP SOVIET GEORGIA Also by David Marshall Lang Lives and Legends of the Georgian Saints The W’isdori.z A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The development of the Georgian romantic novel received powerful stimulus from the work of Alexander Qazbegi (1848—93). A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Beyond a doubt, when the sides of the cauldron can no longer withstand the pressure of the steam which is formed by the heating of the water and has no other outlet, then they will burst into splinters and fly in all directions as a result of the force of the blast.’ A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
One of the children was beheaded by the blast. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
The blast was aimed at the offices of the civil admin- istration, which used the top floors of the hotel, but an auxiliary aim was to 2. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
A guard noticed that the “Arabs” were acting strangely, and after inves- tigating discovered what was going on and shot two of the bombers, but he in turn was also shot. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Haganah also blew up the Semiramis Hotel in Jerusalem, killing 20, including the Spanish consul.24 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Although the Irgun and Stern were responsible for taking the town, they had direct support from the Haganah.’1 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
We have seen how the King David Hotel blast was engineered using Arab disguise, and the reader who is informed about the struggle to create Israel will no doubt be able to recount other incidents where Zionist militias disguised themselves as Arabs and penetrated Arab areas. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Independent tells us that during the height of the Ethiopian civil war, Israel paid $2500 for each of the 18,000 Ethiopian Jews to immigrate.’7 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
He would live the rest of his life blaming himself for carelessly opening it. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Esther Pultzur was Sil- via Rafael, the Mossad agent known by various other names (such as Patricia Roxburgh and Erika Mary Chambers) who was arrested during the 1973 Lille- hammer affair and who detonated the 1978 car bomb that killed Ali Hassan Salameh as well as others who happened to be near the blast. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Israel welcomed each of these moves. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Begin, p. 220. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Seven people were killed in the blast. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The force of the blast threw a huge armoured personnel carrier twenty yards across the road and into the wall of the orchard. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
United Nations witnesses confirmed reports that the soldiers went into the Husseiniyahs and tore up copies of the Quran which were later found with boot marks on their pages; police dogs, deemed impure and unclean in Islam, were also brought inside the Islamic centres. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Some journalists were detained or arrested, others were threatened and even deported. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Hezbollah 74 On 11 November 1982, a new style of warfare made its shocking debut when a young man drove a white Mercedes, filled with explosives, into Israel’s military headquarters inTyre.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Six months after the bombing of the * See Sacred Rage, Robin Wright, p. 37 Hezbollah 76 embassy, 241 US Marines died in the single largest non-nuclear explosion since the Second World War.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
According to Israeli sources, the blast killed twenty-nine Israeli troops and wounded more than thirty. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The blast killed him, but Imad was not on the scene. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The crisis mounted on 8 April, when a bomb blast killed a fourteen-year-old boy in the southern village of Baraachite, outside the ‘security zone’, and wounded two others. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They had been given assurances that Iraqi troops would fight with them. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Some Muslims, however, who lost their lives in human bomb attacks had not chosen to die in such a manner: when the Israeli military headquarters was attacked in Tyre, Palestinian and Lebanese prisoners in the building were killed in the blasts alongside Israelis. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
I had recently spent ten hours talking to Ahmad Jibri! Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Basil al-Qubaisi, a prominent PFLP official, is killed by Israeli agents in Paris. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Muhammad Awda), the Fatah guerrilla commander, narrowly survives an attack on his life in Warsaw by an Abu Nidal gunman. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
rine barracks near Beirut airport kills 241 men. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
America’s policy in the Arab-Israeli dispute would thereafter be limited largely to counterterrorism rather than an attempt to trace the roots of violence to the dispossession of the Palestinians, to Israel’s invasion of Lebanon, or to the Shi’ites’ burning sense of injustice. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
March 1984-William Buckley, CIA station chief in Bei- rut, is kidnapped and killed in June. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
suggests, quoting Exodus 21:23, that Israel kills Muslim and Palestinian prison- ers. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Although dated, the article by Stanko Guldescu, ‘Marxism Comes tc Yemen’, Communist Affairs, vol. Comtemporary Yemen
The iron hand of Tsar Nicholas the autocrat gave him no scope in this direction, even had he been so inclined. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Massacre at Tbilisi Town Hall The viceroy was inclined to try lowering the political tempera- ture by a few timely concessions to the political and social aspirations of the local peoples. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Whereas the Bolsheviks denounced the Tsar’s manifesto as a sham and declared a boycott of the Duma, the Mensheviks and other moderate socialists were inclined at first to think that their immediate aims were attained. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Beria himself set out to eliminate any of the Georgian Old Bolsheviks who might have felt inclined to challenge the truth of his assertions. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The family were Northerners by origin. A History of Modern Yemen
Alimad’s commercial agent in Aden found his credit no longer good, and Ahmad himself had been reduced already to selling gold abroad for silver riyals to pay his sol- diers.58 A History of Modern Yemen
Abu Nidal dared say things for which Abu lyad and other Fatah leaders had a sneaking sympathy—notably, that Arafat was a dictator who was inclined to rush into impulsive decisions without first consult- ing his colleagues. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
But because the PFLP’s target had been an “enemy” plane, the Arab world was loath to condemn the hijacking. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
But Hussein was not inclined to trust men who had very nearly overthrown him and who had killed his prime minister. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Abu Iyad later told me that Iraq’s intelligence chief, Sa’dun Shakir, and the foreign minister, Tariq Aziz, also strenuously denied any Iraqi involvement in these killings and that he was inclined to believe them. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Arafat was now under less pressure and therefore more inclined to be flexible: The Palestinian National Salvation Front, set up by his Syrian-backed opponents, was in decline. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Israel’s terrain is not suited to guerrilla warfare, and few Pales- tinians were inclined to spend their lives for the cause. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Ali Nasir Muhammad, the Prime Minister, seemed to be the weakest link in the Presidential Council as well as the most pragmatically inclined. Comtemporary Yemen
As often occurs in sUch situations, certain tribes or tribal confeder- ations are more inclined to associate themselves and co-operate with the foreign power Thus British rule in turn tended to favour certain tribal groupings and leaders more than others. Comtemporary Yemen
In the past few years, similar installations were alleged to have been built on Perim as well as Socotra; indeed, the latter has been said to be the site of a major Soviet military base which includes submarine ‘pens’. Comtemporary Yemen
Nevertheless, the Yemeni Union priority was the liquidation of the imamate, as a former Aden The Genesis of the Cal/for Yemeni Unity 247 248 The Genesis of the Call for Yemeni Unity Governor truly remarked, ‘They feel that the removal of the Hamid- Ud-din dynasty from the throne of the Yemen and the substitution of a democratic. Comtemporary Yemen
It is clear that by Strabo’s time the period of greatness and prosperity associated with Mithradates Eupator had passed. The Making of the Georgian Nation
At the Fourth Party Congress, held in Stockholm in April 1906 and dubbed the “unity congress,” both Mensheviks and Bolsheviks made efforts to preserve the united party even though the two factions evaluated the recent past in fundamentally different ways. The Making of the Georgian Nation
he said in a flurry of passion. Comtemporary Yemen
The hostilities of the present may be linked to certain memories of the past, but only if other memories are repressed. The Making of the Georgian Nation
It is scarcely surprising that the wealth of the country passed as time went on into the pockets of the new middle-class merchants and entrepreneurs, includ- ing many Armenians, Russians, Muslims and Jews, who were burdened by no such delicate scruples. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Little thought was given to making Tadizz the capital as it had been in Abmad’s time: a meeting there proved abortive, and ideology and practical connections alike soon drew apart two separate governments. A History of Modern Yemen
Documents at the Public Record Office (PRO), Kew, are cited under PRO hand-list numbers: e.g. GO 725, GO 1015, GO 1055, FO 371. A History of Modern Yemen
Anti-Semitism, he said, would in fact help the Zionist dream. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
While Fatah focused on winning back Palestine, these young men were discussing left-wing politics, Marxism, the backwardness of Arab governments, and pan—Arabism, or the idea that the Arab world was one nation, which represented the main- stream political thinking among Palestinians.30 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Anti-Syrian rhetoric in the press and by govern- ment leaders was worrying Damascus into believing that Israel was going to launch a full-scale invasion, and Syria bought Soviet advanced missiles, includ- ing surface-to-surface SS-21s capable of delivering heavy payloads of destruc- tion, possibly chemical. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Abu Nidal also took for himself the PLO’s real estate in Baghdad, of no translatable value, and the weapons and supplies that China had donated to the PLO. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Israel and Palestine Report speculates that Israel helped to plan or execute it because the truck had to pass several checkpoints, a complicated operation.27 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The group had a large cache of arms, includ- ing 425 grenades. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The following discussion will trace the evolution of Hamas’s thinking on and practice of military action and examine the main policies adopted, includ- ing the question of targeting Israeli civilians. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
He seems to have had powerful patrons, includ- ing the head of the Georgian party, Vasili Mzhavanadze (in Shevardnadze’s words “an exceptionally mild and trusting man”), who treated him well.38 The Making of the Georgian Nation
Other branches of heavy industry in which production has been appreciably stepped up include machineJ tools, lorries and electric locomotives. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Yemeni writers have begun to include in their books photostat documents, which are one important path to a better history leaving work such as mine redundant, but there are no central archives from which to recover past forms of life save those of the British, whose views were a small part of what affected Yemenis. A History of Modern Yemen
A shorthand British expression for QuCayti and KathirT sultanates of Hadramawt, plus Mahrah. A History of Modern Yemen
At family level there was often resentment. A History of Modern Yemen
The Western Protectorate proved more difficult. A History of Modern Yemen
Among the shaykhs one finds Husayn al-Ahmar, QAsim Abu Ra’s, Muti’ al-Dammaj and others; the army officers involved seem to come from everywhere; the merchants are a smaller group, but include such figures as Muhammad al-Dumayni (the family are from Barat originally) and ‘Ali al-Wajlh as well as A1?mad al-’Udayni.6° A History of Modern Yemen
Edited by Israel’s UN twenty-five Israeli settlers for involvement in a Jewish terrorist underground. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Desert Storm was only days away, and the Belgian police, like other European police forces, were on full alert for fear of Iraqi-sponsored terrorism. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Other books by Seale include Philby: The Long Road to Moscow; The Hilton Assignment; and Red Flag, Black Flag. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
We do not tend to think of an army as terror- ists, and we do not include financial, sexual, or social terrorism. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
As he was stopped at a red light, a young Palestinian named Said Salman, equipped with a machine gun and grenade, attacked the car, killing the man and injuring one of his daughters. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
17. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Where did he get this money? Ostensible sources would include sponsorship, first from Iraq, then Syria, then Libya. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
At the same time, it was recognised that this road was too difficult an ascent to function adequately as a regular transport route. Comtemporary Yemen
Al-Zubairi perceived the Shabab al-Amr in the same manner as the Brotherhood’s ‘Rovers’ (Firaq al-Jawwal). Comtemporary Yemen
In response to this loss of support, and as a result of al-Asnag’s failure to gain British support for his policies, the Peo- ple’s Socialist Party created the Organisation for the Liberation of the Occupied South in May 1965. Comtemporary Yemen
The status of state-building lags far behind this, since the capabilities of both states to cope with the demands and functions expected of them remain embryonic. Comtemporary Yemen
122 Education for Nation-building and that these figures also include over-age or under-age children. Comtemporary Yemen
It is envisaged that by 1995 education in the Unity schools (grades 1—8) will include all of those eligible. Comtemporary Yemen
Other regional as well as extra-regional states saw far more important and wider issues involved, and used these outbreaks of violence for their own purposes.9 Comtemporary Yemen
In any event, many observers began to note a ‘thaw’ in South Yemen’s attitudes and policies; the relevant developments which contributed to this perception would include the following: (1) The willingness of the government to undertake diplomatic mis- sions to various Arab states in the effort to re-establish normal relationships :after the 1978 decision to, essentially, ‘censure’ the government of South Yemen.” Comtemporary Yemen
(5) ideological orientation; in contemporary South Yemen this variable has undergone a pronounced leftward shift, but still encompasses such orientations as the kind of moderate socialism which characterises, for example, Sweden, as well as the more radical strain which emphasises world revolution, and the more standard contemporary Soviet version of Marxism— Leninism. Comtemporary Yemen
Here, as in so many other instances which involve the description and analysis of contemporary political events, it is likely that the preconceptions of the observers will ultimately determine the interpretation given to available information and events (not to mention their presentation for others). Comtemporary Yemen
For example, among the less militant and aggressive ideas of what the Soviet Union is seeking in the Red Sea region one might include (but not necessarily be limited to) the following: (1) developing ‘leverage’ which could be employed in future nego- tiations or agreements with political opponents (e.g. Comtemporary Yemen
Someone with this view of Soviet objectives would be able to sup- port this viewpoint by citing Soviet support for South Yemen since 1970, and suggesting that the level of such support was quite South Yemen since Independence 139 140 South Yemen since Independence minimal in comparison with the potential gain. Comtemporary Yemen
For example, the Reagan administration, although it specifically denied that its actions constituted a real change in its position on South Yemen, eased its controls on the sale of aircraft to that country in the late spring of 1982.24 Comtemporary Yemen
The jurisdiction of the provincial courts: (1) In criminal matters they deal with all the serious crimes under the Penal Code — which include murder, manslaughter, rape, gross indecency, arson, sabotage of communications, etc. Comtemporary Yemen
The South Yemeni criticisms include the low level of Soviet aid, and the low quality. Comtemporary Yemen
Higher figures of Soviet ‘personnel’ include families and civilian advisers. Comtemporary Yemen
The first political movement to be set up was organised and led by Shaikh Abdullah Muhammad, an able and successful Pakistani lawyer and resident of Aden. Comtemporary Yemen
The colonial authorities ordered a commission to be set up to inquire into the causes of the strikes. Comtemporary Yemen
Though one may quibble with this definition, for example by broadening “political ends” to include ideological or religious motives, it nonethe- less captures the essence of terrorism—the purposeful attack on the innocent, those who are hors de combat, outside the field of legitimate conflict. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
I repeatedly called for an active policy that would include diplomatic, economic, and even military sanctions against these states. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Other groups with a substantial organi- zational base in Germany include the Hizballah and Ha- mas. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Jihad in America (PBS, final script, November 21, 1994; Executive Producer, Steve Emerson, p. 16). Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Understandably, many Israelis do not want to see that base expanded twenty times to include the West Bank, thereby having an Iranian-influenced Is- lamic domain hovering over its major cities, and within ten miles of the sea. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
A Palestinian— Islamic state on the West Bank of the Jordan River might soon expand to include its East Bank as well (i.e., Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The ten- dency to try and bribe Syria to desist from its support Fighting Terrorism 135 for terrorism—with American aid and Israeli concessions on the Golan Heights—is the exact opposite of what is needed. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The same applies to Iranian and Syrian agitation in Gaza, with one crucial difference. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
It does, however, include the bizarre proviso that such terrorist groups may apply for a U.S. government license to fund-raise for those of their activities which are “legitimate.” Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Others who played important roles in the pro- duction process include Ida Audeh, Mohammed Salim (a pseudonym), Walid Shawish, Ed Scott, and Robert Young, and they deserve many thanks. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The latter include the movement’s understanding of the nature of the conflict as a doctrinal, cultural, and political one, its perspective on the parties to the conflict (Zionism, Judaism, the Arabs, Muslims, and the West), and the bic], a series of documents from the third year of the intifada, issued by the Hamas information office, but with no publisher or date of publication listed. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
A number of lead- ing personalities who have lived abroad and been exposed to wider experi- ences than their counterparts in the Gaza Strip (who formulated the Hamas Charter) have re-oriented Hamas’s political thinking and influ- enced the formulation of its discourse. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The third dimension relates to the administrative and organizational context of decision making by Hamas. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
These include, for exam- ple, its congratulatory statements to the Islamic Salvation Front of Algeria on winning the aborted parliamentary elections in 1990 and to the Refah Party of Turkey, and the statement of support to Sudan in its war against rebels in the south. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Political Perspective on the Conflict I 81 82 I The basic reference to an armistice occurs in Sheikh Yassin’s letters from prison, referred to earlier. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Aside from the Islamists, however, the Patch movement always has dominated the national camp. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
After all, did it not include among its membership the fathers, brothers, relatives and friends of Hamas members? How could a good Muslim turn a cold shoulder to his father, brother, rel- ative or friend? We have but one homeland, one affliction, one shared destiny, and one shared enemy.” HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
50. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The more significant trend in Hamas’s policies after Oslo— particularly relating to the question of the establishment of a political party in the Occupied Territories—holds that the party is to include Muslims and Christians among its members, and perhaps even in its top leadership or Political Bureau.9’ HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
These include the huge disparity between the diverse tasks that need to be per- formed outside the Occupied Territories and the limited human resources available for that purpose; and the slow growth of resources due to the fear of bureaucratization, complex administrative structures, and high costs. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Official Level Hamas has made an effort to establish direct relations with the govern- ments and peoples in the Islamic world. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Nazzal interview, 23 April 1995. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The states with which Hamas has estab- lished contacts at various levels include Britain, China, Germany, and Spain. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The political thought and practice of Hamas differentiate between two different kinds of elections. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Thus the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) came into being, and the Muslim Brothers in Palestine had a fun- damental role in its formation. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
D. Hamas does not believe in moving the battle against the occupa- tion from Palestine to any other international arena. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Israel’s invasion had followed fast on the heels of the most significant event in modern times for Shia Muslims: the Iranian Revolution of 1 979.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
By the sixties, they had become the largest sect in the country, but while the rest of Lebanon flourished economically and Beirut won fame as a cosmopolitan capital, the Shiites remained locked in a time warp, the underdogs of the population. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Israel has continued to denounce the capture of its soldiers and has made attempts to include them in negotiations for the release of Lebanon’s foreign hostages. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Health Committee’s stated commitments include providing health care to injured members of the Resistance and supporting Lebanese civilians who are subjected to shelling and disposses- sion in the South. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Political analysts claim that Israel was given the go-ahead for its campaign against Lebanon in March, during the anti- terrorism summit at Sharm el-Sheikh in Egypt. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
* Cited in Sacred Rage, Robin Wright, p. 233 EPILOGUE 213 So long as the West and Israel continue to regard the problem as a crusade against terrorism they are in effect denying their own responsibility for fostering the conditions which gave rise to Hezbollah. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Menshevik program, which asked only for confiscation of state and church lands, had been rejected, though all parties agreed that full implementation of the land reform should await the constituent assembly. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Beria was careful to distinguish Georgia from the Ukraine, however, pointing out that the principal danger in the Ukraine was local nationalism whereas in Georgia it was still great-power chauvinism. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The Ajars are Muslim Georgians and have their own autonomous republic within Georgia, but Georgians insist that there are no important distinctions be- tween Ajars and Georgians and in 1979 did not include a separate census category for Ajars. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Petersburg, 1849—1858). The Making of the Georgian Nation
Transcaucasia, Nationalism and Social Change: Essays in the History of Vospominaniia gruzinskogo sotsial-demokrata. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Ethnic varie~’y The ethnological face of Caucasia, with its numerous races and tribes, came into being over many centuries. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The other main region of Georgia known to the ancients— Caucasian Iberia—lay to the east of Coichis, across the Surami range; Iberia included the modern Kartli and Kakheti, together with Samtskhe and other regions to the south-west. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Okropir and Dimitri used to hold gatherings of Georgian students at Moscow and St. Petersburg, and attempted to inspire them with patriotic feeling. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Hahn tried to replace payments in kind and compulsory labour by a cash levy of some seven rubles per head. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Prince Teimuraz (1782—1846) composed a history of Iberia (i.e. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
This Abel Enukidze later became a close friend of Stalin, who betrayed him and had him shot during the purges of 1936—37. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
They sent troops to round up the ringleaders, who included the majority of the local village schoolmasters and a number of socialist agitators who had arrived from the towns. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The peasant spokesmen for their part were efficiently coached by the local Social-Democratic committee, and put forward a series of demands which included the return to their homes of persons exiled to Siberia without trial; the withdrawal of troops recently sent to in- timidate the population; abolition of censorship and establish- ment of freedom of Press and publication; election of peasant deputies to a Constituent Assembly by free and secret ballot; abolition of the internal passport system, and granting of freedom of movement within the whole Russian Empire; freedom of assembly and association and the right of appeal from arbitrary acts by local officials; enlargement of peasant allotments at the expense of State and Church domains; the abolition of tithes; the regularization of share-cropping and tenantry agreements, with provision for reduction of taxes and dues in the event of bad harvests; provision of schooling for all children; and the reopening of local Georgian libraries and reading rooms, shut down three years previously by the former Governor-General. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The chairman of this committee was Petre Surguladze; other members included Prince Giorgi Machabeli, Mikhako Tseretei (who had given up Kropotkinite Anarchism in favour of extreme Georgian nationalism), Leo and Giorgi Kereseidze, and the Muslim Georgian Kartsivadze (otherwise known as Meliton or Osman Bey). A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
From 1910 onwards, how- ever, a reaction against patriotic and civic modes in poetry set ON BORROWED TIME: 1906—17 187 in, under the leadership of a group of youthful poets and novelists whose debut took place under the fashionable banners of Symbolism and Decadence. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
In 1907, Taqaishvili and others founded the Georgian Historical and Ethnographi- cal Society, whose publications attained a high scholarly standard, and included editions of historical charters, folklore and dialect studies and other valuable material. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
It included three Georgians, three Azerbaijanis, three Armenians and two Russians. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
While predominantly Menshevik in character, the commissariat also included nominees of the Muslim Musavat A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA 200 TOWARDS GEORGIAN INDEPENDENCE: 1917—18 organization, the Armenian Dashnaks, and the Social- Revolutionaries. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The Transcaucasian delegation, forty-five strong, was headed by Premier Chkhenkeli, and also included the veteran Georgian revolutionary and publicist Niko Nikoladze, and the jurist Zurab Avalishvili. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Germanj takes a hand The Turks bad reckoned without one very important factor, namely the intervention of their ally Imperial Germany, which at this time dominated the Ukraine and the Crimea and had virtually turned the Black Sea into a German lake. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA zo8 INDEPENDENT GEORGIA: 1918-21 Formation of the Georgian cabinet — Trends in Georgian Socialism — The agrarian question — Financial instabilitji — The British replace the Germans — An Armenian invasion — Denikin and the lVhites — The British withdrawal — Georgia at the Paris Conference Formation of the Georgian cabinet THE GEORGIAN GOVERNMENT formed by Noe Ramish- vili on 26 May 1918 included several Menshevik leaders who had already held portfolios in the former Transcaucasian administration. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The British commander, General Thomson, told Zhordania that British objectives included the restoration of the Caucasian viceroyalty in the name of Russian authority. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The head of this committee, established by a decree of the Bolshevik Central Committee on 4 February 1920, was the Georgian Communist Sergo Orjonikidze, a friend of Stalin; the deputy chairman was S. M. Kirov, and the other members included the Georgian Bolshevik Budu Mdivani. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
They included Ramsay MacDonald, Vandervelde, Mrs. E. Snowden, Renaudel, Kautsky, Huysmans and others, who were thrilled by the official honours and gracious hospital- ity dispensed to them by the Georgian government. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
On Ic September 1920, the Kremlin learnt that the Georgian regular army included 9,700 infantry and 1,000 cavalry, with 52 guns and a number of mortars, a battalion of sappers, one motorized company and one signals company. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Its members included such prominent Georgian Bolsheviks as P. Makharadze, Mamia Orakhelashvili and S. Eliava. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
On 2 1—22 July 1935, he delivered to a meeting of the Tbilisi Party organization a lecture ‘On the history of the Bolshevik organizations in Transcaucasia’, in which Stalin is given almost exclusive credit for the success of the Caucasian revolutionary movement from i 900 onwards. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Most of the émigré min- isters, however, were distinguished by their longevity, one or two venerable octogenarians being alive even today. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Iffiteracy has long since been liquidated, which, in pre-revolutionary Georgia, included 78% of the popula- tion. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Both Yemens were at the centre of Arab poli- tics in the 1960s, and the South then became the Arab World’s only Marxist state; the North was the site of intense Saudi interest. A History of Modern Yemen
The houses served as forts against one’s neighbours. A History of Modern Yemen
AU that is included within these boundaries up to the tip of southern Hijaz is the cradle of Yemen. A History of Modern Yemen
Imam Ya~ya had encouraged historiography (Chapter 2), and the ancient past had become a reference point for young activists such as Mubsin al~cAyni (Chapter 3) as much as for Imamic writers: Hamdani, for all concerned, was a keystone of national heritage. A History of Modern Yemen
This was broadly the rhetoric around Ilamdi’s accession. A History of Modern Yemen
In October 1975 the Constituent Assembly itself was suspended, which left ‘Abdullah al-Ahmar, Hashid’s para- mount shaykh, outside the government, and a “second Khamir confer- ence” was held to resist klamdi. A History of Modern Yemen
To read more traditional-seeming works required a similar awareness of what was left unsaid. A History of Modern Yemen
The practical requirements included real integration of the armed forces, control of Islamist groups, and return of financial and administrative autonomy to what had once been the local co-operatives. A History of Modern Yemen
At that date they had no great impact: the Egyptian-dominated war economy swamped all else (Chapter 4). A History of Modern Yemen
In early igg6 a stand-by credit of $US igo million was secured from the IMF, and in the following month $US 8o million from the World Bank: Yemen as a single state 207 208 A history of modern Yemen both were in support of “structural readjustment”. A History of Modern Yemen
37 al-Akwa’ 1995, i: 97;JanaI~i 1992: 288, 292. A History of Modern Yemen
His death was one of the sparks that ignited the great Arab revolt of 1936—39, which the British put down with terrible ruthlessness, killing thousands of Palestinians and interning tens of thousands. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Iraq had some fourteen thousand men stationed in Jordan, elements of a short-lived Arab “Eastern Command” that had once included Egypt and Syria. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
ans’ catastrophic defeat in Jordan and the subsequent dirty war with Israel, which, as is clear from the list I drew up at the start, took a heavy toll of Palestinian lives. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
As has already been suggested, Arafat’s closest colleagues were not unhappy to hear these criticisms, be- cause they felt that they served as a healthy brake on Arafat’s natural authoritarianism. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Thus forewarned, Fatah proceeded to round up Abu Nidal’s known sympathizers among Palestinians in Syria and Lebanon; when Abu Nizar went to Damascus on a mission in July 1974, he was seized by Fatah and imprisoned in its jail at Ham- muriyah, near Damascus. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Assad’s view was that only a solid Arab front, which included Syria, could have any chance of making Israel yield. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
However strenuously Arafat sought to steer his movement toward moderation, Begin was determined to give him neither an ounce of recognition nor an inch of territory. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Also included is the member’s photo- graph, photographs of his wife, children, and relatives, and photo- copies of his passport. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Eight-year-old children throw stones at Israeli troops. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
As we shall see, Isa himself would soon become a target. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
These steps included: • iii 1985, replacing Abu Nizar and Abd al-Rahman Isa by members of his own family as signatories of the organiza- tion’s bank accounts in Switzerland and elsewhere; • in August 1986, ousting Abu Nizar from his position as deputy chief and replacing him with the young, slavishly loyal Isam Maraqa (Abu Nizar, as we have seen, was given colleagues, with few exceptions, fell victim to Abu Nidal’s superior strategy. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Led by a member of the Political Bureau, Shawki Muham- mad Yusif (code-named Munir Ahmad), the delegation included the demoted intelligence chief Abd al-Rahman Isa. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
After Abu Nizar’s murder, Isa had begun to think about his own safety. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
(Thirty years later, after the ceasefire treaty ending the 1973 war, the bodies of the assassins were included in the 1975 prisoner exchange accord. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The operations against the British were timed to coincide with Anglo-Egyptian negotiations concerning British evacuation from Suez, which Israel opposed, and those against Amer- ican facilities were aimed at destroying the growing friendly relations between Egypt and the United States (President Gamal Abdel Nasser had not yet become the West’s ogre), which included a $50 million aid program and $500 million arms deal. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
He answered, and they pushed the button, sending bomb fragments into his body. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
But even though the real power is left to the Politburo, FRC’s primary work, outside operations, is the business of Abu Nidal, Mustafa Murad, Abd al-Rahman, Amjed Attar, and Dr. Ghassan. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They were killed by leaders who observers believe have links with the Mossad. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The evidence is overwhelming, in fact, that Yemen’s initial allegiance to Islam was at best only superficial. Comtemporary Yemen
When Ibn Hawshab’s con- quests began to challenge the tribal domains of the Northern High- lands the Zaidis joined their natural allies in the tribes to conduct a holy war,jihad, that succeeded in containing the Fatimid da’wa in the Western Mountains. Comtemporary Yemen
By 1944 most had been released and in June of that year they formed Jam’iyat al-Islah in response to Nu’man’s and al- Zubairi’s flight to Aden and the establishment of the FYP. Comtemporary Yemen
It also sought the introduction of reforms. Comtemporary Yemen
By the end of 1963 it included nine other organisations, some of which represented tribal groups, like the FormatiQn of the Tribes, the Mahra Youth Organisation and the Yafa’i Reform Front, while the rest represented Arab political tendencies which were significant at the time: the Nasserite Front, the Secret Organisation of Free Officers and Soldiers, the Revolutionary Organisation of Free Men of Occupied South Yemen, the Patriotic Front, the Aden Revolu- tionary Vanguard and the Revolutionary Organisation of Youth in Occupied South Yemen. Comtemporary Yemen
The mass of workers in Aden turned towards the NLF as The Rise of the National Liberation Front 49 50 The Rise of the National Liberation Front they found the concept of armed struggle appealing, sometimes on the basis of clearly reasoned political argument but also possibly as a modernised form of traditional tribal armed conflict. Comtemporary Yemen
Both included social strata which had not previously been integrated into any political tendency, mainly the tribesmen who had emigrated to Aden and further afield in search of work and thus developed a social and political consciousness while working in the Gulf or Saudi Arabia in construction, or even the armed forces, as well as those who had stayed at home or returned there. Comtemporary Yemen
This was the fruit of negotiations beteeen al-Asnag and the SAL in Cairo in July 1964 and March 1965, discussions at which attempts to include the NLF had been totally unsuccessful. Comtemporary Yemen
The congress also elected an Executive Committee of eight members who included Qahtan al- Sha’bi, Faisal Abdul-Latif al-Sha’bi, Taha Muqbil, Salim Zain, Mi Salami and Saif al-Dali’. Comtemporary Yemen
Two months of intensive discussions failed to solve the problem and in March the Egyptians invited the NLF leaders to Cairo, supposedly for discussions. Comtemporary Yemen
On arrival the leaders were detained and thus missed the NLF’s second congress held in June 1966 in Jibla. Comtemporary Yemen
It is therefore essential at this stage to make a precise study of the social basis of armed revolution for the better understanding it gives of the structure of the NLF and the socio-political struggle in the area. Comtemporary Yemen
These reasons were the colonial policy of limiting educational opportunities and depriving the young of their right, and secondly, and contrary to this colonial policy, the national regime which declared education a right for every child of school age. Comtemporary Yemen
This included becoming intimately involved in a number of revolutionary move- ments, including the one aimed at altering the political status quo in neighbouring Oman (the Dhofar Liberation Front, which later become the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman, and then, as its goals widened, the Popular Front for the Liberation of the Occupied Arab Gulf (PFLOAG); and, last but definitely not least, the government sought the radical transformation of domestic society, including various agrarian reform programmes, national- isation of all industrial enterprises, promotion of collectivisation schemes among the agricultural population, the fishermen, and just about every occupation in the social hierarchy, as well as a radical transformation of the status of women. Comtemporary Yemen
24. Comtemporary Yemen
Any male or female over the age of twenty-one was eligible to serve, but there were exceptions, which included members of the legal profes- sion, police officers, prison officers, etc. Comtemporary Yemen
t6 (10) That no punishment shall be inflicted except by a competent court.’7 Comtemporary Yemen
15. Comtemporary Yemen
Courts Law No. 7 of 1980, sections 13 (8) and 23. Comtemporary Yemen
Article 124 of the constitution; Criminal and Civil Procedure; Courts Law, sections 34 to 37. Comtemporary Yemen
After the return of al-Jifri to Lahej, SAL’s anti-British activities, particularly in the Protectorates, increased dramatically. Comtemporary Yemen
In the South a more prag- matic course seemed to prevail after government changes in April 1980 which brought less ideological rigidity and an opening-up in foreign relations and external trade. Comtemporary Yemen
As Britain was the more powerful adversary, Imam Yahya decided to accom- modate London by signing a treaty of friendship and co-operation which included a clause referring to a settlement of the border question. Comtemporary Yemen
Today’s tragedies can either be the harbingers of much greater calamities yet to come or the turning point in which free societies-once again mobilize their resources, their inge- nuity, and their will to wipe out this evil from our midst. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Even before the war, the American intelligence community recognized that with the majority of the world’s terrorist networks poised to assault Western tar- gets, the Allied invasion of Kuwait could easily end up being a costly affair even if the Allied troops won the land and air battles handily. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Rahman was allowed into the United States in 1990 from Sudan, after a history of perfidy in his native land, which included serving time for recruiting members for the Islamic terrorist fac- tion that had assassinated President Anwar Sadat. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Italy provides a telling example of how the Soviet ter- rorist network operated. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
By 1995 at least fourteen militant Islamic groups were known to be operating throughout Europe, their active membership reaching into the tens of thousands. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Further, the people Arafat appointed to fight the Palestinian terrorists included some of the most sav- age killers on the PLO’s roster of terrorists, including Amin al Hindi, one of the masterminds of the Munich Massacre who now became head of the PLO’s “general intelligence service.”4 Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The reader will note Hamas’s conditional tolerance for the interim solution while it attempts to sustain the flame of the historic solution in the context of the peace process, the Madrid Conference, and the Oslo Agreement. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
For exam- ple, a letter from the Brotherhood to the then Egyptian foreign minister, dated 3 April 1946, protested the presence of the Egyptian deputy consul general in Palestine at a ball to aid a Zionist society. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Brotherhood organized violent popular demonstrations and protests jointly with the Communists and Ba’thists.47 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Such cooperation represented an important development in relations between these parties, which had had conflictual relations in the past. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The rapid reversal in the influence of the Brotherhood in Egypt resulted from its conflict with Nasir. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Ibid., pp. 168—69. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Subsequent publications reveal details of mili- tary cells organized by the Brotherhood, as well as the names of members and leaders of those cells, prior to the outbreak of the intifada. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Yassin letter, dated 3 October 1993, and included in Al-Wasat, 11 November 1993. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
These condi- tions included most notably the PNC’s adherence to the principle that Palestine from the Mediterranean Sea to the Jordan River belongs to the Palestinian people by right. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
For an official statement about the honor code, see “Hamas taziffu bushra al-ittifaq ii 51. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The most significani discussions—which also failed to yield any practical results—were thost held in Khartoum in January 1993 under the patronage of Sheikh Hassan al-Turabi, the secretary general of the Arab Islamic Popular Conference. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
These accusations, which included such charges as that Hamas had been created by Yitzhak Rabin, that it owed allegiance to Iran, and that it had deviated from the unity of Palestinian ranks just like the Zulu tribes who opposed Nelson Mandela in South Africa, were an obstacle to a rapprochement. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The “ten” organizations that initially joined together at Tehran included the following: Hamas, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine—General Command, the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, Islamic Jihad, the Movement for Palestinian National Liberation—Fateh/A1-Intifada, the Movement for Palestinian National Liberation—Fateh/Revolutionary Council, Vanguards of the War of Popular Liberation, Al-Sa’iqa, the Popular Struggle Front, and the Revolutionary Palestinian Communist Party~ The first joint communique, issued on 24 October 1991, called for a general strike on 30 October, the day the Madrid Conference was to convene; however, the formal announcement on the formation of the TRO did not come until nearly one year later, on 29 Sep- tember 1992. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
the post-Oslo period included the following: rejecting the agreement; boycotting the elections for the PA council (or participation in the coun- cil by appointment); boycotting all organizations derived from the Oslo Agreement or charged with its implementation; affirming the inalienable, historic rights of the Palestinian people to liberate its land, return to its homeland, and practice full national self-determination; and adhering to armed struggle as the principal means of liberation. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The latter included demands, in solidarity with Hamas, that Sheikh Yassin be released, or, at the collective level, focusing atten- tion on the cause of Palestinian detainees. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Among the more significant studies that claim that Islamic movements in the Muslim Hamas’s PoliticalRelations 181 182 J HAMAS The most striking aspect of Hamas’s discourse on Islamic issues is the vigorous attack on Western double standards in dealing with Islamic as opposed to other issues that are consistent with Western interests. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
In May 1993, when the Con- gressional Research Service issued a report entitled “Hamas: Freedom Fighters or Terrorists?”—implying that the nature of Hamas was a debat- able issue, influential pro-Israel groups in Washington objected to the study and it was amended; points demanded by the Jewish groups were included and its title was changed.’3° HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
One prominent Hamas official described these efforts as follows: The most important of these attempts included a meeting between the deputy chief of staff of the enemy army, Amnon Shahak, with the brother, ‘Imad al-Faluji, who was detained in Gaza’s central prison in February 1994; a discussion between two members of the occupation central command and the brother, Dr. Mahmoud al-Rumhi, who was held in Hebron’s central prison to await trial for being the political direc- tor of Hamas in the Ramallah area; a contact made by an Israeli living in Europe with Dr. Mahmoud al-Zahhar; and a further communication by the same Israeli with a person close to Hamas in one of the Euro- pean countries whereby Israel offered to negotiate with Hamas through a third party (an Arab country) in such a way that this country would communicate the demands of the movement to the Zionist entity and vice versa. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This was at the expense of Palestinian leftist forces first and foremost, but Hamas also made inroads into areas of traditional Fateh control. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The results of the study were published in Al-Quds (Jerusalem), 10 November 1992, as well as in Maja/lat al-dirasat al-Filastinzyya, no. 13 (Winter 1993). HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
These included ‘Imad al-Faluji, who subsequently was expelled, and Isma’il Haniyah, Khaled al-Hindi, and Sa’id al-Namruti, who regis- tered as independent candidates but had to withdraw their names as a result of pressure from Hamas, which feared that their candidacy would 39. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Israel offered to exchange the freedom of Sheikh Yassin for the body, an offer that was rejected by Yassin himself as insulting, especially because the offer included the provision that Yassin renounce violence. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
which included the initiative of Hamas’s Political Bureau in April 1994; in Appendix, docu- ment no. 4. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
if the characteristics of Islamic art are included in them, are necessary for ideological education and provide invigorating nourishment to con- tinue the struggle and relax the soul, because the struggle is long and the work hard. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
All this is serious with no mirth included because a nation in Jihad Surah 33 (al-Ahzab), v. 35 Appendix 279 280 Social Solidarity ARTICLE 20: The Muslim society is a cooperative society. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Nazism of the Jews has included women and children. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The settlement proposals included making concessions on two grave points that the Palestinian masses, in conformity with Palestine’s long his- tory since the conquest by Omar, vowed never to do: • • Under circumstances wherein these proposals found favorable responses from the PLO, the strategy of armed struggle retreated, as did the interest of other Arabs in the question of Palestine, which became just another routine item on the agendas of their meetings and conferences. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The odd contrast in that year was the convening of an Arab summit conference at Fez, Morocco, in September 1982, which came as a sort of Recognize the Zionist existence and its legitimacy Cede the larger part of Palestine to the Zionist entity. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Appendix I 293 294 I HAMAS indirect response to Reagan’s 1981 peace proposal which rejected any soiu- tion containing any form of an independent Palestinian state. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
To restrict its engagements and confrontation only to army units and some armed formations that support them. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Its other duties included patrolling the South and preventing the return of the Palestinians and local opponents. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
movement’s adherents included Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah, who defected from Ama! Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They included Mustapha Chamran, who had worked closely with Amal before the Shah’s overthrow. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They included intelligence and reconnaissance. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Human Bombs 3 Surat al-Baqarah, 154, The Quran 75 (LNR), whose ranks included Hezbollah’s fighters until the birth of the Islamic Resistance in 1985. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
His distinguished travelling companions included Syria’s Foreign Minister Farouq al-Sharaa and a company of Iranian Revolutionary Guards on their way to Lebanon. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Iran was thousands of miles away and the Lebanese, the Shiites included, were known for their secular way of life and their co-existence in a multi-confessional system, despite the ongoing civil war. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
A staunch supporter of the concept of exporting the revolution, he took every opportunity to explain the programme to the Iranians as well as to foreign delegates and Muslims overseas, and, he declared: * See The Warriors of Islam, Kenneth Katzman, p. 7 EXPORT OF A REVOLUTION 109 Had the aim of the Islamic Revolution of Iran been merely to overthrow the Shah of fran, it would have been confined within the borders of Iran. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Guards supported revolutionary activists outside Iran and built a network of die-hard extremists.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
These included Organisation of the Islamic Dawn, Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine, the Revolutionary Justice Organisation, Holy Warriors for Freedom, Khaibar Brigade, Organisation of the Oppressed on Earth and Revolutionary Cells. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They included members of the Hamiyeh clan from the Bekaa, the Musawis, the Aqeels, Shehadehs and the Ezzedeens. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Although the French denied reports that the deal which was ultimately struck with the kidnappers of the French hostages included Naccache’s freedom, he was freed on 27 July 1990, together with four accomplices, after being pardoned by President Francois Mitterrand. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
He believed that social change was the means to realise an Islamic society and set up an extensive welfare network which included commercial enterprises and hospitals. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They were not only Shiite areas: they included remote villages in Christian and Sunni districts in the far north of the country, where the inhabitants still relied on candles and oil lamps. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Hawzat al-Imam al-Muntathar, the Theological School of the Awaited Imam, in Baalbeck, cost 3 million dollars to build. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Once again a relatively independent Georgian state was overwhelmed by Russian occupation. The Making of the Georgian Nation
By the Late Bronze Age, a period that in Caucasia included the end of the second millennium and the first centuries of the first millennium B.C., differentiations in wealth within the tribes are evident in the burial sites. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Herodotus provides us with much of what we know about Caucasia in the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. The first great “world empire,” that of the Persians under the Achaemenid dynasty, covered most of Asia Minor and Transcaucasia. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Not included in the empire as a satrapy, the kingdom of Coichis was an autonomous vassal state of the Achaemenids. The Making of the Georgian Nation
And the fourth is that of the common people, who are slaves of the king and perform all the services that pertain to human livelihood. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Others, notably Gudovich, Pas- kevich, and Golovin, favored a rapid integration of the Caucasus into a centralized Russian administration. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The lowest category of peasant, found primarily in western Georgia, was the mojalabe, a near-slave who lived in the home of his lord usually with no land of his own. The Making of the Georgian Nation
In western Georgia agriculture was even less developed. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Entering its Golden Age, Georgia under David aghmashenebeli, “the Rebuilder” (1089— 1125), had invited Armenians to settle in its towns, and even built the town of Gori especially for them. The Making of the Georgian Nation
To qualify as a mokalake, a merchant or craftsman had to be a royal serf residing permanently in Tiflis and a person of considerable wealth who paid the large tax corresponding to his position. The Making of the Georgian Nation
When two Russian “trading depots” were opened in Tiflis in 1847—1848, Armenian merchants complained to Vorontsov that the Russians were being given an unfair advantage. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Peasant demands included an end to the sale and purchase of peasants, protection of peasants’ rights to own property, creation of courts to decide grievances between landlords and peasants, and the abolition of personal bondage. The Making of the Georgian Nation
‘46 Emancipation led to a new system of self-government. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Small villages in Georgia were merged into single communes. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The first generation of Georgian populists came from the same social and educational milieu as the patriots and the meore dasi, but their affec- tions were turned toward the larger world outside Georgia. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The All-Russian Social Revolutionary Organization, founded in 1875, included the Georgian-born Georgii Zdanovich (1855—1917), Aleksandre Tsitsianov, and Mikhail Chikoidze, as well as the Russian women from Zurich: Sofia Bardin, Olga Liubatovich, Lydia Figner, and others. The Making of the Georgian Nation
work in their own apart- ments, obtaining orders and materials from the masters. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Primarily economic in nature (pay raises of 30 to 50 percent, bimonthly wage pay- ments) they also included broader issues affecting the workers’ sense of dignity—a demand that officials and foremen use polite forms of address with workers, improvement in hygienic conditions, the end of beatings, and abolition of fines for absence. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The Turks took the fortress of 191Revolution and Republic 192 REVOLUTIONARY AND SOVIET GEORGIA Kars and the port of Batumi, invading Erevan province while officially recognizing the new republic. The Making of the Georgian Nation
In the first days of the revolution Zhordania had set forth his analysis that its moving forces were the proletariat, the army, and the liberal bour- geoisie; the peasantry was not mentioned. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The causes of the revolt were complex and included economic and social discontents, frus- trated nationalism, and the residual loyalties of Gurians and others to the old social democratic leadership. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The equivocation and hesitancy in the party line on agriculture can be felt in the awkward phrasing of the resolution by the Fourth Congress of the Georgian party in December 1925: Considering that the strengthening of work in the village is one of the most important tasks of the party and noting that, as in other Soviet republics, there are two deviations from the current line of the party on work in the village: first—the underestimation of the significance of the development of NEP in the village and the misunderstanding of its necessity; second—the underestimation of the kulak danger, the congress sets forth as immediate tasks the organization of the village poor and those elements of the peasan- try allied to them, in agreement with the resolution of the Central Commit- tee of the RKP(b), in order to stop the growing kulak danger and the activities of former nobles, who as a legacy of local peculiarities and the unique social structure of the Georgian nation ought to be included in the category of the kulaks.6° The Making of the Georgian Nation
Strongest and best organized in Georgia, the leftist opposition there included prominent party members who had fought the Stalin-Orjonikidze line since 1921 and others who had railed against the emphasis on the peasantry. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Already by 1923, 62 percent of all Georgian peasant households had only one able-bodied worker.1° The Making of the Georgian Nation
In the second half of 1929 the central authorities steadily chipped away at the decision-making powers of the local Communists in Transcaucasia. The Making of the Georgian Nation
By mid-March the Transcaucasian Communists began moderating their positions. The Making of the Georgian Nation
During the war he was a member of the de facto government of the USSR, the State Defense Committee, which was headed by Stalin and included Molotov, Malenkov, and Voroshilov and, later, Voznesenskii, Kaganovich, Mikoyan, and Bulganin. The Making of the Georgian Nation
At the party congress he thanked the central authorities for their help in restarting the Georgian economic machine and then tried to prod them into additional aid not yet earmarked in the Tenth Five-Year Plan. The Making of the Georgian Nation
A biography appeared in Georgian during the Soviet period: S. Khundadze, dmitri qipiani (Tbilisi, 1936). The Making of the Georgian Nation
The members of this early populist circle included Varlam Cherkezishvili, I. Jabadari, G. Zdanovich, Mikhail Chikoidze, and Prince Aleksandr Tsitsianov. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The second Tiflis Committee included Zakro Chodrishvili, Arakel Okuashvili, G. Chkheidze, Vaso Tsabadze, Kalistrate Gogoua, G. Gharajian, Sever- jane Jugeli, Keshishiants, and Starosenko (Chkheidze, “chemi mogonebani,” p. 91). The Making of the Georgian Nation
However, among ethnic Georgians only 49 percent were “workers” in 1979 (this figure included agricultural workers), 32 percent were “employees,” and 19 percent were collective farmers (lu. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Eastern Georgia with its more temperate, continental climate includes the former kingdom of Kartli, with the metropolis of Thilisi, and the towns of Gori, Mtskheta and Rustavi. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Though compiled relatively late, this table includes data handed down from earlier periods. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Following the abolition of serfdom and the break-up of feudal and patriarchal forms of social organization, Georgia, along with other regions of the Caucasus, was undergoing com- mercial development on an increasing scale. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Includes bibliographical references and index. A History of Modern Yemen
Northwards is Upper Yemen, an ecologically much poorer region that includes Sanaa; and Sa’dah, seven days’ march north again of Sanaa, was the original centre of the Zaydi Imams. A History of Modern Yemen
The SAL of the 19505 — literally translated, the “League of the Sons of the Arab South” — was represented by the “League of the Sons of Yemen”, and CAbd al-Rahman al-Jifrl, long resident in Saudi Arabia until 1990, headed this as Mukiammad al-Jifii once headed the League which allied with Sultan cAll of La~j against the British. A History of Modern Yemen
p. Includes index. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
fledgling Fatah group, who aimed to blow up a canal that was diverting water from the River Jordan, an issue which had developed into an international dis- pute that Arab countries were too impotent to address. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Towards a Sociology of the Islamisation of Yemen 5 6 Towards a Sociology of the Islam isation of Yemen The Northern Highlands is an area of high, rocky plateaus and basins that is interrupted by many peaks and occasional volcanism. Comtemporary Yemen
It extends from Asir to the Yaslah pass in the south, and is bounded on the west by a precipitous natural barrier, the Western Escarpment, and on the east by a less abrupt dropping off at approximately the 1,700-metre mark. Comtemporary Yemen
Archive of the Department of Education, Mukalla. Comtemporary Yemen
Education for Nation-building 123 Figure 8.2: Comtemporary Yemen
we might be better able to sharpen our analyses of such relationships, and even be considerably more knowledgeable in undertaking comparisons, from one region to another, or over time. Comtemporary Yemen
XX (16 Oct. 1968), pp. 10-12. Comtemporary Yemen
The effect of these two institutions was evident, directly and indi- rectly, and they succeeded in building several ministries and agencies. Comtemporary Yemen
The state shoulders all financial responsibility in this respect. Comtemporary Yemen
p. Includes bibliographical references and index. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The revolutionaries in Algeria and Vietnam talked peace and fought at the Fighting Terrorism 105 same time”5—that is, just as the FLN “talked peace” before completely driving the French out of Algeria, and just as the North Vietnamese “talked peace” before com- pletely driving the United States out of Vietnam (peace talks for which Henry Kissinger and his Vietnamese counterpart were granted the Nobel Peace Prize), so, too, could the PLO talk peace until Israel had been com- pletely driven out of “Palestine”—which is to say, all of Israel. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
They should reject this criticism, responding, as has the Supreme Court of the United States, that “it is ‘obvious and unarguable’ that no governmental interest is more compelling than the security of the Nation”3— and this includes unlimited civil liberties. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Includes bibliographic references and index. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The sec- ond type, which does make use of Arabic texts, includes better and more solid research but usually does not give a complete picture of the multi- faceted phenomenon that Hamas represents. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Al-Madhoon, ‘Al-Haraka aI-Islamiyya,” p. 73, citing Hussein Abul Nami, Qita’ Gazza 1948—1967.~ HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
It also participated in the 1983 protest demonstrations commemo- rating the first anniversary of the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and in the demonstrations at Bir Zeit University to protest the Israeli occupation of Lebanon;75 two student members of the Islamic bloc, Jawad Abu Salmiyah and Sa’eb Dahab, were killed. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
One of the movement’s leaders summed up Hamas’s efforts: “It was calling for war while everyone was marching toward peace.”6 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Hamas leaflet, “Clarification from Hamas spokesman, Ibrahim Ghosheh,” 7 Novem- 153. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The third position opposes elections and refuses to take part in them; this cat- egory includes Hamas, the PFLP, and Islamic Jihad. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Palestine Liberation Organization ARTICLE 27: The Palestine Liberation Organization is closer than any other group to the Islamic Resistance Movement; it includes the fathers, brothers, relatives, and friends [of our members]. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Includes bibliographical references (p. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Most attacks are planned by a military leadership which also includes local political figures. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Hezbollah also has a politburo of twelve members which includes all the party’s deputies in parliament. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Palestinians were on their way out of Lebanon and the Iranians were making their entrance. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
This includes the Jihadic Committee for the Support of the Islamic Resistance, which collects donations and provisions for the fighters, and literacy programmes. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Hezbollah is not permitted to offer free education, but their schools are cheaper than the government institutions and this has proved to be one of their chief attractions. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
It covers 7,500 square metres and includes dormitories for boarding students, lecture halls, administrative offices, a mosque and gardens. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Mount Lebanon is a staunchly Christian area which includes part of the southern suburbs in its constituency.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Like the human species itself, peoples and nations are constantly evolving under the dual influence of their own “nature,” whatever that is, and their environment, which inevitably includes intruders, enemies, and benefactors. The Making of the Georgian Nation
There is no single interpretive strand to hold together a his- torical experience that includes such diverse figures as Vakhtang Gorgasali, Erekle II, Noe Zhordania, Lavrenti Beria, and Eduard Shevardnadze, or such different experiences as Christianization and collectivization. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Desiatina (p1. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The Armenians have their own ritual and body of dogma; their national Church is called the Gregorian, after Saint Gregory the Illuminator, who brought Christianity to Armenia about the year A.D. 300, in the reign of Diocletian. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Imereti was reckoned to comprise the Colchis of the ancients, including the low-lying, densely vegetated land of Mingrelia on the Black Sea coast; Guria, between the Rioni and Cholok rivers; Atchara around Batumi; and mountainous Svaneti, land of the Svans, once a nation of warriors ruled by their own king and council of elders and capable of launching into battle an army many thousands strong. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The history of Georgian art stretches back into remote antiquity. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
When finally Vorontsov extricated himself and the famished and threadbare survivors of his force from enemy territory, it was with a loss of 4,000 men, including three generals and zoo other officers. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Shamil remained in possession of most of Daghestan, including Avaria, and of the greater part of Chechnya. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The first important engagement was in fact an attack on Kakheti by the Imam Shamil with io,ooo or more mountaineers in August i 8~ ~, but this was beaten off by a Russian force under Prince Argutinsky-Dolgorukov. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
In March i 901, the police rounded up and imprisoned the leaders of the militant socialist wing in Tbilisi, including Lenin’s disciple Victor Kurnatovsky. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Following the disturbance, the police rounded up many leading socialist intellectuals whom they had previously treated with tolerance, including Noe Zhordania, who spent several months in the Metekhi fortress jail in Tbilisi. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Stalin was sent to Batumi to stir up revolu- tionary activity among the workers at the important Black Sea port and oil-refinery. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
When it was learnt that all the detainees were to be deported from Batumi, an even larger crowd of demon- strators, including workers from the Rothschild and Mantashev factories, the docks and the railway yards, in all about 6,ooo, set out for the barracks where the prisoners were held. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
At the same time, daring and determined young men were continually reinforcing the revolutionary wing of the Social-Democratic party in the Caucasus. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Strikes broke out in Russia’s chief cities, and the Social-Revolutionary, Kalyaev, blew up the Grand Duke Sergius in the Kremlin. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The population is repudiating the oath of allegiance to the crown and pledging fidelity to the revolutionary committee. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Pending instructions, he detailed Major-General Alikhanov- Avarsky to proceed to Western Georgia with a strong detach- ment of troops, including artillery, and take over complete control of the affected areas. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
However, the organizers forced their way in and the meeting began in the presence of an audience of some 2,000, including many ordinary citizens who had come from sheer curiosity. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The Cossacks went berserk and shot down all passers-by, including the Chief Pastor of the German Lutheran colonies in the Caucasus. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
On the following day, 22 October i 905, the ‘Russian Patriots’ gathered in much in- creased strength. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
As a result, several leading Bolsheviks, including Litvinov, the future Soviet A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA ¶76 liturgy discouraged; twenty episcopal sees lay vacant and seven hundred and forty parishes were without pastors. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Others, including extremists both on the nationalist wing and among the revolutionary groups, hoped for a Russian defeat at the hands of Germany and Austria, to be followed eventually by a new order for the peoples of the Tsarist empire. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
In March 1917, the Russian secret police planned a wholesale round-up of Georgian political leaders of all shades, including the chief of the Georgian Social-Democrats, Noe Zhordania. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
On z6 April 1918, Chkhenkeli, who combined the offices of Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary, published the names of the members of his new Transcaucasian Ministry, which con- tained four Georgians (including Cbkhenkei himself), five Armenians and four Azerbaijani Muslims. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
As soon as this became evident, Noe Zhordania, leader of the Georgian Social-Democrats and President of the Georgian National Council in Tbilisi, was summoned to Batumi. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
British and Indian troops, highly unpopular with the Georgians, were withdrawn to a British military district based on the port of Batumi. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
On 8 April 1920, a North Caucasian bureau of the Central Committee of the All- Russian Communist Party was set up, its members including Orjonikidze, Smilga, Mdivani and Kirov. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Grigol Uratadze, a veteran Menshe- vik, was sent clandestinely to Moscow to negotiate with Chicherin and the other People’s Commissars. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Staff of Mission, including attend- ants and a group of seventeen persons ostensibly despatched to settle details regarding Peace Treaty, numbers about seventy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Simultaneously, Red Army units prepared to invade Georgia from the north through the Daryal and Mamison passes and along the Black Sea coast towards Suk- humi. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Several members of the former Men- shevik government returned clandestinely from exile, including the former Minister of Agriculture, Noe Khomeriki, as well as the commander of the old National Guard, V. Jugheli; both were caught and subsequently shot. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
A young Georgian airman who was piloting his plane crashed deliber- ately; all the occupants, including the pilot himself, were killed. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
This volte-face caused consternation in Georgian and Trans- caucasian Communist circles. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Vigorous and ruthless when neces- sary, Orjonikidze had a reputation for decency and tried to thwart Beria’s wholesale executions in Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
It is also true that they exhibit at times an unreasonably cantankerous attitude towards neighbouring peoples, including the Russians themselves, from whom they have suffered injury in the past. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
North Yemen, under the Zaydi Imamate, was the one fully inde- pendent Arab government after World War I. South Yemen was a British protectorate. A History of Modern Yemen
One finds it nearly everywhere in Yemen, including the highlands, for nearly everywhere the rains are unreliable and drought was a con- stant fear. A History of Modern Yemen
The Ottomans, while their presence lasted, never formally ceded their own right to rule the Islamic World, of which Arabia, including Yemen, formed a vital part as the “cradle of Islam”. A History of Modern Yemen
The board of culamã) convened for the purpose, including Zayd al-Daylaml of the Sanaa appeal court, refused to find him guilty, but suspect young men were nonetheless held for months afterwards. A History of Modern Yemen
A shipment of arms arrived in October that year and further shipments followed, including a consign- ment of outdated aircraft which sat on the ground until their tyres per- ished. A History of Modern Yemen
An axis of long-established Liberals such as ‘Abd al-Salam Sabrah, ‘Abd al- Rahman al-Iryani and Zubayri, demanded a revised constitution and Revolutions and civil wars: the 1960s 91 92 A history of modern Yemen Plate ~.i. Revolution in the North. A History of Modern Yemen
Complaints were heard about the power of “merchants”, Zaydis complained of being squeezed from posts by ShafiCis, and among the ShafiCis themselves a group including Qasim Ghälib complained of the NuCmans: “We are not going to swear alle- giance to an Imam named Ahmad Nucman~~, they said, after a difference over who controlled al-Rahidah, a customs post involved with smuggling (not least of whisky and beer) from Aden. A History of Modern Yemen
.“ A History of Modern Yemen
A compromise of head-scarf and belted over- coat flourished briefly but activists soon controlled all the student unions. A History of Modern Yemen
Tribal conferences, secular discussion groups and Islamist organisations, though they differed enormously in their aims and methods, all claimed on occasion not to be “parties” (ahzãb, p1. A History of Modern Yemen
Bin ‘Abdat gets a poor press in British writing (not least from Ingrams, whom he once locked up) as a “mediaeval” figure. A History of Modern Yemen
He was remarkable on several counts. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Several thousand Arab civilians were slaughtered in different parts of the country, leading to the panicked flight across the borders of some 750,000 others. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
In 1955, the Ba’ath campaigned to keep Jordan out of the British-inspired Baghdad Pact, and in 1956, during the Suez war, it wanted King Hussein to side with Egypt’s Nasser, the nationalists’ hero then fighting for his life—and for Arab independence—against Britain, France, and Israel. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Fatah had recruits wherever Palestinians were to be found— including Saudi Arabia, where Abu Nidal, a proven activist, was inevitably drawn into the net. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
He was in particular much impressed by the Irgun, the brainchild of the Russian-born agitator Vladimir Jabotinsky, who called for the unabashed use of force—an “iron wall”—against the Arabs to establish full Jewish sovereignty over both banks of the Jordan, an agenda adopted by his loyal disciples Yitzhak Shamir and Menachem Begin. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
THE SPLIT BECOMES FORMAL Abu Nidal’s reaction to the death sentence was to denounce Arafat as a heretic whose willingness to accept a peaceful solution of the Palestine question was a betrayal of Fatah’s original ideals. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Abu lyad recounted to me that when he first spoke to the gunmen from the control tower, they were violent and abusive, but he was gradually able to influence each one of them in turn, including their leader, who called himself Tony. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Israel occupied the whole of South Lebanon up to the Litani River, One of Abu Nidal’s principal lieutenants at this time was Abd Israel announced that its invasion of Lebanon was a response ABU NIDAL: A GUN FOR HIRE / 113 114 / PATRICK SEALE sending a panic-stricken population fleeing northward toward Bei- rut. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
They stayed put. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
He closed his door and tightened his security. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
businessman, and for the first year of his stay the Polish authorities did not know who he was. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Abu Nidal appointed one of his nephews, Abd al-Karim al-Banna (code name Husam Mustafa), a graduate of the Baghdad College of Law and Politics, to take charge of it. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
He edits the organization’s in-house maga- zine, al-Tariq (The Path), and is its principal contributor. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
The Organiza- tion Directorate’s Palestine/Jordan Committee has almost no funds or facilities and was for a long time manned by only two persons—Samir Darwish, who was sent on a mission to Peru, where he was arrested, and Fadil al-Qaisi, who died in London after undergoing heart surgery. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
In them, he railed as usual against “imperialism” and “Zionism,” but he also declared with outra- geous bluster that he would kill several world leaders, including Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, Hussein of Jordan, and Mubarak of Egypt. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
This was the notorious Lavon affair, named after Israel’s defense minister at the time. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
The collapse of American diplomacy was evident in the abrogation of the Israel-Lebanon accord, which George Shultz had brokered. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
He identified Syria as the key terrorist state whose “worldwide intelligence apparatus” made use of Palestinians, Armenians, Japanese, and even Thais! Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
April 17, 1984-A British policewoman, Yvonne Fletcher, is killed when a gunman inside the Libyan People’s Bureau in London opens fire on anti-Qaddafi demonstrators. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
I had investigated this terrorist incident, which implicated the Syrians, when I was researching my biography of President Assad. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
It was widely supposed that Khuly’s motive was revenge for an incident two months earlier, when Israel, hoping to capture Pales- tinian guerrilla leaders, had intercepted and forced down in Israel the executive jet returning Syrian officials to Damascus. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Air force intelligence then sent the bomb by Syrian diplomatic bag to London, where it was handed over to Hindawi. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
On May 11, 1988, Abu Nidal’s organization detonated a car bomb in Nicosia, killing and wounding fifteen people, including a Cypriot woman who was in a car behind the booby-trapped vehicle and a retired Cypriot diplomat, Andreas Frangos, who was walking nearby. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
As if to demon- strate his sense of immunity, he would regale his colleagues with scurrilous stories about Qaddafi’s love life. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
He, of course, exploited such tolerance for all it was worth. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Twoscore and more, including women and university students, were kidnapped in Syria in the l980s, smuggled out to Lebanon, and butchered in the Badawi refugee camp, in the north of the country. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Abu Nidal would admit only to having killed Hammami—because of his secret contacts with Israelis. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
They are responsible for his actions. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
All rights reserved No part of this book, spec~f1cally including the table of contents and index, may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writingfrom the publisher. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
DS119.7.N346 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The best description of that April afternoon was a riot, and the intensity of the emotions caught everyone, including Arab and Jewish leaders, by sur- prise. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Within days Arab men from villages around the country arrived in Jerusalem with clubs and knives, and after a convenient provocation they launched a ferocious attack. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
TheArab General Strike 11 12 Arab and Israeli Terrorism An influence historians rarely discuss is the circulation in Palestine of an Arabic translation of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The soldiers later described how they were privately congratulated by high government leaders, including Ben-Gurion. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
guerrilla leaders in Gaza in February 1966; soon after, Syria imprisoned all the Fatah members it could find, including Arafat and AbuJihad, for over a month, forcing the guerrilla leaders to stage a hunger strike for their release. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The courts handed harsh sentences to the youths, including house demolitions and 4. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
He discussed this with other PFLP leaders, including future terrorist sponsor Ahmed al-Ghafour. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
This was the first bloody attack by a Palestinian organization outside the Middle East. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Israelis struck back two days later, not at the PFLP but at the Beirut Airport, where a team of commandos helicoptered in and destroyed 13 Arab planes. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
As well as fighting the Zionist-imperialist enemy, the PFLP was warring against the reactionary Arab states and their society, and involving women was part of that rebellion. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They lived in a dream world, calling each other comrade and thinking they were working to regain their homeland. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Such profiles tend to be either racist or inaccurate. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
By the time the Israeli guards responded and killed two of the Japanese and wounded the third, the terrorists had killed 27 people, including 16 Catholic pilgrims from Puerto Rico and Aharon Katzir, a physicist in charge of Israel’s nuclear weapons program.’2 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
A week before, Israeli F-4 Phantoms had shot down a Libyan Boeing 727 traveling between Tripoli and Cairo, killing 107 pas- sengers, including former Libyan foreign minister Salah Buassir and one Amer- ican. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Israel never apologized and never paid compensation to Benamane’s widow. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Rafael married her lawyer, then divorced him and returned to Israel to a hero’s wel- come.55 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
David Tinnin estimates that it cost Israel about $500,000 to kill each person,58 not one of whom was guarded. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They seized 90 children from a nearby school for Israeli cadets in the Gadna community, demanding the release of 26 prisoners, one for each year since statehood, including two Jews convicted of working with the fedayeen. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
His distrust and hatred for It is said that Sabri’s father was a close friend of Zionist nationalists, including Dr. Chaim Weizmann, Israel’s first president and foremost leader of the Zionist movement, and Avraham Shapira, head of a Zionist militia.1 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Prince Fahd, then interior minister, overreacted, round- ing up several Palestinians, including Sabri, and detaining them for three or four days. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Islamic and African conferences that followed bestowed on the PLO the same status. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
He came to New York wearing a uniform and a gun, and he wanted to walk into the General Assembly with his gun as a symbol of armed struggle, but a Palestinian American persuaded him to dis- card it. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Abu Nidal claims that he called for a conference because he and his group did not want to splinter the movement, but Arafat was on a diplomatic roll, and he saw no need for discussion. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Abu Nidal often listened to Hamdoun and mouthed Hamdoun’s Baathist slogans. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
According to dissidents, Abu Nidal did not order this, and it is unclear who sent them, but it was the final straw, and Fatah began cutting off the Iraqi heretics—which not only gave the FRC validity, but also jeopardized Fatah’s relationship with Iraq. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The possibility of an Iraq-Syria alliance posed a serious threat to Israel. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
For weeks before the war both Egypt and Syria had been fortifying their borders, sending combat- ready brigades and heavy hardware to the front, including flotation bridges to cross the Suez. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
About the same time, the PLO warned its CIA contacts about a plan to shoot down Henry Kissinger’s plane over the Bakaa Valley, and Kissinger’s security people changed their plans. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
According to Time, Israel used 14 agents, including some of the same peo- After Chambers knew Salameh’s habits, the agents rented a Volkswagen When Salameh’s car passed the Volkswagen, Chambers pressed the remote Zuhair Mohsin loved a fine cigar, a dark, fat Havana. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
In early 1981 the leftist Khader met Arafat in Beirut to try again to start negotiations with Israel, and he was shot just after he made an appointment with prominent Israelis.2’ Arab and Israeli Terrorism
As PLO representative, Khadar effectively lobbied the European Com- munity for Palestinian rights. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
However, the assassin for this operation was flown in from Baghdad two weeks before, ready to follow instructions from his liai- son. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They announced the expulsion of Palestinian residents on a Sunday, when most of the world’s journalists take the day off. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Military strategists tell us that Israel planned their invasion carefully, including the best possible date. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
As they were approaching home, a dark Fiat approached, and two men jumped out and filled Matar with lead. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Many world lead- ers were there, heads of socialist parties around the world, including Israeli leader Shimon Peres, who told the delegates that they should not allow ter- rorists a stage and successfully prevented Sartawi from addressing the confer- ence. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The report says that the morale of the fighters is high. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The next day in Rome the Jordanian ambassador, Taysir Alaedin Toukah, and his Egyptian driver were wounded when an FRC car came alongside theirs and opened fire Chicago gangland style. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The FRC attacker drove from Vienna and stayed in various hotels before his liaison gave him a disposable RPG, $1000 cash, a fragmentation grenade, and his instructions. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The next day a Syrian official declared that the three Israelis were not hol- iday makers but intelligence agents, but offered no details. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Mossad had always operated in Cyprus, in both Larnaca and Limas- sol ports, often bringing recruits, including FRC members, for discussions and entertainment. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
In February 1986 Israel force-landed a Libyan plane carrying Syrian and Lebanese passengers, including a Baath party official, and kept saber-rattling about the Syrian preparation for war.5 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
At least 63 people were killed and 100 injured, and apparently all were civilians, including an adopted daughter of Gadaffi.6 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
sion, and in 1986 the Soviet bloc countries tried to heal the rift by arranging meetings of the different factions in various East European capitals. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
He went there and told the PLO security office under Abu Hol that he was a spy and wanted to amend his ways, saying he had a lot of information to offer. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Ismail joined the Mossad at 18 while he was living in the West Bank. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They used five gunmen who stormed the hotel with machine guns and grenades, killing at least seven, including two children and four British nationals. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Each branch, including London, dealt in weapons, but the actual weapons did not pass through Zibado offices, any more than did crates of canned tomatoes. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
It was run by Samir Najmeddin, an Abu Nidal loyalist, who was treated well and rewarded handsomely. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
No madman or drunk could have devised and kept together such a tight, orderly framework. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The highest order, the Politburo, with 9 or 10 members including Abu Nidal, controlled the organization, made daily deci- sions, and implemented all internal and external functions, holding the orga- nization’s secrets. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Membership Committee, a small group of three or four people, was 17. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Shia attacked several Kuwaiti targets beginning in 1985, including the bloody hijacking of a Kuwait Airlines jumbo in 1988, demanding the release of 17 comrades in Kuwaiti prison who had been convicted on Decem- ber 12, 1983, of other terrorist attacks against the state. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
When the United States Marines arrived in Lebanon for the second time in 1983 they were welcomed as a peacekeeping force by all parties, including the Shia. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
There was also at least one Arab gunman aboard, Sojod Adnan Mohammed, a 21-year-old Jordanian, probably a Palestinian, who was identified by a half-dozen names including “Zojab.” Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Athens was one of FRC’s principal bases and weapons deposits dur- ing the heyday of terrorist operations. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
But Abu Ghazalah also had personal reasons for staying in Greece. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Abu Bakr’s rebellion came hard on the heels of a bloody internal fight. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The killers claimed the executed were agents of Israel, Egypt, Iraq, Britain, the United States, or Germany.2 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Abu Bakr went to the PLO and tried to get support for their goal of destroying Abu Nidal. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Abu Bakr and Issa fled Libya on diplomatic passports to Tunis and Alge- ria with wild stories of human butchery in Libya as well. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Deserters report that hundreds were killed, their best fighters, including almost everyone involved in outside operations. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Historians and researchers have shown that the Zionist militias, including the Haganah, employed systematic terror as well as forced expulsion to clear the land of Palestinians, effectively terrorizing over 750,000 Palestinians into fleeing, a necessary prerequisite to the foundation of a state with a Jewish majority.2 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
From Haven to Con- quest: Readings in Zionism and the Palestine Problem until 1948 (Beirut: Institute for Palestinian Studies, 1971). Arab and Israeli Terrorism
16. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
London Times, 16 and 20 May1950, p.3. Shlomo Hillel, posing as Charles Armstrong, negotiated the Mid East Air deal with Iraqi officials including Prime Minister Tufiq al-Suwaidi, probably with bribes. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
33. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Without Hope (London: New English Library, 1978), say that by late 1968 Jordan hosted 20,000—25,000ftdayeen; New York Times, 15 August 1970, said Fatah had 10,000 men under arms, including 20 per cent non—Palestinians. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
London Times, 28 November 1969, pp. 1,6: Two Palestinians were arrested;15. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Deacon, p. 255; The Washington Post, 29 December 1972, pp. 1, AS. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
A few recruiters were killed during this period, including (March 12, 1973) Simha Gilzer in Nicosia in front of the Palace Hotel. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
including New York Times, p. 7. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
29. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
It is my assumption that the last major change in the geographical features that imprinted a dis- tinct shape on Yemeni society was the collapse of the irrigation systems around Ma’rib with the subsequent demise of a large, sedentary, agricultural society on the Eastern Slope of Yemen some 1,500 years ago. Comtemporary Yemen
The education budget, derived from 5 per cent of the zakat, paid the school maintenance and teachers’ salaries (including those of teachers of religion) for the rest of the pri- mary and secondary schools and teachers’ institutes.’2 Comtemporary Yemen
‘6Another emerged from the Reform Com- mittee of 1898,’~ and yet another in 1901 ~18 There was no lack of docu- ments on the perennial difficulties of applying a secularised judicial system for the first time in Yemen — nor on the use of the issue by the Imam to justify revolt — but neither was the Commission willing to suggest even minor modifications to ease the problem. Comtemporary Yemen
Nadi aI-Islah/aI-Madrasa al-Ahliya (1934—5) Both Hai’at al-Nidal and Fatat al-Fulaihi were based in San’a’ and drew most of their support from the Zaidi north of Yemen. Comtemporary Yemen
According to the Group’s manifesto its aim was nothing less than the ‘elimination of the rule of Imam Yahya and his Sons’.9 Comtemporary Yemen
Hurst, London, 1975), vol. Comtemporary Yemen
These were considered as the driving forces of the 14 October revolution.20 Comtemporary Yemen
This impulse may well account in part for Yahya’s determination to extend his authority in the early 1930s to the northern fringe of Yemen (including Najran, Asir and Jizan), a move which ended disastrously in the Saudi/Yemeni war, since when these territories have been thoroughly integrated into Saudi Arabia. Comtemporary Yemen
Both of the new states have committed themselves to policies of socio-eco- nomic development, including the consequent restructuring of their political systems to advance that goal. Comtemporary Yemen
Obviously, this was a period of instability, of transition, of searching for a new and viable formula around which to rebuild consensus. Comtemporary Yemen
Nevertheless, certain tangible permanent steps were taken. Comtemporary Yemen
On the negative side, however, the civil war produced a chronically weak and often impo- tent central government which was fair game for defiance and non- recognition. Comtemporary Yemen
Basic strategy has relied on attempts to appear to be continuing on the broad course that Hamdi laid out: formal emphasis on the modernist con- ception of the state, including some stated recognition of the impor- tance of state-building, institutionalisation and the leading role of the state in promoting socio-economic development. Comtemporary Yemen
Dissension, within and outside the country, continued after the actions of 1978 and centred on a multitude of issues, including ideological differences, the direction of foreign policy, resentment over overwhelming foreign influence and presence in the country, relations with the North, the economic bankruptcy of the South and continuing tribal and regional rivalries, as exacerbated by the rise of Abd.al-Fattah Comtemporary Yemen
Basically, decentralisation and limited central authority characterised the political system of the traditional phase. Comtemporary Yemen
It deals with curricular development and other research projects which may help in developing education. Comtemporary Yemen
Unfortunately for Ali, the assassination did not have the desired or expected consequences: instead of bolstering his position, it led other members of the NLF to turn on him, and after a brief trial, have him executed. Comtemporary Yemen
He succeeded in replacing the latter in April of 1980, and within days there appears to have been a tangible relaxation in the extremely tight controls which had previously existed over nearly all aspects of South Yemeni society, including, for example, the prohi- bition of conversations between South Yemenis and any ‘foreigner’, which term extended to other Arabs. Comtemporary Yemen
Furthermore, it is highly unlikely that such preconceived notions are going to be subject to easy (and publicly admitted) change. Comtemporary Yemen
limited) application of pressure. Comtemporary Yemen
1967), pp. 9-13, is an appropriate example. Comtemporary Yemen
(5) Discussing the annual budgets of the ministries and agencies connected with employment affairs. Comtemporary Yemen
The magistrates’ courts, including the Chief Magistrate’s Court, dealt with petty offences, traffic offences, small claims, affiliation and maintenance orders and workmen’s compensation cases, and acted as coroners, in addition to having committal jurisdiction. Comtemporary Yemen
The Supreme Court Judges, including the Chief Justice, had equal powers. Comtemporary Yemen
The court had appellate juris- diction as well, and that involved looking into appeals and applica- tions for revision from the judgements and orders of magistrates’ courts, including the Chief Magistrate’s Court, in civil as well as criminal matters. Comtemporary Yemen
The pro- cedure for inquests was made to apply to the rest of the country. Comtemporary Yemen
Accord- ing to a Yemeni politician, this issue has been so sensitive that previous governments have not been able to resolve it without provoking a revolt. Comtemporary Yemen
Article 121 of the constitution. Comtemporary Yemen
Article 126 of the constitution; sections 19—20 and 328 to 332 of the Criminal 194 The Judicial System in Democratic Yemen Procedure; sections of the Civil Procedure. Comtemporary Yemen
There are Social Justice Organisations in Aden and Abyan governorates at present. Comtemporary Yemen
After all, the Saudis’ experience in the 1960s, during the Egyptian inter- vention in North Yemen, convinced them that their security, and that of the Red Sea, would be threatened if San’a’ were controlled by an unfriendly regime. Comtemporary Yemen
The Saudis tried to help the YAR militarily but they were so hopelessly disorganised that this help never materialised; they even interfered with the American military help which the Saudis themselves had originally requested. Comtemporary Yemen
Both Egypt under Sadat and Saudi Arabia planned to replace Soviet with Western supplies, and in February 1979 it seemed that this long-delayed transfer was about to occur, as Carter promised to send $400 million worth of arms to San’a’ as emergency aid to face the South. Comtemporary Yemen
The nature and extent of such a foreign presence provided ample testimony to the Eastern bloc’s continuing stake in the PDRY’s stability, security and development. Comtemporary Yemen
After the failure of the 1948 revolution, many of its leaders, including some of the Free Yemenis, lost their heads to the execu- tioner’s sword and the majority of the remainder (e.g. Comtemporary Yemen
The South Arabian League was constituted in 1950, under the leadership of Muhammad al-Jifri as President. Comtemporary Yemen
- Ali was too proud a person to remain after being humiliated by such a slap in the face. Comtemporary Yemen
On a personal plea from Sultan Ali, al-Jifri was allowed, the next year, to return to Lahej with the proviso that he would not engage in politics. Comtemporary Yemen
Well, a greater Yemen, including Aden and South Arabia?. Comtemporary Yemen
By 1958 the ATUC was the strongest nationalist force in Aden: it had virtually taken over the political stage from its moribund partner, the UNF. Comtemporary Yemen
‘reforms’; a long period of modernising reforms in the nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire. Comtemporary Yemen
Many questions about the Oklahoma City bombing remain unanswered at the time of this writing, including who McVeigh’s accomplices were and where he got the cash he used to plan his attack. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Additional and more ambitious attacks were in the works, including assaults on prisons in which Fighting Terrorism 23 FALN members were being held. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In fact, the record of active anti-terror techniques, once adopted, has been excellent. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Faced with this contin- gency, the Japanese government did what it had failed to do in the past. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
No thinker was more important in laying the philosophical foundations of the modern democratic state, yet in his Theological-Political Treatise, Spinoza was careful to define clear limits to personal freedoms, including the pivotal one of freedom of speech, without which the meaning of democracy is vitiated. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Each of the regimes made its own independent arrangements with the Soviets, enjoying Soviet military assistance and diplomatic support, in exchange for its staunch anti-Western stance. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The full extent of the Soviet-Arab terrorist network— indeed, the fact that it was a network—was throughout the traumatic years ~of international terrorism obscured by successful efforts to “delegate” much of the violence to other Eastern bloc and Arab regimes that could be blamed for these activities. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
At the second conference of the Jonathan Institute, held in Washington in 1984, the participants, including leading figures in American politics, called for political, economic, and military sanctions against the states spon- soring terrorism. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
On the political level, Israel’s representatives in the United States waged a concerted campaign to convince American citizens that they should adopt similar policies. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The bombings left many hundreds dead, including 240 American Ma- Fighting Terrorism 67 rifles. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
That they are prone to violent coercion, including ter- ror, is not an incidental characteristic of dictatorships; it is their quintessential, defining attribute. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Hizballah is presently the major terrorist force in south Lebanon, launching incessant attacks against Israel’s northern bor- der. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Thus, one of the co-conspirators in the World Trade Center bombing was assisted by a formidable yet hith- erto unnoticed Islamic group in Denmark. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Germany, too, has become an epicenter of militant European Islamic activities, not only including organi- zations affiliated with the Iranian-Shiite and Sunni Mu- jahdeen terrorist networks but also those serving as the base for a third militant Islamic terror movement—a fa- natical Turkish Islamic terrorism which has found a ha- ven among the two-million-strong Turkish community in Germany. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Other terrorism originates from still an- other source, the Arab—Israeli conflict. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The Islamic ter- rorist network has for this reason been making rapid inroads into every part of Europe, including Britain, and until recently hardly anyone was paying attention. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Israel has had some spectacular successes in this area, including the rescue of 103 hostages at Entebbe. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
But in the case of a prolonged and sustained campaign lasting months or years, the natural disgust of the public with the terrorist’s message begins to break down and is often replaced by a willingness to accom- modate terrorist demands. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Hatzofeh, July 13, 1995. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Palestin- ian rebellions since that time, including the revolution that began in the early 1 960s against Israel and was led by the Palestinian National Libera- tion Movement (Fateh), are subject to the same logic. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
It spread quickly, and its organization grew because of many factors, including “the growing popu- lar respect and appreciation for the support given by the Egyptian Mus- lim Brotherhood to the Palestinian cause.., HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
hood in the 1948 war provides plentiful details on the subject, including the names of battle sites and local leaders who were killed. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Hence, Gazan Brothers stood at the forefront of military and political engagement. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Egyptian president’s immense public appeal, particularly among Palestinians, drove a wedge between the Brotherhood and his followers. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Nevertheless, one can say that Hamas’s perspective on the struggle in Palestine, including its religious and doctrinal dimensions, was more or less in line with (albeit far to the right of) that of Palestinian and Arab political culture, which sees a strong connection between Zionism and Western imperialism. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Palestinian cause also lost ground on several fronts where progress had been achieved during the Cold War. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Ibid. had represented supportive fora where scores of states could be found that opposed U.S. policies and backed Third World causes, including the Pales- tinian cause. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
many Islamic movements, whether conscious or not, to transfer individ- ual morality (which is consistent with Islamic values) to the political activ- ities of groups, states, and international organizations without regard for the huge differences between ordinary individual and group political behavicr. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This option, too, almost certainly would have limited the room for political maneuver. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
In effect, the movement is standing still, if not frozen in place. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The PA mounted a large-scale campaign of arrests of Hamas members; 900 were jailed, including some of its important leaders. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The PA interpreted this declaration as a temporary commitment to freeze guerrilla operations. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Consequently, the change from the TRO to the Alliance of Palestinian Forces was little more than a name change, particularly because no common political agenda was agreed upon, just a set of “polit- ical tasks” for the alliance. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
It appeared as though the experience of Palestinian secular resistance organi- zations was being repeated by the Islamic ones, including the infighting, the only difference being in the names of the parties involved. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
One Jordanian analyst views Hamas’s conduct in Arab countries, including Jordan, as having gained the movement credibility with the regimes of the host countries.53 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
For example, it participated in the Arab Islamic Popular Congress that used to meet in Khartoum, at the invita- tion of its secretary general, Hassan al-Turabi. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This legisla- tion established an account that was funded by contributions collected from governmental and nongovernmental organizations and earmarked for support of the Palestinian people through their Islamic forces.79 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Such considerations apparently con- tinued to influence the formulation of Israeli policy through the first two years of the intifada. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
During this initial period of “reconnaissance” and “political softening,” a number of Hamas leaders, including Sheikh Yassin, al-Rantisi, and al-Zahhar, were summoned and engaged in discus- sions.’42 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Several Israeli officials, including then Prime Minister Rabin, declared Israel’s readiness for dialogue and negotiations with Hamas to achieve this objective.’45 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
In fact, a series of statements by Hamas’s leaders and prominent figures, including Sheikh Yassin, have stressed this categorical rejection of political assassinations.’2 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
contest alone most of the time and against an alliance of nationalist forces represented by the organizations within the PLO, including those that later would oppose the PLO’s policies on Madrid and Oslo. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Consequently, Hamas tried to find a common denominator between rejecting the Oslo process, including the elections, and participating in or influencing those elections. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This is an outcome and an outlook that Hamas does not wish to encourage. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The first area of activity pertains to Islamic charitable institutions and societies, including mosques, classes that teach students to memorize the Quran, zakat (alms tax) committees, medical clinics, relief societies, orphanages, schools and nurseries, and cultural and sports clubs. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Along the same line, Ibrahim Ghosheh explains that among the results of such operations are [negative] “impacts on the structure of Zionist society, on immigration programs from abroad, and on various other activities including tourism. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Apparently, the Soviet Union was plagued by increasingly more serious internal problems that required it to shift attention to domestic matters. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Appendix I 301 302 HAMAS hands of troops as well as settlers, victimizing women, children, and old men. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The elected leadership would be the ones to articulate the hopes and goals of our people and to decide on all succeeding steps including the future of our cause. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
To focus on military or semi-military targets and to avoid other targets, especially civilians, including women, children, and the elderly. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
But the escalation of Zionist repression and terrorism pushed it to defend itself and the Pales- tinian people with more effective means, including military confrontations with the armed pillars of occupation. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Pictures of Ayatollah Khomeini had begun appearing in some villages, including Maarakeh and Jibsheet, announcing the arrival of a movement which derived its influence from Iran and not from the secular path of Amal. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
By mid-1984, seven villages, including Jibsheet and Maarakeh, had become known as the ‘arc of resistance’: Israeli soldiers dared enter them only during daytime with massive back-up. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
But it refused to allow any visits to Obeid, including representatives of the International Committee of the Red Cross, so there has been no corroboration of their claims. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
UNIFIL, Arab governments and even European countries, including Britain, have described Hezbollah’s war with Israel as a justified fight for the liberation of occupied territories. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
It killed eighty-five people, including children and pregnant women and maimed nearly two hundred. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
In fact she had joined the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP), one of the oldest parties in Lebanon, which calls for the creation of a Greater Syria including Lebanon. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
PresidentAssad of Syria praised her action and some of the region’s best poets, including the Egyptian Khaled Mohammed Khaled, dedicated verses in her memory. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
There are no gains to be made here and so it does not matter much to them whether Israel continues to occupy South Lebanon or not. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Farid is related to a notorious clan in the area, and his brother-in-law was directly linked to the kidnap of Terry Waite, John McCarthy and Brian Keenan. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Under diplomatic cover, they have recruited proxies and cells for operations worldwide, including the assassination of Tehran’s opponents abroad. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
During the hostage crisis, at least eighty-seven foreigners were kidnapped, including seventeen Americans, fourteen Britons, fifteen French, seven Swiss and seven West Germans. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Hezbollah’s security apparatus was involved in the ensuing investigation and arrested several Lebanese, including a woman, who admitted that she had been trained and hired by Mossad to carry out the attack. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Islamic Jihad’s main condition for the release of the hostages depended upon the fate of a group of prisoners held in Kuwait. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
He was given a thirteen-year prison sentence when the court heard that the kidnappings were undertaken to win freedom for Mohammed.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Lebanon would plunge into its darkest Hezbollah 192 moments later that afternoon during the Israeli artillery assault on the UN outpost in Qana. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
More than 150 civilians had been killed, including four massacres which not only drew international outrage, but damaged Israel’s military reputation and under- mined the image of the Israel Defence Forces’ professionalism. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
It took Warren Christopher six days of intense shuttling between the Syrian capital and Israel, including a brief stop- over in Lebanon, to clinch a cease-fire agreement between the parties concerned. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
THE MAKING OF THE GEORGIAN NATION THE MAKING OF THE GEORGIAN NATION Second Edition Ronald INDIANA UNIVERSITY PRESS Bloomington and Indianapolis Grigor Syny © 1988, 1994 by Ronald Grigor Suny All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Soviet scholars, including Melikishvili, argue that this “was the period of the disintegration of primitive communal relations among the population of Georgia” and the transition to “class society.” The Making of the Georgian Nation
But the Achaemenid hold over the western satraps was tenuous, and during the reign of Artaxerxes 11(405—359 B.C.) several provincial subordinates, including Orontes of Armenia and Datam of Cappadocia, revolted against Persian authority.37 The Making of the Georgian Nation
A modern Georgian historian, Ivane Javakhishvili, has argued that Georgian writing goes back to the Phoenician-Semitic~Aramaic cultural world and is unrelated to Armenian. The Making of the Georgian Nation
By late April 1863 he had completed a full report for the nobles of Tiflis province Emancipation 99 100 GEORGIA IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE based on his own reading of Georgian history. The Making of the Georgian Nation
By the fall of 1863 the debates in the local noble assemblies had ended and the various projects had been submitted to the Transcaucasian Commit- tee for the Reorganization of the Landlord Peasantry. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Central to the terms of emancipation was a two-part principle: while officially recognizing that all the land belonged to the noble landlords, including lands that peasants had worked for centuries, the state nonetheless required that henceforth the land be divided between nobles and peasants. The Making of the Georgian Nation
In 1867 the serfs of Samegrelo were freed. The Making of the Georgian Nation
They directed their propaganda to students and the artisanal workers in the towns. The Making of the Georgian Nation
But their view that the coalition government must be continued was no longer shared by signifi- cant political forces, including members of the major liberal party, the Constitutional Democrats (Kadets), who had already concluded that com- promise with the soviet would lead the country into anarchy. The Making of the Georgian Nation
In the years of civil war the RSFSR had had no political or military support from any quarter, Lenin reminded his readers, and was under constant threat from the Entente. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Martynov explained his own evolution to Bolshevism: In the October days history placed before us the question: for a dictatorship of the proletariat or for democracy? At that time all the Mensheviks, including we internationalists, fell into the swamp of opportunism. The Making of the Georgian Nation
In Georgia “socially alien elements,” including kulaks, merchants, and their children, were ordered out of secondary and higher educational institutions. The Making of the Georgian Nation
In June it was announced that Marshal Tukhachevskii and other top military commanders had been found guilty of treason and executed. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Two districts in the former Karachai Autonomous Region, including its capital city, were an- nexed to the Georgian republic as part of the Klukhori district. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Armenians living in Georgia “were subjected to restrictions, deprived of their rights as Soviet citizens, and in many cases deported,” writes Roy Medvedev~ Stalin’s personal anti-Semitism was written into state policy, and a vicious campaign against “cosmopolitanism” led to the arrests of prominent Jews, including Molotov’s wife, Polina Zemchuzhina. The Making of the Georgian Nation
In the years before Gorbachev’s reforms began, the ruling Communist elite in Georgia was ethnically and personally cohesive and able to with- stand penetration by outside authorities. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Many in Georgia, including adherents of the extra-governmental The Georgian Road to Independence 331 332 REVOLUTIONARY AND SOVIET GEORGIA militias, opposed the treaty and were prepared to engage in terrorism to destabilize Shevardnadze’s government further. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The best lands, including the large vineyards, were as a rule kept by the lords and worked by the serfs to fulfill their labor obligations (A. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Zhordaniia, K voprosu, pp. 66, 67, 73, 422. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Foreign Relations (various editors includingJ. A History of Modern Yemen
The British declined the offer. Comtemporary Yemen
Only an unquestioning acceptance of the outdated totalitarian model of the USSR would permit a researcher to make the facile conclusion that the writ of the Kremlin always ran without resistance in outlying areas. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The Peace Bloc won the largest number of votes of any party and took thirty-five seats in the new parliament, followed by the October 11 Bloc, made up of moderate reformers from the Popular Front and other groups, with nineteen seats. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Though not without challenge from more militant elements in Armenian society, the government of President Levon Ter Petrosian man- aged in its first years in power to build a democratic political order, even while overwhelmed by devastating economic problems, the aftermath of the 1988 earthquake, hundreds of thousands of refugees, blockade from Azerbaijan, and a debilitating war in Karabagh.~ The Making of the Georgian Nation
The Iraqi authorities had signaled their changing attitude toward him in a number of unfriendly moves. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Abu Nidal tended to take on the political coloring of which- ever group he happened to be with. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
So to take someone as big as Waite at such a time, what with all the checkpoints around, was simply not practical.’ Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Education and public amenities were not neglected. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Senators Kutaysov and Mechnikov went on to underline the backward state of the social services and public amenities in Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The capital of Georgia became more and more of a cosmopolitan city, complete with European amenities such as hotels, a horse tramway, new bridges, paved streets, a piped water supply, schools, and other municipal and government institutions, housed in imposing stone buildings. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The reorganization of management in industry and con- struction works carried out in the USSR in 1957 helped to accelerate the development of the Georgian economy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Since 1953, one of the main publishing houses has been issuing the works of Shakespeare in Georgian translation, several plays in renderings by Prince Ivane Mach- abeli (1854—98), the rest translated by Givi Gachechiladze and other modern scholars. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Tarmac highways connected the villages of the Druze’s Chouf mountains, lush forests were planted in the hills and valleys surrounding the scenic area and the most basic amenities were secured. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Despite suffering power failure during the civil war, the city maintained most of its amenities and had an infra- structure which, while needing moderisation and maintenance, still functioned. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
There he bought two tickets for Libya and asked Jorde to hand over his remaining cash. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Shi’ites in Leba- non used terror in support of Iran during its war with Iraq, and to frustrate Israeli attempts to dominate them. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
From 1967 to 1972, Yitzhak Shamir and Geula Cohen, both former terrorists, actively encouraged Rabbi Meir Kahane’s Jewish Defense League to harass, sabotage, and bomb Soviet and other targets in the United States and Europe, including the Jewish impresario So! Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Over three hundred men were killed in South Lebanon by these four, 171 of them on a single night in November 1987—on the fabricated charge of being Jordanian agents. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
In Athens they mistakenly opened fire in the airport terminal on passengers waiting for a flight to Geneva instead of Tel Aviv, killing five and wounding fifty-five.56 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
40 among whom were to rise the core group of Fatah. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Algerian government was incensed, believing that it was an Egyptian plot to embarrass them, but they put the Israeli passengers in a guarded hotel and negotiated for the release of the prisoners. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Before I discuss the operational issues involved in defeating domestic terrorism, it is crucial to mention the battle of ideas which constitutes the first and most fundamental defense against terrorism. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In order to sharpen their demand for the release of terrorists jailed in Kuwait and Lebanese Shiites being held by Israel, the gunmen murdered an American pas- senger in cold blood and threw his body on the tarmac. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Most prominent is the Iranian Revolutionary Guards, who rose to prominence in the Khomeinist Shiite revolution in Iran in 1979 and soon afterward sent expeditionary forces to Lebanon. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The rapidly increasing use of suicide bombings by Islamic terrorists of the Hiz- ballah and Hamas suggests that at least some of the peo- ple involved have no qualms about blowing themselves up in the service of their ideology (a phenomenon Amer- icans will remember from the Japanese kamikazes of World War II). Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Hamas has learned from the lessons of the rev- olutionary Palestinian left in the 1960s and 1970s. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The turmoil started in Lebanon in the wake of Operation Litani, Israel’s invasion of March 1978. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Asba was followed in Tripoli by Ali al-Farra (code-named Dr. Kamal), one of Abu Nidal’s most trusted associates: His residence in Libya signaled that Abu Nidal had now made Libya his principal base. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Salameh and his four aides who were also in the car died, as did a German nun, an English student, and four other passersby, while at least eighteen more were injured. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Viewing the Air Egypt plane as Egypt’s sovereign territory, carabinieri captain Fisicano, head of Sigonella base, got his men to surround the plane to protect it from the Americans, who sent a general and a planeload of aides from Germany. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
and government attacks on Christian Ameri- cans,” and calls on its members to “buy ammo now. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
This in turn changed the priorities of the Soviet leadership, leading to a gradual retreat from regional conflict, which left the field to the Americans. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Georgian Minister, 200, 209 Alexander I, King of Georgia, 3’ Alexander, King of Kakheti, sends envoys to Moscow, 32 Alexander I, Tsar of Russia, 40—5, 48, 53, 55, 57, 59, 77 Alexander II, Tsar of Russia, 82, 94—5, 99, 103, 106—7, 112—16, 120 Alexander III, Tsar of Russia, 112, 115—16 Alexander Batonishvili, Bagratid prince, son of King Erekie [I, 40, 54—5, 6o, 67—8 Alexandra, Russian empress, i Alexis (Aleksei Mikhaiovich), Tsar of Russia, 34 INDEX Alikhanov-Avarsky, Russian general, 152, 162, 167—8, ‘75 Allen, W. E. D., cited, 35 Alpani, 9 Alphabet, Georgian, zo Alsace-Lorraine, 128 Ambrosius, Archi,nandrite, afterwards Georgian Catholicos-Patriarch, i77, 241 America, 267 Amilakhori, Prince, assassinated, 159 Ananuri, 49 Anapa, 61—2 Anarchists, 119—20, 172—3, 182 Anatolia, 32, 61—2, 104, 185—6, 196, 20! A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Ilusayn al-Maqbali, for instance, whose father was “of the middling sort”, a village preacher near Yarim whose own father owned a camel and two plough oxen, wanted to go to Aden when he was about thirteen (this would be the late Ig3os): “My mother’s three brothers, cAbdUll~h Muhammad, and cAll were migrants in Sudan. A History of Modern Yemen
Most important was the arrival through 1959, from America and Russia, of wheat as famine aid:68 there was no longer reason for mass starvation — perhaps for the first time in Yemen’s history. A History of Modern Yemen
In a world of cheap wheat from Russia and America to cover the worst years, something might have been done. A History of Modern Yemen
are not from China or America, or Africa or India, but are sons of beloved Yemen. A History of Modern Yemen
After the oil-price rises of 1973—4, the OECD countries — North America, Japan, Western Europe — had gained control of “recycling” OPEC revenues (OPEC’s trade balance went from a $67 billion surplus to a $2 billion deficit in the first four years) and Yemen was peripherally part of this. A History of Modern Yemen
In America and Europe the late 198os were prover- bial for greed, and the symbol of the age was the mobile phone: in Yemen the symbol was a make of car, a four-wheel drive up-market Toyota, which on account of its attractive roundedness Yemenis named for the Egyptian film starlet Layla CJ\Ia~ At the end of the decade these were prominent among rural notables and in Sanaa jammed the better streets at qat-time. A History of Modern Yemen
Soon it became apparent that America might fight over this, in part to protect the Saudi realm, and gradually a coalition was built to do the fighting. A History of Modern Yemen
Soon there were crowds in Sanaa, much encouraged by the Iraqi embassy, pelting the Saudi and American embassies with rocks and chanting ba ‘d al-yawm ma ‘ad amrikã, “after today no more America”. A History of Modern Yemen
To depict the world of the 19905 as “uni-polar”, as if America were responsible for all that hap- pened, would be too simple. A History of Modern Yemen
229 230 JVotes to pages 46—49 42 Zabarah 1956, II,: 332—3. A History of Modern Yemen
One of those involved in the initial attack on the peasants was apparently Salih, stepfather of the later president, ‘Ai ‘Abdullah Salih. A History of Modern Yemen
his family in politics and commerce, 149, ,8o, 189, 192, 201, 202—3 rise to power, 128, 147—9 ‘All ‘Antar (politician in South), 113, 120, 147, 151, 168—9, ‘70 ‘All Na~ir Mul ammad (prime minister in South), 146, 147, 151, 552, 191 and Aden crisis (1986), 168—9 supporters in North, 579, 195, 197 ‘All Salih (relative of ‘All ‘Abdullah Salih), 149, 189, 196, 253 n.38 ‘All Salim al-Biçl (head of YSP, vice president of Yemen), 169—75, 593, 594, ig6 and ‘Au ‘Abdullah Saul, i8i, 184, i86, 591, 595—6 America, see United States ‘Amrän, 26, 167, 195, 196 conference (5963), 93, 103, io8 al-’Amrl family: ‘Abdullah bin Husayn (prime minister, d.i948), 44, 52 Ahmad (governor of Hudaydah), 68 Hasan, see entry following Husayn bin ‘All (judge and scholar), 8, 28, 44 Muhammad (deputy foreign minister), 8i Yalsya (judge in Sanaa), 84 al-’Amri, Hasan (prime minister in North), 103, 105, 114, 115, 117, 124, [26 An’am, Hayl Sa’Td, see Hayl Sa’id al-Anisi, ‘Abd al-WahhAb (secretary of Islah), 187 al-’Ansl, ‘All (office of Presidency), 202 al-’Ansl, Qadi Yal~iya (judge), 526 273 274 Arab Cooperation Council, i8i Arab-Israeli War: of 1967, 113, 114 of [973, 131 Arab League, 56, 100, i8i al-’Arashi, Qadi ‘Abd al-Karim (Northern politician), 147 architecture, ,6, 26, 137, 567, 211, 228 fl.22 A History of Modern Yemen
[B] 91-36450 Manufactured in the United States of America Book design by Oksana Kushnir 24689753 First Edition Set in Times Roman cm. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
He was also good at drill and at physical exercises, and once he had been transferred down to Sidon, he was put in charge of a squad. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
But after the Arab defeat of 1967, he left America and joined the guerrillas in Jordan, fighting at Karameh in March 1968. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
The student would be hooked as long as the organization could afford to pay him. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Shi’ite anger is directed at Israel’s ally America, as well as at Israel itself. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
used by Ronald Reagan and George Shultz and echoed by Vice President George Bush and CIA director William Casey. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
In the summer of 1984, Israel, which had for years labeled all The new focus was on “state-sponsored terrorism,” the phrase President Reagan was apparently greatly influenced, at this ambassador, Benjamin Netanyahu, these proceedings were later published in a book titled Terrorism: How the West Can Win. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Like Claire Sterling’s The Terror Network in the early Reagan years, the conference papers became the master text of America’s obsession with terrorism in Reagan’s second term. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
These included a prominent Egyptian soldier, General Sa’d al-Din Shazli, who had been President Sadat’s chief of staff during the 1973 October War but, having fallen out with him, had taken refuge in Algeria. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
956.04—dc2O Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Voice of America labeled the Shiite radicals who blew up the United States Marine compound at Beirut airport as terrorists. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
America was concerned about the looming long, hot summer of racial violence and the number of people turning on, tun- ing in, and dropping out. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
he remains visibly upset most of the morning. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The attack received far more publicity than the Israeli expulsion a day earlier of 18 ex-prisoners released in an exchange, contrary to the exchange’s terms.2’ Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The devout young women took the brunt of casualties; the Sheikh was unhurt. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
I had met many militant Palestinians, and although their militancy was usually armchair rhetoric, Abu Nidal did represent a strand of Palestinian thought. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
T Bakr—issued a statement saying that they were beginning a corrective move- ment of the FRC because of Abu Nidal’s role in crimes and terrorism, because he made all the decisions by himself, and because he kept money in Swiss banks under his name and the names of his family.’ Arab and Israeli Terrorism
It can also be concluded that America’s bel- ligerent policy accelerated terrorism.9 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Economist notes, “By comparison with anywhere else in the developed world, America is an astonishingly violent place... Arab and Israeli Terrorism
A society embroiled in such violence has no business counseling others on dealing with violence, and by concentrating attention on events like the Achille Lauro hijacking America avoids dealing with its serious problems such as crime. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The United States government estimated the direct cost to its taxpayers for the first four Middle East wars at $55 to $70 billion, with indi- rect costs much greater.” Arab and Israeli Terrorism
28. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Seymour M. Hersh, The Samson Option: Israel, America and the Bomb William R. Farrell, Blood and Rage: The Story of the Japanese RedArmy The story was carried in all papers during the first days of March. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
MD: University Press of America, 1984), Pp. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
London: Zed, 1985. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
New York: Pantheon, 1990. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Hersh, Seymour M. The Price of Power. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Chariot of Israel: Britain, America and the State of Israel. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
MARTIN’S PRESS New York © 1984 B.R. Pridham All rights reserved. Comtemporary Yemen
This additional equipment included a squadron of F-SE jet fighters, several C-130 transport planes, 64 M-60 tanks, 100 armoured personnel carriers and Vulcan anti-aircraft guns. Comtemporary Yemen
This is provided for in the Criminal and Civil Procedure, and sections 13 (1) Article 82 of the constitution states that the Supreme Court is the highest Ibid., and sections 13 (2)and (3), 19 (3) and (4) of the Courts Law. Comtemporary Yemen
FIGHTING TERRORISM How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists ii EDITED BY BENJAMIN NETANYAHU International Terrorism: Challenge and Response A Place Among the Nations: Israel and the World Terrorism: How the West Can Win BY BENJAMIN NETANYAHU FIGHTING TERRORISM I How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International BENJAMIN NETANYAHU FARRAR STRAUS GIROUX Terrorists New York Copyright © 1995 by Benjamin Netanyahu All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Published simultaneously in Canada by HarperCollinsCanadaLtd LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING~INPUBLICATI0N DATA Fighting terrorism: how democracies can defeat domestic and First edition, 1995 Netanyahu, Binyamin. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Lastly, I am much indebted to my publisher, Roger Straus, who with his boundless élan and unmatched nerve prodded me to write this book while in the throes of Israel’s less than genteel politics. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
What this new terrorism portends for America and the world and what can be done about it has not yet been sufficiently understood. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
After all, America is the world’s greatest democracy, and if terrorism cannot be successfully fought there, perhaps it is not a chal- lenge as easily met as I have suggested. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
But I maintain that ter- rorism based exclusively in America is unsustainable and can be reduced to insignificance in short order— that over a few years at most, almost every one of these groups can be isolated, infiltrated, and disarmed. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
For even in a nation as vast as America, the number of places in which any given terror initia- tive may be incubated or hatched is so small that it can usually be identifed with relative ease. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In 1958, the John Birch Society was formed around the claims that the government was becoming dominated by Communist sympathizers, and arguing for limitations on the power of the federal government, the dismantling of the Fed- era! Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
What is clear is that in the heartland of America, the terrorist puddles are still puddles—but in the absence of forceful action by the government of the United States, there is the distinct danger that they will get larger and deeper. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The Ku Klux Klan, which is today attempting a political comeback in America, is forced to adopt softer tones in an at- tempt to squeeze in at the fringes of the legitimate spectrum. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
While there is a ready audience right now for instant experts expounding on the inevi- table proliferation of domestic terrorism in America, Fighting Terrorism 19 the fact is that domestic terrorism has a bleak future in the United States, precisely because Americans—virtu- ally all Americans—reject it out of hand. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
A vast instant literature sprang forth seeking to explain the motivations and psychological makeup of America’s newfound terrorists, just as a similar litera- ture was produced at the height of European terrorism in the 1970s. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Lincoln called America “the last best hope of earth”—and meant it. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
And as America stands before the crucial decision to embark on a path that many other mature democracies have had to take, it must bear in mind Spi- noza’s great injunction. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
During the 1950s, it still appeared as though containment might fail, and the Communist juggernaut would continue its expansion into Southeast Asia, south- ern Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and South America. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
“They’re animals.” Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
These activities gained the mili- tants no operational capacity which could be directed against Israel or the West. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
If America has started to take note of the problem of militant Islamic activities within its borders, this has come about only after particularly spectacular attacks by these groups within the United States itself. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In 1994, a pathbreaking piece of investigative journalism, Jihad in America, was aired by PBS, weaving together the threads of the quiltwork of Islamic terrorist groups and terrorist sponsors which have sprung up across America since the Iranian revolution. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Among the great inciters against America has been Ab- dullah Azzam, one of the religious leaders who trans- Benjamin Netanyahu 96 formed the CIA-backed resistance of the Afghani rebels into a successful Islamic jihad against the Soviet Union. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
And just as when you are in America you must fast. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
With residence in the United States and even American citizenship, these international terrorists have now become domestic terror- ists as well, living in America so that they can wage jihad Fighting Terrorism 97 against America. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Thus, while the United States struggles to deal with the rising threat of domestic terrorism at home, a new tide of international terrorism has arisen, constructing a worldwide network of hate, possessing weapons, money, and safe havens of unprecedented scope. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
It is not hard to see that under such conditions all the sundry terrorists and demented loonies in North America would flock to Wichita, quickly transforming it into the terrorist capital of the continent, and another head of the hydra of international terrorism as well. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Whether such an approach can have the intended effect of stopping fund-raising for terrorism in America re- mains to be seen. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Jihad in America, pp. 13, 21, 7. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
1 Printed in the United States of America 00-058211 For my father, MuhamadAl Hroub, and for the soul of my mother, Muyassar Al Hroub. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
‘Abdul Aziz al-Rantisi, one of the founders of the movement, says that “Hamas has the widest popular base in the world because Hamas’ actions resonate with Muslims from South Africa to India, Pakistan, and China; and from Latin America to the United States and to Europe; all Muslims support what Hamas is doing.”5 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Then, in the eighties, following the outbreak of the Iraq-Iran war, the Palestinian cause was marginalized at both the Arab and international levels ... And the policies of the Zionist entity have become more obdurate and arrogant with the encouragement and sup- port of the United States of America, which signed a strategic coopera- tion agreement [with Israel] in 1981. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Even meeting with Hamas at an official level became a cause for embarrassment: Ques- tions were raised, followed by direct or indirect pressure. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This was the period during which national liberation movements emerged in many Third World nations in Africa, southeast Asia, and Latin America, a wave that received direct aid from the former Soviet Union and China. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Ahmad Rashad, Hamas: Palestinian Politics with an Islamic Hue, pp. 34—39; on the impact of the pro-Israel lobbies on American attitudes toward Hamas, see Ahmad Yusef and AhmadAbu al-Jibeen, “Ab’ad al-hamlah al-sahyooniyah fi amrika dhid harakat hamas” [The con- sequences of the Zionist campaign in America against the Hamas movement], A1-Mujtama’, 1 and 8 November 1994. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Abu Mazen contended in 1983 that Israeli military strategy always aimed to insulate its civilian population from the dangers of war as it sought to occupy as much Arab land as possible. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
These campaigns persisted in spite of Hamas’s protestations that armed resistance to occupation is legit- imate under all laws, human and divine, and notwithstanding the dis- Undoubtedly, fast-moving events, set in motion by Hamas’s spectacu- There are several statements by Hamas officials to the same effect; see for example a statement made by Ghazi Hamad, a Hamas official from Gaza, who declared: “The majority in the movement are for suspending military operations temporarily” inAl-Hayat (London), 31 Jan- uary 1996. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Fatawi ‘u/ama’ al-muslimin bitahrim al-tanazul ‘an aiyajuz’en mm filastin [Rulings by Muslim scholars forbidding the concession of any part of Palestine]. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Printed in the United States of America c 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 Chichester, ‘West Sussex Hezbollah born with a vengeance / Hala Jaber. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
At the time, Syria was isolated: it had taken a severe military battering following Israel’s invasion of Lebanon and had been side-lined while America became a mediator in the civil war. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They raised clenched fists in the air in a sign of defiance and chanted slogans against Israel and America. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
He was one of the many militants who held America responsible for encouraging and allowing Israel to invade and occupy Lebanon. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
It perceives its presence in the region as an attempt to control the area’s economic infrastructure and it condemns the Arab world, especially Saudi Arabia and the oil-rich Gulf states, for having fallen under Western influence.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The manifesto calls on its people to remember that ‘the leader Imam Khomeini emphasised on many occasions that America is the cause of all our calamities and that she is the mother of all malice. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The bombs that flattened whole residential neighbourhoods and the war planes which blitzed Beirut were made in America. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
America’s defence of Kuwait against Saddam Hussein’s invasion stood out in stark contrast to its policy towards Israel’s occupation in Lebanon and confirmed the militants’ suspicion that US policy in the Middle East was based on self-interest. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Its manifesto describes Israel as ‘America’s spearhead in our Islamic world’. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
America’s attempts to remedy the Lebanese crisis as a neutral mediator collapsed that autumn, when fierce fighting broke out in the Chouf, a Druze fiefdom. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Nor were the Iranians happy about the support which America had given to Israel’s actions. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
At the time, the Soviets were still in the grip of the Cold War and had been angered by America’s moves to weaken Syria, their strongest ally in the Middle East, and by Israel’s attack on Syrian targets in Lebanon. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
In their eyes, the United States was largely responsible for the Israeli invasion in not having taken a tougher stance against the Jewish State. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
America initially had little means with which to trace those responsible, since the core of its intelligence had been killed when the embassy was bombed. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
He was one of the more fortunate, whose family could afford to send him to America for further education. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Guards duly embarked on their campaign in Lebanon to carry out Khomeini’s orders of punishing the ‘crimes and oppression of the enemies of Islam especially America and Israel’. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Shortly after the PLO’s eviction from Beirut in August 1982, Mughniyeh was injured when the Israeli-backed Christians unleashed an artillery offensive against the Muslim population of the southern suburbs in full view of the multinational peace- keeping forces and with the support of America’s warships. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Islamic Jihad announced that it had executed him on 4 October 1985 in retaliation for America’s alleged assistance in Israel’s air raid on the PLO head- quarters outside Tunis four days previously. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
America’s secret arms-for-hostages deal was revealed by the Syrian magazine Ash-Shira in November 1986. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They were following their political objective for the Iran—Iraq war and that objective was with America. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
‘Hajj’ would insist that Kuwait was the puppet of the United States and argued that if America was against the release of the prisoners then Kuwait would not release them. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
I don’t know, but it seems to me a reasonable surmise because if I had had good backing from America, particularly with Kuwait, they would have said well, yes, okay, let him come along. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
I think that if America has the power to persuade Iran [to make deals] it has the power to persuade Kuwait. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
It manufactures Islamic clothing, which it exports to the expatriate Lebanese Shiite community in Africa, the US and South America. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Like Hezbollah, the Mujama was funded by alms, in addition to receiving outside support from the Gulf states, Jordan and expatriate Palestinians in America. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
America’s continued backing of Israel’s campaign not only threatened the US-sponsored peace process, but was undermining the international support which its administration had won for Israel at Sharm el-Sheikh. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
America is the master of terrorism because it continues to support Israel which terronises us and does what it does to us. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
is a message for America, Britain and France, but mainly the US which is the master of terrorism and which has taught the world the art of terrorism and corruption.Where Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
I tell them, we should all detonate ourselves against Israel and America. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Get the foreign media, this is not addressed to the Lebanese this is addressed to the people of America and the West. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Manufactured in the United States of America Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Suny, Ronald Grigor. The Making of the Georgian Nation
As corn from America, India, and Australia undersold corn from Kutaisi province, the peasants who had become dependent on foreign markets faced ruin. The Making of the Georgian Nation
An expert in its cultivation was to be appointed and seeds imported from Egypt, America,Izmir and Adana for free distribu- tion. Comtemporary Yemen
These years, viewed in historical perspective, mark a turn- ing point in the country’s economic and social life. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
Mortally afraid of the Turks, the Armenians had been encouraged by the American President Wilson to believe that an Allied victory would be followed by the creation of an independent Greater Armenia carved from the debris of the Turkish empire and stretching from the Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
This emerges clearly from figures cited in a recent official history of Georgia, which notes that as late as 1925—26, the acreage under grain in Georgia amounted to only 92•8 per cent, of the pre-i~i~ A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA 246 average, while the harvest as a whole yielded only 94’4 per cent, of the pre-i~i~ total. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
3’. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
VIII, No. 4, December 1949, pp. 262—74. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
The American anthropologist Carleton Coon sketched a similar picture in 1933. A History of Modern Yemen
It is regrettable that the year saw the first strikes in the Hadramawt; one in Mukalla in protest against the report of the Anglo-American Commission on Palestine, and the other in Sayyun against new taxation.3 A History of Modern Yemen
However, Ahmad from early in his reign was desperate to secure financial help, and an American mission visited Ta’izz in 1950. A History of Modern Yemen
“~ The reason, he claimed, was the success of the La~j cotton scheme. A History of Modern Yemen
The relation between Cairo and the Imam’s regime itself remained ambiguous — both states were opposed to Britain — until the union of Syria and Egypt broke up in 1961 and Al mad rashly severed ties with ‘Abd al-N~~ir of Egypt by means of a poem condemn- ing Arab Socialism: Taking property by forbidden means On a pretext of “nationalisation”, or of ‘~justice” Between those who have wealth and those with none, Is a crime against Islamic law. A History of Modern Yemen
Around the American camp at Ta’izz formed the first organised left-wing movement in the North, a union established by the MAN, the Movement of Arab Nationalists. A History of Modern Yemen
An American official summarised cAbd al- Na~ir’s own position: “the UAR has to run the whole show”.” A History of Modern Yemen
For the moment the sheer recalcitrance of the area seemed to British eyes the result of “subversion” cross-cut with “tribalism”. A History of Modern Yemen
At Raymah in 1972, for instance, the Resisters captured the lands of feudalist Shaykh Ahmad bin Ahmad al-Muntasir and dis- tributed the lands to the masses of the poor peasants [despite heavy opposition from] the mercenaries of Shaykh (feudalist) Sinan Abu Labum who is well known [for] his hiredom to Saudi reaction and link with the American central intelligence. A History of Modern Yemen
The “Sanaani” style of intricate melodic lute-runs, which some attribute to mediaeval Andalusia, had since spread as far afield as the Gulf.33 A History of Modern Yemen
In some analyses the army is contrasted with the tribes as a source of power, in others a combination of tribal and army roles explains events, but distinctions need drawing among tribes. A History of Modern Yemen
Sanhan, cAll cAbdu1lah~s tribe which abuts the south side of Sanaa, is part of Hashid, just as is Hamdan the tribe of the former president Ahmad al-Ghashml, which abuts Sanaa’s north side. A History of Modern Yemen
These centres of Marxist revolution, as they seemed in Sanaa’s rhetoric and occasionally in that of Western states, were heavily populated in fact by men who worked in the car factories of Detroit and drew American A history of modern Yemen insurance benefits, while the army sent by Sanaa to confront them (in Cold War terms, the instrument of “imperialist” policy) was officered largely by men trained in Russia and Eastern Europe. A History of Modern Yemen
A Russian group found encouraging signs near Shabwah, an Italian firm made a small off-shore find near Mukall~ in 1982; an American company, Hunt Oil, had signed an agreement for work in the North, near Ma’rib, in ig8r, and at the end of 1983 a border clash occurred between Northerners and Saudis which some attributed to the sniff of oil, though smuggling is more likely to have been the issue. A History of Modern Yemen
Used inter a/ia of provincial governors under the last Imams. A History of Modern Yemen
Compare also the views of an American- employed Hijazi (Rashid 1984:1—9) and of the Muslim Brothers’ Algerian emissary al-Wartalani (al-Wasidi 1948: 357—60). A History of Modern Yemen
Also Halliday 1983, 1984, 1990: 39—48; Cigar 1985, 1989; Dresch forthcoming. A History of Modern Yemen
For continuing “liberali- sation” of the South’s economy after the coup see, for example, Middle East Economic Digest 20 Dec. ig86 and 3Jan. A History of Modern Yemen
1981 Yemeni Agriculture and Economic Change: studies of two highland regions, Sanaa: American Institute for Yemeni Studies. A History of Modern Yemen
Douglas, L. 1987 The Free Yemeni Movement 1935—1962, Beirut: American University. A History of Modern Yemen
D. Warburton, 1993, as Yemen translation series i, American Institute for Yemeni Studies). A History of Modern Yemen
Intellectual Life in theArab East 1890—1939, Beirut: American University. A History of Modern Yemen
Land Reform and Social Transformation in the Middle East, Beirut: American University. A History of Modern Yemen
ADV NIDAL: A GUN FOR HiRE ADV NIDAL: A GUN FOR HIRE Patrick Seale RANDOM HOUSE NEW YORK A 1/ Copyright 0 1992 by Patrick Scale All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
He gave Jorde half the load to carry in his suitcase and arranged to meet him at the airport in the afternoon. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
His first task was to write a report of self-criticism and, as was the organization’s custom, to suggest his own punishment. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Be that as it may, no more payments were forthcoming. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Two months later, on De- cember 27, it was the turn of Hasan al-Amri, Saudi vice-consul in Karachi. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Was Abu lyad playing the same game? I had heard rumors that when Abu Nidal was a young man in Fatah, Abu lyad had been his friend and protector. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
March 6, 1973—Black September gunmen raid the Saudi embassy in Khartoum during a diplomatic reception and de- mand the release of the Palestinian guerrilla commander Abu Dawud, then in jail in Jordan. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
But Kissinger sent General Vernon Walters, then deputy director of the CIA, to tell an Arafat aide in Morocco that “the United States has no proposals to make.” Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Isam Sartawi, a close associate of April 16, 1988—Abu Jihad (or, by his real name, Khalil ABU NIDAL: A GUN FOR HIRE / 49 50 / PATRICK SEALE I looked at the list long and hard. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
It fell into two halves, with an obvious break after 1973. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
This was the first terrorist operation of its kind, the prototype for many others to come, and its mastermind was Wadi Haddad, a Palestinian revolutionary from Safad who had graduated as a medi- cal doctor from the American University of Beirut. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
With three American University friends and contempo- raries—Syrian Hani al-Hindi, Palestinian George Habash, and Kuwaiti Ahmad al-Khatib, the last two medical doctors like him- self—Haddad founded a political party, the Movement of Arab Nationalists (MAN), which was to develop offshoots in several Arab countries. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
under the banner of Black September, Fatah radicals joined with Wadi Haddad and others in a widespread terrorist campaign. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
In later accounts, the target was said to be the American embassy, but at the time the real aim was to strike at the king, or at least to scare him into releasing the hundreds of Palestinians who had been picked up on the streets and in the camps in 1970—7 1 and who had been held in jail without trial ever since. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
“Let the passengers go, and then do what you like with the plane,” he argued. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
a worldwide organization at his command—and Abu Nidal was never modest in trumpeting his capabilities. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
When the Labor party’s Yitzhak Rabin was prime minister, Israel’s attitude toward the Palestinians was negative enough: Rabin had no interest in encouraging PLO moderates and opposed the establishment of a Palestinian state. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
On Fatah’s written instructions, he began an intelligence relationship with the CIA station chief in Beirut, with the result that the former Black September terrorist who had once wanted to attack American targets now became the guardian of the American embassy in Beirut during the civil war and the overseer of the safe evacuation of American civilians in 1976. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Abu Nidal sabotaged the meeting by discussing such trivia as whose wife had been seen at the hairdresser’s? Who had lunched at a fancy restau- rant in Switzerland instead of making do with a sandwich? And who had thrown away a kilo of perfectly edible tomatoes at the training camp? interfered with it, as, for example in the case of the mysterious Lt. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
American auspices, with a view to concluding a bilateral peace treaty. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
April 18, 1983—The U.S. embassy in Beirut is blown up May 17, 1983—An American-brokered accord between August 29, 1983—Demoralized by Israel’s mounting September 3—25, 1983—Israel pulls its forces out of Leba- October 16, 1983—In a clash with a vast crowd of Shi’ites October 23, 1983—A car-bomb attack on the U.S. Ma- *October 1983—November 1985—Syria uses Abu Nidal to November 1983—U.S. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Britain breaks off diplomatic relations with Libya. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
By this time, both the United States and Israel had recognized the grave setback to their policy in Lebanon. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
The Israelis were being driven out, while the American embassy had been blown up and American marines slaughtered in their barracks. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
*March 28, 1984-Ken Whitty, a cultural-affairs coun- selor at the British embassy in Athens, is killed when a gunman opens fire on his car. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
President Amin Gemayel travels to Damascus to pay homage to President Assad. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Abu Nidal claims responsibility. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
*November 29, 1984-The British Airways office in Bei- ABU NIDAL: A GUN FOR HIRE / 235 PATRICK SEALE / rut is bombed. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Pin- pointing Syria, Libya, and Iran, George Shultz declares that “state-sponsored terrorism is in fact a form of war,” a view echoed by Vice President George Bush and CIA director Wil- liam Casey. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
time, by the proceedings of a conference organized in Washington in June 1984 by Israel’s Jonathan Institute. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
The Rome and Vienna op- erations had created violent anti-Arab feeling in the West; they had enabled Israel to make political capital out of the terrorist issue; and—together with the bomb at La Belle discotheque in Berlin, in which Abu Nidal had no part—they had prepared the ground for the American attack on Libya of April 1986. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
The thirty-two- year-old Hindawi had taken his fiancée to the airport in a taxi, When Abu lyad finished this story, Abu Nidal could say only, According to Abu lyad, the American raid on Libya that hit In Abu lyad’s admittedly obsessive view, Libya and other ABU NIDAL: A GUN FOR HIRE / 247 ~8 < / PATRICK SEALE priming the bomb on the way by inserting a battery in the calcula- tor. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
On April 5 he was sent back to London and was given the bomb and detonator by a man he thought was an employee of Syrian Arab Airlines. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
From defectors, I learned that the strategist of the operation The team had been trained on a model of the plane at a camp In Damascus, Abbas had second thoughts about his mission, ABU NIDAL: A GUN FOR HIRE / 253 PATRICK SEALE / At a crucial moment in the hijackers’ negotiations with the control tower, Abbas pushed one of the American stewardesses into the lavatory and began to fondle her—evidently, an attempt to abort the operation. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
When the American spaceship Challenger exploded in flight, he published a congratulatory note in his magazine and ordered sweets to be distributed to his members, leading the small fry to imagine that their organization was capable of such exploits. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
If an American soldier tripped in some corner of the globe, Abu Nidal would instantly claim it as his own work, his associate added. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
About seventeen other people were wounded, among them an American, a Swiss, a Pole, and a Frenchman. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
“I have to protect you and the organization!” Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Equally, his ties with the Japanese Red Army and the French Action Directe were minimal. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
THE EMERGENCY LEADERSHIP Abu Bakr was a commanding figure in Palestinian circles, and his defection was a serious blow to Abu Nidal. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
saries to urge Isa to return to Libya for talks. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
neighbors can only rest on mutual deterrence, on an Arab-Israeli balance of power, and eventually on good neighborliness. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
The Arab General Strike 2. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Another important bombing took place January 4, 1948 in Jaffa. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Israeli leaders often used disguise: Golda Meir dressed as an Arab woman when she went to meet King Abdullah,’° and Menachem Begin went disguised as an Arab or Rabbi.11 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Agents in Egypt, under the direct command of Israeli leaders and disguised as Muslim fundamentalists, planted small bombs against American, British, and Egyptian civil targets. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Bombs were also placed in the MGM theater, various American businesses, the British con- sulate, and Egyptian offices. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Birth of the Palestinian Guerrillas 39 FRC poster of a copy of “Military Communique Num- ber One,” issued by Fatah on their first raid in 1965. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Whereas before 1955 most Arabs who crossed the border were generally desperate refugees or criminals, Israel now faced com- mandos, trained and directed, whose effectiveness increased, although they never came close to the damage Unit 101 inflicted. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Shukeiry was reaffirmed chairman at the first meeting of the Palestine National Counci~l (PNC)—also nominated by the Arab League—May 28—June 2, 1964. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Typically, however, the fellow they sent had no practical experience in dealing with the slick, image-conscious world of the American media. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Pales- tinian leadership’s first failure was not understanding the American mind, and 5. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The PFLP executed only a small fraction of the operations, aiming for flashy actions. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Rafiel Eitan, who led the attack, claims to have dropped in for coffee in the airport bar while the destruction was raging out- side. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
There were a few other PFLP hijackings, and gradually they received more press coverage. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Haddad had not initially counted on this perk. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
“We Have Taken Over Your Flight” 53 54 Arab and Israeli Terrorism Using four teams, three led by women, Haddad arranged the hijackings of Pan-American, TWA, Swissair, and El Al jets. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Henceforth Palestinians would call that month Black September, and would give that name to the terrorist organization that would dazzle and appall the world with its international stunts against Jordanian, Israeli, and American targets. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They chose the Saudi Arabian embassy in Khartoum, thinking that the Saudis would be able to pressure the Jordanian monarch into freeing Abu Daoud. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Israel said it would not negotiate. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
With the help of the Egyptian ambassador, the four terrorists gave themselves up in return for safe conduct to Cairo.’7 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
of their leaders, but they can be seriously hurt, as when the British deported Palestinian leaders before World War II. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Wadi Had- dad rejoined Habash in a bid to stem the PLO’s peace moves. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Fourteen of those who died on the Pan Am jet were employees or dependents of Aramco, the Arab-American oil company. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
There is a report that the gun- men who raided the airport were housed in Sicily by an American arms dealer named Ronald Stark, and negotiations with the Palestinians were conducted through the Hyperion School of Languages in Paris, a front for left-wing groups but probably run by secret services. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The PLO rarely learned the lesson of security; most of their leaders were vulnerable. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They had offices and businesses and student cells and weapon deposits in many cities, but Damascus remained the base during that period. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The group will continue to work from Damascus until former United States president Jimmy Carter on a private visit presents Syrian president Assad a confidential report from Pakistani president Zia al-Haq about FRC’s murderous 1986 attack on a Pan American Jumbo. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Callers to news agencies again announced the work of Black September, promising more bombs.1’ Arab and Israeli Terrorism
They took a plane to Beirut, and the incident made no news. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The ship went north outside the waters of Syria, and during that time the gunmen shot an elderly Jewish American, Leon Klinghoffer.38 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The hijacking of the ship had made front page news and occupied the meet- ing times of the highest rungs of the American government. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The United States government requested that the hijackers be turned over to them, but the Egyptian gov- ernment issued a statement the next day that they had left the country. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The message was passed to the White House, who saw the interception of the plane as a tremendous possibility to win cheers at home. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Egypt immediately felt slighted, since it had concluded an agreement for safe passage. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Americans surrounded the carabinieri, and another group of carabinieri surrounded the Americans. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Five days later another bomb shook La Belle Disco in Berlin, a watering hole for American soldiers, while it was packed with 500 people, killing three—two Americans and a Turkish woman— and wounding 200.2 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Defense Secretary Casper Weinberger said that American MPs had been minutes away from saving La Belle since they were going around clearing Berlin bars of American servicemen. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Beirut just after the raid and reported that he threatened Oliver North and other American leaders. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Abu Bakr claims that he was not threatening but giv- ing examples of what he called American-sponsored terrorism against Cuba and Angola. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
During the meetings Murad and Abd al-Rahman encouraged Abu Bakr to join them, and he did, while Dr. Ghassan and Sufanni worked closely together, coming up with several aspects of the agreement separately. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Sowan appeared in London, where he began talking to people in the PLO office, claiming to hold a degree in civil engineering from Beirut and to belong to Fatah, trying to strike up relationships. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
According to an FRC official, the attacker was supposed to hit a Pan American crew bus, but he could not tell the difference between a Pan Am and an Italian crew, demonstrating the mental abilities of FRC per- sonnel. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
In the 1980s the first thing visitors entering American embassies saw was The desire to raid in a hostage situation indicates the United States gov- of Modern Terrorism Chapter 18 Holy Wars and Hollywood: The Manufacture 185 Adolph Hitler, Mein Kampf 186 Arab and Israeli Terrorism an anti—Arab media extravaganza. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
From Hollywood, dark-skinned, masked Arabs mounted an onscreen cam- paign of destruction against the Western world but were stopped by methodical and dedicated American and Israeli agents who ridded the world of their menace. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
One columnist wanted not just revenge, but a policy of geo- metric escalation: “For every American passenger you kill thereafter, we will kill 10 of your brothers.”3 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The New York Times devoted 1043 column inches to Leon Klinghoffer, the elderly Jewish American killed during the hijacking. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Mean- while, as the ship was under the control of the gunmen, the JDL planted a bomb at the Los Angeles office of the Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee, killing a 41-year-old Arab American, Alex Odeh. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
That the United States should have become involved in this episode at all indicates the fanaticism which had taken hold of American foreign policy and public opinion. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
There were about 400 people aboard when gunmen But terrorism is not a matter of guns and killing; editorial decisions of Terrorism has also become a business for companies who manufacture Six weeks after the Achille Lauro affair, an Egypt Airlines flight with 97 We have already discussed the 1986 takeover of the Pan American flight 18. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
thing on their plate by threatening, “The New Jersey will get you if you don’t.” Arab and Israeli Terrorism
And of course, Palestinian terrorism did not win a square inch of land or unite the Arab countries to fight on their behalf. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Perhaps if either the Jews or the Arabs had not been passionate about their cause they could have abandoned it. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Conclusions 209 American Embassy in Beirut after suicide bomb- ing. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Media (Washington: American-Arab Affairs Council, 1983), discusses this topic. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Split Vision: The Portrayal ofArabs in the American The pogroms came after the 1881 assassination of Tsar Alexander II, foi Notes 215 216 Notes—Introduction Palestine. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Shaw Commission, which issued its report in 1930, upheld the Arab 8. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
A bomb was also thrown at the American Information Office, injuring four (Lon- don Times 20 March 1951, p. 3). Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Iraq:A Country Study, (Washington: American University, 1979), p. 46: Iraq was having an economically hard time because of bad harvests, but the bombs were the Jewish community’s greatest concern since they had been victims of a riot 1 (Grand Rapids MI: Chosen, 1984), pp. 125—26). Arab and Israeli Terrorism
36. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
1990), p. 15; Kenneth Love, Suez: The Twice-Forgot War (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969), p. 124; Davar claimed that Hafez was killed by revenge-seeking Palestini- ans. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Alan Hart, Arafat: Terrorist or Peacemaker? (London: Sidgwick & Jack- son, 1984), p. 306; David Yallop, Tracking the Jackal: The Search for Carlos, the World’s Most Wanted Man, (New York: Random House, 1993), p.38. Israel also bombed an American-funded irrigation project, threatening the Jordanians with more bombings unless they stopped the fedayeen. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Washington Post, 17 April 1973, p. Cl. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Saad el Shazly, The Crossing of the Suez (San Francisco: American Mideast 3. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
After the Iranian revolution the American and Israeli 10. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
for Middle East Policy, 1983): Israel showed “no concern for American objectives and no fear of American penalties” during the Lebanon invasion. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Intelligence Newsletter, no. 121, 10 May 1989, p. 6. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
of the Beirut Catastrophe (London: Faber and Faber, 1986), Pp. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Schultz, P. 644. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Ennes, James M., Jr. Assault on the Liberty: The True Story of the Israeli Attack on an American Intelligence Ship. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
London: Andre Deutsch, 1988. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Melman, Yossi. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Quandt, William B. Decade of Decisions: American Policy Thward the Arab-Israeli Conflict 1967—76. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Lexing- ton MA: Lexington, 1986. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
lan, 1985. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
For the further extension of this process in recent times, see Richard Tutwiler and Sheila Carapico, YemeniAgriculture and Economic Change (American Institute for Yemeni Studies, San’a’, 1981). Comtemporary Yemen
mitted to London University’s Scfiool of Oriental and African Studies as a thesis for a PhD in August 1983. Comtemporary Yemen
11. Comtemporary Yemen
There were no paved roads, no communications facilities, 6 THE YEMEN I REVOLUTION OF 1962 SEEN AS A SOCIAL REVOLUTION 78 The Yemeni Revolution of 1962 Seen as a Social Revolution no hospitals, no banks, no telephones and no school system with a standard curriculum. Comtemporary Yemen
To compound this, many Yemenis, tribal as well as urban dwellers, believed that the Imams were not only blessed, but also possessed abstract, spiritual powers derived from being descendants of the Prophet Muhammad. Comtemporary Yemen
The issue which has been raised — by the press and some academics, as well as by some government — is whether South Yemen today represents another case of the Soviet Union expanding its influence beyond its ‘tradi- tional’ post-war limits (by ‘leap-frogging’ the southern rim states); whether it represents a part of a deliberate Soviet effort to create a ring of ‘satellites’ in major strategic areas (e.g. Comtemporary Yemen
The point deserves repetition: the interpretation of the motives and actions of the Soviet Union (and its allies) in this region is more than likely to have been decided upon in advance, i.e. before an investigation of the ‘facts’ in such poten- tial ‘case-studies’ as South Yemen. Comtemporary Yemen
A brief overview of the popular press’s coverage, easily gleaned from the major bibliographical references, makes clear the fervour which surrounded the American government’s ‘decisive action’ in this instance: ‘How the West is Losing a Strategic Mideast Crossroads’ (Business Week); ‘Making a Stand in Yemen’ (Wall Street Journal); ‘More than Just a Border Clash: Saudi Fears about Subversion’ (Time); ‘Yemen’s War: Big Meaning for the US’ (US News and WorldReport). Comtemporary Yemen
Article 127 of the constitution requires that the legal profession be regulated by law ‘with the aim of submitting legal aid to the citizens and Judicial persons’. Comtemporary Yemen
(4) The Soviet experience has made them more cautious about the military relations they could develop with the region, about how far to provide arms on easy credit terms, and how far to build up military facilities in the region. Comtemporary Yemen
In the PDRY’s relationships with countries outside the Arabian Peninsula, however, a substantially different foreign policy tactic was pursued. Comtemporary Yemen
Salem Omar Bukair is the Rector of Aden University and an expert on South Yemeni Liberation movements. Comtemporary Yemen
Helen Lackner is the author of A House Built on Sand (Ithaca Press, 272 I 1 1• t London, 1978), about Saudi Arabia, and has a book about the PDRY in preparation. Comtemporary Yemen
Naguib Shamiry is President of the Supreme Court in Aden. Comtemporary Yemen
Notable among the former are the runaway American militias of the “patriot movement,” whose avowed goal is to prepare for a violent showdown with a “satanic” federal govern- ment; chief among the latter are the various strains of Fighting Terrorism 5 militant Islam, which likewise see their ultimate destiny as leading to a final confrontation with the Great Satan, the United States. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
But in Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge showed no such restraint in their war against what they saw as the American-supported occupation. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Indeed, in the rush of anxiety following the Oklahoma bombing, there was considerable concern in the United States that this bombing was a harbinger of a future wave of terrorist attacks against American society. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The most important reason for this is the fact that the American public is by and large inoculated ideolog- ically against the spread of the terrorist virus—that is, against the beliefs which motivate the terrorists. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
While not every terrorist group can be located quite this quickly, it is nevertheless true that the Oklahoma Fighting Terrorism 13 City bombers are not a needle in the haystack of American society; they are a needle in a bathtub, whose clear water ensures that their chances of hiding and getting away with their acts for very long is ordinarily exceedingly limited. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
That is, until now. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In this they vaguely echo the leftist anarchism of the minute Weathermen movement of the 1960s, but with a significant difference: Militia strength is now es- timated to range from 10,000 to upward of 100,000, or- ganized into a loose confederation with strongholds in thirty states, especially Montana, Idaho, Texas, Michi- gan, Indiana, and Florida. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Reserve System, and withdrawal from the United Nations. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In short, American society at the close of the twen- tieth century still lacks a widespread and enduring so- cial and cultural climate for the breeding of domestic terrorist organizations. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Unwanted by the American public, the terrorists have neither the support of government officials who, in a non-democratic soci- ety, might share intelligence information with them or fail to take the necessary actions against them—they generally do not have a significant enough backing among citizens who are sympathetic and willing to help fund their activities—nor any piece of territory that has any kind of depth as a home base. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
While even the most passionate advocates of civil liberties concede, along with Supreme Court Jus- tice Oliver Wendell Holmes, that freedom of expression must stop at “shouting ‘fire’ in a crowded theater,” American law has thus far been rigidly resistant to lim- iting the scope of such exceptions. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In December 1982, a neo-Nazi terrorist group embarked on a campaign of bombings against the cars of American GIs, eventually turning on Israeli targets in Vienna, Am- Fighting Terrorism 31 sterdam, and Geneva. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Lochte reports that at first the se- curity services were baffled by the attacks, since they seemed to be part of the neo-Nazi terrorism which had spawned attacks like the 1980 bombing of the Munich Oktoberfest, which had claimed thirteen lives. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The key to the mystery was found in an ideological tract published in 1982 by two West German radicals, Walter Hexel and Odfried Hepp, en- titled Farewell to Hitlerism. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
One was his arsenal of Scud missiles and chemical-weapons stockpiles, which he claimed to be willing to use to “incinerate half of Israel,” thereby hoping to shift the focus of the war to an Arab— Israeli confrontation and splitting the Arab partners in the international coalition arrayed against him; the other was terror, which he threatened to loose against the United States and its allies in the event of a counter- offensive in Kuwait. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Some Americans fear that an active anti-terror strategy would compromise the free, democratic nature of American society. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Still more disturbing is the utterly excessive American gen- erosity in interpreting the “right” to bear arms as in- cluding freedom from practically any kind of licensing and government supervision, a freedom well abused by David Koresh’s militaristic messianic Branch Davidian cult in its incendiary confrontation with federal agents in Waco, Texas, in 1993, leaving scores dead. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In the absence of countervailing legislation, other ultra-nationalist “militia” and neo-Nazis continue to conduct battalion- level exercises in barely veiled preparation for coming military action against the American government, of the sort which produced the Oklahoma City bombing, and yet their activities, too, are considered constitutionally “protected.” Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
At the Jonathan Institute’s 1979 conference, Professor Joseph W. Bishop of Yale University inquired into the question of whether the United States Constitution could be made to square with firm anti-terror measures such as had been adopted in Britain, Germany, and other Eu- ropean democracies. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
As these examples strongly suggest, the American ju- dicial system is ready and able to distinguish normal, peaceful circumstances from those in which the security of American citizens is being threatened by organized Benjamin Netanyahu 44 violence from without or within. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
This willingness to take responsibility and make hard decisions in the service of democracy is the hallmark of a mature political culture, such as the American Founding Fathers hoped would evolve in the United States. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
As the constitutional scholar Walter Berns pointed oul at the Jonathan Institute’s 1984 conference, even a greal defender of democracy like Abraham Lincoln was forced to assume extraordinary powers when the security of thc American nation was in jeopardy. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Even less able than the Soviets to take on the West di- rectly, these Arab regimes embarked on a covert terrorist campaign against American and Western targets, though they showed little of the aptitude and finesse of the So- viets in covering their tracks. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Within short order, the Soviet—PLO axis had managed to transform an astonishing collection of domestic ter- rorist factions into a full-blown international movement devoted to anti-Western and anti-Israeli political vio- lence. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
read by prominent members of the U.S. administration—leading some commentators in the Arab press to pin the “blame” on me for some of the subse- quent American actions against terrorist states. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
From the beginning of my involvement with the Jon- athan Institute, and later in my tenure as a diplomat, I believed that the key to the elimination of international terror was having the United States lead the battle, and that this American leadership would harness the coun- tries of the free world into line, much as a powerful locomotive pulls the cars of a train. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
But it was no simple matter to change the minds of American opinion makers on this subject. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
This effort began in full force during Moshe Arens’s ten- ure as ambassador to Washington in 1982. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In July of that year, I joined the embassy as deputy ambassador and soon participated in the effort to per- suade the American government to shift its policy to a more aggressive opposition to terrorism. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
One of the early supporters of an active American poi- icy against international terrorism was Secretary of State George Shultz. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Shultz was particularly shaken by the series of car bombings in 1983 aimed at the American embassy in Beirut, and the American and French ser- vicemen stationed there as peacekeepers under the agree- ment negotiated for the PLO withdrawal. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
“These terror- ists aren’t human beings,” he said. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
He and President Ronald Reagan took the lead in mounting an unprece- dented war against international terrorism. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Fearing that American troops would storm the plane, the terrorists subsequently scattered the hostages among safehouses in various parts of Beirut, in effect eliminating the option of an Entebbe-style rescue. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
At the start of the crisis, a special communications channel was established between Shultz and the two key leaders in the govern- ment of Israel, Prime Minister Shimon Peres and Foreign Minister Yitzhak Shamir (who, although of opposing parties, were jointly ruling in a National Unity Govern- ment); I was then serving as Israel’s ambassador to the United Nations, and sensitive messages concerning the crisis were passed back and forth through my office. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The growing under- standing of the nature of terrorist methods, combined with the very real threat of further American operations against terrorist bases and terrorist states around the world, undermined the foundations on which interna- tional terror had been built. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Of course, the West’s battle against terrorism was not without its setbacks. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The worst of these was the revela- tion in November 1986 that even as the United States had been stepping up its war against terrorism, elements in the Reagan White House had been simultaneously ne- gotiating with Iranian-controlled terrorists in Lebanon Benjamin Netanyahu 72 for the release of American hostages in their custody. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The media reported that three shipments had been sent—one for each hostage re- leased—but that the terrorists, knowing a good deal when they saw one, had during the same period taken three new hostages. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Fortunately, Shultz’s tenacious campaign to steer the United States away from its dealings with Iran paid off. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The deterrent effect that applies to ag- gression carried out in broad daylight does not necessarily apply to aggression carried out in the dark. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
While Libya and Iraq have chafed under the yoke of Western sanctions (imposed on Libya in 1986 in the wake of its complicity in the bombing of a discotheque in Germany frequented by American servicemen, and on Iraq in 1991 after its invasion of Kuwait), and while the other Pan-Arabisi state, Syria, has had to tone down its more overt associ- ations with international terrorism to win U.S. pressure on Israel, Iran has gone virtually unscathed, carefully cul. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
In short, elements in the American Muslim commu- nity have rapidly developed into the supportive hinter- land necessary to serve as at least a partial home base for international terror directed outward, at Israel, Egypt, Al- geria, Jordan, and other non-Islamic Middle Eastern re- gimes. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Making use of American freedom of speech and religion, of liberal immigration and visitation laws, and of the relative lack of surveillance which they could hard- ly enjoy in their own countries, these groups have turned the United States into a terrorist haven in its own right. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
What follows is a series of measures which could be effectively undertaken by democracies to stamp out terrorism within their own borders. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The supplying countries must be told bluntly that they must choose between trade with terrorist states and trade with the United States. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Similarly, the special exemption hitherto granted to Syria must be brought to an end. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Syria and Iran should therefore be pressed to cease not only terrorism which they sponsor directly from within their own borders but also the proxy terrorism which they protect and encour- age from beyond their frontiers. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
I do not presume to en- ter into this legal debate over the specifics of standing American law. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The American counter-terror bill more or less takes this step by outlawing fund-raising for any organization designated by the President to be a terrorist group. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
THE STRATEGY OF HAMAS The literature produced by Hamas reveals the broad lines of the move- ment’s strategy for conducting the struggle. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Many countries that had sup- ported the Palestinian cause in the past under the protection of the Soviet Union could not withstand the political and economic pressures that the United States brought to bear on them to alter their position on Israel. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The movement was well aware that it could not follow a path modeled on the Palestinian resistance of the 1970s, when there was a Third World movement supported by the Soviet Union that opposed American policies in many parts of the world. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
In practice, the fatwa has been degraded and is no longer of any practical use: the American-led Western alliance that attacked Iraq had manyfat- was in its favor, and Iraq fought back against the alliance using another set of fatwas. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
However, it is not possible to predict whether an alternative political program, with a different recipe for the leadership of the rejectionist fasa’il, could have been effective in undermining the Madrid-Oslo peace process as a solution to the Palestinian problem in view of the strong momentum behind Oslo, specifically the American and inter- national support. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
For instance, it acted quickly to condemn the killing of Albert Glock, an American pro- fessor at Bir Zeit University, in January 1992. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Musa Abu Marzouq, interview with author, 9 May 1998. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
.. Although Hamas had sided with Iraq in the face of American threats, that does not mean that it [accepts] the existing state of affairs, nor does it constitute a bias toward one side or the other.” HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
by James Piscatori (Chicago: American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1991). HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
It spoke of “ending the tribulations and afflictions of the Muslim Kuwaiti people,” and said that the Palestinian people never would forget “the benevolent and generous position of our brothers, the people of Kuwait, toward the people of Palestine throughout their tribulations and the calamity that befell them.”42 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The movement also called for an end to inter-Arab conflicts for the sake of the Arab ummah as a whole, to which narrow state inter- ests should take second place.66 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
It is a “revolutionary Islamic state”; it has had a remark- able history of concern with the Palestinian cause ever since the revolu- tion of 1979 brought the Islamic Republic into being; and it supports and places special emphasis on Islamic movements in Palestine. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
94. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The Washington based International Committee of Solidarity with Dr. Musa Abu Marzouq quoted Abu Marzouq’s lawyers as saying that he had received over five thousand letters of support in his New York jail during the first three months of deten- tion; and faxed letters of protest had so disturbed American embassies that the embassy in Pakistan had shut down its fax one week after the arrest.” HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Hamas’s early bul- letins are replete with incessant condemnations of “international conspir- acies” against Palestine, in particular, “the British conspiracy via the Balfour Declaration” and “the conspiracy to partition Palestine,” as well as “the American conspiracy” to provide unwavering support for Israel and to come to its defense whenever needed.”5 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The first of their kind, these contacts were made through the American embassy in Amman during January and February 1993. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
time, see Jawad Al-Hamad, “Taradud al-nathra al-amrikiyya ila harakat hamas: iqamat am al-itiham bil-irhab” [The American vacillating view of the Hamas movement: Establish rela- tions or accuse it of terrorism?], Al-Hayat, 23 January 1994. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Anonymous American senior official interviewed in Al-Sharq al-Awsat, 12 July 1994. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This is particularly interesting because Hamas refrained from conducting attacks against American or Western interests inside or outside Israel and had limited its operations to Israeli military targets. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This classification was in fact a decisive step in the international “demonizing” of Hamas and inaugurated an American policy toward Hamas best described by Laura Drake as a “unilateral escalation of hostility.”29 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Hamas leaflet, “An Important Statement on the American-Israeli Collusion in the Abu See for example a letter sent from Hamas spokesman Ghosheh “To His Excellency Abu Marzouq, interview with author, 21 April 1995. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
74. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Internationally, most of Hamas’s work was described as “terrorism” in conformity with the American position, which in turn echoed Israeli char- acterizations. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Some countries were hesitant to go too far in their support or contact with Hamas for fear of arousing American wrath. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Or, in other words, targeting equipment, plants, buildings, institutions, and factories should be its last choice ... We have only to know the joint that aches the most.94 HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
For instance, the unfolding of events up to the tenth year of Hamas’s existence (1998)—in other words, five years after Oslo—pointed to a became a distinct possibility, and when popular support for its armed oper- ations began to ebb in response to Israel’s policy of sealing off Gaza after every operation and preventing Palestinian workers from going to their the entire policy of armed action. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Since 1988, American and international efforts to find a peaceful solu- tion to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict have intensified, while an Arab mili- tary option became remote as a result of the Iran-Iraq war. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
New slogans concerning democracy and human rights circulated around the globe as part of the (American) “new world order.” HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Political opportunities shrank for all Third World (not just Arab) political movements opposed to American hegemony in the wake of the Cold War. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Hamas’s coop- eration with leftist and nationalist parties that support its position or are in the same camp—insofar as they reject American hegemony in the Middle East—does not go beyond solidarity in information dissemination. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
The resolutions also included a call to create a special confederation between Jordan and Pales- tine. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
‘While Arab policy was fumbling about in the false hope that it attached to successive American administrations, Zionist extremists in the form of rightist parties were tightening their grip on the policy and admin- istration of the Zionist entity. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
It bases its ide- ology and policies on the teachings of Islam and its juridical tradition. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Similarly, the American administration keeps Syria on its list of coun- tries that support terrorism, or those that fail to fight the spread of drugs, as an instrument to pressure Syria to drop its demand for a comprehen- sive solution on all fronts. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
To use the American sword to pressure Jordan to sign a sepa- rate agreement with his government on the model of Oslo. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
This threat is consistent with the American administration’s policy that employs the inspection of commercial ships in the Gulf of Aqaba as an instrument to achieve the same purpose. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
We realize well that the Oslo process is but a process of shameful capit- ulation on the part of the PLO and a submission to Zionist and American conditions and dictates. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Al-Hadaf various issues. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
Journalists caught without IDF approval would be arrested. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The fuse was finally lit between Hezbollah and Amal in South Lebanon on 17 February 1988, with the kidnap of the American Lieutenant-Colonel William Richard Higgins just outside the coastal town ofTyre. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The group made three demands in return for Higgins’s freedom: an Israeli withdrawal from South Lebanon, an end to American ‘interference’ in the Middle East, and freedom for all Lebanese and Palestinian prisoners held by Israel. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
None of the three Lebanese captives was released: Israel continued to insist that Obeid was behind major attacks against their country as well as being heavily involved in the kidnap of the American UN officer. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The American administration’s behaviour confirmed Hez- bol!ah’s Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
belief that Israel exists to execute American policy and that US foreign policy in the Middle East is often undertaken with Israel’s prime interests in mind. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
For many Lebanese, resentment towards the American administration reached its height during the 1982 invasion when it failed to denounce the Israeli bombardment and the killing of thousands of innocent civilians. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
CIA denied this, but that did little to ease the outrage of the clergyman’s supporters, who called for American blood beneath a banner covering the demolished building which said: ‘Made in the USA’. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Woodward draws from the memoirs of William Casey, the head of the CIA agency, reporting that Saudi Arabia’s ambassador to Washington at the time, Prince Bandar Bin Sultan AbdelAziz, financed the American agency with the sum of three million dollars to carry out the attack. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Hafez al-Assad, one of the shrewdest politicians to come to power in the Middle East, has been under constant American pressure to take action regarding Hezbollah since Syria established its position of influence. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Israel’s Minister of Defence Ariel Sharon, who had planned and commanded the invasion, refused to accept a European force without American troops. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Robert McFarlane, Reagan’s Middle East envoy, believed that the future of American policy in Lebanon depended on the survival of Amin Gemayel’s administration and responded swiftly to Tannous’s alarm: the US Defense Department launched a huge operation to bring supplies to the Lebanese army. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
In its manifesto, Hezbollah calls the attack on the American Embassy ‘the first punishment’ and it lists the MNF bombings as further punishments. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Iranian hostility towards the American and Western presence in Lebanon was a continuation of its own struggle against the United States, which was an integral part of its revolution. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Their mission was to gather information and details about the American embassy and draw up a plan that would guarantee the maximum impact and leave no trace of the perpetrator. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They knew what time the vegetable and provision trucks arrived in the area, which was near a huge market, and delivered goods to the American base.They Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Rima Fakhri, a graduate in agriculture from the American University in Beirut, is planning to table a proposal for Hezbollah to recant a decree which prevents women from becoming human bombs. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Take, for example, an Israeli warplane or, better still, the American and British air power in the Gulf War. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
He had also revealed that Terry Waite had been kid- napped at a time when journalists still believed that Waite was conducting negotiations with the kidnappers of the American hostages.Yet Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They were important men: Ahmad Motevaselian, EXPORT OF A REVOLUTION 99 commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards in the Bekaa, Mohsen Musavi, Iran’s chargé d’affaires in Lebanon and Kazem AkhavanAllaf, a journalist for fran’s official news agency.Their Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
He was arrested by the Syrian authorities shortly after exchanging the captive for a ransom of 1,150,000 dollars. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The following morning he was handed over to the American embassy. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
In November a demonstra- tion instigated by the Guards and Lebanese radicals brought thousands of men and women to the barracks to demand the eviction of the Lebanese army which they accused of being a tool in the hands of Bashir Gemayel, and party to Israeli— American scheming against the Muslims. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Even the Lebanese army, based in the notorious Sheikh Abdullah Barracks in Baalbeck, was evicted shortly after the arrival of the Guards in the Bekaa. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Hezbollah was just one of the Guards’ protégés in Lebanon. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Guards had also come with a covert mission to recruit agents and set up an apparatus, beyond Hezbollah, for its hard- line Islamic Revolution. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Abbas Musawi, leader of Hezbollah until his murder (along with that of his wife and youngest child) by an Israeli helicopter gunship attack on his motorcade in 1992. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
This, more than any other single factor, has sustained Hezbollah’s resistance. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
His ambitions went further. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Buckley was kidnapped by Islamic Jihad and was the fourth American hostage to be abducted. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
One group, Arab Commando Cells, executed three hostages, Philip Padfield, Leigh Douglas, both British, and Peter Kilburn, an American, in retaliation for the US bombing raids on Libya in April 1986. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Congress had banned the sale of American arms to countries which sponsored terrorism, but Robert McFarlane, head of the National Security Council, had hatched the plan of trading arms to Iran in exchange for the hostages. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
As a result of the deal, the American hostage, Benjamin Weir, was freed in Beirut after being held for 495 days. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
An American, he was the bureau chief of Associated Press in Beirut and was abducted on 16 March 1985 by Islamic Jihad. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
They [the Americans] came into the picture and through some intermediaries contacted the kidnappers and actually sabotaged the release. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
AlthoughWaite could not categorically say that the American authorities had indeed asked the Kuwatis to block his attempts to visit Kuwait, he nevertheless suspected that they did nothing to encourage the Kuwait government: ‘What I would say was Hezbollah 130 that I doubt whether they pursued my claim or whether any- body with any power pursued my claim with any degree of enthusiasm. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Waite’s meetings with the kidnappers were arranged through a Shiite doctor, who worked at the American University Hospital with David Jacobsen who was the director of the hospital. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Mughniyeh had furthermore heard the reports on Waite’s alleged links with North and the American administration. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
He went to seek the help and advice of Ghazi Kanaan, Syria’s chief of military intelligence in Lebanon, who confirmed Fadlallah’s words: ‘Doctor, these are hunting dogs who are asked to bring targets and they obey and go out and hunt their prey which they bring back.They Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Many of the doctors and surgeons who staff Hezbollah’s hospitals and clinics qualified in French and American medical schools. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Battle Hymn of the American Republic, 6 Julia Ward Howe 169 Seconds later he had looked down to find that he was holding only the upper half of the baby. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
An officer was killed in the attack. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
President Bill Clinton was also facing a general election and was not prepared to jeopardise the votes of the Jewish American lobby. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Hezbollah’s World War Two vintage Katyusha rockets had proved to be a difficult target for Israel’s American-made F- 16 and Cobra helicopter gunships to eradicate. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Four of its American-made Apache helicopters, bearing the blue Star of David, flew across the Mediterranean and turned into Dahiya, Beirut’s southern * See A. R. Norton, ‘Israel in the grip of the insecurity zone’ in Lebanoi~ on Hold, eds. Rosemary Hollis and Nadim Shehadi Tim GRAPES OF WRATH 179 suburbs, Hezbollah’s bastion and home to many of its leadership. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Shelters which had not been used in six years were reopened, mothers hysterically ran to nearby schools to collect their children and Hezbollah fighters in full camouflage fatigues, cradling American M- 1 6s and rocket-propelled grenades, were out in force, directing traffic, advising people to stay indoors and guarding access to Hezbollah offices. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Syrian leader warned the US that it risked losing its role as a mediator in the Middle East after the American administration bluntly defended Israel’s strikes and called on Damascus and Iran to curb Hezbollah’s attacks. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
‘The American stand is far from having the credibility which a superpower should maintain as a peace sponsor in the world.’ Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The American ambassador to the UN, Mrs Madeleine Aibright, asked Lebanon’s ambassador to the UN mission, Samir Habib, to delay the date of the requested meeting. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Lebanese mission, however, did not wish to be seen to succumb to American and Western pressure. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
As well as the 109 civilians, mostly women and children, who died in that attack, more than 150 were injured, including four Fijian soldiers, and an estimated twenty other people were declared missing, presumed dead. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The American administration had little choice but to reverse its previous tolerance of Israel’s campaign. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
To his south, King Hussein of Jordan had Tm~ GRAPES OF WRATH 193 allowed the US to set up a temporary 1,000-man airforce base on its territory. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Its name continues to evoke images of bearded men shouting anti- American and anti-Western slogans, scenes of embassies ablaze, human bombs, hijackers and kidnappers. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Association of American University Presses’ Resolution on Permissions constitutes the only exception to this prohibition. The Making of the Georgian Nation
“Regardless of the actual inequality and exploitation that may prevail in each,” he wrote, “the nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Thanks to their propen- sity to consume lavishly, the aristocrats of Georgia increased their material dependence on the Russian state. The Making of the Georgian Nation
14 The financial burdens that came with the emancipation compelled the peasants to produce for the market. The Making of the Georgian Nation
In the 1870s a peasant in Kutaisi province could expect 180 to 200 poods of corn from a desiatina of good land; by the early twentieth century he was reaping only 60 to 80 poods. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The peasants began to move away from localized and subsistence agriculture, producing crops for their own consumption, and toward producing crops that could be sold. The Making of the Georgian Nation
To accelerate development, the central Soviet government negotiated and signed a concessions agreement with American industrialist Averell Harriman, who agreed to put more than $1,000,000 worth of equipment into Chiatura, build rail connections to Poti ($10,000,000), and improve the port facilities at Poti ($1,000,000). The Making of the Georgian Nation
Shevardnadze’s plaintive remarks about the psychological effects of the corruption were very revealing. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Growing hostility from the American governments of Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan was compounded by perceived threats in Afghanistan and Poland. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Just as in early European and American industrialization customary revelries were gradually eliminated from daily life by the demands of enter- prise, so in Georgia the guardians of economic progress, in this case the party, had an interest in eliminating such practices. The Making of the Georgian Nation
49. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Ibid., pp. 46—47, 80; Gugushvili, Karl Marks, p. 38. The Making of the Georgian Nation
For a fuller discussion of the political alternatives available in 1917, see my review essay, “Toward a Social History of the October Revolution,” American Historical Review 88, no. 1 (February 1983): 31—52. The Making of the Georgian Nation
1925, p. 14. The Making of the Georgian Nation
His last assignment was as party chief in Magnitogorsk, where American worker John Scott met him (Behind the Urals: An American Worker in Russia’s City of Steel [Cambridge, Mass., The Making of the Georgian Nation
John Barber, “Stalin’s Letter to the Editors of Proletarskaya Revolyutsya,” Soviet Studies 28, no. 1 (January 1976): 32; Robert C. Tucker, “The Rise of Stalin’s Personality Cult,” American Historical Review 84, no. 2 (April i979): 356. The Making of the Georgian Nation
New York Times, May 20, 1978. The Making of the Georgian Nation
The author’s mother died young in childbirth, which his father noted sadly in the margins of a standard work of Zaydl la~ as Americans and Europeans used to list their deaths in the family Bible. A History of Modern Yemen
Expansion of the port at Hudaydah was discussed, and a road from there to Sanaa (the trip by truck took at best about i8 hours), yet agreement was baffled through a whole decade, for the Americans needed some indication of where funds might be applied while the Yemenis had constantly to refer to Ahmad, whose governance remained as Rikiani described for Yaliya. A History of Modern Yemen
Imam Ahmad and relatives at an execution. A History of Modern Yemen
People again were starving, for this was the third successive year of drought. A History of Modern Yemen
The Chinese meanwhile pressed on with the Sanaa—Ijudaydah road and the Americans started work on a road from Mukhä’ to Ta’izz and thence to Sanaa. A History of Modern Yemen
The Americans pursued the Cold War with vigour. A History of Modern Yemen
The Americans, concerned in those weeks to retain Russian diplomatic support, let them go despite a UN resolution sup- porting a trade embargo against Iraq and the tankers docked. A History of Modern Yemen
The Americans had been seen, many years before, planting flags on the moon; more recently they had landed a space-craft on Mars, and the p1aintifi~ now demanded they THE WIDER WORLD cease and desist until written permission had been negotiated. A History of Modern Yemen
For Muthannä, below, Hamdi 1964, v: 27. A History of Modern Yemen
The speaker, a distinguished administrator, had best remain nameless. A History of Modern Yemen
Defectors from Abu Nidal’s organization told me that a prominent young prince, a veteran of top-secret missions, agreed to do so. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
They heard cars drive up to the house and much running back Upstairs, the telephone rang again and again. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
My list wasn’t all that neat, but there seemed to be a general pattern. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Such circumstances were not calculated to reassure him. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
The man was a puzzle. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
314 Jordan, 16, 36, 46, 48, 63—64, 69, 71, 73, 76, 100, 105, 135, 155, 174, 185, 208, 230, 283—84, 320; Fatah activities in, 68—82, 83, 85, 86—90, 93, 101, 153, 167; and list of 1980s terrorism, 235; Abu Nidal’s operations concerning, 122, 123, 125—28, 193—94, 208—209, 229, 235, 236; 1970—71 Palestinian rebellion, 77—82, 153, 159; relations with Israel, 126—28, 152—53, 251; relations with Syria, 120—22, 125—28, 145, 147, 151, 153, 223, 250—51 Jordanian Airlines, terrorist attacks on, 127 Jorde, Hussein, 9—31, 53—54, 92, 184, 318 Jum’a, Ahmad, 283 Jumblat, Walid, 8, 198, 205, 312 Kahane, Rabbi Meir, 230 Kalthoum, Umm, 16—17 Kamal, Dr., 149, 188, 190, 202, 270, 277, 295 Kanafani, Ghassan, 47 Karachi, 28, 129, 130, 189; 1986 Pan Am hijacking, 183, 192, 228, 241, 252—56 Karameh, 70, 73, 81, 174, 306 Kaylani, Adnan al-, 203 Khaddam, Abd al-Halim, 107—108, 120, 129, 193 Khair, Hussein Abu al-, 48 Khair, Muhammad, 220, 291—92 Khalaf, Salah, see Iyad, Abu Khalid, Walid, 201, 268—69 Khalifa, Munzhir, 81—82 Khaliq, Aziz Abd al-, 196 Khartoum, 48, 70, 75, 78, 230; 1988 bombings, 263—65 Khatib, Ahmad al-, 74 Khomeini, Ayatollah, 280 Khudr, Na’im, 49, 159; murder of, 168—72, 175, 179 Khudr, Samih Muhammad, 164, 253, 266—67, 269 Khuly, Muhammad al-, 120, 121, 122, 145, 248, 249, 252, 257, 296 Kilburn, Peter, 240 Kissinger, Henry, 50—51, 94, 106, 322 Klinghoffer, Leon, 238 Klutznick, Philip, 172 Kreisky, Bruno, 171, 172, 174, 186 Kurds, 94, 227, 230 Kuwait, 9, 44, 49, 66, 91, 107, 159, 320; Iraqi invasion of, 32, 110, 159, 281, 313—16, 319; Abu Nidal’s operations concerning, 130, 147, 148, 165, 219, 254, 266, 291, 293 Kuwait Airlines, 9, 91 Lavon affair, 230 Lebanon, 6, 9, 10, 37, 40, 45, 47, 48, 71, 102—105, 111, 117, 120, 126, 169, 230, 320; Americans attacked in, 226, 233, 234, 240; ASALA in, 272—75; civil war in, 51, 106—107, 110; Fatah in, 82—84, 96, 101, 102, 114—17, 122, 131—35, 165, 167, 173; Israeli invasions of, 113—16, 131—32, 140, 148, 159, 189, 222—27, 232—34, 262, 273; and list of 1980s terrorism, 232—42; Abu Nidal’s operations concerning, 122, 13 1—35, 139—44, 146, 181, 184, 190, 198, 199, 201, 202, 205—27, 255—59, 261, 269, 272—75, 303, 307, 311—12; 1980s relations with Israel, 169, 210—15, 230—42; and War of the Camps, 140—44, 159, 208 Lebanon Committee, 186, 188 Libya, 3, 27, 38, 45, 50, 52, 77, 90, 101, 103, 135; Egyptian relations with, 109, 147, 148, 242—43; Fatah in, 88, 101, 102, 139, 147—48; intelligence apparatus in, 149—50, 234, 238—40; Abu Nidal’s operations concerning, 3—31, 109, 112, 139, 143—51, 165, 180, 181, 184, 188, 190, 193, 195, 201, 202, 206, 219, 221, 228—29, 238—47, 254—72, 287—91, 294—301, 303, 307—17, 319; refugee camps in, 3—31, 184, 289; and Silco affair, 267—72; U.S. relations with, 149, 238—40, 246—47, 251, 267 Libyan Airlines, 1973 Israeli attack on, 48 Libyan Constitutional Union, 137 Libyan Democratic National Rally, 137 Libyan People’s Bureau (London), 137, 234 Lod Airport, 1972 terrorist attack on, 47 London, 4, 39, 43, 102, 119, 126, 162, 184, 204, 205, 235; and Argov affair, 223—25, 232; and Hindawi affair, 247—52; terrorist attacks in, 47, 49, 52, 127, 137, 148, 159, 162—63, 165, 169, 211, 223—25, 232, 234, 236, 240, 247—52 London Agreement (1987), 251 Lutf, Abu al-, 78, 79 Machanaimi, Gideon, 239 Madi, Khalid al-, 202—203 Madrid, 48, 127, 130, 156—58 Mafia, 272 281, 284, 287—90, 293, 294—301, 261; and list of 1980s terrorism, Mahdi, Sadiq al-, 264, 265 Mahjubi, Muhammad Ali, 2l9n.—20n. Abu Nidal: A Gun for Hire
Police arrested him, and he confessed. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Their inability to inspire the population to action demonstrates the weakness of their leaders and the effectiveness of Israeli measures. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Except for isolated incidents, the Israeli Palestinians remained silent and sep- arated from those who fled, and although Fatah and the PFLP tried many times to form cells within Israel with the intention of instigating disruptive operations against the government, they were never successful. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
I recall one TV com- mentator making a bold speech in which he had the guts to say that among his friends were Arab Americans and that we should not condemn the whole lot of those rotten people. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Nixon was dining with Golda Meir and Israel’s United States ambassador, Yitzhak Rabin, on the night he made the announcement.’6 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
After the Khartoum disaster those involved in Black September were given other functions, thereby eliminating future organized Americans have become used to thinking of Israelis as the good guys and Arabs as the bad guys.... Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Americans quickly provided logistic support. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Americans claim that they lost the ship for two days. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Syrians were only too happy to turn the body over to the Americans and embarrass the PLO, who could not deny that Abu Abbas sat on their Execu- tive Committee. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Other European countries felt that the use of a NATO base for American revenge was uncalled for: NATO bases should be run by NATO for the defense of Europe, not by the Americans for their private war. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The affair brought down the Italian gov- ernment, which had been the longest lasting since World War 11.42 Arab and Israeli Terrorism
There was actual talk by the Ameri- can officers of opening up on the weak-kneed Italians in order to get to the hijackers. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The Palestinian boys were given life sentences—one had to be tried in juvenile court44—and Abu Abbas was later indicted and sentenced in absentia, a com- mon Italian ploy of avoiding responsibility. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Whenever Syria acquired weapons from the Soviet Union, the Israelis would exaggerate their impact, omitting the fact that the weapons were defensive since Syria feared an Israeli attack. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
The United States, however, was busy conducting a smear campaign against Libya, perhaps inspired by President Reagan’s personal hatred of its eccentric leader. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Since the beginning of President Reagan’s first term there had been at least 16 attacks against Americans in Europe by Mid- dle Eastern and left-wing groups,’° but the United States chose to ignore the other attacks and concentrate on Gadaffi. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Although terrorism continued, the terrorism scare stopped shortly after the Libya raid and the Hindawi affair. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Yet their revolt did not evaporate. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism, 1991), pp. 1, 2: 17 Americans were killed abroad by terrorists that year. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Defense Minister Giovanni Spadolini agreed with the Americans. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
Thus, when France, Italy and the Soviet Union tried to cultivate their economic and political relations with Yemen, their attempts were obstructed by the Yemeni political establishment. Comtemporary Yemen
During the reign of Imam Yahya, Yemen did not develop any form of an infra- structure. Comtemporary Yemen
This is not to say that San’a’ has not sought indepen- dence from Riyadh. Comtemporary Yemen
The form of the problem has changed, the need to address it has not. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Such ideological inoculation can be seen in an example gleaned from a different field: Two former KGB agents said on the CBS program 60 Minutes’ that they worked for twenty years out of the Soviet embassy in Washington, yet failed to recruit even a single Amen- Fighting Terrorism 11 can citizen to spy against the United States. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The only ones who did work for them were Americans who walked in unsolicited through the gates of the embassy, and their sole motivation was money. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The possibility of persuading Americans that the indis- criminate bombing of other Americans is somehow go- ing to be beneficial to the United States or the world is next to nil outside of the most lunatic fringe of society. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The Ku Klux Klan, after all, engaged in violent attacks against black Americans and others. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
I have said that Americans, as profound believers in democracy and genuine lovers of their country, are for the most part inoculated against the ideas which are the wellspring of terrorism. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
But Saddam had several cards up his sleeve that he believed might be able to make the Americans think twice. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Over the following days, the Americans were unrelenting in their firm and uncompromising posture. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Funded by the United States and Saudi Arabia— the Americans alone poured in $3 billion—the war in Afghanistan became to Sunni Islam what the Spanish Civil War was to the Communists; it created an inter- national brotherhood of fighting men, well versed in the ways of terrorism. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
Within a year and a half after Oslo, the agreement heralded by the Labor government as “the end to terror,” acts of terror against Israel had reached unprecedented dimensions. Fighting Terrorism: How Democracies Can Defeat Domestic and International Terrorists
The Americans ended the two-month contacts in early March due to pressure from Israel and because they felt no progress had been achieved to justify their continuation. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
and explain some of its positions that it thought were misunderstood in Hamas denounced the U.S. decision to break off talks, particularly as Nevertheless, some Americans were convinced that it was important 125. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
131. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
On the international scene, the United States surged ahead of the Soviet Union in the power game, thus imposing its will and spreading its hegemony, not only on the area, but worldwide. HAMAS: Political Thought and Practice
terminate its search and threatened to carry on seizing ‘suspect’ Americans. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Who do you think forced it to withdraw to its current ‘security zone’? [Former President] Amin Gemayel? Negotiations? The Americans? The United Nations Security Council? The Arab League? Only the Resistance forced it to withdraw. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Americans were playing a major role in mediating peace between the Palestinians and Israel, while Syria was keen to improve its relations with the West having lost its Soviet sponsor. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Not all Americans shared Reagan’s determination and con- fidence. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The MNF unit they sent comprised Americans, French and Italians. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
‘Violence will remain our only way,’ declared the caller. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The militants were told that pressure on the Westerners had to be kept up and it was left to them to decide on how to deal the second blow against the Americans. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Americans had just confirmed the Shiites’ belief that they harboured bad intentions towards the Muslim population when they had ordered ships from their flotilla, off the shores of Lebanon’s Mediterranean coast, to open fire.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Mughniyeh was later to kidnap most of the Americans who were held hostage, as well as the British envoy Terry Waite. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
In December 1988, Hashemi Rafsanjani publicly addressed the Americans just before he was elected president of Iran: ‘If you are interested in having your people [who are] held hostage in Lebanon released, then tell the Phalangists [Christian militia] to release our people who have been in their hands for years.’ Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Farid is a professor of literature and a graduate of the Lebanese University of Beirut. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
He is a handsome man with piercing blue eyes. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Dodge was only a means for us to make our political grievances known and to try and achieve something from the Americans. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Dodge’s kidnapping had forced the Americans to seek the influence of the PLO for the first time.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
We knew the Americans were seeking information about the hostage through Abu Jihad so we decided to use the Palestinians as well. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
We would give Abu Jihad information on his well-being and progress to pass on to the Americans in return for arms and money from the PLO that we needed in order to reorganise ourselves and prepare ourselves for carrying on with the struggle against the Israelis after the PLO’s withdrawal. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Abu Jihad thought fast and decided to act as a middleman between the kidnappers and the Americans. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
We were told that the Americans were not interested in our demands and that Dodge had become a losing card which was better set free,’ he explained in embarrassment, as if he had realised their naïvety for the first time. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Iranian officials, said Tufeili, then appeared on the scene in Lebanon: Here I would like to stress that the Americans were informed by the Syrians that the hostage issue was about to be resolved and they [the Americans] aborted it instead. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
It then became clear to us that the Americans had their own agenda — that of McFarlane [Iran—Contra] — and they had started their own bazaar in dealing with the hostage issue which was related to their own agenda. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Despite the Americans’ request for his arrest, the French authorities permitted the Lebanese radical, who was travelling under a false identity, to leave France freely. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
People can believe what they like, but the truth of the matter is that when everything collapsed because of the inept deal by the Americans and the Iranians, and you have said that you are working for the release of the hostages, but then everybody else is walking away, I believed EXPORT OF A REVOLUTION 131 that the church should be the last people to walk away. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
second question is, who were we supposed to have served in preventing these people [kidnappers]? Were we supposed to serve the Americans or others in this issue? The answer was, Hezbollah 142 why should we? Let them [the US and West] pluck their own thorns.The Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The emergency conference was attended by twenty-nine heads of state, but did not include Syria or Iran. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
Israel’s proxy, the South Lebanon Army militia (SLA), warned that electricity power stations and water systems would also be attacked, confirming suspicions that Israel’s real motive was to coerce Lebanon’s government into disarming Hezbollah. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Americans’ argument was that a delay would allow their Middle East envoys Dennis Ross and Warren Christopher more time to discuss the conflict with the Lebanese, Syrians and Israelis. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
The Americans’ argument, the Lebanese were told, was that if Israel was to be condemned then Hezbollah should be condemned as well. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
It considered that if it adhered to the Americans’ wishes it would, in effect, be giving Israel and the US a licence for future intimidation. Hezbollah: Born With a Vengeance
With famine stalking some areas, wartime rationing continued. The Making of the Georgian Nation
Thus, the burden hit the poorer peasants much harder than those who were relatively better off. The Making of the Georgian Nation
MacBride, Sean. Arab and Israeli Terrorism
williamj@tenbase2.com