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About Behaviorism
Bin Laden Videotape Transcript
Freud and Psychoanalysis
Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden
Just and Unjust Wars
Newsweek October 1, 2001
Newsweek September 24, 2001
The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan
Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters
The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud
Time October 10, 2001
Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia
by Karl E. Meyer and Sharon Blair Brysac, published by Counterpoint.

        It now remains to establish a connection, which I am again to as~
sume as pertaining to the future, by means of the rigmarole which I have
deciphered.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                         But expressions of that sort
simply assign to fanciful inner processes what is to
be found in genetic endowment and personal history.
	About Behaviorism

                            The supposition that this, precisely,
was what the girls secretly intended is justified by the psycho-
analytic axiom that actions are to be judged more by their re-
sults than by their conscious motives.5
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

1 [Translated from “Zur Psychoanalyse,” Wissen und Leben (Zurich; former title
of the Neue Schweizer Rundschau), V (1912), 711—14.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                       The small
world of the child, the family milieu, is the model for the big
world.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

  But when the river has dug out its main bed, all the subsidiary
streams dry up and lose their importance, leaving only traces of
their former activity.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

The former happy relationship with
her parents went to pieces too.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

In these circumstances it would have been a miracle if
she had been willing to love and marry another man.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

 Patients will often tell you that their former doctors forbade
them to have any concern with their fantasies, explaining that
they could only consider themselves well when they were free,
if only temporarily, from this terrible scourge.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                             This new way of
thinking about himself has about as much resemblance to his
former state of mind as a diver has to a drowning man.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                       His
former compulsion now has a meaning and a purpose, it has
become work.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                           The libido which is not used for this
purpose stagnates, and will then make the inevitable regression
to former objects or modes of adaptation.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Her former constrained and unnatural manner had quite
disappeared.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                          This highly improbable story
to be, as might be expected, a fantasy, which had be-
paramnesia.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                   In this situation it was not surprising that
the first and most important symptoms in the manifest neurosis
were those of nausea.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

652 From your letter of i8 February I would like first to single
out the end, where you so aptly assign the element of sugges-
tion its proper place in psychoanalysis: “The patient is not an
empty sack into which we can stuff whatever we like; he brings
his own particular contents with him, with which you have
always to reckon afresh” [sic].
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

~); “A Contribution to the Study of Psycho-
logical Types” (Vol.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                   In other words, behind the father
stands the archetype of the father, and in this pre-existent arche-
type lies the secret of the father’s power, just as the power which
forces the bird to migrate is not produced by the bird itself but
derives from its ancestors.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

     The correspondent would be Peter Arnett, who had won a Pulitzer
Prize during his ten years of reporting in Vietnam and whose coura-
geous decision to remain in Baghdad during the Gulf War had helped
put CNN on the map.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

So it should not be surprising that bin Laden’s top aide is a physi-
cian from an upper-class Egyptian family, or that his former media
representative in London was a Saudi entrepreneur, born in Kuwait,
who worked in the import-export business.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

        But the writer goes on to suggest that the bombing of two U.S.
embassies in Africa in 1998 could have been a joint operation between
Iraq and bin Laden.~
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                        The former
student of urban preservation had now become the architect of the
most spectacular act of urban demolition in history.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                      At about the time bin Laden founded Beit
al-Ansar, his former professor Abdullah Azzam established the
Mekhtab al-Khadamat, or Services Office, in Peshawar.58
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

  I met with the former prime minister at a well-kept suburban New
Jersey home just across the George Washington Bridge from Manhat-
tan, on a dank, freezing day in March 2000.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

    While I was talking with the former prime minister I could feel her
mind operating on several levels as she assessed how best to get me on
her team.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

          Former CIA official Milt Bearden, who ran the Agency’s Afghan
operation in the late 1980s, says: “The CIA did not recruit Arabs,” as
there was no need to do so.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

    In 1998 Milt Bearden wrote a well-received thriller, Black Tulip, in
which a top CIA operative establishes a base inside Afghanistan that is
used by a “handful of American officers.”°
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                ~ A former CIA official told me: “As quartermasters we
lamic Group, he was issued a visa for the United States in 1987 and a
multiple-entry visa in 1990.’~
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                         The group opened a satellite of-
fice in Baku, Azerbaijan; sent fighters to Chechnya, at a cost of $1,500
each; dispatched holy warriors to Tajikistan; trained members of the
Filipino Moro Front; delivered $100,000 to affiliates in Jordan and Er-
itrea; and smuggled weapons into Yemen and Egypt.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

  Dr. al-Fagih has never advocated violence against Americans, but
his view represents the commonly held perspective of many serious
Muslims on this subject.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

What is certain is that bin Laden encountered money problems while
he was living in Sudan.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Ultimately, however, the money question is a red herring.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Odeh quickly married a local Kenyan girl.4
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

        Al-’Owhali then volunteered to fight alongside the Taliban, who
were at war with Afghanistan’s former rulers in the north of the coun-
try.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

        The former CIA official Dr. Jerrold Post, who pioneered the psycho-
logical profiling of terrorists, testified in Mohamed’s defense during the
death penaltyphase of his trial.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

f
in a systematic way.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

    Finally, a former United Nations official familiar with Iraqi
weapons programs told me: “We were tracking Iraqi involvement in
the military in Sudan.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                        On Sep-
tember 27, 2001, the embassy was torched and gutted by Taliban
protesters chanting “Long live Osama.”)
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                            Maulana ul-Haq presides
over 2,800 students, mostly from Pakistan, but also including hun-
dreds from Afghanistan and dozens from the Central Asian republics
of the former Soviet Union.26
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

       Vestiges of former eras lingered in the hotel lobby—signs for the
ballroom, directions to the bar, and advertisements for Intourist vaca-
tions in the Soviet Union.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                             According to the report, some of the worst
abuses occurred in their prosecution of the war in the north against
the nation’s former rulers, where the Taliban summarily executed
civilians, forcibly relocated populations, burned homes and crops, and
used forced labor.5’
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

I talked to one of the political prisoners, who said
he had been incarcerated for eleven months.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

The only holy places are Mecca and Medina.”
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

While some Yemeni jihadists did indeed hang up their holy war
174 / HOLY WAR, INC.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

It was then that they turned
to the idea of a bomb-laden boat.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                               This
demonstrated a fundamental misunderstanding of the neighborhood in
which they were working.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

In April 1999, the State Department issued its annual “Patterns of
Global Terrorism” report.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

When I called him at his Virginia home a few days after the bombing,
he was a model of politeness: “We needed a refueling point down
there,” he explained.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                     According to a former CIA official,
“The Aden refueling decision was a political calculation that was obvi-
ously misplaced.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Hewas accompanied byAli Mohamed, the former U.S.
Army sergeant who was by then advising al-Qaeda on military matters.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

All this happens under the supervision of
America.”
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                                   ~
Al-Zawahiri is not the only Egyptian who plays an important role in
al-Qaeda.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

There are as many Islams as there are Christianities.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                         Also, while researching a
story on the sale of nuclear material in 1997, I was approached
through an intermediary by an Afghan selling what he claimed was
bomb-grade uranium from one of the countries of the former Soviet
Union.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

A former CIA official also confirmed the figure of six in an interview with the
author, August 2001.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Former CIA official, interview by author, November 2000.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Former CIA official, interview by author, November2000.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

19.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Further proof of the cosmopolitan makeup of the forces arriving for military
training can be found among the prisoners of war captured by Massoud.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

7.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Former U.S. intelligence official, interview by author, November 2000.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

warriors, corn.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                But when, the Hungarians
having shown themselves likely to prevail in this struggle, the Russian
despot interposed, and joining his force to that of Austria, delivered
back the Hungarians, bound hand and foot, to their exasperated
oppressors, it would have been an honorable and virtuous act on
the part of England to have declared that this should not be, and
that if Russia gave assistance to the wrong side, England would
aid the right.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Then the lawyers enjoin a strict neutrality.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                        Assuming a conventional firefight, this is
not called murder; nor is the soldier regarded after the war as a
murderer, even by his former enemies.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                    The development of military technology, it might
be said, has dictated it, for war today is as much an economic as a
military activity.
	Just and Unjust Wars

-At any rate, it has been said that after the fighting was over, few
of the resettled villagers wanted to return to their former homes.22
	Just and Unjust Wars

Much of the debate about aggression and war crimes,
however, has focused on the latter issue, not the former.
	Just and Unjust Wars

     Here is a man of extraordinary nobility, but what are we to say of
his (former) comrades? That they are committing murder when
they fire their guns, and that they are not responsible for the murder
they commit.
	Just and Unjust Wars

          The story was written by Evan
Thomas, author of”The Very Best Men:
Four Who Dared: The Early Years of the
CIA."
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                     Former Soviet general Aleksandr Lebed, on his
recollection offightinga war in Afghanistan
“My second day as chairman, a plane I lease, flying with engines
I built, crashed into a building that I insure, and itwas covered
with a network I own."
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                       Says 
a former senior Clinton-administration of- 
ficial, “Musharrafbasically went on TV and 
said, ‘Oh, Osama!
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

   Other analysts believe the re-
lationship is more symbiotic—
“a happy spiritual union’ in the
words of a former CIA opera-
tive.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                         Among Army offi- 
cers, promotions went only to practicing 
Muslims.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

But, safely CIA needs more human spies.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

A Yemeni-born former freedom fighter in Afghanistan, Khallad as-
sumed control ofbin Laden’s bodyguards and became a kind ofcapo in Al Qaeda.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                       He was never
touching woman, so how can
he live?” In October 1999, “we
found him a bride who was nice
and delicate, the daughter of a
former ambassador,” said Atta
piloted the second jetliner, United Airlines Flight 173, into the 
South Tower of the World Trade Center.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                          Moderate Arab
Rescue workers 
car a colleadue 
lniured In the 
theWorld Trade 
center’s North Tower 
11 collapse of 
lars in wire transfer through Fleet Bank to the Middle
East.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

The 29th became the stock the way they do business,” says former Securities and Exchange
market’s blackest day.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                        Yet the
neopeaceniks are likelyto find
plenty ofyoung converts
amongthe globalization
protesters—and draw on their
organizational infrastructure.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                      “I think
the younger generation is
going to be coming at it from
a more pragmatic point of
view.”
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

John Cooksey told a radio interviewer nel, choosing almost no one entering the area so rushed that she left the
last week.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

       commission chaired by former senators Gary Hart and Warren 
Rudman said “a direct attack against American citizens on Ameri- 
can soil is likely over the next quarter century."
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

any problems with them,” said
Ken Schortzmann.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

Bush’s first challenge:
How to
finding the enemy.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

The argument of the former Joint Chiefs 
chairman, which is largely accepted by 
Bush’s team, is that just killing foot so!-
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                     Yes, 
the Sept. 11 horror has “raised the pro- 
pensity” for risk among politicians and 
commanders, as former Special Forces 
commander Gen. Wayne Downing says.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

         to bomb, you may wind up 
very good friends," says retired 
liam Odom, former head ofthe 
curityAgency.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                       NATO 
said it would invoke, for the first
NATO 
dinated international pressure on Libya’s
Muammar Kaddafi isolated his regime, re-
duced the Libyan threat and ultimately
forced him to turn over the key libyan sus-
pects for trial, says Yoram Schweitzer, a
former Israeli Anny officer.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

     “Strategically, it’s the same gen-
eral approach,” says a former Pentagon
planner.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

True believers, they imag- 
ined themselves at the vanguard of their own.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                                              Like Churchill and
The meeting didn’t last minutes, but half FDR, George Walker Bush must weld and
an hour.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                        
— 
ware and the Web, anyone canbeapublish-
Iy specialized pursuits.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

“Just me, him and my sis- 
ter.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

VAHID F. NOWSHIRVANI is a senior lecturer in economics at Columbia Univer-
sity.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                           The two largest resistance
parties, the Hizb-i Islami led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar and the
Jami~at-e Islami led by Burhanuddin Rabbani and Ahmad Shah
Masud, turned their arms against one another, the former drawing
support from among the country’s Pashtuns, and the latter from among
the Tajiks and Uzbeks.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

     In Iran the Islamic revolutionaries have turned their wrath not only
against those who collaborated with the shah’s government but also
against those who supported the revolution: for example, the former
prime minister, Mehdi Bazargan, his liberal-nationalist colleagues, such
prominent clerical leaders as Kazem Shariatmadari and Hossein Ali
Montazeri (both grand ayatollahs), the Islamic socialist mujahidin, and
the secular Left.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

     Within six months after taking power, the regime nationalized pri-
vately owned banks, the insurance system, and heavy industries, as
well as smaller industrial units that were owned by individuals linked
to the Pahlavi regime or whose liabffities exceeded their net assets.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                    There-
fore, each state in the region has a keen concern that neighboring states
keep their ethnic groups under control and that there not be “interfer-
ence” in their own internal conificts.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                    The
Marxist-Leninist Afghan leaders indeed considered themselves an elite,
but that perception was not shared by the vast majority of those over
whom they wished to exercise power.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Another peculiarity of Afghanistan is its ethnic makeup.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

            The state and especially the party would be under firm Parchami
control, in the person of Babrak Karmal and his closest associates, all of
them blooded veterans of the Parcham-Khalq feud.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

  The most radical departure from the previous DRA practice, how-
ever, was the attempt to provide a seeming non-PDPA leavening tc
government.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                             In June the
Politburo dropped one member (Sarwari) and added three: Minister of
Communications Watanjar (a former tank commander), Minister of De-
fense Major General Mohammed Rafi, and State Security Chief
NajibullaK In September, Babrak called up reservists to age thirty-five
(Staar 1982, 159, 161).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                        When the initial campaign of
visits began to lose momentum, a somewhat unrealistic rule was
adopted in 1987 that required Politburo members to spend twenty out
of every thirty working days in the provinces (Staar 1988, 395).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                      For example, local elections were scheduled for late 1985
and the first nine months of 1986, yet by September 1986, they had been
Trends in Claimed Party and 
aThe People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) became the Homeland Party
(HP) in June 1990.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The figure given for the new party’s membership was an unusually
precise 173,614.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                            In February 1989, almost before the dust of
their last outgoing convoys had settled, Najibullah was circling his
political wagons by firing his prime minister, Hassan Sharq, and ten
other ministers (seven, including Sharq, were ostensibly nonparty) and
replacing all but two of them with party members.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                       Again displaying remarkable tolerance, Najibullah
not only avoided overreacting to the first attempts but in October 1989
appeared to be trying to mollify his opposition by promoting as many
as seven Khalqis to high party positions (Staar 1990, 530).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Moscow’s empire, both the organizational structure and ideological ce-
ment that might have held the elite together and sustained Sovietiza-
tion crumbled away.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

  When the Parchainis later released such statistics, they showed consistent majori-
ties in both party membership among security personnel and security personnel among
the PDPA membership at large.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

11.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Najibullah claimed in late 1987
that most of them were at the 3 (approximately C) level (Kabul New Times, 11 Nov. 1987).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

    According to purported official DRA statistics, there were 52,496 Afghan students in
Communist countries (46,772 in the USSR alone) between 1980 and 1984 (Afghan Realities,
1 June 1985,5).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                   They became politicized in the sixties, fighting against
the old establishment; for this reason they still oppose the return of the
former king, whom they identify with the old social order.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

          The state is not just a tool to protect and propagate religion but
is the core of the process of Islamization; the truth of any society is in
the state, not in the beliefs of the citizens; the ulama and Shari’ah (holy
law) are less important than “party” and “Islamic ideology.”
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The Islamists originally came from middle-class families liv-
ing in big cities but with roots in the countryside.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

 former ones (using patronage relations and sometimes the murder of
rivals, a common pattern in the North from Maymana to Nahrin, in
Ghorband and in Laghman), access to weapons delivery providing the
best guarantee of achieving such a position.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Generally, the former establishment left the country; there was no
khan fighting at the head of his tribe, or clan, against the Soviets.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Strangely enough, the former establishment still present in Afghanistan
had joined the Kabul regime against the mujahidin.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                           Some new gover-
nors recently appointly by the regime-who tended to supplant the
party secretaries as acting leaders of the regime’s forces at the provin-
cial level (such as Wakil Shah Nazar in Helmand)—were former mem-
bers of the national assembly from the time of the king or President
Daoud, as were some prominent members of the National Fatherland
Front (e.g.,
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                              This is the
case only among the former Young Muslims, who always joined one of
the Islamist parties, although they joined a particular one of the three
Islamist parties (Rabbani, Khales, or Hekmatyar) for other reasons.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The Politicization of Afghan Society
THE NEW POLITICAL ELITE 81
82 OLIVIER ROY
2.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                      There are two kinds of religious
networks (not mutually exclusive): Sufi affiliations and madrasa fel-
lowships.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                             Only the
Harakat-e Enqelab has a uniform mixture of all Afghan ethnic groups,
owing to its clerical nature.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The following explain the political affffiation of a local jabha:
1.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

       Parties tend to create administrations using the prerogatives of the
former central state: for example, there are committees dealing with
finance, health, culture, and so forth; the party collects taxes and might
establish its own judicial power; mujahidin tend to shift from being
part-time fighters to being professional soldiers.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The ulama use the model of jihad, with two priorities, war and
Shari~ah; building a would-be state is not a priority.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                   Thus, a local commander
or notable tends to look for a direct affiliation with a party other than
the locally dominant one, but in doing this, he follows the patterns
dealt with above.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                 A local aiim is seldom
contested by another local aiim, because teaching in a madrasa and be-
longing to a brotherhood has established between them an acknowl-
edged hierarchy.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

           So the bulk of the mujahidin commanders belong either to the
new urban and educated middle class or to traditional religious fami-
lies (the former educated at high schools and universities, the latter
educated at madrasa).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                       The lay radical
deputies included a greater number of the former revolutionary stu-
dents and teachers (80 percent) than did the deputies of the opposite
camp (60 percent).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Khomeini began his leadership career in Teheran with no experi-
ence in running the day-to-day affairs of a gigantic modern state.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                             At the same time, the constitution gave
the supreme charismatic leader the authority to appoint the members
of the Council of Guardians, who had veto power over legislation
passed by the Majlis.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                       The sweeping changes that have rolled the socialist
world and the new relations that have developed between the West
and the former Eastern bloc have drastically altered the old geopolitical
role of Iran as a buffer state.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                        But
given the dissonance, if not divergence, between institutional interests
and those of particular socioeconomic groups, it may be more worth-
STATE AND POLITICAL PRIVILEGE 159
160 AYESHA JALAL
while to investigate the location of functionaries of the state within key
economic sectors.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

               State-sponsored links with socioeconomic structures
generally prove to be less tenuous than the organic links between
dominant social groups and the state, although even these might
weaken in time.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

       More to the point, too close an association with religious ideo-
logues could alienate those in the senior and middle echelons of the
military establishment who, with the obvious exception of the
Jamac at’s supporters, did not share the enthusiasm with which Zia was
seeking to establish an Islamic ethos within the army as well as in
Pakistani society at large.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                              Polarization
had by now enveloped all levels of Pakistani society Social divisions,
especially among the dominant interest groups, could temporarily in-
crease the state’s relative autonomy of action, but in the Pakistani con-
text they proved to be a double-edged sword.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                          Considering that over 300,000 acres of the most
productive land in Sind was also allotted to former military personnel
during the Ayub Khan era, there seemed small cause for alarm about
STATE AND POLITICAL PRIVILEGE 177
178 AYESHA JALAL
Zia’s use of state authority to burnish the fading stars of the military
establishment.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                           In such a case the legitimacy of the
state itself is at issue, and this issue, rather than the redistributive poli-
cies, may come to dominate politics, as it has in Afghanistan.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                      The anthropologists
confirm that Elphinstone ([1815] 1972, 1:217) had it right, at least for
the Pashtun tribes, when he wrote, “In their notion of their Khaun,
the idea of a magistrate set up for the public good is certainly mixed
with that of a patriarchal and natural superior, yet the former im-
pression will always be found to be strongest.”8
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

       Land above the ceiling (as well as state land and the lands of the
former royal family) were to be confiscated by the state and distributed
to landless laborers and tenants, small peasants (those owning less than
five jaribs), and propertyless nomads.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

So far, approximately 30%
to 35% of it has been carried out.”
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

This is consistent with Ferdinand’s (1962, 123) estimate that one-sixth of
the population was “more or less nomadic.”
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                          In an interview, an
exiled Afghan career civil servant, a former provincial governor who in 1980 and 1981
was the highest official responsible for municipalities in Afghanistan, stated that through-
out this period the central government frequently lost both telephone and ground contact
with provincial (not just district) centers and could not even transport the payroll to pay
local government employees.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

million, and
$253.8
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

above differed considerably.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                              The most
appropriate way to bring about redistribution would have been
through a combination of asset redistribution and fiscal policies; it
tried the former but neglected the latter.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                    The British administration in India
distinguished between good and bad landlords; it benefited the former
through state attention and penalized the latter by constraining their
activities.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

of economic management that has brought it to a comfortable state of
development may no longer be able to sustain the former pace of
growth and development.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                    At the center of a system of exchange that is based
not on the individual but on entire families, wives are acquired by a
transfer of goods from the husband’s family to the bride’s, a transfer
that ensures to the former the young women’s reproductive functions.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

    In addition to the money earned, these activities are positive expe-
riences because of the contacts established between the Afghan women
of rural origins and those from urban areas (usually from Kabul) who,
because of their former education, are indispensable intermediaries be-
tween the producers and those in charge of the international aid orga-
nizations.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Of course, women from Kabul and from the former urban upper
classes have the greatest difficulty in accepting the situation.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                     The CAR, though supported
by the UNHCR, was unable to implement any secondary or higher
education for girls.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

34, 1 June 1985) cites 2,322 students and 19,920 children four to eight years old for the
period 1980—84; Bazgar (1987, 153) claimed that 30,000 children had “departed” for the
USSR; Elmi (1986, 93) claimed that 4,000 every year, “that is to say 16,000—20,000 young
Afghan boys and girls in the past 5 years have been sent to Russia.”
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

       High fertility and low literacy and labor force participation are
linked to the low status of women, which in turn is often attributed to
the prevalence of Islamic law and norms in these societies.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                      Zahra Rahnavard, the wife of
former prime minister Mir Hossein Musavi and herself a university
professor, was responsible for negotiating removal of these barriers.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

     Women play important symbolic roles in every society, and it is
in the interest of the state to promote a certain image of woman to
serve its purposes in a given time.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

     In response to the harshness of Zia’s repressive laws regarding
women, the 1980s witnessed the emergence of urban grass-roots
women’s movements that publicly exposed the controversy over inter-
pretation of Islamic law.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

        The case was extended to the larger issue that the police were
unable to control the mounting crimes against women, evidenced by
four cases of rape occurring in Karachi in January 1987 alone (Irshad
1987).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

            A completed affirmative action proposal that would enable
women to be placed into decision-making positions within each minis-
try.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                        Unlike the former ex-
amples, it does not refer to a verse taken from poetry, but to a self-coined
saying.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

No other than a former
servant of the family whom I visited at the time.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I am aware that I am not quite anxious to think of ageing, and react
peculiarly when I am reminded of it.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I determined to make my case more favorable at home, and say that it
was ten minutes to ten.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I had to ask my wife to recall it to
me.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

2 In Bernard Shaw’s Caesar and Cleopatra, Caesar’s indifference to Cleopatra 13
depicted by his being vexed on leaving Egypt at having forgotten to do something.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                             Thus, in former years, I ob-
served that of a great number of professional calls, I only forgot those
that I was to make on patients whom I treated gratis or on colleagues.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                  He therefore justly maintains that
distractedness is a state which depends on unconscious complexes, and is curable by
nical error in the psychoanalysis of a patient, and on this day all his former distrac.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

           I am touching, moreover, on an affliction to which even most of my
healthy acquaintances are subject, when I admit that especially in
former years, I had the habit of easily forgetting for a long time to return
borrowed books, also that it very often happened that I deferred pay-
ments through forgetfulness.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      This reflection leads back to a former occasion when another publisher
IMPRESSIONS AND RESOLUTIONS
*
79
8o PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE
raised some difficulties because I was obliged to take out several pages of
the text from an earlier work on cerebral infantile paralysis, and put them
unchanged into a work on the same theme in Nothnagel’s handbook.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      (a) In former years, when I made more calls at the homes of patients
than I do at present, it often happened, when I stood before a door where
I should have knocked or rung the bell, that I would pull the key of my
own house from my pocket, only to replace it, quite abashed.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          Another time, I called on a woman as rich as she was miserly and
foolish, who was in the habit of giving the physician the task of working
his way through a heap of her complaints before he could reach the simple
cause of her condition.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      The boy did not wish to recall what he must have learned so much more
recently than I. He asked if that was the story of the slave on whose bald
skull the answer was written.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

If such a connection
exists, it can hardly be limited to this single case.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

He was a better psychologist
than, we are striving to become.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

To be frank, I was somewhat mystified.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

             I do not know whether this phenomenon of Déjà vu (having alreadý
seen this or that) was ever seriously offered as a proof of a former psychic
existence of the individual; but it is certain that psychologists have taken
an interest in it, and have attempted to solve the riddle in a multitude of
speculative ways.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                 But it happened that her own only brother
had had a serious attack of diphtheria some months before, and during
his illness, she had lived for weeks with relatives far from her parental
home.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

By virtue of this theory, every former state of the memory
content may thus be restored, even though all original relations have long been re.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                 This is symbolic dream-interpretation; and
THE METHOD OF
DREAM-INTEB~PRETATION
THE ANALYSIS OF A SPECIMEN DREAM
II
156
THE METHOD OF DREAM-INTERPRETATION
of course it goes to pieces at the very outset in the case of those dreams
which are not only unintelligible but confused.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

On account of this intimate relation of dream-anxiety to neurotic
anxiety, the discussion of the former obliges me to refer to the latter.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

213), and so forth.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Everyone who has received his certificate of matriculation after passing
his final examination at school complains of the persistence with which
he is plagued by anxiety-dreams in which he has failed, or must go
through his course again, etc.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                  Such a dream would
be a very striking example of the way in which the dream-content is
misunderstood by the waking instance.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     Just as the name Sappho has not been selected by the poet without ref-
erence to a Lesbian practice, so the portions of the dream in which people
are busy upstairs and downstairs, “above” and “beneath,” point to fancies
of a sexual content with which the dreamer is occupied, and which, as sup-
pressed cravings, are not unconnected with his neurosis.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                         The word “uclamparia” then resolves itself
into eucalyptus and malaria, and the word wet refers to the former
swampy nature of the locality.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Local-
ities are often treated as persons.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

It will readily be understood that those elements by means of which the
wish-fulfilment expresses itself are those which are intensely represented.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                              THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
I must utter a warning that the problem which I have just been con-
sidering—the causes of the greater or lesser intensity or distinctness of
single elements in dreams—is not to be confounded with the other prob-
lem—that of variations in the distinctness of whole dreams or sections of
dreams.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

K. is the daughter of his former employer; as he
himself admits, she was a sister-substitute.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

by Win.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                         But the groups of ideas appertaining
to plant-life, or to the kitchen, are just as often chosen to conceal sexual
images’; in respect of the former everyday language, the sediment of
imaginative comparisons dating from the remotest times, has abundantly
paved the way (the “vineyard” of the Lord, the “seed” of Abraham, the
“garden” of the maiden in the Song of Songs).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

the works of Bleuler and his Zürich disciples, Maeder, Abraham, and others1
and of the non-medical authors (Kleinpaul and others) to whom they refer.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

(Ernest Jones, Intern.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      “The second half of the dream was discovered in the analysis to repre-
sent flight from her husband, and the entering into intimate relations with
a third person, behind whom was plainly indicated Mr. X.’s brother, men-
tioned in a former dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                        which in my youth I regarded
From an essay by V. Tausk (Kleider und Farben 1m Dienste der
A. dreams that he sees his former governess wearing a dress of
C. in a dream sees a girl on the road to X, bathed in a white light
In an analysis which I carried out in the French language I had to
THE DREAM-WORK
*
369
370
with reverence.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Some other element of the dream-thoughts must have contributed to
make this possible.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                              However, I soon recovered from my surprise
when I reflected that I had long been accustomed to interpret dreams of
former years that had occasionally been related to me by my patients as
though they had been dreams of the night before; by the same method,
and with the same success.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

 For when I treat a psychoneurotic, for instance, an hysterical patient, by
psychoanalysis, I am compelled to find explanations for the first symp-
toms of the malady, which have long since disappeared, as well as for
those stifi existing symptoms which have brought the patient to me; and
I find the former problem easier to solve than the more exigent one of to-
*
445
446
day.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                            He has the former chain of associations stifi
in mind, and will therefore in the analysis o. the second dream-idea hit
all the more readily upon single associations which have something in
common with the associations of the first chain.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

This is probably due to the special and really
subsidiary rôle of the wish-fulfilment in this dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

But
even this step requires justification.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                        But we shall
learn elsewhere, when we come to deal with the dream-wish, that the
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE DREAM-PROCESSES 459
presents the one t0 which we musto1 gth 
460THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
motive-power of the dream is furnished by the Ucs.,
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                          A change can occur only if, in some way (in the case
of the child by external assistance), there is an experience of satisfaction,
which puts an end to the internal excitation.,
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                      The
establishment of identity of perception by the short regressive path
within the apparatus does not produce the same result in another respect
as follows upon cathexis of the same perception coming from without.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                   But as a second source of motive-power in this dream we may add
the father’s desire to sleep, for, like the life of the child, the father’s sleep
is prolonged for a moment by the dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

It is, of course, not difficult to guess: r. That the boy had practised
masturbation in former years, that he had probably denied it, and was
threatened with severe punishment for his bad habit.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                       THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
It is dear from this observation that the influence of puberty may
produce in a boy of delicate health a condition of extreme weak-
ness, and that this may lead to a very marked cerebral anaemia.2
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

A train of thought thus incited in the Pcs.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                        This
turning away from a recollection, which is merely a repetition of the
former flight from perception, is also facilitated by the fact that, unlike
the perception, the recollection has not enough quality to arouse con-
sciousness, and thereby to attract fresh cathexis.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

           It will suffice to note the fact that such a conversion of affect
occurs in the course of development (one need only think of the emer-
gence of disgust, originally absent in infantile life), and that it is con-
nected with the activity of the secondary system.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   principle, together with the limitation of functional capacity bound up
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE DREAM-PROCESSES
system we conceive to be similar in its mechanical characteristics to the
perception-system P, and hence excitable by qualities, and incapable of
retaining the trace of changes: i.e. devoid of memory.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The negation of this last factor is inadmis-
sible according to our former conclusions.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

(Jahrbuch für psychoanalytische und
psychopathologische Forschungen, I, 1909).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      He who abhors the former as perversions, though since antiquity
these have been common practices among mankind, yields to a distinct
feeling of loathing which restrains him from adopting such sexual aims.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The force which opposes the desire for looking and through which the
latter is eventually abolished is shame (like the former loathing).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

This view, however, is easier to refute here than in the
former case.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         From the idea of “donation,” he later derives the meaning of the
“babe,” which according to one of the infantile sexual theories, is sup-
posed to be acquired through eating, and born through the bowel.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          This is not contradictory to the former sexual aim, which is that
of obtaining pleasure; on the contrary, the height of all pleasure is con-
nected with this final act in the sexual process.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    The assumptions concerning the chemical basis of the sexual excitement
are in full accord with the auxiliary conceptions which we formed for the
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF SEX
THE LIBIDO THEORY
THE TRANSFORMATION OF PUBERTY
purpose of mastering the psychic manifestations of the sexual life.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    While the primacy of the genital zones is being established through the
processes of puberty, and the erected penis in the man imperiously points
towards the new sexual aim, i.e. towards the penetration of a cavity which
excites the genital zone, object-finding, for which also preparations have
been made since early childhood, becomes consummated on the psychic
side.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                          Moreover, sexual excitation originates in the organ-
ism, as it were, as a by-product in a greater number of processes, as soon
as they attain a certain intensity; this especially takes place in all strong
emotional excitements, even if they be of a painful nature.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Hence, the
positive perversions are also accessible to psychoanalytic therapy.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

              (Harsh masters do not rule
THE TRANSFORMATION OF PUBERTY
*
595
596 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF SEX 
long.)
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Adhesion.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                               Such a far-
reaching analogy between wit-technique and dream-work surely arouses
our interest in the former and stimulates our expectation of finding some
explanation of wit from a comparison with the dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

At all events, we can already infer from the controversies about the line
of demarcation between puns and play on words that the former cannot
aid us in finding an entirely new technique of wit.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                     And as it cannot aid us toward enlightenment, we shall
leave it to search for another in which we imagine we can perceive a rela-
tionship with the former one.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                 Does not every double meaning furnish oc-
casion for displacment and for a deviatio’n of the stream of thought from
one sense to another? And shall we agree that a “double meaning” and
“displacement” should be designated as representatives of two entirely
different types of wit? It is true that a relation between double meaning
and displacement actually exists, but it has nothing to do with our dif-
ferentiation of the techniques of wit.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                     In
the first place, we have to give a name to the mechanism of this newly
discovered technique.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

A man who was addicted to drink supported himself in a small city by
private teaching.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                       It is especially true of Lichten-
berg’s wit that the path of the thought is often of more value than its
witty expression, though we unjustly extend the value of the former to
the latter.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

              Thatthe derision and criticism are not aimed at the agent, who
appears in the former examples only as the whipping boy of the joke, is
shown by another series in which the agent, on the contrary, is pictured as
a superior person whose dialectics are a match for any difficulty.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Both stories are sim-
ply epicurean.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

We shall therefore commence
with the former.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     While examining appropriate examples of harmless witticisms, in which
PLEASURE MECHANISM AND PSYCHOGENESIS
we had no fear of false judgment through content or tendency, we were
forced to the conclusion that the techniques of wit themselves are pleas-
ure-sources; now we wish to ascertain whether the pleasure may be traced
to the economy in psychic expenditure.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

  The whole process of wit production is therefore directed towards the
discovery of words and thought constellations which fulfill these con-
ditions.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

“How should I know?” was the answer.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                 123), where he says: “This is the general principle:
The dominant factors of the psychic life are not represented by the contents of con-
sciousness but by those psychic processes which are unconscious.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                      Only
when this disposal into a different path can be avoided, will the special
economy be transformed into a general alleviation of the psychic expend.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

           The thought which sinks into the unconscious for the purpose of
wit-formation only revisits there the old homestead of the former playing
with words.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                          A
brother and a sister, the former ten and the latter twelve years old, pro-
duce a play of their own composition before an audience of uncles and
aunts.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                   The explanation
of comic pleasure by Lipps, which might, in connection with his conception of the
comic, be represented as an “unexpected trifle,” Is of an entirely different nature.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                           The person who furnishes us this difference
again becomes comical through inferiority; but he is only inferior in
comparison with his former ego and not in comparison with us, for we
know that in a similar case we could not have behaved differently.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                      COMIC OP IMITATION
J-
WIT AND THE VARIOUS FORMS OF THE COMIC 
traits, and also bears the character of degradation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Berlin, I8gx.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The forms of humor are extraordinarily varied according to the naturc
of the emotional feeling which is economized in favor of humor, as sym.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Viscber.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

This conception is to some extent confirmed by the rôle
which falls to the infantile in the neurotic processes of repression.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                 The humoristic
displacement is really a case of that different kind of utilization of a freed
expenditure, which proved to be so dangerous for the comic effect.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

 Sir J. Lubbock, in his book Tile Origin of Civilization, traces back the
behaviour of the mother-in-law toward the son-in-law to the former “mar-
riage by capture.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                         Psychoanalysis has taught us that the first object
selection of the boy is of an incestuous nature and that it is directed to
the forbidden objects, the mother and the sister; psychoanalysis has
taught us also the methods through which the maturing individual frees
himself from these incestuous attractions.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         This part of the article reads as follows: “Persons or things which
are regarded as taboo may be compared to objects charged with elec-
tricity; they are the seat of tremendous power which is transmissible by
contact, and may be liberated with destructive effect if the organisms
which provoke its discharge are too weak to resist it; the result of a vio-
lation of a taboo depends partly on the strength of the magical influence
inherent in the taboo object or person, partly on the strength of the op-
posing mana of the violator of the taboo.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Other races have found methods of making friends, guardians and
protectors out of their former enemies after they are dead.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                       The dead enemy is repeatedly entreated to hate
bis former friends and to bestow his love upon his new hosts because
he has now become one of them.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                         From these there
grew up the secular rulers, while the spiritual over-lordship, which was
now of no practical importance, was left to the former taboo kings.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                      Both the notes and the text show an abundance
of corroborating and often very characteristic testimony, e.g., the Maori believed
that ~“the nearest and most beloved relatives changed their nature after death and
bore ill-wifi even to their former favourites.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                       The soul presumably envies the living and longs for
the company of its former kin; we can therefore understand that the
soul should seek to kill them with diseases in order to be re-united with
them.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

für Psychoanalyt.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          I have adopted the term “Omnipotence of Thought” from a highly
intelligent man, a former sufferer from compulsion neurosis, who, after
being cured through psychoanalytic treatment, was able to demonstrate
his efficiency and good sense.2
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

As on a former occasion,4 we want to avoid the problem as to the origin
of the tendency to project psychic processes into the outer world.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                    Besides the condensâtion of the dream elements there is
almost regularly a re-grouping of the same which is more or less independ-
ent of the former order.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

           Lord Avebury (better known under his former name, Sir John Lub-
bock) has expressed himsélf quite similarly about the origin of totemism,
though without emphasizing the misunderstanding.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                              But the deification of the murdered father
from whom the tribe now derived its origin, was a much more serious at-
tempt at expiation than the former covenant with the totem.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                    The family was a reconstruction of the
former primal horde and also restored a great part of their former rights
to the fathers.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

This
creative sense of guilt has not become extinct with us.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                  To be sure, others have read this passage and overlooked it
without making this discovery and perhaps the same would have hap-
pened to me if, in former years, I had taken more pleasure in reading philo-
sophical authors.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                    The former pointed out that a great many purely psy-
chiatric cases can be explained by the same psychoanalytic processes as
those used in dreams and in the neuroses (Bleuler’s “Freudsche Mechan-
ismen”) and Jung successfully applied the analytic method of interpre-
tation in the strangest and most obscure phenomena of dementia praecox,
the origin of which then appeared quite dear when correlated with the
life and interests of the patient.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I myself had presided over two
former congresses.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                             The first periodical publications serving the
interests of analysis were the Schrif ten sur angewandten Seelenkunden
which have appeared irregularly since 1907 and have reached the fifteenth
volume.1
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                         I was well aware that anyone might
take flight on first approach to the unlovely truths of analysis; I myself
had always asserted that anyone’s understanding may be suspended by
one’s own repressions (through the resistances which sustain them), so
that in his relation to psychoanalysis he cannot get beyond a certain
point.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

           There is nothing mysterious about it, except that culture depends
upon the acts of repression of former generations, and that each new gen-
eration is required to retain this culture by carrying out the same repres-
sions.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                  HISTORY OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT 939
*
940 HISTORY OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT
Jung’s argument ad captandam benevolentiam rests on the all too opti-
mistic assumption that the progress of humanity, of civilization, and of
knowledge has always continued in an unbroken line, as if there bad
never been any epigones, reactions, and restorations after every revolu-
tion, as if there had been no races, who, through a retrogression, rejected
the gain of former generations.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       He has changed the hilt and has inserted a new blade into it, and
because the same trademark is engraved on it, we are required to regard
the instrument as the former one.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

            Sources tell TIME that the Ad- 
ministration is considering altering the 
ban on assassinating enemies of the U.S., 
adopted 25 years ago.
	Time October 10, 2001

     NabilAl-Marabh, a former Boston
cabdriver arrested last week, was a
friend ofone ofthe hijackers, U.S.
officials say.
	Time October 10, 2001

Washington, Scott MacLeod/Cairo and
McAllister/London
1.F.O.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                                   Just when the 
media and political power schemers figure the father and son 
have their heads together in some shadowy conner dividing up 
the world’s leaders for telephone pleas, they talk family, dogs 
and how the bass are doing in the Crawford pond.
	Time October 10, 2001

              Bush and son are both 
hunters, yet another bond of sorts 
between these two men who 
make history with every conver- 
sation, with every meeting.
	Time October 10, 2001

me,” explained the father, racked with a full range of anxieties.
	Time October 10, 2001

Quite a few members
then the estimates of hundreds more in the Pentagon crash.
	Time October 10, 2001

“He and Laura were founded and the reason it endures.
	Time October 10, 2001

Afghan and Western sources say killed 40 people near his old mud-brick
Stalled at the gates of Kabul, the Tal- he gave $3 million that helped push the home in his former village.
	Time October 10, 2001

             “This is not violence in the
service of some practical program,” says
Steven Simon, a former member of the
National Security Council who is writing
a book on religiously inspired terrorism.
	Time October 10, 2001

                              More ornate
scenarios had the bad guys finishing off
New York City with a suitcase nuke or
poisoned water supply.
	Time October 10, 2001

    It is important to note that there is
no hard evidence that a second strike is
planned.
	Time October 10, 2001

gation into the Sept. 11 terror attacks 
should adopt it, simply for accuracy.
	Time October 10, 2001

Detectives and intelligence 
agents around the world are pitching in.
	Time October 10, 2001

         Some of bin Laden’s money 
is in mainstream institutions—the 
Saudis froze his assets after the 
1998 U.S. embassy bombings in 
Africa, though he may have 
moneyin Switzerland, England 
.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                 “I know a 
great number of these guys who were 
czars—energy, drugs,” says former Senator 
Warren Rudman, the Republican co-chair- 
man of a blue-ribbon commission on ter- 
rorism.
	Time October 10, 2001

            The commission co-chaired by Rud-
man and former Democratic Senator
Gary Hart concluded in January that the
threat of terrorism called for nothing short
of a new federal department combining
FEMA, the Customs Service, the Border
Patrol and the Coast Guard.
	Time October 10, 2001

                           At the White 
House, there was some annoyance that 
he set the deadline without consulting 
first.
	Time October 10, 2001

The exercise was called Dark all alarmist about this threat based on the Shinrikyo tried to make the stuff in bulk,
Winter.
	Time October 10, 2001

   A more likely source is the former tions are believed to have biological
Soviet Union, where bombmaking sup- weapons programs, many ofwhich involve
plies are plentiful, the economy is in up- anthrax.
	Time October 10, 2001

The NRC has plans to beef up
years.
	Time October 10, 2001

  Two daysbefore the attack, Moataz al-
Hallak, the former imam at the Center
Street mosque in Arlington, Texas, re-
turned there to pray.
	Time October 10, 2001

Place names change for political reasons, too.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Now it threatens to happen all over again.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

To ensure compliance, a British official with the title of
Resident was posted at each princely court.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                       KASHMIRI
shawls were the haute couture rage in France, where the former
Empress Josephine was said to possess hundreds.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

      During the 1830’s, British diplomats and strategists began to per-
ceive a new global adversary, the Russian Empire, whose armies and
agents seemed almost as threatening as those of the Tsar’s former ally,
Napoleon.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                               He insisted on a guarantee that the
British Indian Army would accompany his soldiers, and that Shah
Shuja, once enthroned, would pay a generous annual subsidy to the
Sikh kingdom.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                    Dost Mohammed’s
former commander-in-chief was suitably lionized and styled himself
General; he married, acquired a farm, and tried to promote the use
of camels by the U.S. Army.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                       He was denied the usual vote of
thanks for his services by the House of Lords, but when Whigs re-
turned to office, he was again given his former post as First Lord of
the Admiralty.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                          His name lingers in an Afghan saying, “Is
Dost Mohammed dead that there is no justice in the land?”
When Captain Ivan Vitkevich returned to St. Petersburg in April
1839, he was repudiated (so Kaye relates) by the Foreign Minister,
Count Nesselrode, who said he “knew of no Captain Vitkevich, ex-
cept an adventurer of that name, who, it was reported, had been
lately engaged in some unorthodox intrigues in Caubul and Caun-
dihar.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                       A
guilt-ridden Vitkevich destroyed all his papers, according to this ver-
sion, then himself.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                         Some eight
hundred Cossacks, armed with matchlock muskets and pikes, led by
a former river pirate named Ermak, advanced into Siberia and deci-
mated its warriors in much the way Cortés defeated the Aztecs with
six hundred Spaniards.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                          It ex-
tends from the former Russian frontier post at Orenburg, at the
mouth of the river Or, due south to the Aral Sea.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                      And lo, a public meeting was
called, a committee formed, and the needed funds subscribed, with
Lord Melbourne, the former Prime Minister, contributing £20.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                          The sports-loving and magnetic Mayo, a former
Chief Secretary for Ireland and Master of the Kildare Hunt, hit it off
with Sher Ali (“I now begin to feel myself a King!”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                   At the time in Parliament, the Government united be-
hind Lytton, dismissing attacks by Gladstone’s Liberals, and the fore-
bodings of two former Viceroys, Northbrook and Lawrence.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

As.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

The blunder occurred under the otherwise
watchful eyes of the Viceroy’s friend, Sir John Strachey.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

With a pensive sigh, the Emperor replied, “Well, go; one can
be useful everywhere.”)
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                              His name was Duleep Singh (1838—93), and
he was Queen Victoria’s favorite Indian prince, a vivid, undeservedly
forgotten personage.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                       The Rani and the Resident quarreled constantly
and bitterly, and the former was finally banished by the latter, who
complained of “her general misconduct and habits of intrigue.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

In lines for a student masque, ascribed to his schoolmates J. D. Mack-
ail and Cecil Spring Rice (later boon companion to Theodore Roo-
sevelt), his overbearing manner was rendered thus:
ft
Curzon’s Hour .. 285
286 .
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

At Chitral, he read The Kingdom of God Is Within You by an-
other former frontier officer with a mystical temper, Leo Tolstoy.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

She was mourned in three continents / And by her dearest will be /
For ever unforgotten.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                           Curzon, the most energetic and romantic of
Viceroys, was writing at the turn of the century, when his attention
was drawn to the vaguely defined and ill-protected North-East
Frontier of British India.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                         At a state dinner now held, not
as in former days at Auckland House or Peterhof, but at the monu-
mental new Viceregal Lodge, there were platoons of scarlet—livened
servants scurrying around guests, “all in full dress, in grand uniforms
of various colours, and glittering with orders.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Holdich did not attend the second lecture, but his former col-
leagues in the Survey were present in force.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                     My name has been removed from the list of Hon-
orary Members but the deep and warm regards I have al-
ways felt for British exploration and British geographical
work will forever remain to an invisible member of the
Royal Geographical Society
Until the eve of her defeat, Hedin was certain Germany would
win, and on November 11, 1918, Armistice Day, writing in a
Swedish newspaper, he extolled Kaiser Wilhelm as the greatest, the
last, and “the only true ruling personality of our time.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Stein also sought out Dr. Theodore Duka, a Hungarian
exile who had served the British as a surgeon in India.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                               Unlike other European Orientalists who
never ventured to the Subcontinent, Stein was able to study the
Buddhist art from Gandhara (now in Pakistan), then rarely seen out-
side the Punjab, under Kipling’s guidance and pursue his interest in
the extraordinary cultural encounter that had occurred along the
Silk Road, as the German geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen
was the first to call it.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                    The Fund’s birth in 1865 was
warmly endorsed not only by the Church of England and the Royal
Geographical Society but also by the Foreign Secretary, Earl Russell.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

So began a tradition of Sino-American scholarly ex-
changes that has survived wars and revolutions, and flourishes still.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Few first-rate Americans have left their attainments so thor-
oughly unadvertised.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                    In
Ireland, British security forces—the notorious Black and Tans—
helped give birth to partition, civil war, and the avenging Irish Re-
publican Army.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                   Born
in Simla, McMahon was a hard-bitten frontiersman, a former Politi-
cal Agent in Gilgit, Chitral, and Baluchistan, and the officer chiefly
responsible for the demarcation of the Indo-Afghan boundary He
hoped to crown his career by shifting India’s North-East Frontier
some sixty miles northward, running it along the Himalayan rim of
the Tibetan plateau rather than the Brahmaputra Valley.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

His political comments were
provocative.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Bell completed his fourth book on Tibet, A Portrait of the Dalal
Lama, in Canada, just before his own death in 1945.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
Roerich might be surveying the area for military purposes.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                         The letter
from his former friend and tutor had the desired effect: the Dalai
Lama ordered an end to rites in which the Red Russians were
anathematized.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                 When he fled Tibet with the
Thirteenth Dalai Lama, he became persona non grata with the
British, who prevented him from returning permanently to Lhasa.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                  After a meeting with
the botanists,Wallace reported that “Mac” expressed his fear that the
Roerichs, “being of the feline race [Russiansi might be persona non
grata to our friends [the Japanese] on whose graces we are depen-
dent.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

       Bullitt’s military attaché, it appeared, was informed by a
Soviet source that the Roerichs and their White Russian recruits
were roaming Mongolia.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                   The mission was
led by a general, Huang Mu-sung, and its real purpose soon became
apparent: to restore Tibet to its former vassalage.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                 Schafer also persuaded the Reting
Regent, who pursued the Thirteenth Dalai Lama’s policy of looking
everywhere for allies, to initiate a correspondence with Hitler.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

      Another, more grandiose, plan for “The Encirclement and Sub-
mission ofWorld Enemy England by Germany, Italy, Russia, Iran and
Japan” was put forward by a former member of Sven Hedin’s
Lufthansa Expedition in the 1920’s, a certain Major Zimmerman,
who urged a concerted attack on the “British Empire’s heart, India.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                        Indeed, a former president of the Indian Na-
tional Congress, the Bengali militant Chandra Subhas Bose, had
turned up in Berlin seeking Hitler’s support for establishment of a
“Free Indian Government” under Axis auspices.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Their radio transmitter was confiscated, as were the Survey of India
charts essential to their operation, which as it happens, had been
copied from Survey maps provided in May 1941 to Major Zimmer-
man in the Stockholm study of his former expedition leader, Sven
Hedin.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                          Beneath a surface affability,
Tolstoy was tautly controlled, a former cavalry officer whose affinity
was with horses.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

 Their host for fourteen weeks in Lhasa was Frank Ludlow, a fussy
bachelor and former headmaster of the briefly operating British-
High Mischief :. 543
544 :. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
style school in Gyantse.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                               He was es-
corted (“they would accept no pay”) by Jimmy, his former hunter,
and Lobsang, a former caravan wallah, who had gotten together
“four raw Tibetans,” The Red Gods smiled, he reported, and with-
549High Mischief 
550 :. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
held daily rains and mists, and so he was able to fell a takin: “You can
imagine howJimmy and I felt—to have killed another of those mag-
nificent beasts after a lapse of eleven years!.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                   553
The Owl of Minerva
oldest, best-established imperial rivalry, the Anglo-Russian competi-
tion for mastery of Central Asia.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                               Among the doubters was Professor Gal-
braith’s former Harvard colleague, the economist Joseph Schum-
peter, for whom imperialism was atavistic in character, a throwback
to feudalism and the warrior state—”the objectless disposition on
the part of a state to unlimited forcible expansion.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Crimean!”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

As the Romanov double-eagle moved eastward, rails and cables
followed.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                   Of our press col-
leagues, two were unstinting in spotting errors in our manuscript:I
Indrani Bagchi of The Economic Times, Calcutta; and Anwar Iqbal, a
political journalist, Islamabad.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

             We owe thanks to Peter Hopkirk, the ground-breaker in Great
Game studies, for advice (and pointing us to the SOAS library); to
Helen Wang of the British Museum and her husband Professor Tao
Wang of SOAS, for patient counsel on Asia and its Silk Roads; to
Geoff Jones, a New York lawyer who knows the whereabouts of all
former OSS officers; to two retired CIA officers with great Asian ex-
pertise, John Wailer and John Kenneth Knaus; to the late Harry
Hodson of London; to Selig Harrison of Washington, D.C., among
the best-informed of Asian hands; to Thomas Dolan IV of Philadel-
phia for helpful background; to Arnold Dadian, for his recollections
of Operation DIXIE; to Carol McGovern Cerf, who allowed us to
see the snufibox that the Thirteenth Dalai Lama gave to her father;
to Elizabeth Errington of the British Museum, for advice on Mas-
son’s coins; to Donald Lopez, who obtained for us the hard-to-get
“Mythos Tibet” conference records; to Robert Cowley, founding
editor of Military History Quarterly, for advice on editing chapters on
the First Afghan War; to Linda Wrigley, for her editorial labors on the
Rockhill chapter for World Policy Journal; to Peter Young, editor of
Archaeology, for shepherding Aurel Stein into print; to Beth Jackson,
for smoothing the wrinkles in German translations, likewise to the
late Ann Dunnigan for help with the Russian; to Braham Norwick,
for sharing his erudition on Tibet; to Roderick Van Engert, for re-
calling his boyhood memories of Kabul in 1943; to Hugh Richard-
son, for clarifying important points on the SS expedition; to Previn
Patel of Monroe, Connecticut, for Indic illumination; to Madison,
Wisconsin’s independent scholar Milan Hauner for his monographs
on Axis strategy in Asia; to Barbara and Michael Foster of NewYork,
for sharing Tibetan lore; to Thomas L. Hughes ofWashington, D.C.,
for lending the unpublished translation ofWerner Otto von Hentig’s
memoirs; to Gabriel Gorodtetsky of Tel Aviv University; for letting
Acknowledgments :. 577
578 Acknowledgments
us see his unpublished manuscript of “Grand Delusion”; to Mia
Wailer, for archival assistance in Washington, D.C.; to Howard and
Sally Wriggins, for Asian knowledge; to Carolle J. Carter, for locating
veterans of DIXIE.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                          Thus a historian of en-
ergy and fluency, familiar with the principal actors and with access to journals
and archives, was able to write an analytic narrative in the tradition of Thucy-
dides.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                     The author, Dutch-born and a
former officer in Canadian intelligence, has scoured Russian archival sources to
bring from the shadows a debate commonly ignored in accounts of the period.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                              The former include
The Buddhist Shrine of Petrograd (Ulan Ude, 1992), and the latter, “The Case of
the Secret Dispatch of a Russian Agent to Tibet, 1869—1873: An Unknown
Story of the Great Game Era,” and his paper “Russian Buddhists in Tibet, end
of the 19th c-1930”; and see “Agvan Dorzhiev’s Secret Work in Russia and
Tibet,” Tibetan Review, vol.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

             Otherwise, those curious about CiRCUS have had to glean from snippets in
diplomatic memoirs, censored references by disgruntled former CIA opera-
tives, and a scattering of short references and articles, the latter including a de-
tailed account of CIA airdrops by William M. Leary, “Secret Mission to Tibet,”
Air & Space/Smithsonian, January 1998.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                     So as not to weary you with case histories
that by now are well known, I shall content myself with refer-
ring to those mentioned in Breuer and Freud’s book, which I
may assume is known to you in its English translation.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Where formerly he dreamed, he must
now think, consciously and intentionally.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                              While this was formerly sought in the
discharge of the traumatic affect, it was now found that the fan-
tasies brought out by analysis were all associated with the person
of the analyst.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                 Freud called this process the transference, be-
cause the patient transferred to the analyst the fantasies that
were formerly attached to the memory-images of the parents.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

His father, a big, red-haired man, was formerly a soldier in the
Swiss Guard at the Vatican; later he became a policeman.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

“37Abu Mahaz took the position that all formerly Muslim lands,
including Spain, should be returned to the fold of Islam.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Once the Stingers were deployed, the Sovi-
ets lost the total air superiority they had formerly enjoyed.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                  Kiefer was leg- 
endary for his gung-ho spirit as 
an Explorer.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                  Some of these un-
doubtedly were unreconstructed Khalqis who objected to the reform-
ism of the new party policies, but a good many others undoubtedly
were Babrak followers unable to adjust to the new chief.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

  Shepherds without flocks formerly received a portion of the flock they
brought to maturity in a type of sharecropping arrangement with large
flock owners, and this arrangement could provide the start of a private
flock.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                        percent at Shaheed
Beheshti University (formerly the National University), and ii percent at
Shiraz University, the three major Iranian institutions of higher learning.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                   Owing to the narrowness of my study, it has often been
necessary for me to work in the most uncomfortable position among my
~iumerous antique day and stone objects, of which I have a small collec-
ERRONEOUSLY CARRIED-OUT ACTIONS
tion.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I divide my life into pe-
nods of ‘~ years.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Three
Contributions to the Theory of Sex.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                     But she
refuses to be consoled, for she sees in her husband’s forgetfulness a proof
that she no longer plays the same part in his thoughts as she formerly did.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

            From Elise L.’s example I see that I should have got a husband
just the same—and one a hundred times better—if I had only waited
(antithesis to the haste of her sister-in-law), I could have bought three
such men for the money (the dowry) I “—Our attention is drawn to the
fact that the numerals in this dream have changed their meanings and
their relations to a much greater extent than in the one previously con-
sidered.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    “Scene: I am saying good-bye to somebody, and I agree to meet him
(or her) again before long”
I will now proceed to summarize this long disquisition on the dream-
work.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                  Its activity corresponds, on the one
hand, to a sublimated form of acquisition, and on the other hand, the
energy with which it works comes from the looking impulse.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Everything that was to be said has been told in the joke.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                Lichten-
berg drastically puts it when he says: “Where nowadays one says, ‘I beg
your pardon,’ formerly one had recourse to a cuff on the ear.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      The further development of wit is directed by these two impulses; the
one striving to elude reason, and the other to substitute for the adult an
infantile state of mind.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                    They are very numerous, but I shall
cite only two examples: As the fish was served to a guest at the table
he put both hands twice into the mayonnaise and then ran them through
his hair.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The astonishment which formerly the dream evoked in
us is now perceived to be due to the dream-work.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                               Wester-
marck,8 who, in my opinion, gives altogether too little consideration ta
taboo, makes this statement: “On the whole facts lead me to conclude
that the dead are more frequently regarded as enemies than as friends
and that Jevons and Grant Allen are wrong in their assertion that it
was formerly believed that the malevolence of the dead was as a rule
directed only against strangers, while they were paternally concerned
‘Frazer, i.e., p. ~ cites the Tuaregs of the Sahara as an example of such an acknowl-
edgment.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

We call this defence process, fre-
quent both in normal and diseased psychic life, a projection.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                           Where formerly satisfied hate and painful ten-
derness struggled with each other, we now find piety, which appears like
a cicatrice and demands: De mortuis nil nisi bonum.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                 The name animism, formerly
applied to a definite philosophic system, seems to have acquired its pres-
ent meaning through E. B. Tylor.2
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                        In this intermediary stage,
the importance of which increases the more we investigate it, the sexual
impulses which formerly were separate, have already formed into a unit
and have also found an object; but this object is not external and foreign
‘The following discussions will yield a further motive for this displacement upon;
trivial action.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

He was formerly an assistant of Bleuler.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                         They are now disputing things which
they, themselves, formerly defended and what is more, this dispute is not
based on new observations, which might have taught them something
fresh, but rather on a different interpretation which makes them see things
in a different light than before.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                        This was formerly the heartland of the
Mughal Empire, whose disintegration in the eighteenth century
opened the way to British dominion.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

           Armed with names, dates, and dire details, Macnaghten
then persuaded a worried Lord Auckland that a dramatic counter-
move was imperative.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Look at Herat.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

His first encounters at Bokhara were not auspicious.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

There matters might have rested save for a letter to The Morning
Herald in Richmond, England, dated July 2, 1843, from the Rev-
erend Wolff, who signed himself “Late Curate of High Hoyland,
Yorkshire, formerly Missionary in Persia, Bokhara and Afghanistan.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                        Mac-
Gregor, who despised Afghans and worried that “We are thor-
oughly hated and not enough feared,” drew back at what he
witnessed.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Sir Henry Trotter, formerly the chief controller of the pun-
dits, emphatically defended his agents’ geographic skills.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

     The Great War and the Russian Revolution put a hold on Koz-
by’s plans, and not until 1923 did he make his way back to Ulan
Bator (formerly Urga) and Khara-Khoto.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

     In 1922, Bailey arranged for a visit to Lhasa by General George
Pereira, formerly the military attaché at Peking, in the guise of a
“private traveller.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                      day
after Pereira’s departure, Tibetan authorities requested the services of
Laden La, then Police Inspector in Darjeeling and formerly an aide
to the Dalai Lama during his Indian exile.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

A long and flowery message
from Roerich, then residing in India, was read.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

 Theodore Roosevelt, the oldest of the siblings, served as did his fa-
ther as an Assistant Secretary of the Navy, and like him sought elec-
tion as Governor of NewYork (he was beaten in 1924 by Al Smith).
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

    Nevertheless the agency continued its airdrops from bases in
the Mustang region of Nepal until 1969, when the Nixon Adminis-
tration’s overture to China turned CIRCUS into an em.barrassment.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                               Regardless
of all medical experience, one may construe various types of such barely
suggested nervousness, the formes frustes of the neuroses.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

~ Ibid.
‘1lbid.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                    If we have not gone altogether astray, we shall surely
reach approximately the same place from another starting-point, and then,
perhaps, we shall be better able to find our bearings.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                The Grand Trunk Road is one of the world’s most formi-
dable automotive experiences, its drivers all engaged in a protracted
and high-speed game of chicken.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

  which has technology that cheeks finger- 
prints, says it’s been “pounded” with in- 
.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                            Two of the alleged hijackers aboard
Flight 93, Ahmed Alhaznawi and Ziad jar-
rahi, drove a Ford Ranger and lived in a
quiet neighborhood in Lauderdale-by-
A Massive Manhunt 
In the largest criminal investigation in U.S. history, the FBI
is scouring the country—and the world—for clues leading to
anyone who was involvc4 in or behind the suicide attacks.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                      To see ourselves in them all: the
executives, the waiters, the lawyers, the police officers, the father,
the mother, the 2-year-old girl offon an adventure, sitting safe be-
tween them, takingwing.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

more than 2,000 women, 500 labor leaders, and 500 male executives from diverse sectors
of industry in 30 Pakistani cities.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                                                      “This is a cata-
tional Retail Federation predicted a de- New York, the ranking Democrat on the strophe for an industry that struggles
cidedly uncheery holiday shopping sea- tax-writing Ways and Means Committee.
	Time October 10, 2001

Rockhill initiated a century of American emotional and political
involvement with Tibet.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                  But the most striking entry into Zia’s “Islamic” legis-
lature was that of some forty religious leaders, most of them men who
could never have expected to win access to the state in a straight elec-
toral contest (Weinbaum and Cohen 1983, 127).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                         In 1902—3, circumstances played into his
willing hands, and his Tibetan project became inextricably asso-
Curzon’s Hour .‘.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

On Tuesday, October 26, a month before his
eighty-first birthday, Stein died at the U.S. Legation.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

         Not infrequently the punishment gives the executors themselves
an opportunity to commit the same sacrilegious act by justifying it as
an expiation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The name certainly fits, what with 7,000 Because Dr. AI-Badr A1-Hazmi, 34, a Sau-
FBI employees and countless state and lo- 
cal police officers following some 63,232 
leads in the case.
	Time October 10, 2001

The Kashgarian Empire isn’t worth a kopek.”Yet
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                              He has no right to wage total war, even if
civilians and soldiers within the city are politically united in refus-
ing surrender.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                     The
refusal to accept feelings and states of mind as causes
and an abiding concern for “objectivity” seemed to sup-.
	About Behaviorism

              The refusal of the welfare chiseler to make
sacrifices then “calls into question the meaning of (the
worker’s) act of self-abnegation” and makes that
“willed, created meaning vulnerable.”
	About Behaviorism

The conventional refusal to impose that responsibility flatly and across
the board is “morally elitist.”
	Just and Unjust Wars

It is as if
we.
	Just and Unjust Wars

were to brand as murder all attacks on a man’s person, all at-
tempts to coerce him, all invasions of his home.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                 In domestic society, too, we some-
times choose appeasement, negotiating with kidnappers or extor-
tionists, for example, when the costs of refusal or resistance are
greater than we can bear.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                         ?“~ Nor is
Louis’ refusal to make promises relating to some future time to be
taken as evidence of design—only, perhaps, of hope.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                             Instead of previous signs of rapacity and
ambition, current and particular signs are required; instead of an
“augmentation of power,” actual preparation for war; instead of
the refusal of future securities, the intensification of present dan-
gers.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Nor was World War II an unlimited war, despite the
refusal of the Allies to offer terms.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                          The refusal
of these five men, nevertheless, seems to go to the heart of the war
convention.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                           It is the
weaker side that persistently refuses to fix any limits on the vu1-
nerability of enemy soldiers (the extreme form of this refusal is
guerrilla war), pleading military necessity.
	Just and Unjust Wars

The battle was clearly over, and military
necessity could hardly have justified a refusal to help.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                            I should
think that if such a refusal, under similar circumstances, could be
attributed to the “Laconia order,” Doenitz would indeed be
149
guilty of a war crime.
	Just and Unjust Wars

         Nor, however, did the court openly adopt the argument from
military necessity: that under different circumstances the refusal
to help was justified by the risks it entailed.
	Just and Unjust Wars

   After Titus himself, there are only two candidates: the political
or military leaders of the city, who have refused to surrender on
terms and forced the inhabitants to fight; or the inhabitants them-
selves, who have acquiesced in that refusal and agreed, as it were,
to run the risks of war.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                      The attackers are cleared by the
refusal of surrender, which is an acceptance of the risks of war (or,
moral responsibility is shifted onto the defending army, which has
made surrender impossible).
	Just and Unjust Wars

The refusal of surrender does not turn the civilians into
163
direct objects of attack.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                               For
it is the purpose of those rules to specify for each individual a
single identity; he must be either a soldier or a civilian.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                Surely a strict neutrality here, a refusal to dis-
criminate in any way in favor of the victim, would be disquieting
and strange.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                              I have
already ‘cited examples of refusal, delay, doubt, and anguish at My
Lai.
	Just and Unjust Wars

           One can ignore an immoral command or answer it with ques-
tions or protests; and sometimes even an overt refusal only invites
reprimand, demotion, or detention; there is no risk of death.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                 At
My Lai, those men who refused to fire never suffered for their
refusal and apparently did not expect to suffer; and that suggests
that we must blame the others for their obedience.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                           The refusal disregards the defendant’s
humanity, makes him into an example, pour encourager les autres;
and that we have no right to do to anyone.
	Just and Unjust Wars

But Churchill did not do that;
he never admitted that the bombing constituted a wrong.
	Just and Unjust Wars

It might be said that nonviolence abolishes aggressive war
simply by virtue of th~ refusal to engage the aggressor militarily.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                   Was there
September 11 attacks-information that

 informationthatmighthavewarnedofthe

went unsifted and untranslated?

years—the war years and the interwar years 

By G E 0 R G E F. Will 
One small sign of change in America's

civic culture is this: Poll takers report a
sharp drop in whatthey call the “refusal

52-47, the resolution authorizing the use offorce to expel 
rate”—the number ofpersons who decline
to answer polling questions.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

would-be state.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                         According to Moghadam (1988, 229), although
economically active women as a proportion of the total female urban
population aged ten and above has declined from 9.5
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

During the conclusion of the marriage contract, the husband grants to
1.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Realizing that my refusal to recognize it was only a resistance, I
decided to analyze it.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                    The market-basket admits of more than one interpreta-
tion; in the sense of refusal (German, Korb = basket = snub, refusal) it
reminds her of the many snubs which she at first administered to her
suitors and which, she thinks, she herself received later.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       ‘Of course, I cañ’t drive with you on the railway track itself,’ I
say, after the driver has reproached me, as though I had worn him out;
at the same time, it seems as though I had already made with him a jour-
ney that one usually makes by train.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   To this estimate of the secondary elaboration I will add the one fresh
contribution to the dream-work which has been indicated by the sensitive
observations of H. Silberer.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

              But when Aga Mehdi’s richly laden caravan arrived in
April 1821, it was without its leader, who had died on a freezing
pass.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

   MacGahan, riding on alone, knowing nothing of the roads or local
languages, crossed the forbidding Kyzl Kum desert with the help of
Kirghiz nomads, who provided him with food and koumiss, or fer-
mented mare’s milk.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Das was granted a leave from his teaching duties, but was irritated by
the refusal of the Government of India to contribute to his and his
companion Ugyen Gyatso’s travel expenses.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                         He was permit-
ted a reunion in India with his half-blind mother (stilt a “she-devil”
in the view of the Viceroy, Lord Canning).
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                   As The Times correspondent (one of a pampered brigade
of journalists) wrote, the effect was like “a succession of waves of
brilliant colour, breaking into foams of gold and silver, and the crest
of each wave flashed with diamonds, rubies and emeralds ofjewelled
robes and turbans, stiff with pearls and glittering with aigrettes.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

No assistants, no escort, and: ‘prevent Sven Hedin
*~~For the Gates are mine to open
and the Gates are mine to close
and I set my house in order,
said the Lady of the Snows.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                             What mattered more, Curzon
defended Hedin in the Journal, where he credited the Swede with
filling in a great “white patch” in Tibet, becoming the first European
to trace the main branch of the Indus to its glacial origin, and with
The Desert Wanderer :. 339
340 :. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
the “determination” if not the discovery of the sources of India’s
other two great rivers.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

     By 1942, the thirty-two-year-old Schafer, now a major and a mem-
ber of Hiinmler’s personal staff, had become the head of his own in-
stitute in Munich, the Reich Institute for Central Asian Research.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

War is not in fact his enterprise, but rather surviving this
battle, avoiding the next.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                      But in fact the courts restricted the range of
accountability so that convictions were obtained only against those
officials who were part of “Hitler’s inner circle of advisors” or
who played such a major role in the making or execution of policy
that their protests and refusals would have had a significant im-
pact.6
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                             I have
argued elsewhere that democracies ought to respect such people and ought certainly
to tolerate their refusals.
	Just and Unjust Wars

is surprising that so many inteffigent people refuse to
ask what is wrong.
	About Behaviorism

  All sciences simplify the conditions they study as far
as possible, but this does not mean that they refuse to
examine more complex instances as soon as they can
do so profitably.
	About Behaviorism

They are neurotic as long as they bow down before authority
and refuse the freedom to which they are destined.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

If we refuse to do so, it will say, ‘You are terrorists.’
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Never refuse quarter
to a soldier trying to surrender.
	Just and Unjust Wars

             Had Sweden, for example, been publicly committed to
send troops to fight with the Finns, there would probably never
have been a Russian attack.27
	Just and Unjust Wars

Surely there would have been some reluctance, and even some re-
fusals; and surely it would have been right to refuse.
	Just and Unjust Wars

In practice, many men and women will refuse to leave.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                   If you decide to refuse this invitation—and I am
not going to repeat it—you will be delivered to the custody of the
Cuban Red Cross tomorrow.
	Just and Unjust Wars

The U.S. Marines will not hesitate to destroy immediately any village
or hamlet harboring the Vietcong .
	Just and Unjust Wars

                              “My investigation disclosed,” writes
Schell, “that the procedures for applying these restraints were
modified or twisted or ignored to such an extent that in practice
the restraints evaporated entirely .
	Just and Unjust Wars

Suppose that civilians, duly warned, not only refuse to expel the
guerrillas but also refuse to leave themselves.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                         Moreover, though nuclear deterrence rests
only on threats, and the acts threatened are of such a nature that moral men and
women might well refuse at the final moment to carry them out, no one is prepared
in advance to admit to inhibitions.
	Just and Unjust Wars

They can always refuse to do so, imagining in their turn
that their own country and the whole world are in no real danger.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                 Deterrence theory
doesn’t depend upon a view of Stalinism as a great evil (though
that is a highly plausible view) in the same way that my argument
about terror bombing depended upon an assertion about the evils
of Nazism.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                    All of them are
‘Why aren’t they responsible as soldiers? If they are morally bound to vote* 
against the war, why aren’t they also bound to refuse to fight? The answer is that
they vote as individuals, each one deciding for himself, but they fight as members
of the political community, the collective decision having already been made, sub-
ject to all the moral and material pressures that I described in chapter 3.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                           They act
very well if they refuse to fight, and we should honor those—they are likely to be
few—who have the self-certainty and courage to stand against their fellows.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                                But we
should expect opponents of the war to refuse to become officers or officials, even if
they feel bound to share combat risks with their countrymen.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                               Army training encourages this view,
even though soldiers are also informed that they must refuse “un-
lawful” orders.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                  To refuse to accept
the excuse is to refuse to regard the defendent as a moral agent:
for it is in the nature of moral agents (of human beings) that their
best efforts sometimes fail.
	Just and Unjust Wars

         The success of nonviolent resistance requires that soldiers (or
their officers or political leaders) refuse at some early point, before
civilian endurance is exhausted, to ‘carry out or support a terrorist
policy.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                      And now, having
Thliban, are known to be harboring Ameri- sown the rhetoric of war, Bush must reap
ca’s most-wanted man, Osaina bin Laden, it—especially after the Senate on Friday au-
in their mountains.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

       Women who have resisted total conformity have been fired from jobs,
punished with Islamic punishment (seventy-four lashes), subjected to
physical attacks on the streets, excluded from social space (shops refuse
to sell them goods; banks, government offices, taxis, and airplanes
refuse to deal with them), and threatened with transfer to “rehabilita-
tion camps” at their own expense.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

As it fell topi~, I recited quite unmoved the following verse
from Busch:
*
85
86 PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE
This crazy action and my calmness at the sight of the damage are ex..
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Isolated cases, as in speech-blunders,
seem to owe their origin to an unmotivated work of condensation (e.g.,
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                    I imagine
that a co-operation of individual, physiological and accidental factors,
which depend on the circumstances of the moment, determines how one
will behave in individual cases of more intensive objective stimulation
during sleep; habitual or accidental profundity of sleep, in conjunction
with the intensity of the stimulus, will in one case make it possible so to
suppress the stimulus that it will not disturb the sleeper, while in another
case it will force the sleeper to wake, or will assist the attempt to subdue
the stimulus by weaving it into the texture of the dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                          It seems, therefore, unnecessary
that people should refuse to accept the responsibility for the immorality
of their dreams.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                              Vischer adds the postscript:
“He likes best to unite those couples whose marriage the relatives refuse
to sanction.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                        We find that the
animistic phase corresponds in time as well as in content with narcism,
the religious phase corresponds to that stage of object finding which is
characterized by dependence on the parents, while the scientific stage
bas its full counterpart in the individual’s state of maturity where, bay-
lIt Is almost an axiom with writers on this subject that a sort of “Solipsism or
Berkleyanism” (as Professor Sully terms it as he finds it in the child) operates In the
savage to make him refuse to recognize death as a fact.—Marett,
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                             If we hear that
the warriors of a savage tribe impose the greatest chastity and cleanliness
upon themselves as soon as they go upon the war-path,’ the obvious ex-
plahation is that they dispose of their refuse in order that the enemy
may not come into possession of this part of their person in order to harm
them by magical means, and we may surmise analogous superstitious
motivations for their abstinence.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Men would refuse to eat the particular animal
or plant because it would be just like eating themselves.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

.
	Time October 10, 2001

It was not a small or hesitant gamble.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
especially Peshawar, that had been seized by the Sikhs.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                  Protest-
ing British faithlessness, he placed his royal turban in the hands of the
Resident, General Sir James Outram.When
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

The Amban said he was willing to help, but that the Tibetan
authorities were still paralyzed by shock and confusion.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                         Seven days later the party reached the des-
olate ruin where Loulan’s “rubbish dump” yielded— besides the first
example of the lost language of Sogdian—the ancient language of
the region of Samarkand and Bokhara—a number of official docu-
ments in Chinese and some Kharoshti tablets, suggesting that there
might have been an ancient Indian Empire on the very threshold of
China.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

          The narrator, a good friend of Marie, helps her to dream
the dream further: the possession of the veil characterizes Marie
and Lina as brides.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                    ANAMNESIS
461 
several times on account of sudden nausea and headaches, and
was obliged to go to bed.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

But she absolutely refused to
admit their existence.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                     She stated
that all these things were without foundation, she herself was
surprised at them, and had to admit that her husband was quite
right when he insisted that it was all “stuff and nonsense.”
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

       722 When this outburst was over, I asked curiously why she had
refused the husband her father had proposed?
723 It seems that the father, a small peasant on a lean little hold-
ing, had taken on as a labourer, just at the time when his young-
est daughter was born, a wretched little boy, a foundling.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                                 I
have never refused the bitter-sweet drink of philosophical criti-
cism, but have taken it with caution, a little at a time.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                         From 1992 onward, Hekmatyar would kill thousands of
civilians in Kabul during his daily rocket attacks on the city, despite the
fact that he had been give the title of prime minister in the mujahideen
coalition government.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

I refused to go back.”50
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Four thousand others were injured.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

He was detained in 1999, and has ap-
parently refused to cooperate with authorities on religious grounds.9’
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

   Melos was a Spartan colony, and its people had “therefore refused
to be subject, as the rest of the islands were, unto the Athenians;
but rested at first neutral; and afterwards, when the Athenians put
them to it by wasting of their lands, they entered into open war.”
	Just and Unjust Wars

The magistrates refused to surrender;
the Athenians laid siege to their city; the Spartans sent no help.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                 It is from them that we learn that many of the English
knights refused to kill their prisoners—not, chiefly, out of humanity,
rather for the sake of the ransom they expected; but also “think-
ing of the dishonor that the horrible executions would reflect on
themselves.”1’
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                    The Case of Hitler’s Generals
In 1942, General von Arnim was captured in North Africa, and
it was proposed by members of Dwight Eisenhower’s staff that the
American commander “should observe the custom of by-gone days”
and permit von Arnim to visit him before he was sent into captivity.
	Just and Unjust Wars

    It would be very odd to praise Rommel for not killing prisoners
unless we simultaneously refused to blame him for Hitler’s aggres-
sive wars.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                              But that suggests less the desirability
of surrender than the critical importance of collective security and
resistance.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                               We need to make judgments
about our neighbor’s intentions, and if such judgments are to be pos-
sible we must stipulate certain acts or sets of acts that will count as
evidence of malignity.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                       These stipulations are not arbitrary; they are
generated, I think, when we reflect upon what it means to be threat-
ened.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                           When the South Vietnam-
ese government refused to permit these elections, it clearly lost
whatever legitimacy was conferred by the agreements.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                      They refused to compromise with the Nazi re-
gime because they planned to put its leading members on trial for
their lives.
	Just and Unjust Wars

       Now, in World War I, submarine commanders (and the state
officials who commanded them) openly refused to act in accord-
ance with this “absolute duty,” pleading military necessity.
	Just and Unjust Wars

But the judges refused to convict on this charge.
	Just and Unjust Wars

But surrender is refused.
	Just and Unjust Wars

General Gourko [the Russian
commander] refused and sent them back.
	Just and Unjust Wars

But is it still militarily possible? Once free exit has been offered,
and been accepted by significant numbers of people, the besieging.
	Just and Unjust Wars

         If one wishes fear to spread and intensify over time, it is
not desirable to kill specific people identified in some particular
way with a regime, a party, or a policy.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Since they did not recognize the
Government, the Germans refused to accept the protest.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                Re-
prisals are always limited responses to particular transgressions:
crimes against the rules of war, small-scale breaches of the peace.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Though they have often been used, they cannot rightly be used, as
a cover for invasions or interventions or assaults upon innocent
life.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Those who voted against the war or who refused to cooperate
in the waging of it could not be blamed.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                         A company
of American soldiers entered a Vietnamese village where they ex-
pected to encounter enemy combatants, found only civilians, old
men, women, and children, and began to kill them, shooting them
singly or collecting them in groups, ignoring their obvious help-
lessness and their pleas for mercy, not stopping until they had
murdered between four and five hundred people.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Suddenly he stepped out of rank and refused to participate in the
execution.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                             Telford
Taylor has described the case of Colonel William Peters, an officer
in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, who
refused a direct order to burn the town of Chambersburg, Penn-
sylvania.20
	Just and Unjust Wars

The path that I have marked out as the right one is often a very
lonely path.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                   With reference to specific and small-scale mili-
tary actions (like the bombing of cellars described by Frank Rich-
ards), the people required to take care .are
	Just and Unjust Wars

“Even though the book is ofreference: “itlooked like a
“The West Wing” will address ater chains refused to show the set in 1900, I need to go back movie.”
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                        Taliban leader
Mohammed Omar, to a visiting Pakistani delegation, before the Taliban
officially refused to turn over binLaden to the United States
“It’s more like the kind ofhumor that would make a person cry.”
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

Embassies were shuttered, war-
ships were sent to sea, troops were put on the highest state of alert in the Persian Gulf.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

Huge sums are Bin Laden—”dead or alive,” as the president says—is worth 2,000
sittinginmoney-marketmutualfundsat3.5percent.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

               Two days after the disaster,
the city had compiled a list of4,763 names
of people who had been reported missing
by relatives or employers—and identified
fewer than 50 bodies.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                    Later that summer a Parchami coup attempt, pos-
sibly Soviet-backed, was detected and thwarted by the Khalqis, who
then persecuted their remaining unhappy rivals with renewed vigor.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                              Part of the
increase can be ascribed to the investment of provincial party secretar-
ies as full or alternate committee members, but most of the other new-
comers had never featured in the Afghan press; and it can be assumed
that the unknowns were largely drawn from among Najibullah’s old
KHAD subordinates.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                Conser-
vative Islamic judges had often refused to prosecute the price gougers
on the ground that it would be un-Islamic.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                         This decision changed the rate of exchange
between the Indian and Pakistani rupees from parity to one hundred
Pakistani rupees for 144 Indian rupees.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

As early as 3 March 1979 the Ministry of Justice refused to issue
confirmation orders for women judges who had completed all their
requirements.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The overall employment pattern of women since the 1979 revolu-
tion is not encouraging.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                       Although it was the Pakistan gov-
ernment that had appointed the commission members, it is no surprise
that the Zia government, given the report’s condemnation of previous
policies and efforts to affect women’s lives and its divergence from
existing official policy, adamantly refused to release the commission’s
findings to the public.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

new government (that of Zia ul-Haq), which subsequently refused to sign it.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                          We forget of what great intellectual accom-
plishments and of what complicated emotions a child of four years is
capable.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                          My attention hav-
ing been called to it, I soon discovered that I had another patient of the
same name who refused to pay for the treatment.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    Newly discovered evidence seems to show that the error was a conscious
machination of the printer’s suffragette wife, who refused to be ruled by
her husband.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

After I thus recognized my resolution as false, I gave up the struggle
against my resistances and refused the author’s request.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                    But back of these,
there was a visible remnant that could not be reached by therapy, and
could be referred only to a multiple sclerosis.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                           Busily intent on
my work, I refused at first to pay attention to it, but, as is usually the
case, I simply could not do anything else.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                        I was
walking towards this couple on a straight, almost deserted street; glanc-
ing up hastily at a distance of perhaps twenty steps from me, I had seen
and realized their stately personalities; but this perception, following the
model of a negative hallucination, was set aside by certain emotionally
accentuated motives and then asserted itself spontaneously as an emerg-
ing phantasy.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

propyls .
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       I refused his congratulations, saying: “You are the last man to
jest about the matter, for you know from your own experience what the
nomination is worth.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                        Owing to this belated arrival of the secondary pro-
cesses, the essence of our being, consisting of unconscious wish-impulses,
remains something which cannot be grasped or inhibited by the precon-
scious; and its part is once and for all restricted to indicating the most
appropriate )aths for the wish-impulses originating in the unconscious.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                         *
695
THE MOTIVES OF WIT AND WIT
IT SEEMS superfluous to speak of the motives of wit, since the purpose of
obtaining pleasure must be recognized as a sufficient motive of the wit-
work.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                      The skeptical king of
Orange, William III, who became king of England after the banishment
of the Stuarts, refused to exercise the spell; on the one occasion when he
consented to practise the touch, he did so with words: “May God give
you better health and more sense.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

It was a fear of
horses as a result of which the boy refused to go on the street.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The sacrifice was a sacrament, and the sacrificial animal itself was
one of the kin.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                               On this same
point, he came to grief later (1912), in that he then used too much of the
material which he refused altogether previously.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       Two years later, in September, 19x3, quite another picture was pre-
sented by the congress at Munich which is still vividly recalled by those
who were present.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                             The 
choices facing Musharraf were 
stark: if he refused, America 
would consider itthe worst kind 
of betrayal, and Pakistan would 
suffer harsh consequences.
	Time October 10, 2001

                        It was a bright moonlit night, and with dif-
ficulty they located the grave near a mud wall because “the bigoted
people of Balkh” had refused permission for Moorcroft to be in-
terred in the main burial ground.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                              At this time I was standing on
the ramparts, and heard the Envoy, in my presence, ask the
General to pursue the flying troops into the city, which he
refused, saying it was a wild scheme.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                    But Hobhouse knew
nothing of India before assuming his post, and Palmerston thought
so little of India that he three times refused the post of Governor-
General.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                Stoddart
insisted, over protests, on riding in full military regalia to the main
square, then refused to dismount, as protocol dictated, when Emir
Nasrullah Khan appeared to greet him.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                   In eight years, Daihousie annexed some 260,000
square miles, much of it seized by applying his new “Doctrine of
Lapse,” whereby the British could annex any princely state whose
ruler left no direct heir.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Lytton’s phrases were not affable or
parliamentary, but blunt and graphic.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

He refused throughout, explaining that he preferred
to force the Emir to stand on his own feet.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

The
Chief Minister replied, “That is easily provided for.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                  The mission failed
when the Tibetans refused it entrée, and Das himself was by now too
well known to visit Tibet again.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Przhevalsky re-entered Asia with “a carbine in one hand and a
whip in the other.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

In
their responses, all three agents were “economical with the truth.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                   The Chinese Amban
sent an unhelpful underling, and the Tibetan delegates refused even
to carry messages to Lhasa.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

   When the Chinese refused permission for his advance to Peking,
Hedin returned to Stockholm via Russia, making a pilgrimage to
the tomb of the greatest of the Russian Central Asian explorers,
Nikolai Przhevalsky.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

    Because Heclin had been told by his native guide,Yolchi, that they
were no further than four days from their goal, the Khotan River, he
ordered the water casks to be half-filled to reduce the strain on the
camels.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                    So angry and frustrated was Lord Curzon over the
change in tide that he refused to meet the new Viceroy, Lord Minto,
with the usual ceremony.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Everything
has been refused.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                          However since
“neither triangulation nor topography (in the strict sense) played any
part” in the Swede’s routine, Holdich warned that “the very glamour
of achievement should lead younger generations of explorers (not
possessing his remarkable topographical memory and artistic skill) to
adopt methods which, at any rate, are not those which the Geo-
graphical School set itself earnestly and resolutely to teach.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                           When, after the demise of
Yakub Beg (see Chapter 9), St. Petersburg recognized Peking’s para-
mountcy in Sinkiang, China permitted Petrovsky to open a con-
sulate in Kashgar.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

In Kashgar, the nominal Chinese administrator, the Taotai, lived in
terror of the charming but arrogant Russian.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                  When Macartney asked
the Taotai for help on behalf of Stein—introductions to the local of-
ficials, or ambans, of Khotan and Kenya—the Taotai, after confessing
that he was “a coward and a fool,” refused for fear of offending Pe-
trovsky.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Kozlov sent greetings and gifts to the
pontiff, but the Tibetans refused him permission to proceed to Lhasa.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

At Kashgar, Stein was summoned to Urumchi, Sinkiang’s capital,
to discuss his plans with the governor.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
trip through China’s poorest, wildest, and remotest regions to reach
Tibet; moreover he forfeited his official post for the privilege.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                             By November it became clear that the
party was not only detained but under arrest, since having aban-
doned hope of reaching Lhasa, they were refused permission to
proceed to Sikkim.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

forcible stay bears very hard on all members of the Mission.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

  It appears that Roosevelt was the Flaming One, the Russians were
the Tigers, Mongolia the Land of the Masters, Churchill the Roar-
ing Lion, and Wallace himself Galahad or Parsifal.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                             That same
halcyon year, the Department of International Law at the University
of Paris nominated him for the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of
his efforts to secure treaty protection for art treasures in wartime,
through what became known as the Roerich Pact.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

It
makes a great show.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                          Tibetans were
willing to accept China as a suzerain but refused to surrender the au-
tonomy they had enjoyed for twenty-two years.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                 Gestalt psychologists may be said to have
argued that certain kinds of patterns force the orgiinism
to perceive them in certain ways.
	About Behaviorism

                                          The artist who
paints photographically is under the powerful control
of his model, but if he can bring his personal history
into play, his work will show a kind of generality, be-
cause it will be less closely tied to one situation.
	About Behaviorism

                         Surely someone who refuses tu kill at such
313
a time, and dies instead, is not just doing his duty; he is acting
heroically.
	Just and Unjust Wars

We’re taking a
where he will be bedded by virgins.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                 He has a tattoo
ofa tiger on his right shoulder and served in theArmy Reserves;
she wears a gold chain with a key charm.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

Another reproach directed at
Otto, but originating elsewhere.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

2Havelock Ellis, a kindly critic of The I,ster~retation of Dreams, writes In The
World of Dreams (p.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

She says: “I don’t know that, I
won’t take it.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

        We have carried its interpretation far enough for the wish-motive
—the wish to be appointed professor—to assert itself palpably; and we
have explained the affection felt for my friend R. in the dream as the
outcome of opposition to, and defiance of, the two colleagues who appear
in the dream-thoughts.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

For days thereafter, when we meet,
she refuses to greet me with the customary signs of respect.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                      It is
therefore always permissible, if a dream stubbornly refuses to surrender
its meaning, to venture on the experimental inversion of definite portions
of its manifest content.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                  The boy refuses her the
hiss, but says to her, extending her his hand in parting, “Auf Geseres,”
and to both of us (or to one of us) “Auf Ungeseres.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

             One of the surest premonitions of later eccentricity or nerv-
ousness is when an infant obstinately refuses to empty his bowel when
placed on the chamber by the nurse, and controls this function at his own
pleasure.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

For this apparently arbitrary statement is supported by a fact
which, though little heeded, is most noteworthy.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

He insists upon dealing with each factor
individually, and refuses to combine them into a sum-total.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      sicians are obliged to read and study constantly because remedies and
drugs once considered efficacious are later rejected as useless, and that
despite the physician’s best efforts, the patient often refuses to pay for
the treatment, one of the doctors present remarked: “Yes, every drug has
ithc day,” to which another added, “But not every Doc gets his pay.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       Another especially interesting series of jokes presents the relation-
ship between the poor and the rich Jews: their heroes are the “shnorrer,” 1
and the charitable Jewish philanthropists.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                But if we subject him to psychoanalytic treatment, which
makes his unconscious thoughts conscious to him he refuses to believe
that thoughts are free and is always afraid to express evil wishes lest
they be fulfilled in consequence of his utterance.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

A child refuses to wear a
hijab.
	Time October 10, 2001

        On October 17, suspecting “someone’s long hand” behind Lhasa’s
dilatory response, Ryabiin confided to his diary what George was
telling the Tibetans: “Roerich says that if the Dalai Lama refuses to
The “Shambhala Project” :. 469
470 :. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
accept the Mission of the Western Buddhists and if America is not
given an urgent reply, then the separation of the Eastern and West-
ern Buddhists is inevitable.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

             Those who feel that they understand what is
happening in the world at large may be tested in a very
simple way: let them look at the organism as it behaves
in a modern experiment and tell us what they see.
	About Behaviorism

gle of the libido against the repression; they therefore represent
nothing but an abnormal sexual activity.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                                              For
Prince’s relations with the early psychoanalytical movement, see Jones, Life and
Work, II, passim.—EDrroRs.]
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Mostly morality is tested only by the ordinary pressures of mil-
itary conflict.
	Just and Unjust Wars

MushanaI58, standssquarelyontheside 
of secularisrn.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

This shield is verily her veil.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

           The category of the accidental, requiring no motivation, which the
normal person lets pass as a part of his own psychic functions and faulty
actions, is thus rejected by the paranoiac in his application to the psychic
manifestations of others.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                We have seen
that three kinds of somatic stimuli will be distinguished: the objective
sensory stimuli which proceed from external objects, the inner states of
excitation of the sensory organs, having only a subjective reality, and the
bodily stimuli arising within the body; and we have also noticed that the
writers on dreams are inclined to thrust into the background any psychic
sources of dreams which may operate simultaneously with the somatic
stimuli, or to exclude them altogether.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                       and a
Wesleyan graduate, Herdlick has pro-
—By Josh Tyrangiel
UNITED IN PEACE Herdlick carried an antiwar
banner in NewYork City’s Union Square
tested before.
	Time October 10, 2001

              The total cost was about a shilling a mile, then a
considerable sum, yet even so, as Burton dourly complained, “we
cannot promise you much pleasure in the enjoyment of this cele-
brated Oriental luxury.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Except for infrequent and bitterly con-
tested emergency regulations, the liberation was permanent.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Its contents can be surmised from Nasrullah’s words
to its Persian bearer: “Well, I will make you a present ofJoseph Wolff.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

(Stein’s maps would not
be criticized at Royal Geographical Society meetings!)
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Lop Nor, in Sinkiang Province, which fascinated both Hedin
and Stein, is off-limits: it is where China’s nuclear arsenal is tested.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

He pointed out that in the 1930’s continuing raids and rebellions by
frontier tribes, the Afridis, Mohmans, and Waziris, severely tested
British forces, which increasingly relied on punitive air attacks.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

That al-Qaeda also has acquired the missiles is clear from the testi-
mony of a witness at a 1995 terrorism trial in New York, who saw a
Stinger at an al-Qaeda camp in eastern Afghanistan in the early
nineties.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                                   And
a local tribal leader who had tried to mediate with Abu Hassan testi-
fied that the kidnappers told him, “We have contacts at a very high
level.”75
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

1023 (SDNY), Testimony of L’Hossaine Kherchtou, February 26, 2001; Testi-
mony of Jamal al-Fad, February 6, 2001.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                       THE SEXUAL ABERRATIONS
*
529
530CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF SEX
is just as frequently the exdusive aim; and the limitation of the sexual
aith to mere effusion of feelings is here even more frequent than in hetero-
sexual love.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                    She was quiet for a while, and then found the courage
to ask why it was that one of her husband’s testicles was lower than the
Dther, and whether it was the same with all men.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The change concerns more or less completely the somatic
sexual characters and the psychosexual behavior (as subject- and object-erotic).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

  The most striking process of puberty has been selected as its most char-
acteristic; it is the manifest growth of the external genitals which have
shown a relative inhibition of growth during the latency period of child-
hood.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                        Another clean-limbed cadet,
Yevgraf Povalo-Shyykovsky, was chosen as second assistant and sent
off to learn photography in St. Petersburg.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                    The cure works
best when the doctor himself believes in his own formulae, other-
wise he may be overcome by scientific doubt and so lose the
proper convincing tone.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

   Al-Qaeda member (and Alkhifa Center regular) Jamal al-Fadi testified at
the embassy bombings trial that he saw Yousef at the group’s Sadda train-
ing camp on the Pakistan-Afghanistan border sometime between 1989
and 1991.76
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

       An A1-Qaeda pilot, L’Hossaine Kherchtou, testified at the
embassy bombings trial that there were “some” African-Americans
with the group when it was based in Sudan during the mid-1990s.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

      The most pressing question remains: Was there a relationship be-
tween Abu Hassan and Islamist elements in the Yemeni government?
Tantalizing glimpses of such collusion came out during the kidnapping
trial, among them the testimony of a driver employed by the tour com-
pany He testified that Abu Hassan had made a satellite phone call to
General All Muhsin al-Ahmer, a relative of President Salih who is re-
ported to have met with bin Laden in Afghanistan in the eighties.~~
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

       Why would Abu Hassan take time out from his kidnapping efforts to
chat with a member of the president’s family? Another of the drivers
testified that Abu Hassan used his satellite phone to call an unidenti-
fied person—presumably in charge of the operation—to say, “We got
the goods that were ordered: sixteen hundred cartons marked British
and American,” a not very coded reference to the sixteen tourists.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

   Bin Laden’s network—which also values technical proficiency, al-
beit of a rather specialized kind—is as cosmopolitan as the cosmo-
crats’.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                            before head- 
only thing 
squadron 
“I never had 
the owner, 
want to be 
ily and flirt 
ofthe other 
be the 
big roll 
Last 
seem to 
at a 
drankfive 
of the 
once, Atta 
shouting 
including a particularly blasphemous one
was a squabble when the waitress tried
that roughly translates as ”F--kGod.”
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

were all to carry out bank robberies and then have been given seed money by the Saudi
They trained with weapons and ammuni- 
tionbought from the Taliban.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                                          Horch now
turned against Roerich, and testified against him in an income tax
matter.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                        Naturally
it seems to me (from the psychoanalytic point of view) an ille-
gitimate use of suggestive influence if the patient is forced to
get well out of love for his analyst.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

U.S.A. v. Usama bin Laden, Indictment, pp. 30—31.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Bergen et al, “American Ties.”
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Jamal Halaby, ‘Witness Testifies Chemical Seized from Terror Suspect’s House
Was Highly Explosive,” Associated Press, June 27,2001.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Andrew Duffy, “Ressam Part of Terror ‘Cell,’ Expert Testifies: Montreal Ring
Forged and Smuggled Passports, Says French Judge,” Ottawa Citizen, April 3,
2001; “Bomb Plot Focused on Los Angeles International Airport,” Associated
Press, May 30,2001.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                      That is why it is often described as a pro-
gram for the toleration of war, when what is needed is a program
for its abolition.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                    2
Self-correction in dreams, which to some writers seems so wonderful,
does not really call for consideration.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                            Nothing testifies so much to
the influence of mourning on the origin of belief in demons as the fact
that demons were always taken to be the spirits of persons not long
dead.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

“Judge Cites Koran as Reason to Testify,” Orlando Sentinel Tribune, August 8,
1999.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                      Admiral Nimitz
of the U.S. Navy, called to testify by Doenitz’s attorney, had told
them that “U.S.
	Just and Unjust Wars

February 1983: opposed discriminatory laws that falsely claim
2.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                      The protesters argued that cri-
teria for witnesses as stated in the Qur~an are possession of sight,
memory and the ability to communicate; as long as witnesses have
these, testimony should be equally weighed regardless of gender.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

I know of a case where a girl, not three years of age, tried to strangle an
infant in its cradle, because she suspected that its continued presence
boded her no good.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                     Botankal, then, is a veritable nucleus,
and, for the dream, the meeting-point of many trains of thought; which,
I can testify, had all really been brought into connection by the conversa-
tion referred to.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                          THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
Y
civilization—paths to whose thinly veiled existence our idiomatic ex-
pressions, proverbs, superstitions, and customs testify to this day.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                 I have already said that my warm friendships as well as
my enmities with persons of my own age go back to my childish relations
to my nephew, who was a year older than I. In these he had the upper
hand, and I early learned how to defend myself; we lived together, were
inseparable, and loved one another, but at times, as the statements of
older persons testify, we used to squabble and accuse one another.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      it is natural to our waking thought to create order in such material, to
construct relations, and to subject it to the requirements of an intelligible
coherence.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

And that makes trying to understand him a compli-
cated task.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                Last December, he 
man paid $1,500 for six hours in 
727 simulator.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                              Yet evidence for zina-bil-
jabr remains the same as for any other hadd crime: the severest punish-
ment (death by stoning or one hundred lashes) can only be invoked
either with the accused’s self-confession or by the testimony of four
salah (morally upright) adult Muslim males.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                          May
not the procedure perhaps be as follows? The dream-forming factors, the
efforts at condensation, the necessity of evading the censorship, and the
regard for representability by the psychic means of the dream first of all
create from the dream-material a provisional dream-content, which is
subsequently modified until it satisfies as far as possible the exactions of
a secondary agency.—No,
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

 We tend to say, often rashly, that if one thing fol-
lows another, it was probably caused by it—following
the ancient principle of post hoc, ergo propter hoc
(after this, therefore because of this).
	About Behaviorism

                                          The person
with whom we are most <
familipr <
is ourself; many of
the things we observe just before we behave occur
within our body, and it is easy to take them as the
causes of our behavior.
	About Behaviorism

                                              We of-
ten feel hungry when we eat and hence conclude that
we eat because we feel hungry.
	About Behaviorism

                                                  The view
that a purely physical world could be self-sufficient bad
been suggested centuries before, in the doctrine of psy-
chophysical parallelism, which held that there were two
worlds—one of mind and one of matter—and that
neither had any effect on the other.
	About Behaviorism

 Are the feelings we experience just before we behave
wholly unrelated to our behavior? What about the
power of mind over matter in psychosomatic medicine?

	About Behaviorism

behavior are reported according to the circumstances in
which they have been acquired, and this means that an
expression may be translated in several ways.
	About Behaviorism

                                            But self-
knowledge has a special value to the individual him-
self.
	About Behaviorism

                         (What is wrong, by the way, is
the suggestion that “pressure” is exerted primarily by
other species.
	About Behaviorism

                                        41 Innate Behavior
of selection, a kind of causality very different from the
push-pull mechanisms of science up to that time.
	About Behaviorism

                              The runner’s heart is said
to beat fast before the start of the race because he
“associates” the situation with the exertion which fol-
lows.
	About Behaviorism

     The concept of mind had been thoroughly elaborated
before the advent of evolutionary theory, and some ac-
commodation was needed.
	About Behaviorism

But the word need not mean ejection;
light is not in the hot ifiament before it is emitted.)
	About Behaviorism

                                                   But if
a child no longer behaves as he behaved a year before,
it is not only because he has grown but because he has
had the time to acquire a much bigger repertoire
through exposure to new contingencies of reinforce-
ment, and particularly because the contingencies affect-
ing children at different ages are different.
	About Behaviorism

       Compared with the experimental analysis of be-
havior, developmental psychology stands in the posi-
tion of evolutionary theory before Darwin.
	About Behaviorism

                                      The two formulations
could be combined—”an image of the outer world
striking the retina of the eye activates a most intricate
process that results in vision: the transformation of the
retinal image into a perception.”
	About Behaviorism

                             A trained observer was to
describe his sensations without <
mzilcing <
the “stimulus
error”—that is, to describe what he was looking at as
if he had never seen it before or could never have
learned anything about it.
	About Behaviorism

It is also possible to know that you have seen
something before.
	About Behaviorism

                                 That concepts have real
referents has been pointed out by saying that “they are
discoveries rather than inventions—they represent re-
ality.”
	About Behaviorism

                                                  For
color is this?” he will then respond to the property
rather than an abstract entity.
	About Behaviorism

                  A child may “learn to use a new word” as
the effect of a single reinforcement, but it learns to do
nonverbal things with comparable speed.
	About Behaviorism

                                             The bellows was
most efficient if one opened it fully before closing it and
opened it quickly and closed it slowly.
	About Behaviorism

                                                      Most
people can learn the instruction “Push down on the
gearshift lever before moving it into the reverse posi-
tion” more readily than the actual shifting movement,
especially if the lever does not move easily or if, in
other cars with which the driver is familiar, it does not
need to be pushed down.
	About Behaviorism

                Lower organisms presumably do not do so,
nor did the human species before it acquired verbal be-
havior.
	About Behaviorism

                               But by the eighteenth cen-
tury, according to Cassirer, reason “is much less a pos-
session than it is a mode of acquisition.
	About Behaviorism

                                                  What
a person is really like could mean what he would have
been like if we could have seen him before his be-
havior was subjected to the action of an environment
We should then have known his “human nature.”
	About Behaviorism

                  The thought bad crossed my mind that
before long the master [Wagner] would die, and then
the C-sharp minor theme [of the Adagio of the Seventh
Symphony] caine to me.”
	About Behaviorism

We say that a rope is strong,
and before long we are speaking of its strength.
	About Behaviorism

Psychotherapy has been much more
ABOUT BEa&vIolusM 204
are not alternatives.
	About Behaviorism

                                   The Self and Others
People used to suppose that they knew themselves bet-
ter than they knew others (or than others knew them).
	About Behaviorism

                                             People pun-
ished each other long before behavior was called bad or
wrong and before rules were formulated, and a person
may have been “socialized” by these punitive contin-
gencies without benefit of rules.
	About Behaviorism

                                As a set of contingencies of
reinforcement maintained by a group, possibly formu-
lated in rules or laws, it has a clear-cut physical status,
a continuing existence beyond the lives of members of
the group, a changing pattern as practices are added,
discarded, or modified, and, above all, power.
	About Behaviorism

Traces of this kind of physiology have survived to
the present day.
	About Behaviorism

     Early observations of reflex action, for example,
were made long before the activity of nerves could be
detected.
	About Behaviorism

                Nevertheless, we have to ask why simi-
lar changes were not made before the advent of an cx-
periniental analysis.
	About Behaviorism

              The account given by the speaker functions
in lieu of the direct control by the environment which
has generated it, and the listener’s behavior can never
exceed the behavior controlled by the situation de-
scribed.
	About Behaviorism

The tautological truth of the logician or mathe-
matician can be proved; it is absolute.
	About Behaviorism

                            Nevertheless, if the posi-
tion I have presented here is correct, be can remedy
these mistakes and at the same time build a world in
which he will feel freer than ever before and achieve
greater things.
	About Behaviorism

G. E. Stratton: Theophrastus and the Greek Physiologi-
cal Psychology Before Aristotle.
	About Behaviorism

I briefly heard it before
the noon prayers.
	Bin Laden Videotape Transcript

Unidentified Man Off Camera: Abd Al Rahman Al-(Ghamri) said he saw a vision, before
the operation, a plane crashed into a tall building.
	Bin Laden Videotape Transcript

Shaykh (Referring to dreams and visions): The plane that he saw crashing into the
building was seen before by more than one person.
	Bin Laden Videotape Transcript

But they were trained and we did not
reveal the operation to them until they are there and just before they boarded the planes.
	Bin Laden Videotape Transcript

The
obvious inference is that the patient was hysterical long before.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

i8 Apart from the fact that it is incumbent on a critic to demon-
strate his thorough knowledge of the method, we also lack the
FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS
6
proof that the method is auto-suggestion.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                    Luckily, however, anyone who
wants to can repeat them, and so experience for himself what he
did not believe before.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                             When a person reviles as unscientific
not only a theory whose experimental foundations he has not
even examined but also those who have taken the trouble to
test it for themselves, the freedom of scientific research is im-
perilled.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Freud has called this fact
over-determination.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                   If she was corrected or even reproached in any
way, she answered by sticking out her tongue, or with convul-
sive laughter, cries of disgust, and gestures of horror, because
each time she had before her the vivid image of her father’s
chastising hand, coupled with sexual excitement, which im-
mediately passed over into ill-concealed masturbation.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

               Two years before, he had dreamt that he was in a
wild and desert place, and he saw, on a rock, a man dressed in
3 See ExPerimental Researches, Coil.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

But one may proceed more prudently.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                   Coming out of the water one is
wet, has on only a bathing-dress, and therefore cannot take part
in a wedding before putting on some clothes.)
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

99 Before turning our attention to these accounts, let us first
consider the dream analytically.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                             The class consisted of girls be-
tween the ages of twelve and thirteen, who were therefore in
the midst of the prodromata of puberty.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

‘39 As before, the analysis started by dividing the number 315
into 3 i 5.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                               Whereas before it came out that the
analyst had ~ children, with i in addition, and the patient would
have had ~, now the meaning was: the analyst had ~ children,
now has 4, but the patient only 2.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                        FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS
6o
I
I
I
162 In order to show how it is that Prince was able to see only
the formal and not the dynamic element of the dreams, we must
examine his material in more detail.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

              Before going to sleep she had thought: “I must not
bother him; I should think I. would get that into my head after
a while” (p.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

177 Dream ~: [Shortly before the last dream the subject] dreamt that
she was in a great ballroom, where everything was very beautiful.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                        For
anyone who knows how to read dream-symbols all precautions
are in vain, the truth will out.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

184); flOW ~OU are an exhibitionist, a fetishist, a sadist, a masochist,
an anal-erotic, an onanist—in short, you are ‘polymorphous-per-
verse’ (p.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                       I thought
one must first work modestly for years in this field before one
might dare to criticize.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

A REVIEW OF THE EARLY HYPOTHESES1.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

One was therefore obliged to attribute to children a much more
developed sexuality than was admitted before.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                   Our opponents
content themselves with attacking and vilifying our researches,
but they do not know how to find a better way.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                       Also, the organs of reproduction develop
long before the slightest sign of their future function can be
discerned.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

But the fact that
sucking has this emotional mechanism proves just the contrary.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                   THE POLYMORPHOUS-PERVERSE SEXUALITY OF INFANCY
243 Before I try to resolve this contradiction, I must say some-
thing more about Freud’s sexual theory and the changes it has
undergone.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                  SEXUAL COMPONENTS AS ENERGIC MANIFESTATIONS
246 From this point of view the later, normal, “monomorphic”
sexuality is made up of several components.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

259 There is no alternative but to assume that before and after
puberty it is the same libido.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                                We
might, however, compromise on this point and say with Freud
that though the libido before and after puberty is the same it is
different in its intensity.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                              It must be admitted,
however, that these affective phenomena in children do not at
all give the impression of being “in miniature”; on the contrary,
they can rival in intensity those of an adult.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

But, as I said before, this is not the
case.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                               Obviously a person who thinks of the
unconscious as an absolute entity is bound to require proofs of
a totally different kind, utterly beyond our power to give, as our
opponents in fact do.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

THE DREAM
scious fantasies which occupied us before.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                  We ask ourselves: Where have I seen or heard
that? And then, by the ordinary process of association, comes
the memory that certain parts of the dream have been con-
sciously experienced, some the day before, some earlier.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

     325 The technique for exploring the unconscious origin is the
one I have just mentioned, used as a matter of course long before
Freud by every dream-investigator.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                    As I have said before, we have no alterna-
tive but to conceive the unconscious by analogy with the con-
scious.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

The little son would like to have his mother all to
himself and to be rid of his father.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                               An intimacy quickly sprang up be-
tween them and before long there was talk of a possible engage-
ment.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                             They appear to be real
river-beds, filled with water as before, but at the same time they
have only a provisional existence.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                          In conformity with this theory we would
have to assume, for instance, that when a plant forms a bud from
which a blossom begins to unfold, the blossom is taken back
again before it is fully developed, and is again hidden within
the bud, to reappear later on in a similar form.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                His libido retreats before the oh-
FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS
170
stacle it cannot surmount and substitutes a childish illusion for
real action.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                      Where real events of undoubted traumatic
potency are absent—as is the case in most neuroses—the mecha-
nism of regression predominates.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

          One could even say that this activity is greatly increased
in the analytical situation, since the patient feels his regressive
tendency strengthened by the interest of the analyst and pro-
duces even more fantasies than before.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                        He himself is, as before,
still in the infantile milieu and therefore maintains his infan-
tile constellation.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                   An analyst under the influence
of the historical view might easily be thrown into confusion,
and would have to ask himself: What is there in this case still
to be analysed? These are just the cases I had in mind before,
when I said it is no longer a matter of analysing the historical
material, but of action, of overcoming the infantile attitude.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                     THE THEORY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
191
CONFESSION AND PSYCHOANALYSIS
43’ Before I discuss in detail this especially important part of
the analysis, I should like to draw attention to a parallel be-
tween the first stage of psychoanalysis and a certain cultural
institution.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                              Also, he experiences a particular
satisfaction in at last finding someone who has an understand-
ing ear for all those things to which nobody would listen before.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                           Patients
make demands in accordance with this definition, and thus be-
have no differently from most normal people, whose infantile
cupidity is only prevented from reaching too high a pitch by
their fulfilling their duties to life and by the satisfaction this
THE THEORY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
197
affords the libido, and also because a certain lack of tempera-
ment does not incline them from the start to passionate be-
haviour.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                                 Al-
though this method is incontestably of great value we ought
not to adopt this standpoint exclusively, as a one-sided historical
view does not take sufficient account of the teleological signifi-
cance of dreams (stressed in particular by Maeder 3).
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                  The theory of the psychological deter-
minants of this disease is a sufficiently vast territory in itself, and
if I were to discuss the symbolistic problems of dementia prae-
cox I would have to put before you a mass of material which
I could not hope to deploy within the framework of these lec-
tures, whose purpose is to provide a general survey.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Primitive inertia and laziness are the primary reason for not
making the effort to adapt.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                  The longer
a dream remains spontaneously in the memory, the greater is
the importance to be attributed to it.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Thus one often has to wait for a long time before
one obtains one’s heart’s desire.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

507 Before we start analysing this dream, I must mention its
parallels with certain mythological ideas.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

This idea is archaic and highly myth-
ological.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

515 At the gradual approach of puberty, the libido of the child
produced in her an emotional rather than an objective attitude
to reality.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                     We found, behind the neu-
rotic symptoms, complicated emotional processes that were un-
8 [Cf.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Our patient duly
copied this.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

1 [Originally written in German with the title “Allgemeine Aspekte der Psycho-
analyse,” translated (anonymously) into English, and read before the Psycho-
Medical Society, London, Aug. 5, 1913.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

GENERAL ASPECTS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS’
Psychoanalysis today is as much a science as a technique.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                 What I would like
to stress here is simply its difference in principle from psycho-
analysis.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

53° Let us take another case.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

But she failed to obtain the least satisfaction
from this work.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                               For this reason I
maintain that a doctor must himself be analysed before he prac-
tises analysis.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

        The fantasies not only hinder him in adapting better to
his situation, they also lead him to all manner of real sexual
acts, and occasionally even to incest, as experience shows.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                I must limit myself to this aspect of the subject
because I am quite unable to put before my audience all that
psychoanalysis means and strives for, and its various applica-
tions in the fields of mythology, comparative religion, philoso-
phy, etc.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

        559 You are aware that the original theory that hysteria and the
related neuroses have their origin in a trauma or sexual shock
PSYCHOANALYSIS AND NEUROSIS’
‘[Originally written in English and read before the New York Academy of
Medicine, Oct. 8, 1912.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Revised and read before the 17th International Medical
Congress, London, 1913, under the title “On Psychoanalysis.”
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Here the events of early infancy—never
before important—suddenly become so.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                        Remove the obstacle from the path of life
and this whole system of infantile fantasies at once breaks down
and becomes as inactive and ineffective as before.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

          R. Lo~
12 January 1913
of Freud’s dream interpretation.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

A 65-year-old lady came
hobbling into the consulting-room on a crutch.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

  587 Patients read the analyst’s character intuitively, and they
should find in him a man with failings, admittedly, but also a
man who strives at every point to fulfil his human duties in the
fullest sense.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

   635 With regard to enlightening the patient about the psycho-
analytic method before beginning the analysis, you appear to be
in agreement with Freud and Stekel: better too little than too
much.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

This kind of coercion some-
times takes a bitter revenge.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                              Psychoanalysis is
only a means for removing the stones from the path of develop-
ment, and not a method (as hypnotism often claims to be) of
putting things into the patient that were not there before.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

650 That the patient may mislead the analyst for a longer or
shorter time by means of deliberate deception and misrepre-
sentation is possible, as in all other branches of medicine.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                        Every nor-
mal human situation is provided for and, as it were, imprinted on
this inherited structure, since it has happened innumerable times
before in our long ancestry.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

              It is ever so in life when we draw back before too
great an obstacle, say the threat of some severe disappointment
or the risk of some too far-reaching decision.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                        It is a kind of psychic contagion, caused,
as we know, not by logical truths but by affects and their physi-
cal manifestations.1’
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                               But
at forty-six (just before the menopause) she felt a great need of
love.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

         As she had no acquaintances she went to a matrimonial
agency and married the first corner, a peasant of about sixty
who had already been twice divorced on account of brutality
and perverseness; the patient knew this before marriage.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

       708 Before coming to me for treatment he had sent me a circum-
stantial autobiography, or rather a history of his illness, in order
to prepare me for his visit.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                        Some
weeks before, she happened to take up some religious tracts
which had long lain about the house unread.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                          About
a fortnight before she read these tracts her father, who lived
with her, had suddenly died of a stroke.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                       She ought to have taken the man her father
wanted her to have; he, certainly, would have obeyed her father,
and then everything would have been all right.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

19
brought to me by his mother on account of enuresis.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

               It will be asked, wherein lies the magic power of the parents to bind
their children to themselves, often for the whole of their lives? The psychoanalyst
knows that it is nothing but sexuality on both sides.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                                    When
I delivered the manuscript to my publisher in August 2001, I looked
forward to a civilized period of editing before its publication in mid-
summer 2002—time to streamline arguments and eliminate repeti-
tions.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                              (He even rented a house
in Afghanistan’s war-torn capital, Kabul, where he would go on vaca-
tion.)
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

     The stewardesses on our Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) flight
were dressed in headscarves and saris, serving curries that were a fore-
taste of our destination.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

      Another read, “George Mitchell Richmond Levit, 20th Punjab In-
fantry, died aged 23, on the 27th October, 1863 of a wound received
the previous day in the defense of the Eagle’s Nest Picket, Umbeyla
Pass.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

And then, suddenly, stretched out before us was Afghanistan.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

      The Soviets had destroyed thousands of such villages, creating five
million refugees and killing at least a million Afghans, out of a prewar
population of fifteen million or so.”
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                Just before we arrived, Taliban officials had con-
vened a clerical kangaroo court in the Spinghar’s dining room and
ruled that the hotel should be commandeered.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                      He shouted at us to halt and
then exchanged some quick words with the driver before letting us
pass on.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                     The settlement was probably
used from time to time by Kuchis, nomads who roam Afghanistan’s
mountains and deserts with their flocks.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

They served us a dinner of heaping platters of rice, nan
bread, and some unidentifiable meat.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

It transgressed all bounds and behaved in a way not witnessed
before by any power or any imperialist power in the world.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                          In this view, the treaties that fol-
lowed World War I had carved up the Ottoman Empire, “the Sick
Man of Europe,” into ersatz entities like Iraq and Syria.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                              Occa-
sionally, though, bin Laden would answer questions before they had
been translated.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

On the East Coast of the United
bassy bombings and the attack on the Cole.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                    A Middle Eastern source familiar
with the al-Qaeda organization told me that weeks before the Trade
Center attacks there was talk among Saudis who had traveled to
Afghanistan for holy-war training of a big upcoming operation—where
and when, nobody knew.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Similar adulation could be heard at a conference I attended in London
in the spring of 2000: before an audience of several hundred en-
thralled men and wom~n, the keynote speaker lauded bin Laden as
“this man who sacrificed his life for Islam.”
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

             In an interview a few months before the September 11 attacks,
General Pervez Musharaf, the military ruler of Pakistan’s 140 million
Muslims, aptly summarized bin Laden’s appeal: “The Western demo-
nization of OBL, as he is known in Pakistan, made him a cult figure
among Muslims who resent everything from the decline in moral val-
ues as conveyed by Hollywood movies and TV serials to America’s lack
of support for Palestinians being killed by Israeli occupation forces, to
what Russia is doing to Muslims in Chechnya, [to] what the West did
to Muslims in Bosnia and Kosovo, [to] India’s oppression of Muslims
in Kashmir.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Atta left Prague for Newark on June 3.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                  Khattab fought
in Afghanistan under bin Laden before moving to Chechnya, where
he helped launch the second Chechen war in 1999.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                              In the days
before the oil bonanza, servicing the Hajj pilgrims was one of the prin-
cipal sources of income for the al-Saud family.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                 Bath was friendly, for example, with
The Afghan Jihad: The Making of a HoLy Warrior / 45
George W. Bush, then an aspiring oilman whose father was director of
the CIA and would serve as Ronald Reagan’s vice-presidential running
mate in 1980.~’
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

 After Sayyid’s execution in Egypt in 1966, Muhammed
The Afghan Jihad: The Making of a Holy Warrior / 47
would become the keeper of his brother’s flame and the chief inter.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

.. .
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

 Azzam wrote: “This duty will not end with victory in Afghanistan; jihad
will remain an individual obligation until all other lands that were
Muslim are returned to us so that Islam will reign again: before us lie
Palestine, Bokhara, Lebanon, Chad, Eritrea, Somalia, the Philippines,
Burma, Southern Yemen, Tashkent and Andalusia [southern
Spain].”67
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                     Of about fifty Arabs, more than a
dozen were killed before the group realized they could no longer hold
their position and withdrew.89
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Bhutto’s predecessor, the military dictator General Zia ul-Haq, had
died in a mysterious plane crash the year before her election.’°’
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Six months before the Soviet invasion, the United States was already
Blowback: The CIA and the Afghan War / 67
providing limited support to Afghans fighting the Soviet-leaning
regime of President Nur Mohammed Tarald.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                             (Massoud would be mortally wounded by
two Arab assassins posing as television reporters on September 9,
2001, only forty-eight hours before the World Trade Center towers
were destroyed—an ominous portent.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                       Before September
11, 2001, U.S. officials had been concerned about the possibility of a
Stinger being employed against American troop transport planes in
Saudi Arabia.53
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Of course, bin Laden had been denouncing Americans well before
he was forced to put up with them in the flesh.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                       “A year before Hussein entered Kuwait,” bin
Laden recalled, “I said many times in my speeches at the mosques,
warning that Saddam will enter the Gulf.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Unfortunately, further investigation of the Riyadh attack is impossi-
ble because the Saudis beheaded the alleged bombers before Ameri-
can investigators could interview them.~~
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                              The bomb-
ing was similar to the later assault on the American embassy in Kenya:
in both operations, a suicide bomber drove a vehicle packed with ex-
plosives, and grenades were thrown to distract security guardsY~ Six
months before the attack on the Egyptian embassy, al-Qaeda mem-
bers also tried to assassinate Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak while
he was attending a conference in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.~~
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                       When Great Britain and France dis-
membered the Ottoman Empire after World War I, ruling over Iraq,
Egypt, Sudan, Syria, and Palestine, they only “nibbled at the fringes of
Arabia in Aden and the trucial sheikhdoms of the Gulf, but were wise
enough to have no military and minimal political involvement in the
affairs of the peninsula.”6
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

    Al-’Owhali arrived in Nairobi on August 2, five days before the at-
Investigation and Retaliation: The Embassy Bombings / 107
tack, just as the leaders of the Kenya cell were making their plans to
leave the country for Afghanistan.’8
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                          On August 5, two days before
the bombings, a fax arrived at the Cairo office of Al-Hayat newspaper
from Ayman al-Zawahiri’s Jihad group, now effectively an arm of
al-Qaeda.22
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

She died before she could be freed.29
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

The bomb consisted of four to five hundred packets of TNT each
the size of a soda can, ground up and then placed in wooden crates.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Mohamed helped grind up the TNT used in the device.40
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                Mohamed Odeh had taken a
flight out of Nairobi the day before, changing planes in Dubai and fly-
ing on to Karachi.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                         On August 21, 1997, almost exactly a
year before the embassy bombing, an FBI agent accompanied by
Kenyan police performed a search of Wadih el-Hage’s house in
Nairobi.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

            In addition, nine months before the Nairobi attack, an Egyptian
named Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed walked into the embassy and
told intelligence officials there was a plan afoot to use stun grenades to
divert the attention of embassy security guards so that a truck bomb
could be driven into the underground parking garage of the embassy,
precisely al-Qaeda’s plans for attacking the building.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                       The evacuation of American diplomatic person-
nel from neighboring Pakistan and the evacuation of all foreigners
from Kabul in the days before the attack had tipped off bin Laden’s
followers that something was afoot.TM
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                           Moreover, Mohamed Odeh told
an FBI agent that on August 6, 1998, a day before the bombings of the
embassies in Africa, news came from Afghanistan that: “All [bin
Laden’s] people have been evacuated [because] we’re expecting retali-
ation from the U.S. Navy.”
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                          He had very publicly given a press confer-
ence at the Khost camp on May 26 and an extensive interview to
ABC News in the same location two days later, nine weeks before the
embassy bombings.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

           Investigation and Retaliation: The Embassy Bombings / 123
Tullius turned up no evidence of EMPTA, although his tests did find
traces of ibuprofen!7’
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

What a Cock-up!”75
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Yet Ali Mohamed, it turns out, was an indis-
pensable player in al-Qaeda.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                       Anderson told me that he was suffi-
ciently concerned about Mohamed’s political views and unauthorized
travel to take the unusual step of filing two intelligence reports on the
subject.~
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                           From its
inception in 1987, it was run by Mustafa Shalabi, a devout Muslim
from Egypt who had been trained as a chemist before moving in 1980
to New York, where he started an electrical contracting business.48
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

The murder remains unsolved.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

   Not surprisingly, some in Brooklyn’s Muslim community and in
Shalabi’s family believe he was murdered by a member of Sheikh
Rahman’s circle.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                            Shalabi sent his wife
and three-year-old daughter back to Egypt and was himself making
plans to travel to Pakistan a day or so before he was killed.5~
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                            When he flew to New York from Peshawar
in September 1992, a few months before the bombing, he was accom-
136 / HOLY WAR, INC.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                         I had applied to
him for a visa to Pakistan a year before and had received a disquisition
on the likelihood of militant Islamists taking over the country.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

I am
taking this philosophically because there is nothing else I can do.”
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                  Just before sunset, there was a huge upsurge of
traffic as drivers manic with hunger raced to wherever they were
taking ~ftar, the meal that broke their fast.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

With a smile, the visa official handed me my passport back with the
stamp of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

“They say
sarcastically.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

The change was most profound in the area of girls’ education.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                            In Herat,
the World Food Program (WFP)was supporting a three-year medical ed-
ucation program for more than a hundred women, approved by local au-
thorities in May1999.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

A long
white beard and a gray astrakhan hat framed Levi’s face.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Before the Soviet invasion in 1979, there had been as many as sixty
Jewish families living in Kabul, Levi said.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

  The bombers had the presence of mind to stand up and wave at the
crew on the deck of the warship before detonating the charge that
would deliver them, they believed, to Paradise.3
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                        Back on earth, the
blast blew a forty-by-sixty-foot hole in the reinforced steel hull of the
Faith is Yemeni, wisdom is Yemeni.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

         A somewhat silly movie, Rules of Engagement, released a few
months before the Cole bombing, stars Samuel L. Jackson as a heroic
Marine officer unfairly charged with the massacre of Yemeni civilians.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

In 1991, a camp for the Afghan Arabs was set up in
the mountains of northern Yemen, near the town of Sad’a.’2
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                  No business could be
conducted before sitting down to a vast spread of lamb, chicken, sal-
ads, soups, and a dessert of Yemeni honey (supposedly an aphrodisiac)
slathered over a dome of pastry, all of which the sheikh insistently
heaped on my plate.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                     Sitting with us were perhaps twenty or so of the
sheikh’s retainers and bodyguards, smartly turned out in gray pin-
striped jackets, white robes, and red-and-white checkered head-
dresses, who set aside their various weapons before tucking into the
feast that broke their Ramadan fast.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Eighty lives
had already been lost.:34
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

These eight Britons, between seventeen and
thirty-three years of age, grew up in the Midlands or the London area.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Most had gone to school for courses in business studies, computers, or
accounting, and those who had jobs were in unexceptional lines of
work such as insurance.~
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

In short, they could not have been more or-
dinary and unthreatening.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                        Inside the car
were three of the eight men, who tried to speed away but were quickly
arrested.57
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

        In a coincidence that did not bode well, December 1998 was also
the month in which protracted negotiations between the United
States and Yemen to allow U.S. warships to refuel in Aden were finally
conc1uded.~
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                     The bombers would employ C4, a high-
explosive material manufactured by a relatively small group of countries
including the United States and Iran.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                                 In the
dozens of pictures that exist of him, he had never before been seen to
wear a Yemeni dagger.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

       On the other hand, U.S. officials in Washington awakened
in the early morning by the news had—at least unofficially—few
doubts about the real nature of the explosion.’05
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Not were they ignorant of the
contents of the State Department’s own terrorism reports.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                            He shuns publicity; he gave his
only interview to an English-language weekly, The Yemen Times, in
July 2000, taking pains to point out: “We do not intend to fight any reli-
gion.”
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

          The profound impact of al-Zawahiri on bin Laden’s thinking has
become increasingly clear, and some of have suggested that this little-
known physician is more important to al-Qaeda than bin Laden him-
self.42
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                            In July 1997,
before the Luxor massacre, leaders of the Islamic Group had ap-
proved the idea of a cease-fire, which was ratified by the group’s shura
council in March 1998.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                 Most of bin Laden’s followers had va-
cated the camps before the strikes, but of the twenty or so militants
who died, nine were from HUM.7’
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Minutes before the deadline was to expire, a convoy of about eighty
grim-faced, heavily armed Taliban commandos surrounded the jet.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                 Before we left, I stopped off at the Information
Ministry, where an official gave me the required pass for Muzza-
farabad.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                     He also denied that the group had
any links to bin Laden—which was odd, since the leader of HUM, Fazil
Rahman, had only a year before publicly announced that HUM fighters
had been killed in the American cruise missile attacks on bin Laden’s
camps in Afghanistan.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Before I left, Wani urged me to get in touch with an uncle in Virginia
and convey his best wishes.8’
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                      The vandals were
among us now, responsible for the deaths of some five thousand Ameri-
As to America, I say to it and its people afew words: I swear
to God that America will not live in peace before peace
reigns in Palestine, and before all the army of infidels depart
the land of Muhammad, peace be upon him.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

              Myths grew up around the Assassins, particularly in the
West, where it was believed that the Assassins smoked hashish before
they went off on their murderous missions.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                          (Eight centuries later, in a
peculiar echo of the Assassins, al-Qaeda’s Mohamed Atta would go on
a drinking binge days before guiding American Airlines flight 11 into
the North Tower of the World Trade Center.)
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

For his part, Bin Laden spent four years building facilities for the
Afghan guerrillas before his own forces began to fight in 1986.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Laden is, he has had a long time to contemplate the
U.S. response to a provocation like the September 11 attack.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                    Sean Kelly, one of the best video
editors in the business, converted many of my bin Laden stories into
238 / Acknowledgments
I
watchable television.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

George J. Tenet, director of the Central Intelligence Agency, testimony before
Congress, February 2, 2001; John Goldman, “Second Bin Laden Defector Tells
of Targeting Bomb Site,” Los Angeles Times, February 22,2001.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

22.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Jack Wheeler, Freedom Research Foundation Director, testimony before Con-
gressional Task Force on Afghanistan, February 25, 1985.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

U. S.A. v. Usama bin Laden, Presentment of Mi Mohamed before Judge An-
drew Peck, September 11, 1998.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Of the 1,200, 109 are Pakistanis, two are Yemenis, two are Chinese, and
one is a British citizen of Pakistani parentage.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Or pushtunwali.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

General Zinm, Testimony before Senate Armed Services Committee, October
19, 2000.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

73.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Notes / 275
6.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

But it does so only indirectly.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Hence I must say something about my own use of language.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                 Rather, we hold such people to
their own principles, though we may draw these out and arrange
them in ways they had not thought of before.
	Just and Unjust Wars

 Martin Kessler of Basic Books conceived this book almost before
I did, and has assisted and encouraged me at every stage of the
writing of it.
	Just and Unjust Wars

We would do better to mark a contrast rather
than a similarity: before Venus, censorious; before Mars, timid.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                    It is that general account that I
have to challenge before I can begin my own work, and I want to
challenge it at its source and in its most compelling form, as it is
put forward by the historian Thucydides and the philosopher
Thomas Hobbes.
	Just and Unjust Wars

But that is
not to say that its terms are meaningless.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                   had fallen upon the English
baggage, and were doing execution on the unarmed followers of
the camp,’ who fled before them.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                          But,
* 
\Ve can glimpse the mood of the happy warrior in a letter that Rupert
Brooke wrote to a friend at the very beginning of World War I, before he knew
what it would be like: “Come and die.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                       His maxim sums
up, with admirable brevity, a whole way of thinking about war—
a one-sided and partial way of thinking, I shall argue, but powerful
nonetheless.
	Just and Unjust Wars

     When we focus exclusively on the fact of aggression, we are likely
to lose sight of that responsibility and to talk as if there were only
one morally relevant decision to be made in the course of a war:
to attack or not to attack (to resist or not to resist).
	Just and Unjust Wars

They are entitled to kill, not anyone,
but men whom we know to be victims.
	Just and Unjust Wars

You
and your division have fought with chivalry.’
	Just and Unjust Wars

                         Long before philosophers are satisfied with it, however,
The lists are often more specific and more picturesque than this, reflecting the
character of a particular culture.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                The captured soldier acquires rights and
obligations specified by the convention, and these are binding with-
out regard to the possible criminality of his captors or to the justice
or urgency of the cause for which he has been fighting.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                 “Contract” is a metaphor for a
process of association and mutuality, the ongoing character of
which the state claims to protect against external encroachment.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                          picture to yourselves a slave-owner
who owned roe slaves warring against a slave-owner who owned
~oo slaves for a more ‘just’ distribution of slaves.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Now that is exactly what the Munich agreement was.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                              Or, to turn the argument around once
more, all these constitute aggressive acts on the part of whoever
begins them and justify forceful resistance, as their equivalents
would in the homes and streets of domestic society.
	Just and Unjust Wars

permit us to do little more than respond to an attack
once we had seen it coming but before we had felt its impact.
	Just and Unjust Wars

We are disposed to sympathize with potential victims even
before they confront an instant and overwhelming necessity.
	Just and Unjust Wars

           The argument is utilitarian in form; it can be summed up in
two propositions: (1) that the balance of power actually does pre-
serve the liberties of Europe (perhaps also the happiness of Euro-
peans) and is therefore worth defending even at some cost, and
(z) that to fight early, before the balance tips in any decisive way,
greatly reduces the cost of the defense, while waiting doesn’t mean
avoiding war (unless one also gives up liberty) but only fighting
on a larger scale and at worse odds.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Long before those years, Louis XIV had
given Europe evident signs of injustice, rapacity, pride, and so on.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                      The war might then be dated from
May 22, and the Israeli attack of June ~ described simply as its
first military incident: wars often begin before the fighting of them
does.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                            One always wants to see
diplomacy tried before the resort to war, so that we are sure that
war is the last resort.
	Just and Unjust Wars

We need to establish a kind of a priori respect for state boundaries;
they are, as I have argued before, the only boundaries communities
ever have.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                  Secession
The Hungarian Revolution
For many years before 1848, Hungary had been a part of the
Hapsburg Empire.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                 I have made this point before, but it is worth empha-
sizing, for it reflects a deep truth about the meaning of responsive-
ness: the goal of counter-intervention is not to win the war.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                               When a people are being massacred, we
don’t require that they pass the test of self-help before coming to
their aid.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Their argument was less general and ultimately less subversive of
conventional morality.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                             Hence the
rights and limits fixed by the argument for justice: resistance, res-
toration, reasonable prevention.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                        And she ap-
plies her argument to a case very much like ours: “if a young girl is being forced
into a brothel she will not talk about her rights.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                    I
can sum up their substance in terms I have used before: no one
can be forced to fight or to risk his life, no one can be threatened
with war or warred against, unless through some act of his own he
has surrendered or lost his rights.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                  Vast numbers of workers must be mobilized before
an army can even appear in the field; and once they are engaged,
soldiers are radically dependent on a continuing stream of equip-
ment, fuel, ammunition, food, and so on.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                             It is not a retained but a war right, and
rests only on the agreement of states and on the doctrine of military
necessity.
	Just and Unjust Wars

This occurred only a few months before Doenitz’s order prohibited
such assistance, and under conditions which made it perfectly safe.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                               This indeed was Doenitz’s own position
before the Allied attack, a position he maintained despite criticism
from other members of the German High Command: “I cannot
put these people into the water.
	Just and Unjust Wars

It is what we expect of soldiers.
	Just and Unjust Wars

It is not just that they
can’t kill a lot of innocent people.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                                But
even if the target is very important, and the number of innocent
people threatened relatively small, they must risk soldiers before
they kill civilians.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Collective starvation is a bitter fate: parents and children, friends
and lovers must watch one another die, and the dying is terribly
drawn out, physically and morally destructive long before it is over.
	Just and Unjust Wars

And they who were yet living, without
tears beheld those who being dead were now at rest before them.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                         In fact, however, it is not even
necessary that a frontal assault fail before a siege is thought justifi-
able.
	Just and Unjust Wars

It also leads us to see that there are
moral questions that must be answered before .the
	Just and Unjust Wars

He did not push them through the gates of the
city before he locked them in.
	Just and Unjust Wars

The hard question is whether the line can be drawn differ-
ently without ruling out sieges altogether.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Before the siege ended in 1943, more than a million civilians were
dead of starvation and disease.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                  The American commander permitted civilians to
leave Santiago before ordering the bombardment of that city in
1898.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                         Taking Aim and the Doctrine of Double Effect
The issue is more difficult, however, when a whole country is sub-
jected to siege conditions, when an invading army sets about sys-
tematically to destroy crops and food supplies, for example, or when
a naval blockade cuts off vitally needed imports.
	Just and Unjust Wars

“~ But few armies seem ever to have respected
the ban.
	Just and Unjust Wars

    This is not, however, much protection for civilians, since mili-
tary supplies cannot be destroyed without first destroying civilian
supplies.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                               But if the success
of the British strategy did not depend upon civilian deaths, it
nevertheless required that nothing at all be done to avoid those
deaths.
	Just and Unjust Wars

        And if it was known to be a stronghold, surely it could be
attacked, like any other enemy position, even before hostile fire
was encountered.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                 In fact, this became American policy quite early
in the war: villages from which hostile fire might reasonably be
expected were shelled and bombed before soldiers moved in and
even if no movement was planned.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                           before an
attack, so that the villagers only just had time to leave (and then
the guerrillas could leave with them), or they were general, de-
scribing the attack that might come if the villagers did not expel
the guerrillas.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Only now the peasánts were not warned before an
air-strike was called on their village.
	Just and Unjust Wars

And the risks they must live with will be considerably
greater than those of conventional combat.
	Just and Unjust Wars

              In practice, again, the only action required before one
reaches this last resort is a formal protest, such as the French de-
livered to the Germans in 1944, and a threat to respond in kind
if this or that criminal activity is continued.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                   The Israeli argument followed the pattern of positive law (or
* This is probably what the lawyers have in mind when they argue that, in cases
of reprisal, the private citizen “is held to be identified with his state.”
	Just and Unjust Wars

And finally, they will attend to the rights of innocent people.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                   Some 200 years after the battle at the River
Hung, more than two millennia before the communist revolution,
the philosopher Mo Tzu perfectly described Mao’s case, as he
himself must understand it.3
	Just and Unjust Wars

                 How long must one wait before breaking the rules?
The answer I want to defend is best expressed by reversing Chair-
man Mao’s dictum: with referencë to our own conventions, and
until the very last minute, we are all the Duke of Sung.
	Just and Unjust Wars

We can see clearly in the
chancellor’s speech the two levels at which the concept works.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                     It would have to
succeed on both, I think, before the violation of Belgian neutrality
could be defended.
	Just and Unjust Wars

 Before Cherwell provided his “scientific” rationale for the bomb-
ing, a number of reasons had already been offered for the British
decision.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                       In fact, of course,
navigational devices were rapidly improved as the war went on,
and the bombing of specific military targets was an important part
of Britain’s total air offensive, receiving top priority at times (before
the June 1944 invasion of France, for example) and cutting into
the resources allowed for attacks on cities.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                For the truth is
that the supreme emergency passed long before the British bomb-
ing reached its crescendo.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                                                    But I want
to look at one more case before concluding my argument—a case
* 
George Orwell has suggested an.
	Just and Unjust Wars

See The Collected
Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Oru’ell, ed.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                            The war aims of the American government
required either an invasion of the main islands, with enormous
losses of American and Japanese soldiers and of Japanese civilians
trapped in the war zones, or the use of the atomic bomb.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                    They are relevant only to the conflict between
winning and fighting well, not to the internal problems of combat
itself.
	Just and Unjust Wars

           It is not necessarily the case that every war would become
a total war, but the danger of escalation is so great as to preclude
the first use of nuclear weapons—except by someone willing to
face their final use.
	Just and Unjust Wars

As we have seen before, the idea of proportionality, once it is
worked on a bit, tends to fade away.
	Just and Unjust Wars

       Moral argument is especially important in wartime because—
as I have said before, and as Bishop’s “brevity” makes clear—the
laws of war are radically incomplete.
	Just and Unjust Wars

  But there is a related issue that I must consider before trying
to mark out the realm of freedom from the coercions and hysteria
of war.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Peters was relieved of his command and placed under
arrest, but he was never brought before a court martial.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                    General Bradley and the Bombing of St. L6
In July 1944, Omar Bradley, in command of American forces
in Normandy, was engaged in planning a breakout from the in-
vasion beachheads established the month before.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Goure, p. iii; Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Militari
Tribunals (Washington, D.C., i95o), XI, 563.
	Just and Unjust Wars

Stanley Kunitz, “Foreign Affairs,” in Selected Poems: 1928—1959 (Boston,
Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals, vol.
	Just and Unjust Wars

It’s nowthreeyears 
later, and I’majuniorata Before theattack, all could think ofwashowto writeagoodrap.NowI’m
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                 Those peo-
plc were allowed just a few more precious
hours ofpurity ofheart, ofpeace and of es-
cape from the horrible tragedies that lay
before them.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                 The Port Authority now
believes that the officers reached the
ground floor by foot before the towers fell.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                       JUDY LITTLET0N
HOUSTON, TEXAS
“Every nation in every region now has a decision to make:
“He was afraid offlying?’ Mohamed al-Amir Atta,fatherofsuspected
hijacker MohamedAtta, on why he believes his son was not involved in
the attacks, despite evidence to the contrary
“It’s time for action, not words.”Bush
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

“Move in here next to me,” said Bush, motioning to emp- may be, Bush portrayed it as
tychairs on either side ofhim.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

     Bush said he could identify all too well 
with the public’s fears: the White House it- 
selfhad been an intended target.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

  Flawlessly delivering a speech
that he and his aides had la-
bored on all week, Bush ap-
peared in the well ofthe House
at a time of peril as severe as
any since Pearl Harbor.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

Around
new cause.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

    would be no freelancing of the kind
had led him to describe the task at
as a “crusade”—a word with an unfor-
As usual, Bush delegated the

B 


meaning that had outraged Muslims when
he used it.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

           President, I think thatwill be
difficult, if not impossible,” counselor
Karen Hughes told him.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

          It’s not even clear how helpful the 
Northern Alliance will be, since its charis- 
matic leader, Ahmed Shah Massoud, was as- 
sassinated, allegedly by bin Laden opera- 
tives, two days before the attacks on 
America.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                   he suddenlyquitin 
mid-May, before showingup atanother 
flight schoolin Eagan, Minn.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                              AtPanAm Flying 
Academy, he acknowledgedthatthebiggestplane 
he’d everflownwas a single-engine Cessna.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                           In past at-
tacks by bin Laden’s Qaeda organization, “sleeper”
agents have burrowed into the target country to await
their orders.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                                                       In the late ‘80s, Pakistan’s then head of

A 

LL ACROSS THE WORLD LAST WEEK, INTELLIGENCE mind was MohamedAtta, the intense Egyptian who apparently pi-

services were scrambling to catch the terrorists before loted the first plane, American Airlines Flight 11, intot he North Tow-

they struck again.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                               der to crack secretive terrorist cells the CIA needs to hire more Ara-
The Khobar Towers investigation shows the limits oftreating ter- bic-speaking case officers who can in turn recruit deep-penetration
rorism as acrime.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

           Actually, case officers in the 
field can still hire sleazy or dangerous 
characters by asking permission from 
their bosses in Langley.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

But the threat was
not deemed to be imminent.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

Ressam later told investigators thathe hadjust returned from one of
bin Laden’s Afghan training camps, where he learned such skills as
feedingpoison gas through the airvents ofoffice buildings.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

liner that dive-bombed th 
Pentagon.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

Some investigators were trying to follow the
money.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                                                                When 

the hijackers struck, 
Kuwaiti descent, is suspected
of funneling thousands of dol-

at about 9:35 a.m., 

air-traffic controllers listening in on the fre- 

A 

T LEAST ONE OTHER NAME FROM THE airport security would disappear forlongperiods of time—possibly, to

list ofhijackers had shown up in the files of before hijacking meet with his handlers.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                         overwhelming trauma can distort the stress
Countless others will experience weeks of response, causing symptoms that may per-
grief, shock, fear and even despair as they re- sist for months or even years.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

Maybe 2,500.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

They’vejustfailedtobuy.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                             Now,
as the specifics of proposed
(and implemented) antiterror-
ism measures emerge, politi-
cians and activists from across
the ideological spectrum are
questioning the rush to restrict
Americans’ freedoms and priva-
“Before we begin disman-

ding constitutionally protected

safeguards and diminishing in-
<
dividual rights to privacy, we

should first examine why the]
attacks occurred:’ said conser-
vative Rep.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

These 
were the firefighters who answered the first alarm.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                 In these middle-class towns they
is where many ofthe corpses now buried in can buy a house for not much more than
the rubble lived.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                   $200,000 and start a family on the
Stretching east on Long Island, from the $30,000 or so a year a young cop or fire-
border with Queens halfway to the Hainp- fighter earns—and, by the vagaries of shift
tons, is ajumble ofsuburbs whose borders work, aspire to every New Yorker’s secret
are so unmemorable residents sometimes dream ofcommuting against the traffic.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

   Kiefer used to chase
fire engines on his
bicycle even before he
joined the Explorers.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

      Kloepfer’s husband, Ron, an emergency-
services officer with the NYPD, also disap-
peared in the collapse of the South Tower,
two days before his 40th birthday.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

      United Way: The United Way of New York
and the New York Community Trust have
created a fund specifically for victims and
their families.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

      American Airlines
Flight 11 crashed into
the North Tower of the
World frade Center

• 
.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                    In the 
guise of a honey merchant, one of Osama 
bin Laden’s closest aides traveled to the 
Pakistani city of Peshawar throughout the 
1990s.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

Some take up contributions for a 
ticket to Peshawar.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

thanks to a vigilant Customs inspector,
spent hours watching Clint Eastwood 
videos.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

learning on the run before our eyes.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                              Yet even before
last week’s attacks, the Senate intelligence
committee had voted extra funds for Inter-
net surveillance and “profiling” measures,
The challenges are enormous.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

The doomed were jumping
the slightest trace oftheir friends and co-workers, now the na- out ofthe remaining tower before the mayor’s eyes.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

In recent years, Rudy Giuliani has been a cranky and not terri-
In the meantime, the task before him is immense.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                      They want to defy the 
terrorists by demonstrating that life goes 
on and, most certainly, that economic life 
hasn’t been crippled.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

to 83.6,
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

Before the at- ruptcies, although Congress may provide I gradually move on, and “when all the usually more than recovers.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                        Before the attacks, 
airline traffic was already declining, and 
reservation cancellations continue—also 
affecting travel agents, theme parks and 
hotels.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                                           
I 

financial district, and ifthe intent was to wound the U.S.

economy, then the timing as much as the place could not

have been better chosen.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

percent to 3.5
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                            He worked in the 
World Trade Center, escaped 
after the first explosion, man- 
aged to get back to NewJersey before trans- 
portation shut down and came straight to 
school.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                                                             On Thursday,
able ... Before the shooting here, I didn’t re- when all but one of the parents had been
allythinkthis kind ofthinghappened in our found, students from second to 12th grade
country.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                     Before the age of8 or 9, chil-
ly—by talking angrily about retaliation, for exam-
guidance on how to behave.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                          “As it got hotter,
they’d run and leap like they wanted to get
as far from the heat as they could?’ A few
unlucky pedestrians were struck and killed
by objects, including bodies, falling from
the planes or the buildings above.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

Ramon, who last heard from herjust before Is this possible? Could a person fall a
9 a.m. on Thesday.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                         A rela-
tive, Bethaney LaBarre, 25, es-
caped from the World Trade
Center’s South Tower mo-
ments before Nassaney’s plane
slammed into it.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                    What 
we’re really trying to do is 
reach anybody from Cantor 
Fitz who was on those high 
floors and made it out, so we 
could talk to them and find out 
if they saw him leaving before "He knows
or after that.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

          On Thesday they didn’t
have time to finish the puzzle
before Caswell left home, so as
he drove to Dulles Airport he
IS the
Mary Alice Wahlstrom 
called home from his hands- 
free mobile phone.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

Mostafa Elm
Reveal and Conceal: Dress in Contemporary Egypt.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                             He is the author of numerous works, in both Persian
and English, on Iranian social history and comparative politics, including His-
Agrarian Relations Before and After the Iranian Revolution, 1960—1990,” in
Peasant Politics in the Modern Middle East (1991).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                 In the cities, the reform included a
concerted literacy and educational campaign, various measures to im-
prove workers’ wages and benefits, and expansion of educational and
work opportunities for women.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                    As Centlivres-Demont
points out (in Chapter 8), the “women policies” of the new, Soviet-
backed regime, months before the onset of the civil war that followed
INTRODUCTION 25
26 MYRON WEINER AND ALL BANUAZIZI
the Soviet occupation in December of 1979, were among the chief reasons
tens of thousands of Afghans fled to Pakistan, where they believed they
could “protect the honor of their women and daughters.”
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                     han’s clerical leaders, for example,
are concerned not only with the effectiveness of the income distribution
programs but also with whether these programs can be presented and
justified within an Islamic framework before the masses.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

    The issues that have violently torn these three countries are ones
that touch the recesses of deeply held personal beliefs: Who has the
right to govern? Which identities and loyalties most matter? What is
the cultural heritage, how can it be sustained, and does it provide a
framework for the future? And, above all, what should be the role of
the state in shaping that future? The debates, more than ever before,
spill across the borders not only east and west, but now to the north
as well.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                  Before 1978 and again under the commu-
nists, the government representative in the village lived in a separate
house, dressed differently, spoke in his own vernacular, and often com-
municated with the citizenry only via one village-designated indi-
vidual.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Before many weeks had passed, popular resentment had become
resistance, and resistance rebeffion.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                 In th€
Politburo, only two out of seven Khalqis survived, and one of thesE
(Sarwari) would be shipped into diplomatic exile before the end of th€
year.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                  Over the next few
months, he brought on board as ministers or highly placed advisers
some eleven persons with no overt connections with the PDPA.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

    Regarding front activities, the usual gamut of youth, women’s, pro-
fessional, peasants’, and labor unions became a topic of intense media
coverage.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

From a force of about one hundred thousand before the invasion, the
DRA army could only muster about twenty-five thousand troops in
1981, despite the new measures.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                 An individual recommended by three party
members, each of at least three years’ standing, had to submit a written
application for membership and then serve a year of probationary
membership before being admitted to full membership.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The most glaring discrepancy in these figures is in the occupation
category, where less than 50 percent of the delegates are tabulated.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                             It meant that before too long the protec-
tive mantle of Soviet armed assistance was going to end, and the gov-
ernment would have to survive on its own.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                 This forced changes on
many fronts, including the adoption of revisionist policies that would
have been considered ideological heresy by any Soviet leader before
Mikhail Gorbachev.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The party’s failure to take hold was shown by a number of indirect
indicators.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

held in only 180 of the 628 villages in Kabul Province, the area under
tightest government control.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

In July 1986 the number of full and candidate members of the
Central Committee rose to 147, and in November to 172.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

        But his response, after dealing with the main figures, was to
try to mend his fences with the remaining intraparty opposition, a
move rendered critically important by the impending departure of the
last Soviet combat troops.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                In May 1990, he again tried to mask
the PDPA’s dominant role by appointing a new nonparty prime minis-
ter, Fazl Haq Khaleqyar, to replace Keshtmand.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

A few old-regime collaborators, such as Hassan Sharq, fled abroad
before the curtain fell on Afghan communism.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                      It is perhaps the supreme historical irony in 1993
that a more realistic worry today than the Sovietization of Afghanistan
is the ongoing Afghanization—if one takes the term to imply extreme
localism and intercommunity hostility—of the former Soviet Union.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

This trend was undoubtedly established under the Khalqis.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

       Before the war, the process of politicization affected only the new
urban elite—mainly young, educated middle-class people who did not
find status in a society that, although changing through the spread of
education, was stifi dominated by the traditional elite: the Durrani (see
glossary at the end of this chapter) tribal aristocracy and the compara-
tively large (for Afghanistan) landowners.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                       A
qawm is based on kinship and client-patron relations; before being an
ethnic group, it is a solidarity group, which protects its members from
encroachments from the state and other qawms but which is also the
scene of lively competition between contenders for local supremacy.1
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                   The Islamist movement, whose origins may be traced
back to the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood in the 1950s, was not active
before the second half of the 1960s on Kabul campuses; it recruited
mostly among young intellectuals who considered Islam more a politi-
cal ideology than a religion.4
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                        Zabul, Paktya, Farah,
Ghazni, Samangan, and Faryab have many ulama leading mujahidin
jabha (a “front,” that is, a local mujahidin territory or network); in other
provinces, they act as deputies or middlemen for Islamist intellectuals
(as in Herat, in the Northeast), dealing mainly with justice.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

        The strength of the ulama is that they are not supposed to promote
their own qawm (and a lot of them are said to be sayyad), so they do not
identify themselves with the interests of a specific group and can there-
fore rally a coalition of tribes.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                       The first ideological split among
mujahidin is between Islamists, who advocate an Islamic revolution
bringing social justice, and traditionalists, who, even if they want an
Islamic (that is, merely “Muslim”) state, are puzzled by the idea of a
revolution and do not see the need for a change in social structures.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

leader holding both military and political power.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                    But, naturally enough,
The sort of bureaucracy established by the affiance in Peshawar is
In fact, foreign donations (American, Saudi, and Pakistani money)
THE NEW POLITICAL ELITE 93
94 OLIVIER ROY
most of these educated youths tend to join the extremist, dogmatic, anti-
Western, authoritarian, but nevertheless technocratic, Hekmatyar school
of thinking.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                Nothing will be as it was
before, and the new elite will more and more be made from the edu-
cated youth; the danger is the same as that which could have de-
stroyed the Communist party: internal infighting may take the shape
of tribal and ethnic feuds, despite the ideological formulation of these
feuds.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Swing wide the tavern door before me, day and night,
For I’ve grown weary of both mosque and madrasa.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Khomeini could never forget the devastating blow dealt to the
ulama during the reign of Reza Shah (Khomeini 1944, 271—74, 302—3).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                  Never before had a
member of the ulama risen to the high office of source of emulation
through political mobilization of the masses.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The social origin of Majlis representatives before and after the revo-
lution is indicative of changes that occurred in the structure of the
country’s dominant political class after the revolution.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                         Subtotal 
Subtotal 
Total 
Number 
Distribution of Representatives of Three Sessions
Family Background of Majlis Representatives
of Islamic Majlis by Social Standing
Before and After the Revolution
TABLE 3.1
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                          Thus, members
of the dominant class of postrevolutionary Iran either were among
Khomeini’s disciples and were active in the protest movements before
the revolution or served in one or more of the revolutionary organiza-
tions in postrevolutionary Iran.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

- is the builder of a repressive system which may well have to
be endured before it can be escaped or transcended..
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                         Second, it provides an op-
portunity to examine the construction of a central state apparatus
where none existed before.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                            After the mid-
sixties the politics of exclusion and the economics of regional and class
disparity had turned the logic of functional inequality on its head.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

           Nine days after assuming office, Zia admitted in an interview with
United Press International that although there was evidence of large-
scale rigging in certain constituencies, especially in the Punjab, electoral
irregularities were not as widespread as alleged by the PNA.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                      Furthermore, in its struggle with the revolt, the
PDPA made important changes in the reform decrees, so that they
became as much instruments of counterinsurgency as of social transfor-
mation.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

—
660,000 33.3
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                           These provi-
sions also distinguished between debts contracted more than five years
before and more recent ones.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

              Any land that had been placed in geraw five years or more
before the decree was introduced was to be returned to the owner after
the harvest of the, standing crop, without any payment to the mortgage
holder.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                The Soviet journalist interviewing
him (who also had spent much time in Afghanistan) commented, “And
only pro forma at that, in many instances.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

shows fiscal develop-
ments in the years before and after the coup.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Before commenting or
these figures, a few words of caution are in order.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Within those areas, however, some anecdotal evidence indicates that
the existing production was distributed more equitably than before.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Before drawing far-reaching conclusions from this, a word of cau-
tion is in order.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

          As Roy (1986,92) observed, “Opposition to the reforms not only
strengthened the feeling that the ownership of land was sacrosanct, but
it also caused the landowners to offer more favourable contracts
to those who farmed their land (except in Hazarajat [where no land
REDISTRIBUTION AND THE STATE 219
220 BARNETT R. RUBIN
reforms were carried out and the society is more hierarchical]) and it
ensured that the resistance movement could not avoid coming to terms
with the social question.”
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

12.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                  In a later work (Kakar 1979, 123), published a year after
the start of armed revolt against the Communists and three years before his own arrest
in Kabul, he wrote, “Although such an action was clearly to their disadvantage, land-
less peasants, hamsayas Fclients], and the socially disabled artisans have defended the
status quo in critical times, if not with the same zeal as the small and large farmers, at
least with enthusiasm.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

In 1991 there were
reports that gas exports were set to resume.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Even the conservative govern-
ments of the oil-producing countries adjusted to the new realities.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

        The bottom 40 percent of the households experienced such a propor-
tionate increase in their share of total expenditure that despite falling
average expenditure, their expenditure was higher than before the
revolution.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                  First are employers, who
suffered a decline in their relative position after the revolution but by
1985 were more likely to be in the top 20 percent of households than
before the revolution.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                 On the
whole, those in this group had a slighly better chance of being in the
top 20 percent of households in 1985 than before the revolution.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

percent in 1985, they were nearly six times more likely than they
were before the revolution to be in the bottom 40 percent.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

It is impossible to provide a complete
list of state takeovers, but their extent was clearly vast.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                   Because an extensive
cooperative network already served the rural population before the
revolution, the increase occurred mainly in the urban areas, where the
number of cooperatives rose from 2,893 in 1977 to 14,783 in 1986.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                    Great
fortunes were made from speculation in urban real estate at the same
time that access to affordable shelter became increasingly difficult for
large segments of the population.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                               In 1986 there were 690
people for each hospital bed, nearly 10 percent more than before the
revolution; over the same period the number of people per physician
had risen from about 2,400 to 3,400.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Imported goods became much more widely available; im-
ports rose from $10.6
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                      Pakistan had to wait
another fourteen years before official foreign capital in any significant
amount would become available again.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

TABLE 7.4
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                     Before resorting to
political action, the Bengalls labored hard to correct the imbalance in
economic development that, according to their assessment, was the
consequence of the government’s discriminatory policies.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                     The rural poor had to wait another
decade before seeing a significant improvement in their economic situ-
ation.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

 In the Middle East since before World War I, but especially after it, the
position of women has been one of the criteria of the modernity and
maturity of a nation, especially (with the nascent movements of emancipa-
tion) for reformers, for modernists—Amanullah in Afghanistan, Ataturk in
Turkey, and Reza Shah Pahiavi in han—and, of course, for the West, from
which they drew their inspiration even while struggling against it.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

     But the roles and status of women are, before everything else,
based on women’s reproductive functions: physical reproduction and
social reproduction.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Failing popular demand, these reforms could only be imposed
as before, from the top down, in the form of decrees.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                         From then on, the
government backed away somewhat, first in applying the measures,
then in lessening activism in the countryside, and finally in agreeing to
ignore the decrees, especially those concerning the condition of
women.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

 In a brochure dating from 1985, the Democratic Youth Organization
of Afghanistan (DYOA) points out that its purpose is to “struggle
against illiteracy” and to wipe it out before the year 1991.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

In 1973, five years before the coup d’etat, there were
110,887 girls out of a total of 803,141 students (Frommer 1981, 299).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

In 1973, five years before the coup d’etat, there were
110,887 girls out of a total of 803,141 students (Froimmer 1981, 299).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

  They are either sent to a room or into a tent or shelter, or else to a
neighbor’s, and have to wait until the visitors have left before coming
back.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                       Crouched in the shelter of an aw-
ning or behind the building or tent of the dispensary, they spend hours
talking among themselves before the consultation.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

            Women who were students in Kabul before the war (at the univer-
sity they represented 11 percent of the total before 1974) and who had
walked in the streets without any headcovering whatsoever or had gone
to the cinema with girlfriends find it very difficult to adapt to the con-
straints imposed by purdah.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                         Of course, there were widows and
orphans in Afghanistan before the war, but this bitter conflict has made
them categories apart, groups encountering special risks, needing par-
ticular attention, treatment, accommodations, and protection.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

No specific mention of
women was made in the 1931 Constitution, nor in the 1964 Constitution [art.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                 Exactly two weeks before the tenth anniversary of thE
Islamic revolution, a woman came very close to losing her life over a
seemingly trivial comment.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                   Before the over-
throw of the old regime, women’s public appearance had already be-
come a contentious issue.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

     Before the overthrow of the old regime, Zeynab’s image had predomi-
nated, as the embodiment of courage and faith; the black-veiled Iranian
women demonstrators were perceived as enacting the stand of Zeynab
at the battle of Karbala against the Yazid of the time.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                            Before the
passage of this law, special notary officers handled all marriage and
divorce registrations.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                   A government spokesman, however, later
stated that the old law would remain in effect imtil new legislation was
drafted.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                   The
written permission of a man’s wife (or wives) is supposed to be ob-
tained and brought before an arbitration council that decides whether
he may marry again, although the discretionary right to allow or dis-
allow another marriage remains within the council and is not depen-
dent on that written permission.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

        The proposed law of qisas (retaliation) and diyat (blood money)
had not been decreed before Zia’s death and was set aside as a “back
burner” issue during the tenure of the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP)
government, only to be taken up again as a priority by Nawaz Sharif in
1991.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

“State and Agrarian Relations Before and After the Iranian Revo-
BIBLIOGRAPHY 449
450 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Baxter, Craig, and Shahid Javed Burki.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                                       The cob-
nel was promised his request would be processed through channels for permission to place teams
at the recovery site.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

Initially, recovery workers had long shifts, but dehydration and physical and emo-
tional stress quickly necessitated briefer shifts.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

Two days after the first author returned from that trip, on July 1 7, 1 996, Flight 800 suffered a
catastrophic explosion minutes after takeoff from John F. Kennedy airport in New York, en route
to Paris, France.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

Licensure Issues.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

The family room was equipped with numerous tel-
ephones, and many cellular phones were distributed to the families.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

                                                                                    The intense and
chaotic situation that precipitously develops in the aftermath of a mass-casualty incident is best
managed by those who have successfully done so before, or at beast by individuals who have
trained expressly for that event.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

The Staff Processing Center is designed to effectively screen, prepare identifi-
cation for, train, and generally manage all those interested in participating in the disaster response.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

                                                       The Family Assistance Act does not specify a
role for the Red Cross for this aspect ofthe operation, but the NTSB has designated the Red Cross
as having responsibility for assessing the needs and available resources of other agencies and co-
ordinate with them to ensure ongoing emotional support for workers during the operation and pro-
vide debriefings before departure.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

                                                       SERVICE DELIVERY PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES
Before addressing the principles and strategies of disaster mental health interventions in avia-
tion disasters, it is important to address the challenges faced by the clients in these situations.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

When there are survivors, rescue teams may find hundreds of injured in desperate need of care in-
stead ofjust a few.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

In 1933 Hitler came to power in Germany, and Freud’s
books were publicly burned in Berlin.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                     Our conversation drifted to travelling in Italy,
and I asked my companion whether he had been in Orvieto and had seen
there the famous frescoes of —.
(b) 
had recalled the theme discussed immediately before this conversation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                In brief, before I asked
my travelling companion if he had been in Orvieto, we had been discuss-
ing the customs of the Turks living in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

was able to disturb the next thought, because I
withdrew my attention from it before it came to an end.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                               I was at that time under the after-effects
of a message which I had received a few weeks before, during a brief so-
journ in Trafoi.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                The sub-
stitutive names no longer seem so thoroughly unjustified as they seemed
before this explanation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     When we recapitulate the conditions for forgetting a name with faulty
recollection we find: (I) a certain disposition to forget the name; (2) a
process of suppression which has taken place shortly before; and (~) the
possibility of establishing an outer association between the concerned
name and the element previously suppressed.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Before proceeding, allow me to give a full and
clear account of this little episode.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

in which the unhappy Dido leaves her vengeance upon
Aeneas to posterity.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I now think of an article in an Italian journal which I
have recently read.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

What can you do with this?”
I waited.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

  “‘In thy western halls of gold
When thou sittest in thy state,
Bards, that erst sublimely told
Heroic deeds and sang of fate.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                  As a teacher of elocution, she was wont to memorize so much
and so often that it was difficult to tell just when she had memorized these
lines.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                          The slight attacks of migraine,
from which I am still suffering, are wont to announce themselves hours
before through the forgetting of names, and at the height of the attack,
FORGETTING OF NAMES AND ORDER OF WORDS
*
‘7
i8 PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE
during which I am not forced, however, to give up my work, I am often
unable to recall all proper names.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

As this form of faulty acts can at times be abundantly observed
in myself, I am not at a loss for exampLes.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                I an-
swered that it was Pierre Gassendi, whom two days before, while in a
café, I had happened to hear spoken of as a follower of Epicurus.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         (i) I add here another example of forgetting the name of a city, an
instance which is perhaps not as simple as those given before, but which
will appear credible and valuable to those more familiar with such investi-
gations.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

               This lion I saw objectively before me in the form of a marble
statue, but I soon noticed that he resembled less the lion of the statue of
liberty in Brescia (which I saw only in a picture) than the other marble
lion which I saw in Lucerne on the monument in honor of the Swiss Guard
fallen in the Tuileries.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   Two men, an elder and a younger, who had travelled together in Sicily
six months before, exchanged reminiscences of those pleasant and inter-
esting days.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                      Thus, e.g., I had recently reminded
a very esteemed friend in most unmistakable terms that he had ‘long ago
passed the years of youth,’ because before this, he once remarked in the
most flattering manner, ‘I am no longer a young man.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                    I approached the whole subject in the spirit of an
j~vestigator and student who made every effort to discover and under-
stand all the data before passing final judgment on his psychology.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         “Now, the patient whose name I could not recall, was the same man
who, some years ago, attempted to set fire to the St. Patrick’s Cathedral
in New York; he gathered together some odds and ends before the en~
trance of the church and set fire to it.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The older man believed that he had thus accounted for his forgetting
the name.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

In some cases, one must have recourse to all the fineness of psycho-
analytic technique in order to explain the forgetting of a name.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                    Those were the pioneer days of Freud
among psychiatrists, and we observed and studied and noted whatever
was done or said about us with unfailing patience and untiring interest
and zeal.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                           What most
concerns the memory lies here chronologically beyond the concealing
memory.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I called
this form of displacement a retro-active or regressive one.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   In the case of forgetting of names, we are aware that the substitutive
names are incorrect, while in concealing memories, we are surprised that
we have them at all.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Of these retained childhood reminiscences, some appear to us readily
comprehensible, while others seem strange or unintelligible.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

It is not diffi-
cult to correct certain errors in regard to both kinds.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                   The stimulus of the psychically mote
intensive sound “rings” before or continues echoing, and thus disturbs
the less important process of innervation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         In the case of disturbance through influence outside of the same
sentence or context, it would before all be a question of becoming ac-
quainted with the disturbing elements, and then the question would arise
whether the mechanism of this disturbance cannot also suggest the prob-
able laws of the formation of speech.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                        The true state of affairs, how-
ever, was this: I began the quotation once before, and made no mistake
1 Italics are mine.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                   As a mat-
ter of fact, I received her with the remark, “Today we shall be in earnest”
(because it was the last hour before her discharge from treatment), and
I jokingly changed the word into earnesht.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                 We did not know at the
time where she got the incorrectly used foreign words, but during the
same session, she reproduced a reminiscence as a continuation of the
theme from the previous day, in which being caught in fiagranti played
the principal part.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                              (i) 
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE
Before calling on me, a patient telephoned for an appointment and
also wished to be informed about my consultation fee.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

            Miss X. spoke very warmly of Mr. Y., which was rather strange,
(j) 
as before this, she had always expressed her indifference, not to say her
contempt, for him.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I would not risk making this assertion as general as
MISTAKES IN SPEECH
*
47
PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE48
does Meringer, using the term “nobody.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                 To my appeal
that he should tell the truth ‘for science’ sake,’ he said, ‘Unless you wish
me to lie, you must believe that I was never married, and hence, your
psychoanalytic interpretation is all wrong.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

But she is hampered by her vow.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     But lest you should not understand me well
(And yet a maiden hath no tongue but thought),
I would detain you here some month or two,
Before you venture for me.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                       MISTAKES IN SPEECH 
*
53
54 PSYCHOPATHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE
motives, decided upon a short trip to Budapest, justified herself by say-
ing that she was going for only three days, but she blundered and said
for only three weeks.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                     She betrayed her secret feeling that, to spite me,
she preferred spending three weeks to three days in that society which
I considered unfit for her.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I was corrected: “You meant to say before ten o’dock.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                   Unfortunately, the speech-blunder spoiled the in-
tent and laid bare my dishonesty, in which I acknowledged more than
there really was to confess.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                              Thereupon, I had immediately
plunged into the text in order to find out whether he was also aware that
the scene where Odysseus appears before Nauskaä was based upon the
common dream of nakedness.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

In most cases, all the letters of my
name had to be close together before I could commit such an error.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

               A few days before, I had returned fresh from my vacation and
felt ready for any amount of professional work, but as yet, there were few
patients.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                     There must have been a
false ring to the words in which I expressed my sympathy, as my wife
grew suspicious, asked to see the letter and expressed her opinion that it
could not read as stated by me, because no one calls the wife by the
husband’s name.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                        The
motive for this falsifying was not that the woman was less an object of my
sympathy than the man, but the fate of this poor man had excited my
fears regarding another and nearer person who, I was aware, had the
same disease.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                      Whenever I imagined that I saw my name, the word
that induced this illusion usually showed a greater resemblance to my
name than the word bloodcorpuscles.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                  Thus we may listen to two persons ex-
changing reminiscences concerning the same outward impressions, say of
a journey that they have taken together some time before.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                      I wish further to remark that I am
generally not inclined to forgetfulness (of things experienced, not of
things learned), and that for a short period of my youth, I was able to
perform extraordinary feats of memory.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                           When I was a schoolboy, it was
quite natural for me to be able to repeat from memory the page of a book
which I had read; and shortly before I entered the University, I could
write down practically verbatim the popular lectures on scientific sub-
jects directly after hearing them.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    Since those days, I have steadily lost control over my memory; of late,
S~owever, I became convinced that with the aid of a certain artifice I can
recall far more than I would otherwise credit myself with remembering.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

           When I offered my services, the image of an establishment in the
heart of the city where I was sure I had seen such safes floated before me
with extraordinary visual vividness.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                           Similarly, in the case of
Burckhard mentioned above, the grudge against the one brought about
the error in writing the name of the other.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I was
also aware thai.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                       01
the numerous examples of denials of unpleasant recollection which I have
observed in kinsmen of patients, one remains in my memory as especially
singular.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

  When, a year and a quarter later, this work lay before me in print, my
patient maintained that he remembered with certainty having read some-
where, perhaps in a bookseller’s advertisement, the announcement of the
same book, even before I first mentioned it to him.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                  No notice
of this work had appeared anywhere before its publication, certainly not a
year and a quarter before it went into print.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                   Even if
he should grasp the above cited psychologic explanation, and should wish
to excuse his forgetting on the plea of important business, he would only
elicit the answer from the lady—as keen-sighted as the physician in the
turbances did not occur before!”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Some weeks before, she had re-
ceived an important letter calling for a categorical answer.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                  Bergmann,
the publisher, had sent me the proof sheets and asked for a speedy returti
of the same as he wished to issue the pamphlet before Christmas.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

agreed with him, and finally asked: “If I had come to yoa before, would
you have objected to the publication?” “No; under no circumstances,”
he answered.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

It is strange enough that it
is still necessary to push before consciousness such well-known facts.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Besides, I carry the
first in my trouser pocket and the other in my vest pocket.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                            Yet it often
happened that I noticed, on reaching the door, that while ascending the
‘Jones, bc.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

stairs, I had taken out the wrong key.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

But what was the meaning of this abusive language? We must here in-
quire into the situation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       The mistake in grasping the tuning-fork instead of the hammer could
therefore be translated into the following words: “You fool, you ass, get
yourself together this time, and be careful not to diagnose again a case
of hysteria where there is an incurable disease, as you did in this place
years ago in the case of that poor man!”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

it is not difficult to find the explanation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Those who saw the patient
after me had no difficulty in recognizing the organic affection.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

We observe that this time it is the voice of self-criticism which makes
itself perceptible through the mistake in grasping.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   In both characteristics, the force as well as the sure aim, they show be-
sides a resemblance to the motor manifestations of the hysterical neurosis,
and in part also to the motor accomplishments of somnambulism, which
here as well as there, point to the same unfamiliar modification of the
functions of innervation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

So much is this true that onlookers have expressed fear lest I topple
down something and shatter it.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I
accompanied my sister out and did not return for several hours.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

But the abuse is not yet justified.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                    At that time, I diag-
nosed his malady as hysteria, and later put him under psychic treatment;
but it afterward turned out that my diagnosis was neither incorrect nor
correct.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                    Several days before,
a woman mediator of a different sort had inquired of a relative whether
the gracious young lady wished to make the acquaintance of a certain
SYMPTOMATIC AND CHANCE ACTIONS
gentleman, and that morning, some hours before the woman’s visit, the
wooing letter of th’~ suitor arrived, giving occasion for much mirth.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

  One day, it struck me that he was rolling something between the fingers
of his right hand; he would thrust it into his pocket and there continue
playing with it, then would draw it out again, and so on.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                I told him, “No, that belonged to Greek
history,” and related the following: “King Tarquinius Superbus had in-
duced his’son Sextus to steal into a Latin city.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

He therefore understood me, and showed that he was also un-
derstood by me.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                      The suspicious spot was thus explained
in this harmless way; but as his mother left us alone, I thanked him for
having so greatly facilitated the diagnosis for me, and without further
procedure, I took as the topic of our discussion his confession that he was
suffering from the effects of masturbation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I finally took hi~i for psycho-
‘The term “medical questions” is a common periphrasis for “sexual” questions.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         The symptomatic actions which we observe in inexhaustible abundance
*
103
104SYCHOPATHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE
in healthy as well as in nervous people are worthy of our interest far more
than one reason.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

As he came towards me, I was attracted by a large stain on his trousers,
which by its peculiar stiff edges, I recognized as one produced by albumen.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

He who observes his fellow-men while at table will be able to verify in
them the nicest and most instructive symptomatic actions.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                  Dr. Hans Sachs relates the following:
“I happened to be present when an elderly couple related to me partook
of their supper.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                              More accurately stated: the
error conceals a falsehood, a disfigurement which is ultimately based on
repressed material.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          I asked various railway employees, was sent from one platform
to another, got into an exaggerated state of despair, and could easily
1 Loc.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                             Only for the most select and most
balanced minds does it seem possible to guard the perceived picture of
external reality against the distortion to which it is otherwise subjected in
its transit through the psychic individuality of the one perceiving it.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

That is, to the question whether I wished to retire,
I had expressed the wish to work 24 years more.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

But as I positively knew it before, I assumed that I wished to
forget this number.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Brifi relates: “While working on the English edition of this book, I wa~
obsessed one morning with the strange word ‘Cardillac.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

‘Cardilac’ was constantly in my
mind.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                    In spite of the substantial advances
In mental work, the specialist was almost helpless when confronted with
the average case of insanity.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The word Cadillac re.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

f. Psycboanaiyse, L 12
2”Unconscious Manipulation of Numbers” (ibid.,
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                            This day, it
happened that the driver did not stop in front of her house, but before
one of the same number in a nearby and really similar-looking parallel
street.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     The case would have been entirely different had I come on foot and,
“absorbed in thought” or “through distraction,” I had gone to the house
in the parallel street instead of the correct one.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                             We venture to explain in this way the myths of
paradise and the fall of man, of God, of good and evil, of immortality and
the like—that is, to transform metaphysics into meta-psychology.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                        When human beings began to think,
they were obviously compelled to explain the outer world in an anthropo-
morphic sense by a multitude of personalities in their own image; the
accidents which they explained superstitiously were thus actions and ex-
pressions of persons.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                              But if he withdrew from an undertaking be-
cause he had stumbled on his threshold (un Romain retournerait), he was
absolutely superior even to us unbelievers.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                     How
can you otherwise explain this strange phenomenon?’ I had to admit that
I could offer no solution.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Ibelieve that it is wrong to designate the feeling of having experienced
something before as an illusion.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                           A woman of thirty-
seven years asserted that she most distinctly remembered that at the age
of twelve and a half, she paid her first visit to some school friends in the
country, and as she entered the garden, she immediately had the feeling
of having been there before.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

              The woman who related this sought no psychologic explanation,
but saw in the appearance of this feeling a prophetic reference to the im-
portance which these friends later assumed in her emotional life.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

On tak..
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

It really produces nothing except a manifestation of
its presence.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

THE INTERPRETATION
~‘Flectere si nequeo Superos, Acheronta movebo.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                           In both cases there must be concen-
trated attention, but the reflective man makes use of his critical faculties,
with the result that he rejects some of the thoughts which rise into eon-
sciousness after he has become aware of them, and abruptly interrupts
others, so that he does not follow the lines of thought which they would
otherwise open up for him; while in respect of yet other thoughts he is
able to behave in such a manner that they do not become conscious at all
—that is to say, they are suppressed before they are perceived.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                            As will be seen, the point is to
induce a psychic state which is in some degree analogous, as regards the
distribution of psychic energy (mobile attention), to the state of the mind
before falling asleep—and also, of course, to the hypnotic state.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                        At
that time I was not yet quite sure of the criteria which denote the final
cure of an hysterical case, and I expected her to accept a solution which
did not seem acceptable to her.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I think that after all I must be overlooking some organic affection.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                    The
incident in the dream reminds me of an examination, made some time
before, of a governess who at first produced an impression of youthful
beauty, but who, upon opening her mouth, took certain measures to con-
ceal her denture.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
THE METHOD OF DREAM-INTERPRETATION
able, since she is extremely reserved.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Only a moment before this we did not
yet know of the infection, since it was first demonstrated by Leopold.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

        I had recommended the remedy for internal use only during the
THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
THE METHOD OF DREAM-INTERPRETATION
withdrawal of morphia; but he immediately gave himself injections of
cocaine.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

propionic acid.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                    But in another sense it proved
correct, for the “unsolved” stomach pains, for which I did not want to be blamed,
were the forerunners of a serious illness, due to gall-stones.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   If other persons who aretroubled by thirst at night awake without dreaming before-
hand, this does not constitute an objection to my experiment, but characterizes them
as persons who sleep less soundly.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

But he overlooks the universal character of the reaction of the dream to the stimulus.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
I
either’; that’s why I threw it away.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Before the excursion I had told the children that Hallstatt lay at the
foot of the Dachstein.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Cf.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I see before me his face, somewhat altered.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                  I stifi feel disquleted
by the ease with which I have degraded two respected colleagues In order
to clear my own way to the professorship.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    The detailed correspondence between the phenomena of censorship and
the phenomena of dream-distortion justifies us in presupposing similar
conditions for both.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                      patient’s husband, an honest and capable meat sales-
man, had told her the day before that he was growing too fat, and that he
meant to undergo treatment for obesity.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                            After a short pause, which corresponds to the
overcoming of a resistance, she reports that the day before she had paid
a visit to a friend of whom she is really jealous because her husband is
always praising this lady so highly.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Yet another dream of a more gloomy character was offered me by a
female patient in contradiction of my theory of the wish-dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                               This was on the day before the dream;
and the concert was to be given on the day on which she told me the
dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

  You would spend the day with your sister; the Professor would certainly
come to offer his condolences, and you would see him once more under the
same circumstances as before.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                         In
the course of a longer dream, it seemed to this lady that she saw her fif-
teen-year-old daughter lying dead before her in a box.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                               Like so many other young women,
she was by no means happy on finding that she was pregnant, and she had
confesseä to me more than once the wish that her child might die before
its birth; in a fit of anger, following a violent scene with her husband, she
had even struck her abdomen with her fists, in order to injure the child
within.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I ask only for time in which to arrange my affairs.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

When we awoke in the morning, sox~iething again
passed between us.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                This question is probably not of the first importance, but I
am inclined to decide in favour of the exclusive priority of the day before
the dream (the dream-day).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                      Whenever I thought I had found a case
where an impression two or three days old was the source of the dream, I
was able to convince myself after careful investigation that this impres-
sion had been remembered the day before; that is, that a demonstrable
reproduction on the day before had been interpolated between the day of
the event and the time of the dream; and further, I was able to point to
the recent occasion which might have given rise to the recollection of the
older impression.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                       A few months later he actually
found the name Zaraus; it was that of a railway-station between San
Sebastian and Bilbao, through which he had passed in the train eight
months (250 days) before the date of the dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

 Thus the impressions of the immediate past (with the exception of the
day before the night of the dream) stands in the same relation to the
dream-content as those of periods indefinitely remote.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The book lies before me;
I am just turning over a folded coloured plate.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I see the monograph which I have written lying before me.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          I see it lying before me,
THE IN~~ERPRETATION OF DREAMS
THE MATERIAL AND SOURCES OF DREAMS
completed, and I turn the pages.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

My friend wrote to me yesterday from Berlin: “I
am 
thinking 
a great deal about your dream-book.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                               But what is the meaning of her
dreaming it? She says of the piano that it is a disgusting old box which has
a bad tone; it belonged to her husband before they were married,2 etc.,
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Here, too, there is an actual occasion for the dream; the day before she
had actually put a candle into a candlestick; but this one was not broken.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                  The proof that we are dealing with impressions of our
childhood must thus be adduced objectively, and only in rare instances
THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
B. 
V
INFANTILE EXPERIENCES AS
THE SOURCE OF DREAMS
do the conditions favour such proof.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

            Is it possible that my thirst for greatness has originated from
this source? But here I recollect an impression from the later years òf my
childhood, which might serve even better as an explanation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I can still distinctly
remember the impression produced by this second prophecy.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                     The view that ap-
peared in the dream was modelled after a well-known engraving which I
had casually noticed the day before in the drawing-room of one of my
patients.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The city which I thus saw in the mist is Lübeck; the original
of the hill is the Gleichenberg.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                          I contrasted this situation,
which did not please me, with another, more in harmony with my senti-
ments—the scene in which Hannibal’s father, Hamilcar Barcas, made his
son swear before the household altar to take vengeance on the Romans.1
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

This explanation is furnished by another
and earlier memory of my childhood.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                        I. 
THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
After I have been travelling, and have gone to bed hungry and tired,
the prime necessities of life begin to assert their claims in sleep, and I
dream as follows: I go into a kitchen in order to ask for some pudding.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                I really do not envy him;
be now has a difficult audience with the Emperor before him, and it is I
who am the real Count-Do-Nothing, for I am going off for a holiday.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                    He pretends to be blind, at least in one
eye, and I hold before him a male glass urinal (which we have to buy in the
city, or have bought).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                      The personality of the
housekeeper is an ungrateful allusion to a witty old lady, which ill repays
her for the good times and the many good stories which I have enjoyed in
her house.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                        One evening, before going to bed,
I had disregarded the dictates of discretion, and had satisfied my needs
in my parents’ bedroom, and in their presence.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         The elderly man, obviously my father, for the blindness in one
eye signifies his one-sided glaucoma,1 is now urinating before me as I
once urinated before him.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         As a matter of fact, I cannot ride; I do not dream of doing
so; I never sat on a horse but once-and then without a saddle-and I
did not like it.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                And when, as in the case
reported by Gamier, the First Consul incorporates the sound of an ex-
ploding infernal machine into a dream of battle before it causes him to
wake, the true purpose for which alone psychic activity concerns itself
with sensations during sleep is revealed with unusual darity.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                         Not
that it is êapable of supplying the dream-content; but it forces the dream-
thoughts to make a choice from the material destined to serve the purpose
of representation in the dream-content, inasmuch as it brings within easy
reach that part of the material which is adapted to its own character, and
holds the rest at a distance.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                            On the day
before the dream the housekeeper’s attitude was reinforced by that of
the maid.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       I had just finished my usual hurried visit to the patient when
the servant confronted me in the ante-room, observing: “You might as
well have wiped your shoes to-day, doctor, before you came into the room.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The persons before whom one is ashamed are almost always strangers,
whose faces remain indeterminate.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                (a) The Embarrassment-Dream of Nakedness
In a dream in which one is naked or scantily dad in the presence of
strangers, it sometimes happens that one is not in the least ashamed of
one’s condition.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       it is only in this connection that the dream is typical; otherwise
the nucleus of its content may be involved in all sorts of other connec-
tions, or may be replaced by individual amplifications.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       This age of childhood, in which the sense of shame is unknown, seems
a paradise when we look back upon it later, and paradise itself is nothing
but the mass-phantasy of the childhood of the individual.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                     The elder child ifi-treated the younger,
slandered him, and robbed him of his toys; the younger was consumed
with helpless fury against the elder, envied and feared him, or his earliest
impulse toward liberty and his first revolt against injustice were directed
against his oppressor.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Forschungen, Bd.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

1V, 1912—18.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

“Wouldn’t it be enough if
she went away?” “No,” replied the child, “then she would come back again.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                 His fate moves us only because it might
have been our own, because the oracle laid upon us before our birth the
very curse which rested upon him.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                            Just as Hamlet treats of the
relation of the son to his parents, so Macbeth, which was written about
the same period, is based upon the theme of childlessness.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                For Professor R. has
gone his way independently, outside academic circles, just as I myself
have done, and has only in his later years received the title which he had
1~While Dr. Ernest Jones was delivering a lecture before an American scientific so-
ciety, and was speaking of egoism in dreams, a learned lady took exception to this
unscientific generalization.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

In justice to this lady with her national pride it may, however, be remarked that
the dogma: “the dream is wholly egoistic” must not be misunderstood.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         For a further explanation of examination-dreams I have to thank a re-
mark made by a colleague who had studied this subject, who once stated,
in the course of a scientific discussion, that in his experience the examina-
tion-dream occurred only to persons who had passed the examination,
never to those who had flunked.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                              But the anxiety
which we attribute to the dream really has its origin in the residues of the
dream-day.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      For instance, I have before me a picture-puzzle (rebus)—a house,
upon whose roof there is a boat; then a single letter; then a running
figure, whose head has been omitted, and so on.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The book lies before me.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     The difficulty dreamed of, and probably experienced during the dream
—difficulty in climbing, accompanied by dyspnoea—was one of the symp-
toms which the patient had actually exhibited some years before, and
which, in conjunction with other symptoms, was at the time attributed to
tuberculosis (probably hysterically simulated).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

              In the latter city, a year before my dream, I had visited a
friend who was seriously ill, and the reference to him in trimethylamin,
which follows closely upon propyls, is unmistakable.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                  THE DREAM-WORK
*
301
302THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
~as children are fond of inverting names) gives Aloz.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Before the art of painting arrived at an understanding of the laws of ex-
pression by which it is bound, it attempted to make up for this deficiency.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   During the night before the funeral of my father I dreamed of a printed
placard, a card or poster rather like the notices in the waiting-rooms of
railway stations which announce that smoking is prohibited.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                              A certain number of cases of what may be
summed up under the word “contrast” obtain representation, as we have
seen, simply by means of identification—that is, when an exchange, a
substitution, can be bound up with the contrast.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                 Anyone who forgets this
technical device of dream-distortion stands helpless before the problem
of dream-interpretation.1
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    If we should seek to trace the relations between the dream-content and
the dream-thoughts a little farther, we shall do this best by making the
dream itself our point of departure, and asking ourselves: What do cer-
tain formal characteristics of the dream-presentation signify in relation
to the dream-thoughts? First and foremost among the formal character-
istics which are bound to impress us in dreams are the differences in the
sensory intensity of the single dream-images, and in the distinctness of
various parts of the dream, or of whole dreams as compared with one an-
other.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

“Lunatic-tower” is
perhaps the expression in which the two thoughts might have met.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       When one has familiarized oneself with the extensive employment of
symbolism for the representation of sexual material in dreams, one natu-
rally asks oneself whether many of these symbols have not a perma-
nently established meaning, like the signs in shorthand; and one even
thinks of attempting to compile a new dream-book on the lines of the
cipher method.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

She feared, as may be imagined, that the landlady suspected her, and had proposed,
on the day before the dream, that they should meet in one of the unoccupied rooms.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The hat symbol was familiar to me long before the patient related this
dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                     Her
mother fetched her away, and before her departure the physician came
to the railway station and gave her a bunch of flowers; she felt uncom-
fortable because her mother witnessed this attention.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

             The nursemaid is driving her, with her brother, eleven months
younger, and a cousin, who is between the two in age, to the lavatory, so
that they can do their little business there before going for their walk.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS
Dream of a Chemist.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                feels sure that even the first dream contains a reference
to the lady whom he is to meet at the place of rendezvous (the dream was
dreamed during the night before the expected meeting).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     For example: dreams of passing through narrow alleys, or a whole suite
of rooms; dreams of burglars, in respect of whom nervous people take
measures of precaution before going to bed; dreams of being chased by
wild animals (bulls, horses); or of being threatened with knives, daggers,
and lances.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                         For example, who, before it had
been interpreted, would have suspected a sexual wish in the following
dream? The dreamer relates: Between two stately palaces there stands, a
little way back, a small house, whose doors are closed.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                               Typical example of a disguised Oedipus dream:—
A man dreams: He has a secret affair with a woman whom another man wishes to
marry.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

facts of the dreamer’s life touch the dream-content only
at one point.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                There is, how-
ever, in reality, yet another factor, the mention of which was avoided in the
dream, and which alone gives the key to it.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                         They contain
the explanation of the curious dread, felt by so many people, of being buried alive,
as well as the profoundest unconscious reason for the belief in a life after death,
which represents only the projection into the ‘future of this mysterious life before
birth.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     Robbers, burglars, and ghosts, of which we are afraid before going to
bed, and which sometimes even disturb our sleep, originate in one and the
same childish reminiscence.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   Before I proceed to assign to its proper place the fourth of the factors
which control the formation of dreams, I shall cite a few examples from
my collection of dreams, partly for the purpose of illustrating the co-
operation of the three factozs with which we are already acquainted, and
partly for the purpose of adducing evidence for certain unsupported asser-
tions which have been made, or of bringing out what necessarily follows
from them.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                        They
often used to make me wear such a hat at table, so that I shouldn’t be able
to look at the plates of the other children and see how much they had re-
ceived of any particular dish.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I
shall therefore give a few examples of this kind from my collection.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                        This fragment of the dream was intelligible
without further explanation owing to my knowledge of the dreamer’s
circumstances.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                             The numerals, which in the
dream-thoughts refer to periods of time, are given money values in the
dream, and simultaneously a deeper meaning finds expression—for “time
is money.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

What overwhelmed me was the terrible gaze of his blue eyes,
before which I melted away—as P. does in the dream, for P. has ex..
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                     The dreamer had commissioned a sculptor to make a
bust of his father, and he had inspected the bust two days before the
dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                               On the very
day before the dream the son had sent an old family servant to the studio
in order to see whether he, too, would pass the same judgment upon the
marble bust—namely, that it was too narrow between the temples.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

He could not help feeling a superstitious foreboding, for on the day before
his mother’š death the negative of her portrait had been cracked.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

To stand after one’s death
before.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                         This
indifference, of course, is not real, but wished; its purpose is to help the
dreamer to deny his very intense and often contradictory emotional atti-
tudes, and so it becomes the dream-representation of his ambivalence.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The reason for this may be
‘Cf.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                    “The coachman does it
At the master’s behests;
(Vorfahren)
When I saw Count Thun drive up (vorfahren) in state, and fell into the
Figaro-like mood, in which one finds that the sole merit of such aristo-
cratic gentlemen is that they have taken the trouble to be born (to be-
come Nachkommen), these two riddles became intermediary thoughts
for the dream-work.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                          The dream recalls
to me his own statement that in his youth he had at one time formed the
habit of intoxicating himself with chloroform, with the result that he had
to enter a sanatorium; and also my second experience with him, shortly
before his death.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                The next sentence, to the
effect that my father remembers that he was once drunk, and was locked
up in consequence, contains nothing that really relates to my father any
more.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       Shortly before the dream I had heard that a co-religionist had been
forced to resign a position, which he had secured with great effort, in a
Statç asylum.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

it is satis-
faction concerning the fact that I have had children by my marriage.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                    I had to wait for a year before I could
fulfill my intention of using this name if the next child should be a sonb
and with great satisfaction I greeted him by this name as soon as he was
born.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                 Compare with this the
allusion Stuhlrichter (presiding judge) and the wish of the dream: to
stand before ne’s children great and undefiled.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

(Cf.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                     My polite greeting was not returned,
and although they were sitting side by side (with their backs to the en-
gine), the woman before my eyes hastened to preempt the seat oppo.-
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

  A shrewd remark of Stricker’s called our attention to the fact that the
expressions of affects in dreams cannot be disposed of in the contemptu-
ous fashion in which we are wont to shake off the dream-content after we
have waked.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The night before its father was
to return to the front the child cried out, sobbing violently: “Papa, Papa—Baby.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                  “Fort” (= away, replaced by a peculiarly accented,
long-drawn-out oooob) had been his first word, and for many months before this
first dream be had played at “away” with all his toys; which went back to his early
self-conquest in allowing his mother to go away.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                      A short but enjoyable
Easter trip to Aquileia with my brother, a few weeks before the dream,
was still fresh in my memory; also the naval war between America and
Spain, and, associated with this my anxiety as to the fate of my relatives
in America, play a part in the dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                         In one place an affect that would be expected is
lacking: it is expressly emphasized that the death of the governor makes
no impression upon me; at another point, when I see the warships, I am
frightened, and experience all the sensations of fright in my sleep.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                            The dream which
results from this sounds indifferent; I have writtén a monograph; it is
lying before me; it is provided with coloured plates, and dried plants are
to be found in each copy.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          However much it digusts me, it is a souvenir of the beautiful land
of Italy, where in the small cities, as everyone knows, the privies are not
equipped in any other way.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                         In this way, too, Gargantua,
the superman of Master Rabelais, takes vengeance upon the Parisians,
straddling Notre-Dame and training his stream of urine upon the city.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                       I was
tired; I took not theleast pleasure in my difficult work, and longed to get
away from this rummaging in human filth; first to see my children, and
then to revisit the beauties of Italy.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The old gentleman, who suffers from arterio-
sclerosis, had good reason to think of death on the day before the dream.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

             This mournful thought may have associated itself with a fail-
tire to effect sexual intercourse, which he had attempted shortly before
this, and in which the assistance of his wife en négligé was of no avail;
he realized that he was already on the dedine.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      We come to blows; Might comes before Right; and, according to the
indications of the dream, I must have known that I was in the wrong
(noticing the error myself); but this time I am the stronger, and take
possession of the battlefield; the defeated combatant hurries to my
father, his grandfather, and accuses me, and I defend myself with the
words, which I have heard from my father: “I hit him because he hit me.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Some time before this,
after long waiting, a little daughter was born to my friend.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                 If we analyse them, we are convinced that the secondary
elaboration has handled the material with the greatest freedom, and has
retained as little as possible of its proper relations.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                     These are the dreams
which have, so to speak, already been once interpreted before we subject
them to waking interpretation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

But the phantasy prepared so long ago need not be experienced again
in sleep; it is enough that it should be, so to speak, “touched off.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

this is hardly probable.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

gather things up, put them in order
—any order will do-before he enters to take possession.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          Owing to my somnolence I do not succeed in holding on to both
trains of thought, which would have been necessary for the purposes of
comparison.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

But before we turn our attention to this new path of investigation, let
us stop and look back, and consider whether we have not overlooked
something important on our way hither.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                        Do I think that this asso-
dation has anything to do with the dream? I certainly do; it really furnishes the
solution of this enigmatical dream-element.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

         Among all the observations relating to the theory of dreams to be found
in the literature of the subject, I should like to lay stress upon one as being
particularly worthy of mention.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                          The mechanism of
dream-formation becomes indeed in every way more transparent if in
place of the antithesis “conscious” and “unconscious,” we put the antith-
esis: “ego” and “repressed.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

But when the dream-process becomes a percep-
tion-content, it has, so to speak, eluded the obstacle set up in the Pcs.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                   For consciousness, which
for us means a sense-organ for the apprehension of psychic qualities, can
be excited in waking life from two sources: firstly, from the periphery of
the whole apparatus, the perceptive system; and secondly, from the ex-
citations of pleasure and pain which emerge as the sole psychic qualities
yielded by the transpositions of energy in the interior of the apparatus.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

It is then at once broken
off, and replaced by complete awakening.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

has rejected and suppressed
it.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                               My mother’s expression
in the dream was copied from the countenance of my grandfather, whom
I had seen a few days before his death snoring in a state of coma.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

the devil in Tartini’s sonata-
dream).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

On hearing this, my colleague in consultation looked at me; the
trouble was quite obvious to him.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                   To both of us it seemed peculiar that
this suggested nothing to the patient’s mother, though she herself must
repeatedly have been in the situation described by her child.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                           If we had before us the unconscious
wishes, brought to their final and truest expression, we should still do well
to remember that psychic reality is a special form of existence which must
not be confounded with material reality.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                   Actions,
above all, deserve to be placed in the front rank; for many impulses which
penetrate into consciousness are neutralized by real forces in the psychic
life before they find issue in action; indeed, the reason why they fre-
quently do not encounter any psychic obstacle on their path is because
the unconscious is certain of their meeting with resistances later.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                   The characteristics of
the inversion in any individual may date back as far as his memory goes,
or they may become manifest to him at a definite period before or after
puberty.8
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The Psychic Participation in the PerversioM.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

We have, furthermore, remarked that some of the examined perver-
4ons can be comprehended only by assuming a union of many motives.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       THE SEXUAL INSTINCT OF NEUROTICS
*
54’
542 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF SEX
from the sexual instinct.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                      On the other hand we must assume, or we may convince ourselves
through psychological observations on others, that the very impressions
which we have forgotten have nevertheless left the deepest traces in our
before the age of puberty have been in connection with degenerative manifestations,
and these were referred to as signs of degeneration.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                       Cruelty is intimately related to the childish char-
acter, since the inhibition which restrains the mastery impulse before il
causes pain to others-that is, the capacity for sympathy—develops corn.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   The cruelty component of the sexual instinct develops in the child with
still greater independence of those sexual activities which are connecte3
with erogenous zones.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                 About the same time as the sexual life of the child reaches
its first rich development, from the age of three to the age of five, there
appear the beginnings of that activity which are ascribed to the impulse
for knowledge and investigation.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                       As another character-
istic belonging to it, we can mention the fact that the contrasting pair of
impulses are developed in almost the same manner, a situation which was
happily designated by Bleuler by the term ambivalence.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                 The last
part but one, of this act is again a suitable excitation of an erogenous
zone; i.e., the genital zone proper of the glans penis is excited by the
object most fit for it, the mucous membrane of the vagina, and through
the pleasure furnished by this eicitation, it now produces reflexly the
motor energy which conveys to the surface the sexual substance.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                  This last
pleasure is highest in intensity and differs from the earliest ones in Its
mechanism.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                       To be sure, I attach no value to this special assump-
tion and I shall be quite ready to give it up in favor of another, provided
its original character, i.e., the emphasis on the sexual chemism, were pre-
served.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                   The sexual instinct later regularly becomes autoerotic,
and only after overcoming the latency period is the original relation re-
established.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      The child behaves here like the adult; that is, he changes his libido
into fear when he cannot bring it to gratification, and the grown-up who
becomes neurotic on account of ungratified libido behaves in his anxiety
like a child; he fears when he is alone, i.e., when he is without a person
of whose love he feels sure, who can calm his fears by means of the most
childish measures.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                    Both conceptions are united in the assumption that the
sexual instinct of the adult, due to the composition of the diverse feel-
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF SEX
SUMMARY
THE TRANSFORMATION OF PUBERTY
ings of the infantile life, is formed into one unit, one striving, with
one single aim.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

             We have then been compelled to affirm as one of the most striking
discoveries, that this early flowering of the infantile sexual life (from the
second to the fifth year) also brings to maturity an object choice with all
its rich psychic activities.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

            It seems to be established phylogenetically in what sequence
the individual impulsive feelings become activated, and how long they
can manifest themselves before they succumb to the influence of a newly
appearing active impulse or to a typical repression.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

In the speech of Hirsch-Hyacinth, we have before us a definite form of
thought expressed which seems to us especially peculiar and not very
readily comprehensible.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                            The briefest reduction of the meaning by
which one could replace this joke would be: The man has had a great
future before him, but that is now past.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                         Instead of “has had” and the
appended afterthought, there is small change in the main sentence in
which “before” is replaced by its opposite “behind.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                                ~
‘This same witticism was supposed to have been coined before by Heine concerning
Alfred de Musset.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                      If, e.g., I substitute the name Racine for it, I find
that although the lady’s criticism is just as feasible as before, it imme-
diately loses every trace of wit.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

           As we have remarked before, it is not difficult to unite the
second and third groups, for the double meaning, the play on words, is
nothing but the ideal case of utilizing the same material.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

It seems to be all
matter of economy.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The opportunity now presents itself for making a not unimportant
confession.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

        One cannot help being reminded by these examples of a group, treated
of before, which is characterized by the “manifold application of the saine
material.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

“I had beans the day before yesterday.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

We are immediately reminded that we have encountered the process
of allusion before.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                            Long before the reader can suspect
this application, a certain theme, which hardly lends itself to direct repre-
sentation, is preluded by allusions of the most varied material possible;
e.g., in Hirsch-Hyacinth’s twisting of words: “You are too corpulent and
I am too lean; you have too much imagination and I as much more busi~
ness acumen; I am a practicus and you are a dkrrheticus, in fine, ‘You
are altogether my Antipodex’—’Venus Urinia,’ etc.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

said the Jew, and put his
feet back on the seat before he answered.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          The feeling which usually tells me—and I dare say a great many
others under the same conditions—this is a joke, this may be written
down as witty before even the hidden and essential character of the wit
has been uncovered—this feeling I lack most in witty comparisons.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                             In Nestroy’s
farce “Einen Jux will er sich machen,” the clerk, Weinberl, who resolves
in his imagination how he will ponder over his youth when he has some
day become a well-established merchant, says: “When in the course of
confidential conversation, the ice is chopped up before the warehouse of
memory, when the portal of the storehouse of antiquity is unlocked
again, and when the tnattings of phantasy are stocked full with wares of
yore.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                    Considering the inti-
mate connection which we had to be prepared to ascribe to the different
qualities of wit, it would have been imprudent to expect, that we could
fully explain one aspect of the problem before we had cast a glance over
the others.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                              When we hear that “experience
consists simply of experiencing what one wishes he had not experienced,’
we are puzzled, and believe that we have learnt a new truth; it takes some
time before we recognize in this disguise the platitude, “adversity is the
school of wisdom.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

This time we shall not investigate the technique of this witticism, but
shall center our attention upon another, and most important factor.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   About wit, however, I can assert, on the strength of the two impressions
gained before, that it is an activity whose purpose is to derive pleasure—
be it intellectual or otherwise—from the psychic processes.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     But before we proceed to solve the riddle of how the technical means of
wit-work can produce pleasure in the hearer, we wish to mention that,
for the sake of simplicity afid more lucidity, we have altogether put aside
all tendency witticisms.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                    Through
the obscene speech of the first person the woman is exposed before the
THE TENDENCIES OF WIT
*
663
664 WIT AND ITS RELATION TO THE UNCONSCIOUS
third person, who now as a listener is bribed by the easy gratification of
his own libido.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The so-called creature makes himself known as the
Creator only a short time before his extinction.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

So far, the mechanism of the develop-
ment of pleasure would seem to be identical in both cases.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

        On reviewing again the wit-technique dassified under three headings,
we notice that the first and last of these groups—the replacement of
object-association by word-association, and the use of absurdity as a
restorer of old liberties and as a relief from the pressure of intellectual
upbringing—can be taken collectively.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

During this process he experiences pleas..
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    Wishing to enroll a student named Warr in his class, he asked him his
age, and upon receiving the reply that he was thirty years of age he ex-
claimed: “Aha, so I have the honor of seeing the thirty years’ War.”1
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       A clearer case is afforded by Jewish witticisms which, as before men-
tioned, are made exdusively by Jews themselves, whereas Jewish stories
of different origin rarely rise above the level of the comical strain or of
brutal mockery.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                          I should like to
add one single contribution to the subject of the physiological explanation of laugh-
ter, that is, to the derivation or interpretation of the muscular actions that character-
ize laughter—a subject that has been often treated before and since Darwin, but
which has never been conclusively settled.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                   LAUGHTER AS A DISCHARGE
wit formation, either in the release or in the discharge, inhibitions re-
sulted.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                This also explains the desire to impart wit to others who
have not heard it before, for the impression made by wit on the new
hearer replenishes that part of the pleasure which, has been lost by the
lack of novelty.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

        The forces participating in the dream-formation may be recognized as
the following: the wish to sleep; the sum of cathexis which still clings to
the day remnants after the depression brought about by the state of sleep;
the psychic energy of the unconscious wish forming the dream; and the
opposing force of the “censorship,” which exercises its authority in our
waking state, and is not entirely abolished during sleep.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Before, however, we attempt to prove the details of this assertion, we
wish to consider an objection which may jeopardize our assumption.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                             The luterpretatio* of Dreams, Chapter VIL
THE FORMULA FOR WIT-WORK
THE RELATION OF WIT TO DREAMS
easy matter to say in opposition that we would not have described the
techniques of wit as condensation, displacement, etc.,
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

We can easily understand
that this pleasure is due to the removal of inhibitions.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

               As a matter of fact, we suspect that this mechanism which
is so completely foreign to wit is a part—perhaps the essential part—of
the psychic process of the comic.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Such an impulse to imitate cer-
tainly arises on perceiving a movement.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    Now if I perceive a similar more or less coarse motion in some one else
the surest way to the understanding—to apperception—of the same is tc
carry it out imitatively, and the comparison will then enable me to decide
in which motion I expended more energy.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       The opposite case which furnishes us the comic difference through em-
pathy, lies between the great interest which existed before the disturbance
occurred and the minimum left for his psychic activity after the disturb-
ance made its appearance.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                           I assume that a quantitatively
determined expenditure underlies our every idea of expectation, which in
case of disappointment becomes diminished by a certain difference, and
I again refer to the observations made before concerning “ideational
mimicry.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                   But within the outer limit
of the compromise activity it made no effort to satisfy the critic, and
defiantly utilizing the pleasure-sources at its disposal, it appeared before
the critic as pure nonsense.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

All these motives follow one another just as though one
did not exdude the other.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

This deflection of life towards the mechanical is here the
real cause of laughter.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          Taught by experience that every living being is different, and
demands a definite amount of expenditure from our understanding, we
find ourselves disappointed when, as a result of a perfect agreement or
deceptive imitation, we need no new expenditure.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                             To give a correct answer to this question
would amount to an exhaustive presentation of the nature of the comic
for which we are fitted neither by ability nor authority.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

67).
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

A Grandee of Spain could appear before
his royal master with his head covered.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Verlag
2 “Our heads have the right to fall covered before thee.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                          FORMS OF HUMOR
WIT AND THE VARIOUS FORMS OF THE COMIC 76g
1st, or writer succeeds in mastering humoristically the, as yet, uncon-
quered emotional feelings and in making them, through artifices similar
to those in the above example, a source of humoristic pleasure.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                            He may still visit his home to ask for food,
but if his sister is at home he must go away before he has eaten; if no
sister is about, he may sit down to eat near the door.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     If she brings him something to eat she does not give it to him herself
but puts it down before him, nor does she address him in the familiar man-
ner of mother and son, but uses the formal address.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

          He does not enter a hut in which she is and when they meet, he or
she goes aside, she perhaps hiding behind a bush while he holds his shield
before his face.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                       His incest dread de-
mands that he should not be reminded of the genealogy of his love selec-
tion; the actuality of his mother-in-law, whom he had not known all his
life like his mother so that her picture can be preserved unchanged in his
unconscious, facilitates this rejection.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                 TABOO AND 
*
II
THE AMBIVALENCE OF
EMOTIONS
z
789
790
As we are in need of an impartial presentation of the subject of taboo
before subjecting it to psychoanalytic consideration I shall now cite an
excerpt from the article Taboo in the Encyclopaedia Britannica written by
the anthropologist Northcote W. Thomas:
“Properly speaking, taboo includes only (a) the sacred (or unclean)
character of persons or things, (b) the kind of prohibition which results
from this character, and (c) the sanctity (or uncleanliness) which results
from a violation of the prohibition.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Thus, kings and chiefs are pos.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                       ‘~ 1
Similar customs are found among the Palu in Celebes; the Gallas
sacrifice to the spirits of their dead enemies before they return to their
home villages.2
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Before proceeding to the other classes of taboo customs for the treat-
ment of enemies, we must define our position in regard to a pertinent
objection.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

‘J.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     Through superstition as well as through other motives, various tenden-
cies find expression in the treatment of kings, each of which is developed
to the extreme without regard to the other.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                        Thus there came about the repression of the
unconscious hostility through projection, and the formation of the
ceremonial in which fear of punishment of demons finds expression.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                           As a matter of
fact this neurosis is regularly concerned with the prohibition of sexual
touching and psychoanalysis has quite generally shown that the motive
power which is deflected and displaced in the neurosis is of sexual origin.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

We said before that animism is a system of thought, the first complete
theory of the world; we now want to draw certain inferences through
psychoanalytic interpretation of such a system.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Fraser’s first psychological theories, formed before his acquaintance with
the observations of Spencer and Gillen, were based upon the belief in
an “outward soul.”4
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                     It is
not altogether easy to combine the two interpretations; in the first case
exogamy would have existed before totemism; in the second case it would
be a consequence of it.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     “If it be granted that exogamy existed in practice, on the lines of Mr. Darwin’s
theory, before the totem beliefs lent to the practice a sacred sanction, our task is
relatively easy.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                  When the
idea of private property came into existence sacrifice was conceived as a
gift to the deity, as a transfer from the property of man to that of the god.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

explained.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     Every tribe that practises magic for the increase of its totem, which
it cannot eat itself, is bound to eat a part of its totem at the ceremony
before it can be touched by the other tribes.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

LET us now envisage the scene of such a totem meal and let us embellish
it further with a few probable features which could not be adequately
considered before.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

They preclude a repetition of the fate
of the father.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     And a chief object of the mourners is to disclaim responsibility for the
god’s death—a point which has already come before us in connection with the-
anthropic sacrifices, such as the ‘ox-murder at Athens.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

It may be
assumed to be a fundamental phenomenon of our emotional life.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

  21 am used to being misunderstood and therefore do not think it superfluous to state
clearly that in giving these deductions I am by no means oblivious of the complex-
nature of the phenomena which give rise to them; the only claim made is that a new
factor has been added to the already known or still unrecognized origins of religion,
morality, and society, which was furnished through psychoanalytic experience.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                  Before
Breuer and I stopped collaborating, I had only just time to tell him in
one sentence that I now knew how to translate dreams.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                       As
I have held fast to the habit of first studying things themselves before
looking them up in books, I was, therefore, able to establish for myself
the symbolism of dreams before I was directed to it by the work of
Sherner.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                         It often took a long time before the test of my
assumption, that a neurosis must become comprehensible through anal-
ysis, was seen by the perplexed patient, but the dreams, which might be
regarded as analogous to the symptoms, almost regularly confirmed this
assumption.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

The “splendid iso.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

      Furthermore, I was no longer young; I saw a long road before me and I
felt oppressed by the idea that it had fallen to my lot to become a leader
in my advanced age.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                  In the saine year, the first American
local group was formed under the chairmanship of A. A. Brill under the
name of “The New York Psychoanalytic Society.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

They published writings by Freud, Rildin, Jung, Abraham,
Rank, Sadger, Pfistçr, M. Graf, Jones, Storfer and Hug-Helmuth.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I am now obliged to speak of two secessions which have taken place
among the followers of psychoanalysis.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                 While reviewing a lecture before the Vienna Society in 1911,
he said: “On the strength of a case, I wish to point out that the patient
had never repressed his libido, against which he continually tried to secure
himself.”2
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

   The secession of Adler’s faction was finished before the Congress at
Weimar which took place in 1911, while the one of the Swiss School be-
gan after this date.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                       Strangely enough, the first indications of it were
found in some remarks by Riklln in popular articles printed in Swiss
journals, from which the general public learned, even before Riklin’s
closest colleagues, that psychoanalysis had succeeded in overcoming some
regrettable mistakes, which discredited it.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                           They have traced
in detail (what Pfister did before them) how the material of ~the sexual
ideas, originating in the family complex and in incestudus object selec-
tion, can be used to represent the highest ethical and religious intèrests
of mankind—that is, they have explained a remarkable case of sublima-
tion of the erotic instinctual forces and their transformation into striv-
ings that can no longer be called erotic.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

On the other hand, if we analyze dreams which appeared before treat-
ment, or.if
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                   Jung, himself, before
he became enlightened, carried out such an analysis of a child and pub-
lished it.1
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Months in the planning, the issue went
to press before the horrific terrorist attacks on Sept. 11.
	Time October 10, 2001

There is no shame
Retribution” [SPECIAL ISSUE].
	Time October 10, 2001

        NEVER BEFORE HAVE THE COLORS OF THIS
great nation’s flag been as vibrant as they
are now, displayed by the thousands in
windows, on car antennas, on buildings,
on clothing.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                   For the
first time, we felt scared, confused and
helpless; we cried as we have never cried
before.
	Time October 10, 2001

                     for
photography of the
World Trade Center
collapse and its after-
Daily reviews of the
latest electronic
gadgets, essential
before-you-buy tech
TIME FOR KIDS covers
even the toughest
news In an age-
appropriate fashion.
	Time October 10, 2001

countries missing or dead the parent company of
people killed in the world’s 
10 worst terrorist attacks 
before Sept. 11 
7 ,000 FBI agents and
support personnel involved
in the investigation into the
terrorist attacks—the largest
FBI investigation ever
5 ,131 Air Force National
Guard members and
reservists called to active duty
$4 billion Estimated
benefits the life-insurance
industry expects to pay out
because of the attacks
$ 151,635 Federal money
given to each family of a
police officer, a fire fighter or
an EMT who died in the
Trade Center collapse
$15,000 Value of the
life-insurance policy of a
kitchen worker at
Windows on the World
44 Age of suspected
terrorist ringleader
Osama bin Laden
FOR THE RECORD
United Airlines

, Total number of
% Rise in value of shares
of handgun maker Sturm,
Ruger & Co.
	Time October 10, 2001

At a home in a bu- “Now, since we’re a family for the next few hours, I’ll ask
is a gift—and you don’t know how many more you’ll get.
	Time October 10, 2001

“Sometimes 
you need the courage ofyour doubts.”
	Time October 10, 2001

She had turned 
29 the day before the attack.
	Time October 10, 2001

That is the deep mystery of a great tragedy.
	Time October 10, 2001

We may have
lost even more people who are dear to us.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                        But
his aides say Bush turned a corner on the
Friday after the attacks, with a speech at
the Washington National Cathedral, an
impromptu rallying cry amid the rubble
at Ground Zero and—in private—two
hours comforting, and weeping with, the
families of those who have lost loved
ones.
	Time October 10, 2001

                       Relying on intelli-
gence intercepts of bin Laden’s known
associates discussing the hijackings, and
on links between some of the suicide
 should be taken against
 those so identified? The
 Administration insists
) the attacks were the
has placed on his move-
ate actions can and
work of bin Laden’s
network.
	Time October 10, 2001

                              The leading
advocate within the Administration for a
policy of “regime change” in Baghdad,
Wolfowitz has been convinced of Iraq’s
menace since long before the Gulf War.
	Time October 10, 2001

                              Bombs and
missiles, however smart, will only
crush hills into dust, and should they
fallon cities, kill a lot of innocent
people.
	Time October 10, 2001

Bush is fit; Churchiliwas whatev-
en is fitness’s opposite.
	Time October 10, 2001

Taliban is the next concentric ring, the In their misery, many Afghans came
masters of a country that has played host to blame “the great American betrayal.”
	Time October 10, 2001

        Before Omarleft Kandahar, he opened
the marble vault in the city’s most vener-
ated shrine and held up the Respectable
Cloak of the Prophet Muhammad, seen
publicly only two times previously in
more than a mifiennium.
	Time October 10, 2001

                    Fanned by 
began even before any U.S. 
and a Muslim insurgencyin 
Indian-held Kashmir, Islamic 
extremism has spread across 
Pakistan.
	Time October 10, 2001

       Omar prefers to rule from the shad- 
ows of Kandahar, while his feared Min- 
istry for the Promotion ofVirtue and Pre- 
vention of Vice enforces Taliban law 
through religious police with kohl- 
rimmed eyes, wearing black turbans, 
who crack whips at recalcitrant mosque- 
goers and banish women to the window- 
blocked confines of their homes.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                   Accord-
ing to the German Secret Service, as many
as 1,000 of bin Laden’s soldiers have in-
ifitrated Europe after completing their
training in Afghan camps.
	Time October 10, 2001

                     FBI Deputy Director Tom 
Pickard, akeyfigure in the case against the 
1993 World Trade Center bombers, and 
the bureau’s top man in New York, Barry 
Mawn, are runningthe investigation from 
Washington and two secret locations in 
Manhattan.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                Two addresses
for Flores on the bank alert match ad-
dresses on the driver’s licenses for four of
the hijackers, although they likely
never lived there.
	Time October 10, 2001

               Reported by Michael Weisskopf
and Adam Zagorin/Washington and
Bruce Crumley/Paris

I 

heday before the Worid 
LOOKING OUT FOR
NEXT TIME
Pennsylvania’s Tom Ridge has a daunting
job: keeping the nation safe from terrorism

By KAREN TUMULTY WASHINGTON 
S GOVERNOR OF THE STATE IN 
Wednesday afternoon, Ridge was rush- 
ing to catch a plane when aides told him 
that White House chief of staff Andrew 
Card was on the phone.
	Time October 10, 2001

                  Ridge agonized overnight 
and was still undecidedwhen he dropped 
by Card’s office the following afternoon, 
only hours before Bush was to address 
the nation.
	Time October 10, 2001

                          Before he can fig- 
ure out how to beat terrorism, however, 
he’ll have to take on the turf-conscious 
Cabinet Secretaries and bureaucrats ofthe 
40-plus agencies that share antiterrorism 
responsibility, as well as their patrons on 
Capitol Hifi.
	Time October 10, 2001

the Governor is enormous-
ly popular in a crucial swing state.
	Time October 10, 2001

        The Sunday before, a Muslim 
woman in Memphis was beaten on her 
way to worship.
	Time October 10, 2001

                The day before that, a 
Pakistani Muslim store owner was shot 
and killed.
	Time October 10, 2001

      True, George Bush spoke out for Mus- 
lims at a mosque and before Congress last 
week, teffing them, “We respect your faith.
	Time October 10, 2001

                        On that same 
day, the pilot of a Delta ffight in 
Texas had a Pakistani American 
removed before takeoff because 
he said his crew did not feel com- 
fortable with the man aboard.
	Time October 10, 2001

Muhammad sometimes leads his flock in
the Pledge of Allegiance before worship.
	Time October 10, 2001

                        Meanwhile, in his
dorm room, that son is plying the Web in
service of a human-rights organization,
protesting American policies regarding
Kashmir or Palestine or even Kabul—
from within the American system.
	Time October 10, 2001

         Once the initial shock and grief
wears off, people may return to shopping
as an escape from the barrage of harrow-
ing TV images.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                      At an 
art gallery in Santa Fe, N.M., a show that 
opened only three days after the tragedy 
quickly sold out.
	Time October 10, 2001

                  “I think people wanted 
something beautiful to look at amid all 
this death and destruction,” says owner 
Charlotte Jackson.
	Time October 10, 2001

That appropriation may be just the 
beginning.
	Time October 10, 2001

                             “Before we can 
even bury our dead, they’re asking for tax 
have been paraded around.”
	Time October 10, 2001

                                   Cell-phone 
companies such as Nokia and Verizon also 
benefited from the wireless industry’s 
sudden image overhaul; no longer the ob- 
jects of universal derision, cell phones are 
now seen, even by Luddlites, as essential 
tools in case of emergency.
	Time October 10, 2001

                          “This is notthe 
time to be gambling with your life say- 
ings,” says financial planner Robert 
Wacker, of San Luis Obispo, Calif., who 
like many Americans shifted more of his
portfolio—perhaps a bitlate—into the rel-
ative safety of bonds.
	Time October 10, 2001

                           Where once they
quieted raucous infants, now they must
assure passengers—those relative few
who are still flying—of the safety of air
travel.
	Time October 10, 2001

He’s out ofcontrol.”
	Time October 10, 2001

                                             “Usually after a game, Sports-
On Monday, before the first game with Center is on the clubhouse TV,” says
the Braves, Bowa gave a brief speech.
	Time October 10, 2001

       Ask the 500 or so demonstrators
who convened there a day later before
marching north to Times Square.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                   Before
Sept. 11, panicked citizens running down
a street from a collapsing building was
an action-movie cliché.
	Time October 10, 2001

       “It’s going to be a very long
time” before audiences will watch a
building blow up.
	Time October 10, 2001

 Our goal has been to describe familiar events in a fresh way, drawing
on recent scholarship and newly opened archives, and to throw a sharp
beam on neglected or unknown figures and incidents.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                              In the few months be-
tween August and December 1991, centuries of Russian rule ended in
Central Asia.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                 Six new republics, predominantly Islamic but vibrantly
distinct, are grouped around the Caspian Sea, the current landlords of
untapped oil and natural gas reserves that rival those in the Persian Gulf.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                       But he was introduced to the courtly life of India,
the etiquette of princes, and the distractions awaiting the foreign trav-
eler in India.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                       In the 1790’s,Tibet was closed
to foreigners at the insistence of China, a policy that endured for
more than a century, and which also served the interests of Buddhist
rulers in Lhasa.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                  So lively was the demand for these woven garments
that the Company years before had instructed George Bogle to bring
back a pair or two of the shawl-wool goats, which he was prevented
from doing.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                         The lake is as sacred to
Hindus, who believe it emanated from the mind of Brahma the Cre-
ator and that a great lingam or phallus once arose from its waters.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

               The old pundit was right, Hedin concluded, be-
cause the effluent was periodic, depending on the monsoon, a
possibility suggested in an unpublished note by Moorcroft.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                              Unchal-
lenged was Moorcroft’s other finding, that Rakshas Tal, Manosar-
avar’s smaller sibling, covering 140 square miles, was the source of
the main branch of one of India’s major rivers, the Sutlej.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

It was a moment worth noting.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

  This was before the advent of railroads, before the old Grand Trunk
Road was improved and new roads built, before a network of hill sta-
tions, cantonments, and frontier settlements sprang up along the way.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Before he reached the Sutlej, his medical
reputation had flown before him.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                           His hosts
could never quite believe he was only authorized to buy horses, and
assumed he possessed supernumerary powers, an impression that
Moorcroft, it would appear, did not discourage.With
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

              During his extended stay, he compiled a veritable ency-
clopedia about Ladakh, describing its annual dance dramas, its abun-
dance of “necessary houses” for the hygienic removal of night soil,
and its medicinal but delicious crops, notably rhubarb.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                     He pleaded with Moorcroft to re-
turn to Calcutta where he would be greeted as a hero, before his ru-
mored dismissal became fact.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                        He was a full-
fledged, classic Russophobe before almost any of his countrymen
had even discerned the possibility of a Russian threat to British in-
terests in Asia, let alone thought about how to respond to it.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                The pirzada interceded
successfully on behalf of the captive infidels, who after the payment
to Murad Beg of 2,000 rupees were finally able to proceed across the
Oxus to Bokl-iara,
IN FEBRUARY 1825, SURROUNDED BY A NOISILY CURIOUS CROWD,
their number halved by desertion and their supplies depleted, Moor-
croft and his companions stood before the gates of Bokhara.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                       The ruler was seated in a small throne room,
dressed drably, wore a loosely folded white turban, and frequently
consulted a large book that lay open before him.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                 In fact Russian faces
were by then so familiar in Bokhara that from the day of his arrival,
urchins flocked around Moorcroft shouting “Ooroos, Ooroos,” the cry
he first heard in Tibet thirteen years before.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                       “Before I leave
Turkestan,” he wrote to a friend, “I mean to penetrate the tract that
contains perhaps the finest horses in the world, but with which all
intercourse has been suspended during the last five years.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

have met
him before, as the political agent who championed Moorcroft.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

began yesterday giving food away in the evening.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

In reality, he had sentenced tens of thousands
to death in a pointless and dishonorable war.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

     That Ranjit Singh would be a troublesome ally became evident in
June 1838, months before the Simla Manifesto, when John Mac-
naghten left his bureaucratic warren to negotiate a treaty with the
Sikh ruler.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                           Besides,
Afghans spoke different, mutually unintelligible languages, and
though nearly all were Muslims, a Persian-speaking Shiite minority
lived uneasily alongside a Pushtun-speaking Sunm majority.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

outline of his face is Roman.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                Greeted by the Russian
general commanding that sector, Pottinger was civilly invited to par-
take of tea and kallyans (pipes), before being taken to the Persian
vizier.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                        (names not mentioned before) until a dispute
with his father caused him to enlist as a private in the Bengal Ar-
tillery and ship for India in 1821.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

After surveying the fortifications and the strategic passes of the
Lower Indus, Burnes made his way to Delhi, where he received a
“Here Comes the Messenger” .~.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

   Burnes conversed at length with a representative victim, Gregory
Pulakoff, the son of a soldier who had been kidnapped twenty years
before while asleep at a Russian outpost.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Before he learned this, Burnes spent a year trying in his dispatches
to press the case for working with and not against Dost Mohammed.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                    At one point Wade
notified Burnes that he had the “prerogative” to comment on all dis-
patches before passing them along.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

For the first time as a certainty, a flesh-and-blood Russian of-
ficer turned up at the gates of Kabul.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                           Shah Shuja, mounted on a white charger,
“dazzling,” one observer wrote, “in a coronet, jeweled girdle and
bracelet,” led the way to the throne he had lost thirty years before.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                     In Kabul, he was the
Resident’s ears and eyes, his silent partner and agile fixer, capable of
becoming a fly on the wall, or a figure in the carpet.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                A day
later, the commissariat was abandoned, a move (writes Kaye) that
“not only threatened the British with instant starvation, but made
such a lamentable exposure of our imbecility, that all [Afghans] who
had before held aloof..
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

The gun silenced, the enemy regrouped and
captured it.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

       Two days before Christmas, the Envoy, in his customary silk hat,
frock coat, and spotless linen, rode out again to the Kabul River, ac-
companied by three officers, Cohn Mackenzie, George Lawrence,
and Robert Trevor.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                               Eyre wrote in dismay that “the idea of
threading the stupendous pass before us” in the face of armed tribes
in such an irregular multitude was “frightful.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

              Emily Eden never married, and once back home published her
lithographs of The Princes and People of India, and two successful nov-
els, The Semi-Detached House and The Semi-Detached Couple; her let-
ters from India appeared in Up the Country, three years before her
death in 1869.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Good Old
Pam was to have better hours and brighter causes.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                       And in western
Turkestan, the Russians suffered an unendurable injury, the enslave-
ment of compatriots.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Along with the khans of Khiva and Khokand, he closely
tracked the progress of Russian and British arms in Asia.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

‘Khiva is subdued by Russia,’ said I. ‘Bokhara is her ally,
and Kokan not inimical, if not friendly.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

“Hip, hip, hurrah!”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                  He
took her eastward with him, and after a son was born ~n Alexandria,
set off with her permission to Bokhara and Balkh, where he said, “I
think I shall there find the Ten Tribes.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

His final lap, through the lawless Turkmen lands he had visited
years before, was the most trying.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                               In 1852,
the Tsar startled the British envoy in St. Petersburg with these words
on the Ottoman Empire: “We have on our hands a sick man—a very
The Russians Are Coming :. 133
134 .. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
sick man.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Still, the
standard British version tended to be selective and self-flattering.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                      Before leaving
India in 1856, he worried about the paucity of European officers in
what was still the East India Company army—about 40,000 Euro-
The Raj Imperiled .~
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                            Lotus flowers and bits of
goat flesh were passed from hand to hand, a cryptic phrase was whis-
pered in bazaars (“Everything has become red”), strange symbols
were scrawled on walls.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                         It was left
to the Foreign Ministry to explain to other powers that the occupa-
tion ofTashkent was “temporary” and that the Khan of Khokand still
ruled the southern part of his domain.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                        He next covered the
Carlist rising in Spain and, in a typical Bennett stunt,joined a polar ex-
pedition that attempted to fmd the elusive Northwest Passage.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                    Fittingly, he was the first American diplomat
accredited to Romania, and served as Minister and Consul Genera]
in Greece and Serbia.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                 Among the most vehement was Fyodor
Dostoyevsky, who shortly before his death in 1881 spoke out in his
final diary essay for a St. Petersburg journal, The Citizen.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Bloomsbury could hardly have been more closely interwoven
with the British Empire.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Of Curzon,
Gandhi, or the Amritsar Massacre: not a sentence.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                  In 1876,
at the request of Lord Salisbury, the Secretary of State for India, Frere
prepared a new memorandum for Lytton’s consideration.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                     Failure was preordained—the chief
minister was ill and nettlesome, Lytton’s envoy insistent on the one
condition that was nonnegotiable: the posting of British missions in-
side Afghanistan.Were
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                           It was, concludes Fraser-Tytler, “the high-
water mark of the British forward policy, the process of imperial ex-
pansion carried to its logical conclusion.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                               On
October 25, the Cabinet gathered for “one of the most remarkable
meetings” that Disraeli could recall, as he wrote to the Queen.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                 If he were left at Cabul as our
agent I should fear his not keeping us out of difficulties?’
Yet he was just the man Lytton wanted, an officer with dash and
brio, his name itself almost a battle flag.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                             Three days before his death, he complained
that The Times took no notice of his arrival: “I am afraid there is no
denying the fact the British public require a blunder and a huge dis-
aster to excite their interest.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

    The following dawn, the mutinous Heratis massed before the
Emir’s palace, and they were not appeased by a promise of one
month’s back pay.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Even though half-blinded, he was said to have led a bayo-
net charge before his death.Young
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

    Emir Abdur Rahman managed bit by bit to reabsorb the slices of
Afghanistan that Lord Lytton wished to make into separate states,
taking over Kandahar in 1881, and Herat seven years later.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

 Before he left for England, Montgomerie had dispatched the two
cousins through Kumaon, but they were recognized and failed to
cross the Tibetan frontier.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                   The frightened Lhacham urged the pundit to leave
Lhasa before he caught the disease—her two sons were stricken—
and since the Chief Minister wished to see him again, Das arranged
to return to Dongtse.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                      His friend recovered and Das spent several
months exploring Central Tibet before returning home to Darjee-
ling.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

           Rubles arrived from every corner of Russia in an out-
pouring matched only by the subscription for the Pushkin memor-
ial ten years before.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

              PRZHEVALSKY’S FIRST EXPEDITION (1870—73), TO MAP THE Oiuos
plateau and explore Southern Mongolia, was funded by the War De-
partment, the Geographical Society, and the Botanical Gardens, with
an extra thousand rubles derived from the explorer’s skills at the card
table.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

    Nonetheless, on a trip that lasted nearly three years, the party of
four—which included two Cossacks and the second of Przhevalsky’s
favorites, Mikhail Pyltsov, as well as the leader’s setter, Faust—
managed to travel 7,000 miles, survey 7,000 miles of routes, and col-
lect 5,000 plant specimens, 1,000 birds, 130 skins of large and small
mammals, 70 specimens of reptiles, and in excess of 3,000 insects, in-
cluding new species.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                       Twenty thousand soldiers were dispatched to
change Yakub Beg’s mind, but they were diverted by a rebellion in
Khokand, thus voiding the operation.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                even as Przheval-
sky predicted the Emir’s imminent downfall and urged the army to
seize more territory, the Russians held back.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                               When
Russia sent a trade mission to Kashgar, it was denied equal status
with the British.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

           It appeared that Nanuk, the Hindu founder of the Sikh faith,
prophesied that an Eleventh Guru named Deep Singh would be
stripped of his inheritance, forced into exile, and suffer great hard-
ships before returning in triumph to the Punjab during a war be-
tween the bear and the bulldog.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                     Prior to his departure he released this open let-
ter, addressed to “My beloved Countrymen,” saying that obedient to
his destiny he was returning to India “to occupy a humble sphere” and
begged forgiveness for converting to Christianity when he was very
young.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                 Unable to obtain a personal audi-
ence with the Tsar but with Katkov’s coaching, in May the Mahara-
jah laid before the Imperial Government “the humble prayer of the
Princes and people of India for deliverance from their oppression.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                           The guru warned that who-
ever touched it would “vanish from the light,” a warning ignored by
Mystical Imperialism .. 25~
260 :. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
Ranjit Singh, who dug it up, passing the curse to Duleep Singh.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                              was supposedly closed to foreign-
ers, and the Dalai Lama returned unopened urgent messages from
CHAPTER ELEVEN
Emissary to
the White Tsar

F 

EW FIGURES OF IMPORTANCE IN THE IMPERIAL DUELS OF

Central Asia have been so commonly misrepresented as Agvan
262 :. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
Curzon.Yet
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Prince Ukhtomsky was the logical intermediary.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

  In any case, before his death in 1919, the obscure Buriat doctor
transformed a small Tibetan pharmacy into a great sanitarium, and
spawned a homeopathic dynasty whose cures are today available on
the Internet.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                   In
the pontiff’s court, according to Dorzhiev’s memoirs, dissension had
become open and bitter:
In those times, the influential people ofTibet had these things
to say about politics.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

They forwarded 590
metal bowls, two phonographs, and a camera to Lhasa.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                            Authorized the follow-
ing year, the consulate was opened at Ganding in Szechuan, in au-
tumn 1903.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                      Like other eminent Britons before and after-
wards, he tended to see the subcontinent as a blackboard on which
new theories could be chalked and analyzed.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                      Curzon noted in Russia in Central Asia
(1889): “General Prjevalski, in one of his latest letters, dated from
Samarkand only a month before my visit to Transcaspia, recorded his
opinion of the line, over which he had just travelled, in these words:
‘Altogether the railway is a bold undertaking, of great s~gn~ficance, espe-
cially from the military point of view in the future” (Curzon’s italics).
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                         Hamilton’s
response—this was July 1901, when Britain was already mired in the
Boer War—cautioned that consultation was essential before taking
“steps.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

 On a famous occasion years before, he turned up for an audience
with the Emir of Afghamstan wearing medals and decorations pur-
chased from a theatrical costume shop.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                       It was in this spirit that Bro—
drick, the new Secretary of State for India—Curzon’s senior by a
few years, but his junior in ability—advised that a “full estimate of
expenditure” was essential before any further advance into Tibet.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                               “Multiply
that appreciable interval by the number of mules in the rear, say five
hundred, and you find that it takes perhaps a full half hour before the
five-hundredth is on the move again,” recalled a subaltern who
ft
Curzon’s Hour :. 299
300 :. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
under the pseudonym “Powell Miilington” wrote a light-hearted ac-
count of his adventures.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

In the press cliché of the day, the
Forbidden City was finally unveiled.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Younghusband’s boldness was
widely applauded, even in Russia.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                             Ig-
noring Macdonald’s warnings, Younghusband on the next day re-
turned the Amban’s call, riding through Lhasa armed only with a
ceremonial sword, accompanied by a small escort.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Before the First
World War, Hedin showed few symptoms of political zealotry.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                    It is not an explanation that has
been offered before, yet the clues are compelling in the strange but
forgotten story of the “Desert Wanderer.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

“Marvelous visions and future
projects” loomed before him.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

It was also in Kashgar, in 1 890—fourteen years before the British
invaded Tibet—that the Swede met two Britons, Francis Younghus-
The Desert Wanderer .~
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

    There was undoubtedly talk of Younghusband’s recent exploit: his
death-defying crossing, before the days of crampons and all-weather
gear, of the 19,000-foot Muztagh pass, which marked the boundary
between India and China.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                            Hedin
had been upstaged by Fridtjof Nansen who, only two weeks before,
had completed his journey across the Arctic Ocean in the Pram.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

             ON NOVEMBER 22, 1897, HEDIN APPEARED FOR THE FIRST TIME
before the members and invited guests of the Royal Geographical So-
ciety.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

And if they do travel, then shall you lose your head.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Still, as consolation, the authorities in Lhasa did allow Hedin
to take a shortcut through Western Tibet to Ladakh.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

The Desert Wanderer :. 325
326 .•.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Both before and after, Hedin sought to calm Keltie.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

But Russia!
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                              But you are a sci-
entist before anything else—the man who more than any other has
shown with what resources a great explorer ought to be equipped
and what so equipped he ought to accomplish.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                I hope therefore in
the interest of the world that you will perform one more big jour-
ney before you settle down.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

The charm of the unknown had
passed.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

     Before resigning as Viceroy, Curzon had agreed to help Hedin,
promising Indian surveyors trained at Debra Dun, and even a mili-
tary escort for his expedition.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

          EVEN AS THE GROUND SHIFTED UNDER HIM, SVEN HEDIN KEPT HIS
footing in keeping with his Nietzchean view of exploration as “the
affirmation of Superman in the form of a ‘struggle against the im-
possible.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                            “Here, before the ink on the Chinese settle-
ment [the Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1906] is dry,” Morley ad-
monished his Viceroy, “before we have even seen the text of it, here is
a policy from Simla, of expeditions, explorations, and all the other
provocative things.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

         However, the British hadn’t reckoned with Hedin’s pride, ambi-
tion, guile, or his obsession with the “three large white spots” still
yawning “like blank pages, north of, in the centre of, and south of
the highest and most extensive mountain-region on earth.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

          Today Hedin’s tale of “marching with death through Northern
Tibet” seems maudlin and melodramatic, but this experienced lecturer
knew how to provide what his audiences expected.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                         In any case,
Hedin has found “extremely important documents” about Tibet two
hundred years before showing that the Chinese, Indians, and Ti—
ft
betans “are in perfect agreement with me as to the real situation of
the sources at Brahmaputra and Sutlej.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                     stood as a criminal before my accusers, [rather]
than as a triumphantor amongst friends, although I returned from the
greatest journey I had ever undertaken and brought home new
knowledge about the country north of the Himalaya, which ought to
be of the most burning interest to every subject of his Brit.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

The enemies were just
taken off quietly.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                       diary kept by
Huang Wenbi, a Chinese member of the team, as edited by his son
Huang Lie and published in Beijing in 1990, has this entry for July
7, 1927: “The day before yesterday there was a party for foreign
members and they sang military songs.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                   Nettled and disap-
pointed, Stein reported to Engert in December, “So I have to accept
the sad fact of access being barred to me to a field towards which I
have looked all my life and for which I had prepared myself to the
best of my ability...”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

              MARC AUREL STEIN—HE WAS NAMED IN THE IMPERIAL MANNER
after the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius—was born in 1862 to
Jewish parents who had converted to Christianity, as did many co-
religionists in the Austro-Hungarian Empire.Young
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                 Some of these
remote complexes were enormous honeycombs of decorated caves,
and their rediscovery before World War I caused a sensation.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                    Jews, Christians,
Manicheans, Nestorians, and Zoroastrians also reached and settled in
these far-flung outposts before succumbing to the onslaught of the
Muslims in the tenth century.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

       Although both contributed extensively to Central Asian re-
search, Stein inched upward through the Indian bureaucracy while
Hedin’s career resembled a rocket trajectory.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

“The day before yesterday I had the opportunity to introduce my-
self personally to Lord C,” Stein wrote his brother Ernst.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

In 1900 Kashgar differed little from the lively market town that
Younghusband and Hedin had visited a decade before.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

  Before his arrival, Macartney’s letters had provided Stein with es-
sential information on the climate and necessities of transport, and
over the years the Resident assumed roles beyond his normal man-
date.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

In 1928, shortly before his death, von Le Coq wrote a popular ac-
count of his field work, Buried Treasures of Chinese Turkestan.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

       Klementz’s reports before the Rome Congress of Orientalists in
1899 coupled with Stein’s finds had thus initiated an “international
race for antiquities.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

   It was the final scramble for antiquities in the imperial twilight,
before the rise of nationalism challenged the old assumption that the
right to dig and take was the unlimited franchise of European over-
CHAPTER FIFTEEN
The Last of
the “Foreign Devils”

I 

N PLANNING HIS EPOCHAL SECOND EXPEDITION, SIR AUREL

Stein sounded more like Metternich than an archaeologist.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                              Similar rumors had also reached the
Germans but, as Macartney reported, relations between von Le Coq
and Grünwede! had soured.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                             Even before Stein’s visit, Abbot Wang had
forwarded sample rolls of Chinese texts to the local administrator at
Lanzhou.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

    Before departing on his first independent expedition to Mongolia
and Tibet in 1899, Kozlov received a letter from the head of the
Russian Geographical Society, the noted geographer Petr Petrovich
Semenov (soon to be Tian-Shansky): “Remember, my dear Pyotr
Kuzmich, that the development of our relations with Tibet is a mat-
ter of immense importance, and it is in your hands.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                           With most of the Dunhuang
manuscripts already gone, Warner removed twelve Tang Dynasty
fresco fragments from the caves, as well as a seventh century poly-
chrome kneeling Bodhisattva.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

        Stein then proposed to appease “Chinese amour propre by refrain-
ing from any definite claim to those ‘archaeological proceeds’ i.e. an-
tiquities, which loom so large before the average person.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

I have been in China long before and many
times.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Before Stein left Cambridge, the Fogg’s conservators demonstrated
their new technique for removing frescoes.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

              In late May, Lampson had received a letter from the Chinese
The Last of the “Foreign Devils” :. 389
390 .. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
Foreign Office stating that Stein, on three previous visits to Sinkiang,
had “carried away without permission many Chinese antiques.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                      Finally, after the British re-
minded the Governor that he was “under distinct obligations” to
them for consignments of arms and ammunition, the Chinese al-
lowed Stein to enter, and he was met by a friendly welcome in Kash-
gar on October 6.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

That evening he suffered a stroke and never re-
gained consciousness.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

    “Before I came to the Pacific Slope I was an expansionist,” Roo-
sevelt avowed amid roars of approval, “and after having been here I
fail to understand how any man.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

In 1858, Russia took over a vast tract north of Amur.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                   From
Liu San he heard boastful tales of how Younghusband had gullibly
paid inflated prices for carts and mules, with his “boy” pocketing the
difference (published with a certain relish by the American).
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                           On his death in the fifteenth century
Tsong-Khapa was incarnated in another self, becoming first in a
line of the divine personages who came to be known as Dalai
Lamas.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

As he feared, the local headmen reported his presence.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                     He dresses in the dark red worn by all lamas, a
vermilion silk shawl over his left shoulder, and wears yellow boots
with blue braiding—all this hard-won detail the Minister packed
into a twelve-page letter to Roosevelt.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                             Rockhill’s reports were admiringly read at
the Foreign Office, but its officials were chary of TR’s bursts of en-
thusiasm.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

The Great Thirteenth sought
the same respect.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Kozlov found him as impressive as before, but markedly more as-
sured.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                   Before
First Encounters of an American Kind 421
422 .. TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
long he became the Dalai Lama’s friend, adviser, and advocate.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Adding to the sense of impending
doom was the appearance of Halley’s Comet in the Himalayan skies.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Bell
needed no interpreter; he spoke Tibetan of the Lhasa dialect.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                     Before then, Tibet
had itself been an independent, empire-building power, and its peo-
ple still inhabited large areas of western China (or eastern Tibet, as
seen from Lhasa).
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                    Most impor-
tant to Bell, New Delhi now understood that the Dalai Lama was
the only Tibetan leader acceptable to all Tibetan factions.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Lhaten took in the situation at
once and came to my assistance in a very effective way.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

       The charade succeeded, but as the party neared Lhasa, the
American gave himself away by urinating in the Eumpean fashion,
i.e., standing up instead of squatting.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                    “...When McGovern published his so-called libel on
Laden La, if he had gone the right way about things, Laden La would
not have been in power today”
After his service in Sikkim, Bailey became Political Officer in
Kashmir and British Minister in Nepal, retired in 1938, served in the
Home Guards during the Second War, becoming a King’s Messenger
based in Miami and Washington.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                   Before his death in 1967, Bailey
wrote about his explorations in Tibet, but not about the events of
1924.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

   Dorzhiev proposed a common prayer-house in St. Petersburg for
use by Russian Buriats and Kalmyks and, because of Russia’s ex-
panding trade relations, by Asian visitors.Yet,
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

               Before long, Roerich found an American replacement for
Princess Tenisheva: Louis P. Horch, an affluent Wall Street currency
broker who, with his wife, Nettie, was an enthusiastic art patron.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                     In his encounter
with Krestinsky, the guru, in a more woridily mode, offered to share
with Moscow intelligence gleaned in politically sensitive Central
Asia.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

               A month or so before Roerich’s arrival in Urumchi, the
Soviet Ambassador to Mongolia wrote to his counterpart in Peking
that the way to frustrate Japanese schemes was to invite the Panchen
to the USSR, where, with Russian help, he would be able “to return
to Tibet where he is apparently eager to go and is much expected.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                             Week in and out, the Iowan refused
comment, though it was known he had a past connection with the
Russian mystic.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                         You twice re-
ferred to the subject of letters in your opening remarks and you have
reminded us journalists of the important duty of getting available
facts.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                           The gap
was so wide that Dr. Gallup stopped conducting polls weeks before
the November vote—a monumental blunder.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

           By the same logic, Nicholas Roerich could also have claimed
a pivotal role in the 1948 election: a feat the more remarkable since
he had died in India the year before.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                      That March, six
months before the Wall Street crash, there gathered on Manhattan’s
Riverside Drive several hundred distinguished guests, including
emissaries of twenty foreign countries, to applaud Louis Horch as he
laid the cornerstone, enclosing a bejeweled Rajput casket, for the
twenty-nine-story “Master Building.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

On the other hand, these activities may serve to cloak a
deeper and more dangerous purpose.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Am meeting Rock at
Ry[erson’s] suggestion and will learn from him what I can.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                 In a
letter home, he enclosed a handbill that had been scattered through-
out the city to promote a lecture.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                         Before the caravan departed,
Roerich dispatched by diplomatic pouch botanical specimens, pho-
tographic negatives, a list of Tibetan and Chinese herbal medicines,
four volumes ofTibetan medical texts, maps, and botanical drawings.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

           The cause was not poison but uremia, a chronic kidney
condition that had been diagnosed just before his departure for
Lhasa.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

On November 17, before his physician arrived, Williamson
died.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

    SS officer took part in three expeditions to Tibet, had tried to
adopt his Nepalese translator, was once stoned by monks in Lhasa,
and had precipitated a diplomatic furor that reached from Berlin to
Simla.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                       Orchestrating a theatrical performance, Schafer
surrounded himself with impressive artifacts—movie cameras, field
glasses, altimeters, telephoto lenses—and an expedition suitcase that
served as a desk.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                  In
Geheimnis Tibet (Secret Tibet), Schafer writes that this “iron man”
observed all that went before him with “sharp eyes.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                           colleague
Beger was prepared to search for skeletal remains of former Nordic
invaders and to examine the natives for the remains of Nordic blood
among the aristocrats of inner Asia.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

           The SS captain addressed Kaiser in a “loud and bluster-
ing tone,” inclining Gould to believe that “the gentle Kaiser has
some sort of special appeal for the dominant Schafer.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

      Still, Hitler’s lieutenants were aware of his impulsiveness and
weakness for radical plans (“You should read more Karl- May,” he ex-
horted his generals, referring to the German author ofWild West ro-
mances).
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

His attempts at growing the hardy
barley to feed his hungry countrymen met with success.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

         Within days, Mrs. Rosie Frank sent him a 1961 article about
the military harassment of civilians at Peterson Field, but with no
mention ofAsian soldiers.Wise
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

“A few hours later, Dolan, smooth
shaven, stood before us disguised as a Mongolian trader.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                     Before his ffight, the CIA
had begun dropping weapons into Tibet, an operation planned by
FitzGerald and inspired by the example of the Hump.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Just before that vote, at the Viceroy’s initiative, Sir
Olaf resigned, nominally for reasons of health.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Kingsley Martin, The Triumph of Lord Palmerston:A Study of Pub-
lic Opinion in England Before the Crimean War (London, rev.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

1877—88), a favorite of Churchill’s and a source of
his own prose.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

“analyzed the papers before”: Disraeli to Queen Victoria, October
26, 1878; Monypenny and Buckle, op.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                       Concerning
Przhevalsky as possible biological father of Stalin, Edward Radzinsky in his bi-
ography Stalin (NewYork, 1996) appraised the rumor, based on the belief that
Przhevalsky visited Gori, Stalin’s birthplace, approximately nine months before
the Soviet dictator was born.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                       The case for the explorer’s homosexuality is dis-
cussed by Simon Karlinsky, “Gay Life Before the Soviets,” The Advocate,
1/4/1982, 31—34.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

“Here, before the ink on the Chinese settlement”: Morley to
Minto, June 7, 1906, quoted, Lamb, op.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

97.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                We have also drawn on “The Discovery of Khara
Khoto” by Kira Fyodorovna Samosyuk in Lost Empire of the Silk Road: Buddhist
Art from Khara Khoto, ed.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

           In re Theodore and Kermit Roosevelt, see Sylvia Jukes Morris’s biography
of their mother, Edith Kermit Roosevelt: Portrait of a First Lady (NewYork, 1980),
and the reminiscences of Mrs. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., Day Before Yesterday
(New York, 1959).
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                          On Groton and the
Roosevelts, see Geoffrey C. Ward, Before the Trumpet (New York, 1985); Ted
Morgan, ED.R.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                  Neurotics never get well for love
CRUCIAL POINTS IN PSYCHOANALYSIS (JUNG AND LOY)
It is best to let the patients talk freely and to confine yourself
How the analysis is to be conducted and what is to be said
I do not know what else to tell you beforehand.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Not all the houses were cleared beforehand, and
more than forty.
	Just and Unjust Wars

                          This feeling was repeated as she went through
the living rooms, so that she believed she knew beforehand how big the
next room was, what views one could have on looking out of it, etc.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                        She had decided to
go to the theatre that week; she had been careful to obtain tickets a few
days beforehand, and had had to pay the advance booking-fee.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

One can never tell beforehand
which is to be posited; only the context can decide this point.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

2it may be well to show the reader beforehand how difficult it is to establish the
facts in this field.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                              Certainly Tolstoy did not deter him from
obtaining an extended leave to travel to southern Africa, where, as a
Times correspondent, he again sang the praises of Pax Britannica.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Her doubt
about Faust’s faithfulness is repressed and kept down.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                        What Freud
calls “infantile masturbation”—that is, all those quasi-sexual
activities which we spoke about before—is said to return later as
real masturbation.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

beforethe attack.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                                                 Conolly
pleaded successfully for a chance to save Stoddart, befriend and reform
the Emir, and foil the Russians.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Seeking to befriend the Dost, Moorcroft presented him with a double-
barreled shotgun, and was informed that henceforth he and his party
all would be deemed “nephews” by Dost Mohammed.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Soon after his arrival, the fifteen-year-old Maharajah was presented
to Queen Victoria, who was then thirty-five.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                Dorzhiev cited the legend of Shambhala, which he
located somewhere in Russia, and explained that Nicholas II was
also an incarnation.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                         Writing to Engert he said, “I
am fully aware that the winter months are not the right time for see-
ing Kabul at its best or for travelling in the northern parts of the
country.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                  She survived rebellions, military deba-
cles, and famines, frustrated reform and lived proffigately, resplendent
in her yellow dragon robe or her cape made of 3,500 perfect pearls.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                    It was Bell’s task
to befriend and dissuade, a task the more delicate since back home
Lord Morley at the India Office referred privately to His Holiness as
a “pestilent animal.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

He implored Washington to befriend Pakistan and protect
Kuwait and the other Gulf sheikdoms.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

He also likes to signal subtly his group’s next action.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Skinner, Burrhus Frederic, 1904-
About behaviorism.
	About Behaviorism

 make a great difference is almost inevitably to be asked:
‘Well, then, what do you suggest? What would you
do about war, or population, or pollution, or racial dis-
crimination, or the revolt of the young?” Unfortu-
275 Summing Up
present condition is not promising.
	About Behaviorism

            identity, 185—7, 224
illusion, 86
images, 91
imitation, 46—7, 72
imprinting, 45
impulse, 147, 163
In Praise of Folly (Erasmus),
145
incentive, 56, 200
indeterminacy, 260
indifference, 161—2
induction, 143—5, 260
Industrial Revolution, 180, 264
industry, 65, 177
Index 286 287 Index
H 
intention, 61—3, 82
I
James, William, 213
joy, 175
Judeo-Christian concepts, 166
judging consequences, 77
inference, 148
information, 77, 109, 133,
157—8
Information theory, 81, 239,
256
inhibition, 70, 173—4
initiative, 177
innate endowment, 243
innate ideas, 129, 142
Innate rules of granini~r~ 14,
129
inner world, Chapter 10
Inquiry Into Meaning and
Truth, An (Russell), 258
Insight, 187,260
instinCt, 38—9, 40, 135, 145,
163, 168
instruction, 133, 202
Integrative Action of the Ner~.
	About Behaviorism

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: 75-156
MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Second printing, with corrections, 1970
i6 i~ 14 13 12 II 10 9 8 7
ISBN 0-691-01864-2 (PBK.)
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

igo6).
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                     Originally a report to the
First International Congress of Psychiatry and Neurology, Amsterdam, September
1907.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Aschaffenburg also addressed the Congress, publishing his paper in the same
organ, XXII (1907), 564ff.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Participants in the congress ac-
cepted this diagnosis without rebuttal and with applause.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

8i
DR.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                             However, having been honoured by an
invitation from the Committee of this Congress to speak as a
representative of the psychoanalytic movement, I will do my
best to discuss some of the fundamental theoretical problems of
psychoanalysis.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                                                              He
never played with his school-fellows, never went alone into the
Street unless he had to go to school.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

19 [Orig.:
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

[We are always trying not to admit the child’s sexuality.
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

                            BIBLIOGRAPHY
350
INDEX
abasia, 5
Abraham, Karl, ioo, 122, 211, 220
abreaction, ii, 14, 90, 254, 258, 262
accidents, 223; apparent, 216; and
emotional development, 177, 179;
hysteria and, go
activity, and passivity, 274
Acts of the Apostles, 53
adaptation, 137, 182, i86ff, 248; ab-
normal, 249; failure in, 250; in-
fantile, i~~ new, and neurosis,
246; psychological, 271, 274; re-
duced, in neurotics, igi; resistance
to, infantile, 249; transference
and, 199, 285
Adler, Alfred, 48, 87, 240, 247, 276,
285, 29 if, 328, 335
advice, 231
affection, need for, i 14
affects: aetiological significance in
hysteria, iof; blocking of, 12, go;
children’s, intensity of, 152; dis-
placement of, i~ effects of trau-
matic, 12f; in normal persons, ii;
retardation of development of,
130
affluxes, libidinal, 126
Agamemnon, 154
aims, and causes, 291f
albumen, 331
alchemists, 326
altruism, *82
ambivalence: of father-imago, 321;
of instincts, 283
America: cross symbol in, ~io; psy-
choanalysis in, 88
amnesia: of childhood/infantile,
117, i6~f; neurotic, 164
A
INDEX
Amsterdam Congress (1907), 31725
anal eroticism, 20, 21, 76
analogy, 240
analysis, 250; fantasy invention dur-
ing, 184; first stage, 194f; second
stage, 197, 20O~ of transference,
194ff; see also dream-analysis; psy-
chanalysis; psychoanalysis
analyst: analysis of, ig8f, 235, 253,
260, 274; fear of loss of, 63; inter-
ference by, 272, 275; loss of bal-
ance by, 235; personality of, ig8fl,
260, 274, 277; possibility of deceiv-
ing, 280; procedure of, 272; rela-
tiOn to patient, 193, 235, 285; re-
quirements for, 202; resistances of,
187; transference relation to, igi,
see also transference
analytical psychology, 229
anamnesis, g~ and psychoanalysis,
230f, 271
anarchy, 283
ancestor-columns, 222
anchorite, 121
Andermatt, 35ff
animals, 242; artistic impulse in, 123;
gradual change in reproductive
principles, 123; hypnosis in, 262;
laziness in, 208; and remembered
impressions, i~g; social sense in,
278; training of, 182
Annunciation, 54
ant, queen, 315
anthroposophy, 326
antlers, 287
anxiety attacks, 162
apathy, neurotic, i 13
aphonia, 5, 69, 70
‘apothecaries messes,” 260
353
appetite, loss of, 248
archetype, 315f, 3221; of father, 321,
322
artistic instinct, in animals, i 23
ascetic practices, 337
Aschaffenburg, Gustav, ~ff, 1075, 304
Asmodeus, 322, 323fl
association(s): chains of, and com-
plex, i6; concordant, in families,
136; and dreams, 17, 143f; and
dream material, 238; free, 15, 5Sf;
and number dreams, ~g; and re-
pression, 92
association experiments, 233; and
families, 136, 304; and neurosis,
i8i; and psychanalysis, ~ and un-
conscious, 148ff
assumptions: basic, 340; uncon-
scious, 336
asthma, nervous, 162
astro-mythology, 210
attitude: change of, and conflict,
266; infantile, 249; patient’s, to in-
terpretation, 236; and reaction-
type, 305; religious and philosoph-
ical, 241; see also emotional atti-
tude
attraction, i 25f
attributes, personification of, 4of
aufsitzen, 38n, 47fl
augur, 260f, 267
authority: faith in, 282, 283; submis-
sion to, 284
autoerotism, i o8
automatisms, unconscious psychic,
and hysteria, io
autonomy: individual, 283, 284;
moral, 288, 289
auto-suggestion, 6f, go
Baader, 326
baptism, 146f, 148
barbarism, 239
Barlach, Ernst, 339
barn, 35ff
Bataks, 222
B
INDEX
bathing-place, 35ff
bed-wetting, see enuresis
Bergson, Henri, 248, 287
Bernheim, H., 254
Bible, 53, 55
bicycle, 218
Binet, Alfred, 57
Binswanger, Ludwig, io & n
Binswanger, Otto, 6o
biography, 324
biology, 337
Bircher, 265
bird(s), 287, 315, 321
blackmail, 205, 208, 209
black man (dream-symbol), 3 i8f
bladder, irritation of, and dreams,
31, 318
Bleuler, Eugen, 40, 57, ~8n, 229
“blinded,” 701, 72
blinding, 319
Boas, F., 211
body-openings, 127
Breuer, Josef, so, ii, gof, 254; “Anna
0.”
	Freud and Psychoanalysis

Manufactured in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

That observa-
tion would prove to be prescient.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

This
massacre was then extensively covered by human rights organizations.3’
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

In 1995 the de facto ruler of Sudan, Hassan al-Turabi, organized an
Islamic People’s Congress, during which bin Laden was able to meet
well as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad and Hamas.52
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

U. S.A. v. Usama bin Laden, Testimony of Stephen Gaudin, March 10,2001.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                           JUST AND
UNJUST
WARS
JUST AND
UNJUST
WARS
A MORAL
ARGUMENT WITH
ILLUSTRATIONS
HISTORICAL
Michael \‘Valzer
A Division of HarperCollinsPublishers
BasicBooks
Librasy of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Walzer, Michael.
	Just and Unjust Wars

President George w. Bush, speakingto the nation duringajointsession of Congress
 2001 LU(KOVICH—ATLANTA CONSTITUTION
“It hurts to even look in that direction.”
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

It was hours before the most fateful speech ofhis life.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                             “From
this day forward, any nation
that continues to harbor or sup-
port terrorism will be regarded
by the United States as a hostile
regime."
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

Rose managed to escape be- It’s no accident that we respond to life-
fore the buildings collapsed.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                             3 percent
Last week’s drop in the DowJones
industrial average, the biggest week-
ly slide since the Great Depression.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

              “Withallthat’sgoneonandwith 
what mighthappen, I wantto hold on to my 
money right now,” Becker says.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

This bear has turned into one ofclassic pro- Meanwhile, Congress has promised a $40 billion rebuildingfhnd.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

But how can any patriot-
to Heroes” telethon lastweek.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

It isjust seven months since a next year’s struggle for control of Congress.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                           Thishashadacnp-

. 
every day captures more data than is con-

____________________ 

For Amenca, mere are oniy two iunas or tained in the Library of Congress.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

Ca11800-852-2100 or mail
checks to MercyCorps, Dept.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                                              Embassy
“Thepagans and the abortionists and thefeminists and the gays and
thelesbians ... theACLU, People for theAmerican Way, all of them
who have tried to seculatizeAmerica, I pointthe finger in their face
and say, ‘You helped this happen’?’ TelevangelistJerrj Faiwell
“I’mArab, butiftheArabs dlidit, then I’mashamed.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                                                                                                                                                                                           As for their aid request, “I’m with ya,” the 
president said eagerly—and itwas approved and the Pentagon sliced apart, Americans he flew from Florida to Louisiana to Ne- roused the crowd of rescue workers in the Cathedral, “our George”: the designated stood immediately after Pearl Harbor, and
by Congress the next day.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

From atop Manhattan’s Cheered on by voters’ hopes, he’d become, Poll approved ofthewayhe was handling his unity produced results in Congress : a prac-
ment—and admired the maturation of the are not his forte, and there weren’t any as smoldering “pile,” megaphone in hand, he in the words of a priest at the National job.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                        “If
hints that ordinary investors would panic 
when the market reopened.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                                                   John L. Esposito
THE POLITICS OF SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION
IN AFGHANISTAN, IRAN, AND PAKISTAN
Contemporary Issues in the Middle EasI
The POLITICS of SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION
in AFGHANISTAN, IRAN, and PAKISTAN
MYRON WEINER and ALl BANUAZIZI
Syracuse University Press
Edited by
The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American
National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library
Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                    Out of that dream—
and a bitter struggle against both the Indian National Congress and a
variety of regional Muslim political movements—came a country di-
vided into two parts, West Pakistan and East Pakistan, with governing
elites who were sharply divided about what kind of state and country
they wanted to create.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                An umbrella organization, the National Fatherland Front
(NFF), had been proposed under various names by both Parchamis and
Khalqis before the invasion, and Babrak called again for its formation
in his inaugural speech.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                          Two of them
had been posted abroad as ambassadors, two had simply vanished
from the media (one subsequently died), three had defected, and only
one was known to be sticking it out as a government advisor.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

The purpose of these changes was to establish the discredited
DRA’s authority, especially in the countryside, as soon as possible.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Despite the expulsions, the party continued to report steady
growth (table 1.2),
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

At its second congress in June 1990, the PDPA changed its name to the Homeland
Party (Hezb-e Watan).
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

For details of the provincial allocations, see the Statistical Center of Iran, Iran
Statistical Yearbook, 1984.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

     Pakistan turned out to be an economic success but a political fail-
ure, despite the belief of leaders of the Indian National Congress that
Jinnah’s Pakistan could not be economically viable.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

           Although the dispute between East and West Pakistan received a
great deal of political attention for over a decade, it was not the only
regional redistributive crisis Pakistan was to face.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

This notion of good and bad landlords was developed fur-
ther by the socialist leaders of the Indian National Congress.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                                                 In the
congress’s political idiom, zamindari (landownership) became a pejora-
tive term.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

  Increases in female education levels have held the promise of rais-
ing the status of South Asian Muslim women for nearly a century~ The
first woman who publicly articulated such demands was Chand
Begum.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                 See also Chador; Chadri;
Veil
Durrani Pashtuns, 5,36, 73, 76, 84, 88,
204,334
East Pakistan, 8; Ayub Khan and, 297—98,
316; clash of, with West Pakistan, 21,
155, 161,296; economic disparity of,
with West Pakistan, 271,294,297—
98,302—3,314; middle class in, 157;
rural development in, 284; secession
of, 160—61; use of coercion in, 9,29.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

                                    See also
Intelligentsia
Middle East, 23, 73, 75, 97, 133; Pakistani
workers in, 277,279-81,298,323,
326; women in, 333—34, 393—94
Militant Ulama of Tehran, 134—35
Military: in Afghanistan, Communists
and, 6, 13—14, 39, 43, 51—52,
Karmal’s rule and, 46,52, new
middle class and, 7, see also Armed
forces, Army; in Iran, 3,5, 104, 240;
in Pakistan, Benazir Bhutto and, 11,
East Pakistan and, 9, 175, elections
and, 9,13, Islamization and, 14,
Muslim League and, 9, property
rights and, 8, Punjabis and, 12, 150,
religious ethos in, 174, role of, 11,
14, 159, 176, 178,270,289, Yahya
Khan and, 161, Zia ul-Haq and, 10,
176,178, Zulfikar All Bhutto and,
285, 164—65
Military courts, 175
Ministry for Women’s Development,
441—42
Modernization, 24; in Afghanistan, 86,
336—38; in Iran, 109,368,395; in
Pakistan, 431; and women, 27
Modjaddedi, Sibghatullah, 66-67,82—83,
96, 36.1—62
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

     The aviation disaster legislation was introduced to the United States Congress in July and
moved very rapidly through both the House of Representatives and the Senate, virtually without
opposition.
	Psychological Interventions in the Aftermath of Aviation Disasters

Published in the United States by Random House, Inc., New York, and simultaneously
in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                               At the In-
ternational Congress in Amsterdam, in 1907, my theories of hysteria were
the subject of a lively discussion.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                       Finally, a proof of the increased work made neces-
sary by the inhibition of these primary modes of procedure might be
found in the fact that we achieve a comical effect, a surplus to be dis-
charged through laughter, if we allow these modes of thought to come to
consciousness.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                          The result of this first psycho-
analytic congress was the founding of a periodical, which began to appear
in 1909, under the name of “Jahrbuch für Psychoanalytische und Psycho-
patholgische Forschungen,” published by Bleuler and Freud, and edited
by Jung.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                    So far as I know, Bleu-
1er, even today, adheres to an organic causation for the forms of dementia
praecox, and Jung, whose book on this malady appeared in 1907; ‘upheld
the toxic theory of the same at the Congress at Salzburg in 1908, which
though not excluding it, goes far beyond the libido theory.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

     Havelock Ellis, who has followed its development with sympathy without
ever calling himself its adherent, wrote, in i~ii, in a paper for the Ans-
tralasian Medical Congress: “Freud’s psychoanalysis is now championed
and carried out not only in Austria and in Switzerland, but in the United
States, in England, India, Canada, and, I doubt not, in Australasia.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    A doctor from Chile (probably a German) appeared at the International
Congress in Buenos Ayres in 1910, and spoke on behalf of the existence
of infantile sexuality and praised the results of psychoanalytic therapy
in obsessions.2
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                             to reign
the conviction (given such oratorical expression at the London Congress in
‘The collected publications of these two authors have appeared in book form:
Brill, “Psychoanalysis, Its Theories and Practical Applications,” 1912, 2nd edition,
1914, 3rd edition, 1922, Saunders, Philadelphia, and E. Jones’s “Papers on Psycho-
analysis,” 1913, Wood and Company, New York.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       Janet himself had to stand at this Congress a number of correc-
tions from Ernest Jones, who was able to reproach him for his lack of
knowledge of the subject.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                     Another part of this
influence—the one on the followers of psychoanalysis—Bleuler himself
destroyed later on by bringing into prominence in 19x3, in his Criticism
of the Freudian School, the obverse side of his attitude to psychoanalysis.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    Therein, he takes away so much from the structure of the psychoanalytic
principles that our opponents may well be satisfied with the assistance of
this defender.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                          m
927
Goethe
928 HISTORY OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT
place on my death.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                I felt that there should be a place that
could give the dictum: “With all this nonsense, analysis has nothing to
do; this is not psychoanalysis.”
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                It also appeared to me desirable that the
adherents of psychoanalysis should meet for friendly intercourse and mu-
tual support, inasmuch as official science had pronounced its great ban
and boycott against physicians and institutions practising psychoanalysis.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       Another result of the Nuremberg Congress was the founding of the
Zentralblatt fier Psychoanalyse, which caused a reconciliation between
Adler and Stekel.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

I will not continue the history of the Psychoanalytic Congress.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                    Through a malicious mood of chance, the evil genius
of Hoche had taken up his residence in the same house in which the an-
alyists held their meetings.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

    As mentioned before, Das Zentralblatt für Psychoanalyse started by Ad-
ler and Stekel after the founding of the “International Association” (Nu-
remberg, 1910), went through in a short time a very varied career.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                  At the Congress of Munich, I was obliged
to dear up this confusion and did so by declaring that I could not recog-
nize the innovation of the Swiss School as a legitimate continuation and
further development of the psychoanalysis which originated with me.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                         159, 901—905,909
difference of opinion
between—and Freud, 903—905
his discovery, 902
Brevity (in wit), 604—605, 613, 623,
709
Brill, A. A., 10, 14, i6, 49, 5o, 6o,
6i, 68, 78fl, 90, 10711, 113, 125,
136, 149, 18311, 44611, 522n,
589, 6io, 6i~, 6i6n, 617n, 624,
685n, 918, 930
Brother-sister relationship (in
savages), 782—783
Brouardel, 905
Brown, W., 8o8n
Burdach, 247
Burghölzli, 915—916
Busemann, 18311
Butler, Samuel, quoted, 107—108
Caesar, Julius, 36111
Calkins, Miss Whiton, 245
Calot, J., 37911
Caricature as form of wit, 602, 726,
736, 744—745
Castration
complex, 538, 563
951
952 
Castration (cont’d)
dreams, 348, 35611
fear of, 875—876
infantile theory of, 346
of males and eroticism, 577
Catarrh, intestinal, its relation to
anal activity, 557
Cathartic
method, 901, 902, 906
treatment, 541
Cathexis, 461, 464,477,480,
482—484, 486, 489, 497, 498,
501—505, 
Causal relations in dreams,
311—312
Censor, endopsychic, 448
Censorship, psychic, 191—192, 213,
442,453,478-479, 514, 718
Chance, 118-146
Chance numbers, 120-124
Character traits in relation to
sexual stimuli, 59411
Characterization wit, 630
Charcot, 33, 73, 905, 908, 911
Chemical theories of sexual
stimulus, 578
Chevalier, 525, 52711
Child, 477, 685, 739, 76 I—762
intellectual accomplishments of,
32
Childhood, 665
activities, trace of, 32
Children and neurotics compared,
550
as sexual objects, 530—532
impressionability, 55o
sexual life of, 550, 5 89—590
Chrobak, 905—906
Churinga, 863
Cipher method of interpreting
dreams, 157
Classifying system of tribal
relationships, 7 79—781
Claustrophobia, 292
513, 57911, 702—706
INDEX
Clitoris, 581—582
erection in little girls, 58 I—582
excitability, 581—582
repression, 581—582
Cloaca theory, 340, 564
Coinage of words in dreams,
297—301
Coitus, 548
Colin, 539n
Combination of persons in dreams,
315—316
Combined faulty acts, 115—117
examples of, 115—117
Comic, 6oi, 604, 699, 740—741 (see
also Wit)
elements, 638
façade, 706
its origin, 736—737
its psychogenesis, 761—762
motion, 737
of expectation, 742—744
of imitation, 750—754
of speech, 754—755
pleasure, its origin, 757
situations, 736, 741—742
Comical character, 725n
Comparison in wit, 649-65,
with unification, 6~ 7
Community in dreams, 315
Complex, 917
ambition, 49
castration, 538, 563
family, 19
Oedipus, 91, 585n
parent, 52911
personal, 18, 23
professional, 19
self-reference, 28
theory of the, 917
Complications of human character,
5 i6
Composite persons and formations,
250—251,315—319, 331
in girls, 585—586
Composition in dreams, 614
Compression, 301, 498
Compromise formation, examples
of, 41
Compulsion
inversion as a, 522
neuroses, 545, (see also
Obsessions, Obsessional)
neurotics (compared with
savages)
as to names, 819
as to taboo, 795, 797, 799,
831
as to thought processes, 844
differences, 830
Concept of the beautiful, 53611
Conceptual content of dreams, 455
Condensation in wit, 609, 621-623
examples of, 6i o—6,,
with modification and
substitution, 6i 1—613
Condensation work of the dream,
288—304, 322, 397, 435, 460,
498, 613—614, 716—718
principle of, 288
purpose of, 435
Conflict, 671
of psychic forces, 414
of the will, 328
Congenitality in inversions,
5 23—5 25
Conscience, 827—829
Conscious
day phantasies, 425—42 711
mental activity in
dream-formation, 476
wishes, 468
Consciousness, 6
bringing hidden ideas to, io
problems of, 192, 482—483,
5o8—5 17
Consolation-dreams, 354—355
Constitutional factor, 592
Contaminations, 37
INDEX 
*
Content, perceptual, 483—484
Contiguity in dreams, 314
Contradiction
from repression, 13
in dreams, 310, 314, 319, 327, 499
Contrast, 603
in dreams, 319
Contrary sexuals, 522
Convenience-dreams, 176-179, 481
Conversion, 541, 902
of affect, 305
Coprophiic smell-desire, 535n
Copulation, 532
Coriat, I. H., 388fl
Correspondence between dreams
and reality, 466, 5 i6
Counter-affects, 410
Counter-cathexis, 505
Counter-volition, 328
Counter-will, 79
Counter-wish dreams, 193,
196—197, 
Courting, 537
Critical activity in dreams, 310,
423
Critical witticisms, 675
Cruelty
and sexual impulse, 538
as component of infantile sex life,
56 I—562
Culture and sex, 552
Cynical tendency in wit, 691
witticisms and self-criticism,
672—675
Cynicism, 628, 67o—672
pessimistic, 674
Damaging things, mechanism of,
87, 88
Darwin, 72, 70111, 871, 927
Darwinian concept of primal horde,
883
Dattner, B., 105, 36511
Daudet, 72, 293, 294, 319, 455
201—203, 263
953
954
David, J. J., 301
Day-dreams, 425—427n
Day-residues, 417, 469—474, 482,
493
Dead persons in dreams, 373—38m,
385
Death
and sexuality, ~
fear of, 355
of beloved persons, dreams of,
197—200, 265—280, 404
wish in respect of relatives,
197—200,321
Debacker, 185, 492
Defense reaction, 663
Defensive neuroses, 273—274,
488—489
Degeneration, 267, 523
high esthetic culture and, 524
Déjà raconté, 139
Déjà VU, 137_139, 362
Delacroix, 432
Delage, Yves, 496
Delboeuf, 2,611, 21911
Délire de toucher, 796, 8oi, 831
Deliria, 451
Delusions
formation of, 72
Dementia praecox, 541
Demoniacal hallucinations,
492—493
Demonomania, 493
Demons, 850
concept of, 825—826
Denials (ascribed to forgetting), 69
Dental stimulus, dreams due to,
248—249, 355—35 7
Der Grüne Heinrich, 263, 367
Derision, 669
“Desired” ideas, m6x
Dessoir, 587
Determinant, inner, io
Determinism, 118—146
psychic, 129
INDEX 
Digestive disturbances and dreams,
244
Disagreeable dreams, 185
Disguise in wit, 736
Displacement, 3, 6, 30, 214, 217,
304—307, 
67o—671, 829, 874
examples of, 796
in dreams, 716—7 18
retro-active, 30
Displacement-wit, 629-631, 706
Disraeli, 6,o
Dissociation, 445
Distortion in dreams, 185—205, 214,
330,428,440,447
Disturbing stimuli, 245—246
Divinatory power of dreams, 152
Doglia, S., 18311
Donation, idea of, 55 7—558
Don Quixote, 9311, 768
Double meaning, as form of wit,
617—619, 645
and displacement, 628
of a name, 6i8
Doubt in witty comparisons,
651—652
Dream activity, see Psychic activity
in dreams
Dream-condensation, see
Condensation work of the
dream
Dream-content, 494
latent, 206, 287
manifest, 206, 223, 287, 848
Dream-displacement, see
Displacement
Dream-distortion, see Distortion
Dream-formation, 289-290, 314,
476, 7 17—718
motives of, 471,474
Dream-forgetting, purposeful
nature of, 443
Dream-instigators, see
Dream-sources
329, 624—63,,
Dream-interpretation, 343, 446,
5o8, 944
anagogic, 447
cipher method of, 157
delayed, 447
“fractional,” 446
history of, 909—910
method of, 156—175
psychoanalytic, 447
Dream-processes
primary and secondary, 493—508
psychology of the, 436—517
Dream-sources, 206—286
Dream-synthesis, 308
Dream-symbolism, 249-250, 287,
332, 365
Dream-theory, 910
Dream-thoughts, 848
disintegration of, 460
elements of the, 449
latent, 223, 450, 493
logical relations of, 309—3 12
manifest, 289
representation of, 455
structure of, 309
verbal composition of, 303—304
Dream-wish, 448,466, 468
“Dream-within-a-dream,” 328
Dream-work, 287—435, 713—715,
724,848
regressive character of, 464
Dreaming, psychology of,
446—448
Dreams, 613—614, 713—714
absurd, 3 77—402
acceleration of thought in, 430
affects in, 402—42 2
ambiguity in, 195
analyses of, 164—172,209-244,
280—283, 290—295
comfort, 177_179, 252
composition in, 318—3 19
consoling, 354—355
convenience, 177—179, 481
*
INDEX 
divinatory evaluation of, 152
due to
auditory stimuli, 249
dental stimuli, 248-249,
355—357
digestive disturbances, 244
hunger, 254
intestinal stimulus, 244,365
nerve stimuli, 245—246,
25 I—252, 254
sexual excitement, 355—356
thirst, 254
urinary stimulus, 245, 249
visual stimulus, 248—249
egoism of, 280—282, 317, 388
examination, 284—285, 303, 354,
395
exhibition, 262—263
forgetting of, 289, 438—453
fractional interpretation of, 446
function of, 487, 495
guileless, 218, 222, 360
hallucinatory, 460
historical significance of, 5”
hypermnesia in,494
hypocritical, 192, 410-411,414
invented by writers, 922
keystone of, 448
language of, 177
material of, 251
motive power of, 479-48 I
of dead persons, 373—381, 384
of death, 197—200, 265—280, 404
of faffing, 283, 358
of fire, 359, 436
of flying, 249, 283, 355
of inversion, 203, 319
of nakedness, 260-2 65
of punishment, 203
of rescue, 365
of swimming, 358
of the same night, 325
of thirst, 177
painful, 203, 204,471
955
956
Dreams (cont’d)
paramnesia in,392fl
perennial, 223
prophetic, 134
prophetic powers of, 152
psychotherapy of, ~
punishment, 414,471
regression in, 460
representation in, 307—328
scientific theories of, 153—154
sexual, 359
sexual nature of, 360
somatic origin of, 244—25 9
symbolism of, 287—288, 332, 336,
910
typical, 259—286, 343—365
waking caused by, 482—493
wish-fulfilment in, see
Wish-dreams, Wishes,
Wish-fulfilment
word-coinage in, 2 98—302
Drinking and thumbsucking, 554
Dubois, 943
Dugas, 700—701
Du Prel, C., 18311, I85n, 28911, 45 Ifl,
51011
Durkheim, 867, 87on
Duse, io6
Dyspnoea, 293
Ear-lobe pulling, 553
Eating, sexuality in, 571
Economy
in wit, 621—623, 708, 709, 710
of psychic expenditure, 68o
Eder, M., 36m
Effigies in primitive society, 836
Egoism
in dreams, 280—282, 317, 388
of the infantile mind, 280
Ehrenfels, 672
Eitington, M., ~i5
Elaboration of dream-content,
507
INDEX
Electrotherapy in nervous
disorders, 902
Elements, suppressed, 7
Elements of the dream-thought,
496
Ellis, Havelock, 208, 218fl, 338,
349,432, 495, 52m, 525, 526,
53811, 554, 56on, 869, 918
Embarrassment-dreams, 260—2 6~
Endogenous psychic affections,
450—451
Endopsychic censor, 448
Endoptic phenomena, 446
End pleasure, 575 (see also Orgasm)
Enuresis nocturna in children, 359,
56o
Enuresis and pollution, 55 9-560
Erb, W., 902
Erection
dreams, 358
of clitoris, 581—5 82
of penis, 573
Erogenous zones, 544—545,
557—558, 569
anal, 55 7—558
in infantile years, 552
in psychoneuroses, 545
lips as, 554, 555
premature activity, 56i
stimulation of sexual apparatus,
573
Erroneously carried-out actions,
81—96, ii8, 143
as an expression of self-reproach,
84
examples of, 81—83
Errors, 109—114
examples of, 109—114
mechanism of, I 12
of memory, 109
Essence of consciousness, 192
Etiology of neuroses, 302
Eulenberg, 52111
Exaggeration in wit, 726
Examination-dreams, 284—2 86, 303,
354, 395
Examination-phobia, 384—386
Excitation, unconscious, 468—469
Excitement
chemical theories of sex—, 578
influences, 568
of erogenous zones, 573
sexual nature of, 571
Exhibitional cravings, 261—262
Exhibition dreams, 262—265
Exhibitionism, 537, 662 (see also
Looking, Peeping, Voyeur)
eye as erogenous zone, 545
infantile sexual life, ~6m
partial impulses and—, 543
Explanation in dreams, 401
External nerve stimuli, 245,
250—254
Exogamy
and totemism, 777, 780-78 i
defined, 777
origin of, and relation to
totemism, 867—872
penalty for, 778
Façade of the comic, 668—670
“Facetious questions” as wit, 70611
Falke, 6o6n, 63411, 641
Falling in dreams, 283, 358
False recollection, 3
Falstaff, 768
Father-complex, 346
Father-daughter relationship
(among savages), 783
Father and sexual intimidation, 587
Faulty acts, 88
Faulty actions
explanation of, 139—140
in relation to nervousness,
145—146
in relation to the dream, 145
psychoneurotic symptoms of,
145—146
*
INDEX
Faulty thinking, 634—637
Fear
in dreams, 405
infantile, 583—586
objective, 502
of being alone, 584
of dark, 584
Fechner, G., 684, 692, 72611
Federn, Paul, 358
Fensterln, 233
Female and male differences,
580—582
Féré,C.,539n
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                NOTE
A.A.B.
Abel, K., 314
Aberrations (see also Perversions)
as inhibited development, 588
sexual, 52 I—547
shown by psychoneurotic,
542—543
with children and animals,
530—53’
Abraham, K., 33711, 363, 566n, 873,
909, 920, 922, 929, 930, 940
Absolute inversion, 522
in exhibitionism, 537
of sadism and masochism,
537—539
Abstract wit, 656
Absurd dreams, 377—402
Absurdity in jokes, 633
Acceleration of thought in dreams,
430
Accidental stimuli, 245—246
Actions
accidental, 88
chance, 97—108
symbolic, 96
symptomatic, 8,, 97—108
collection of, ioón
examples of, 97—98
groupings of, 99
Activity, muscular, 568—569
Actuality in wit, 683-685
Adhesion, heightened or fixated,
596
Adler, A., 121, 122, 36011,48711,
928—929
his theory criticized by Freud,
933—94’
INDEX
949
‘0
Affective processes, 569—570
pathogeny of, 569
value of unconscious thought
formula, 541
Affects
conversion of, ~
displacement of, 214
in dreams, 402—42 2
inhibition of, 408
inversion of, 410—411
of dream-thoughts, 417—418
reinforcement of, 418
sources of, 416, 422
theory of, 489
transference of, to waking state,
4,5
transformation of, 410
Agassiz, L., 624
Aggression, 537, 66,, 666, 670, 704
sadism and masochism,
537—539
Agoraphobia and walking
disorders, 489, 56911, 849
Agreement in dreams, 314—315
Aims of impulses, 543—544
Albertus Magnus, 46011
Alexander’s dream, i58n
Algolagnia, 537
Allegorising, symbolisms, 447
Alluring-premiums (in wit), 693
Allusions (in wit), 644—646, 704
Alternatives in dreams, 312—313
Altruistic impulses, 267
Ambiguity
in dreams, 195
in wit, 62o—621
950 
Ambitious impulse in wit, 698
Ambivalence, 566
of emotions, 789—832
Ambivalent
behavior, 798
impulses, 802—803
American Psychoanalytic
Association, 930
Amnesia, 65, 445, 798
connected with infantile sexual
activity, 56on
infantile, 32, 549—550
and hysterical—compared,
550
temporary, 16—17
Amphigenous inversion, 522
Anacitic, 555, 58211
Anagogic interpretation, 447
Anal erotic zone, 52911 (see also
Anus)
erogenous significance of,
557—558
masturbatory irritation of,
557—558
Analyses of dreams, 219-244,
259—283, 343_415
“A Beautiful Dream,” 292—295
“Botanical Monograph,”
209-2 13, 290—292
“Irma’s injection,” 164—172
Analyses of word-forgetting and
faulty word-reproduction
‘‘aliquis,” 9, 10
“Castelvetrano,” 24
“Ode to Apollo,” 14
“Signoreffi,” 4—8
“Young,” 21
Anamnesis, 302
Androgyny, 526
Anesthesia
causes of, 582
in newly married women, 581—582
of wives, caused by parent
complex, 586
INDEX
Animal phobia, 873
Animals as sex objects, 53~53,
Animism, 845—848
defined, 833, 835
Animistic phase, 844—845
Anticipations, 37
Antithesis in dreams, 313—314
Anus (see also Anal erotic zone)
as aim in inverts, 529, 533—534
transgression, 533, 543
Anxiety
dreams, 204, 257, 279—280, 284,
358, 487—493
on railway trains, 568
Application of same material in
jokes, 621
Arabs, dream interpretation of,
i58n
Arduin, Dr., 527fl
Aristandros, i58n
Aristotle, 15711, 465—466, 682
Arithmetic in dreams, 370-372
Artemidorus, ,58n, 32 In, 33911,
50711
Association, similarity and
contiguity, 841
Association-experiment, 916—9,7
Associations, 7,494
Astonishment in dreams, 396-398
Atkinson, 872
Attention, as a definite psychic
function, 497
Attraction and pleasure, 573—5 74
Attributions (in wit), 652—654
Auditij~s, 33
Autoerotism, 554—555, 843
of erogenous zones, same in boys
and girls, 580
of infantile sexuality, 559—561,
565
Automatic process in laughter,
707
part played by erogenous
zones in, 545
L
Automatisms, 513—514, 637—638,
705—707, 759
Aversion and awe (in taboo), 795
Avoidances, 782
brother-sister, 782—783
father-daughter, 783
mother-in-law, 783—787
Awkwardness, accidental, 94—95
Back, G., 18311
Bacon, Francis, iio, 839
Bain, A., 701, 74511
Banchieri, 18311
Bastian, 810
Baths, therapeutic effects of,
567—5 68
Bayer, 55m
Bed-wetting, 70, 359, 559—560
Behavior of paranoics, 130-13 I
Bell, S., 54811, 56211
Benedikt, M., 425
Bergson, H., 736n, 751, 761
Bernard, C., 446
Bernheim, 7511, 194
Betiheim and Hartmann, 354
Binet, 535, 546
Binswanger, L., 920
Biographical dreams, 335—336
Birth theories, 563—564
Bisexuality, 343, 359—360, 526
as explanation of inversion, 528
normal in childhood, 580—581
sadism and masochism in,
538—539
Bjerre, P., 920
Bladder-stimulus
dreams due to, 245, 249—250
disturbances in children, 55 9—560
Blasphemous witticisms, 675
Bleuler, E., i8, 56, 13011, 337n,
54911, 566, 72511, 79811,
915—917, 925
Bleuler-Freud, 18311, 31411, 33211
Bloch, I., 52111, 52411, 53211
INDEX 
‘0
Blood miracle, mm
Blunders, speech, 37—54
Boas, F., 866
Bodily stimuli, 245
symbolisation of, 248—250
Boileau, quoted, 54n
Bon mot, 6i8
Botanical monograph, dream of,
209—213, 290—292
Brandes, G., 278
Breaking of objects, 84—87
Breaking of taboo, 791—792,
800—80,
Breast
sucking, 554
symbolism in Faust, 294
woman’s, as erogenous zone, 574
Breuer,J.,
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                       for Madonna’s
first London concert
7 9,390 Airline workers
 who were laid off after the
$15 billion Aid pack-
terrorist attacks
age passed by Congress
to bail out the airlines
Office of the Mayor, Reuters,
Sources: 
NY Times, Chicago Tribune, NYT, CNN, NYT (2),
TIME, CIA, AP, Reuters, United Nations (2), AP (2),
Twin Towers Bldg.
	Time October 10, 2001

        It takes nothing away from Bush,
and the clenched-jaw poise with which
he delivered his speech to Congress, to
say that but two weeks ago, few would
have thought him adequate to the task
he now faces.
	Time October 10, 2001

“Sometimes he can be too plain-
spoken,” says an adviser.
	Time October 10, 2001

 ence than to a TelePrompTer as he sits at
a desk; that is why the White House sug-
gested that his call to the nation should
be given to the entire Congress, packed
into the chamber ofthe House of Repre-
sentatives.
	Time October 10, 2001

       Apart from Cheney (Defense Secretary
10 years ago) and Powell (Chairman of
the Joint Chiefs of Staff back then), Bush
can call on Rice, an NSC staff member in
his father’s Administration, and Paul
Wolfowitz, now Deputy Secretary of De-
fense and then Cheney’s policy aide.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                                                                                                          
put in a call to the White House late Thursday after his It is still hard for some to grasp, but this habit of small, in-

son George W. Bush, No. 43, had finished his wan speech timate confidences is the rock on which the Bush clan is

to the joint session of Congress.
	Time October 10, 2001

                           When Congress of-
fered $100 million tolocal fire departments
for disaster preparedness last year, Wilt
notes, $3 billion worth of requests poured in.
	Time October 10, 2001

Many in
Congress agree.
	Time October 10, 2001

  Thejob is not without risk for a person
considered one of the Republican Party’s
brightest stars.
	Time October 10, 2001

“We could intercept 20 different plots,” says
Rendell, “but if three get carried out, he
has failed.”
	Time October 10, 2001

            But maybe Ashcroft was right to 
think he had to act fast, and not only be- 
cause he needs to crack terrorist net- 
works before they can strike again.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                                                                                  Some observers think even
now Washington is doing all it can to get curiously absent from the closed-door that level of assistance won’t avert trou-
consumers to open their wallets.
	Time October 10, 2001

tion signed a $40 bfflion stimulus package sort to “off-the-shelf political things that Insurers, which are probably facing a
to help with the recovery effort and the 
fight against terrorism.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                  Presi- 
dent Bush is pushing for an increase in 
charitable deductions, while Citigroup 
executive committee chairman and for- 
mer Treasury Secretaiy Robert Rubin, 
who joined Federal Reserve Board 
Chairman Alan Greenspan in a private 
meeting with congressional leaders last 
week, is recommending moves to stimu- 
late consumer spending.
	Time October 10, 2001

                While waiting 
out the slump, here’s how to 
survive it: 
GRAB A MORTGAGE NOW.
	Time October 10, 2001

That’s confetti.
	Time October 10, 2001

                                           Maps © Mapquest
Endpaper map © Anita Karl and James Kemp
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Meyer, Karl Ernest, and Brysac, Shareen Blair
Tournament of shadows : The Great Game and the race
for empire in Central Asia / by Karl E. Meyer and Shareen
Blair Brysac.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                      Authors’ Note
Selective Chronology
PROLOGUE: The View from the Khyber
PART I
CHAPTER ONE
CHAPTER TWO
CHAPTER THREE
CHAPTER FOUR
CHAPTER FIVE
CHAPTER SIX
PART II
CHAPTER
CHAPTER
CHAPTER NINE
CHAPTER TEN
CHAPTER ELEVEN
SEVEN
EIGHT
CONTENTS
The Horse Doctor
A River Too Far
The Road to Kabul
“Here Comes the Messenger”
The Russians Are Coming
The Raj Imperiled
Bloomsbury’s War
Her Majesty’s Indian
Secret Service
“A Carbine in One Hand,
A Whip in the Other”
Mystical Imperialism
Emissary to the White Tsar
ix
xi
xiii
xvii
3
27
52
77
111
137
173
202
223
241
261
‘S..,
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

We have applied the same agnos-
tic principle to the insoluble matter of spelling proper and place names.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                           When the Civil War broke out, he raised
a regiment known as Harlan’s Light Cavalry, and a few years later
urged Congress to provide $10,000 for a Central Asian expedition,
which he proposed to lead, to acquire fruits and wine grapes.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Skobelev’s
sword was cut in two in the middle.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                Less oner-
ous terms were ratified at the Congress of Berlin summoned that sum-
mer by Salisbury, where (in Henry Kissinger’s admiring judgment)
Bloomsbury’s War :. 183
ft
184 TOURNAMENT OF SHADOWS
Disraeli emerged as the only statesman to outwit Bismarck—a short-
term triumph overall (in the more critical view of A. J. P Taylor) since
it persuaded the British they could play a great role without allies, ex-
pense, or exertion.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Hume even-
tually broke with Blavatsky, and took up the national cause.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                          In 1885,
on retiring from the civil service, Hume summoned the first meet-
ing of the Indian National Congress, in the hope of winning a
greater role for Indians in administration under the British Crown.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Now it was “dishonourable” to get better terms for his
country than his masters sought.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                              An ac-
count of a visit to Turfan in 1878 by the botanist Albert Regel—re-
portedly on a Russian intelligence mission to Central Asia—had
guided Klementz to the ruins.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                             It was the same year that Curzon was forced
to resign, and it fell to his successor, Lord Minto, to endorse Stein’s
proposal.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                        As seen in films like Kundun and Seven Years in
Tibet, old Tibet is more than ever an implausibly peaceable kingdom,
its links with China and its ambiguous liaison with British India sim-
ply ignored.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                       “Owing to the
rapid growth of our power and our interests on the Pacific,” he in-
formed Congress, “whatever happens in China must be of the keen-
est national concern to us.”This
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

While an envoy in Greece.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                 Ms. Besant, who began her adult life as a Fabian
Socialist and atheist, turned to Theosophy and in 1893 sailed to
India, where she plunged passionately into the national cause.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

            So I was careful to write to Lhasa on the note paper of
the Viceroy, also on that of the [Indian] Commander-in-chief, whom
fortunately I also knew—never on hotel paper.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

   Sensing that Cutting might serve as a usefhl go-between, the Dalai
Lama asked if there was an American market for Tibetan wool (there
was, for automobile carpets), and whether Cutting as a goodwill ges-
ture might pass along letters to the State Department.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                               On a shrewd hunch, he guessed that Col-
orado, the state with the highest average altitude, was the likeliest
place to train Tibetans, and telephoned the librarian of The Denver
Post.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

       So generally known was Caroe’s preference for the Muslim
League that supporters of the Congress Party contended that he
could not conduct impartially the referendum on the North-West
Province’s future.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

           The British treated India, he remarks in his autobiog-
raphy, as an enormous country house in which the gentry took the
best rooms and consigned the Indians to the servants’ hail.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                 By co-
incidence the following year, Burnham’s influential tocsin, The Strug-
gle for the World, appeared the same week that President Truman
called on Congress to replace the faltering British and provide mili-
tary aid to Greece and Turkey.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                     In London,
Marion Underhill, The Times Bureau’s Permanent Undersecretary,
was there when needed.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                     We employ the fol-
lowing abbreviations—OIOC: Oriental and India Office Collection, British
Library; LOC: Library of Congress; NARA: National Archives and Records
Administration; DNB: Dictionary of National Biography; DAB: Dictionary of
American Biography; RGS: Royal Geographical Society
William Moorcroft was forgotten by all but specialists until his feats were re-
called for a wider audience by John Keay in When Men and Mountains Meet: The
Explorers of the Western Himalayas (London, 1977) and Charles Allen in A Moun-
tain in Tibet:The Search for Mount Kailas and the Sources of the Great Rivers of India
(London, 1982).
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Dorwart, “The Roosevelt-Astor Espionage Ring,” New York History (July 1981),
drawing on Kermit Roosevelt’s papers at the Library of Congress.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

Chapter Twenty-One
Congress (Ms.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

“Our maps show that the McMahon Line”: Quoted, M. J. Akbar,
Nehru, 541.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

   It is different, however, if no external factors but internal hindrances
stand in the way of the direct realization of the tendency, that is, if an
inner feeling opposes the tendency.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                             This is shown by the spread of
psychoanalytic literature and by the increase in the number of doctors
who desire to practise or learn it, as well as by the mass of attacks upon
it at congresses and learned societies.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                         Brill has strengthened these influences by his med-
ical activities and his translations of my writings: Jones, by illuminating
lectures and clever discussions at the American Congresses.’
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                                                            In
the course of these years, I have read, perhaps a dozen times, in the re-
ports of the transactions of certain congresses and of meetings of scientific
societies, or in reviews of certain publications, that psychoanalysis was
now dead, that it was finally overcome and settled.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

       At one of the psychoanalytic congresses, the audience was deeply im-
pressed when a student of Jung pointed out the similarity of the phantasy-
formation of schizophrenics with the cosmogonies of primitive times and
peoples.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

                                The value of majorities at congresses
or society meetings was certainly doubtful, and my confidence in the
honesty and distinction of my opponents was always slight.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

tended scientific congresses must have received a lasting impression in
favor of the Psychoanalytic Association.
	The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

             Thousands of lamaists made annual pilgrimages to Mongo-
lia and Tibet, bringing into “this Asiatic wilderness” ideas of the
White Tsar, and these non-Slays would be drawn to the giant Rus-
sian Empire “not by cruelty but by kindness.”
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                                   even in normal times,” says Richard
son, cutting its sales growth outlook for Any such stimulus would probably Clarke, director of travel and transporta-
the fourth quarter from 4% to 2.2%—a
	Time October 10, 2001

By 1990 a State Department report singled out Hekmatyar for killing fel-
low Afghans.32
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

But how could he be so sure, so soon, that bin Laden was behind the
embassy bombings? Although bin Laden had not yet achieved his cur-
114 / HOLY WAR, INC.
	Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden

                                                           General Wey-
ler’s proclamation required that:’9
All inhabitants of rural areas or areas outside the lines of fortified
towns will be concentrated within the towns occupied by troops at
the end of eight days.
	Just and Unjust Wars

network in the mountains of
Afghamstan.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

His reply: “By 7."
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

But now investigators are groping with turned out, two ofhis housemates had also been going to school to
uncertainty, asking: Who else is still out there? And will they strike learn howto drive large trucks.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

      America’s Second Harvest: Through local
affiliates, this charity is supplying relief
workers and shelters with food and water.
	Newsweek September 24, 2001

                                                       The session with Greenspan and White ble—and that the only solution is for the
Federal Reserve Board slashed short- House chief economic adviser Larry airlines to get together, much like the
term interest rates half a point, its eighth Lindsey earlier in the week, told the corn- bankrupt railroads in the ‘70s, to carve up
cut this year, and the Bush Administra- mittee that the government shouldn’t re- territories and raise ticket prices.
	Time October 10, 2001

The Room’s members all
rallied to the British cause.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

“Times have changed”: Lampson to Stein,July 19, 1931 (OIOC).
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                                                     And
now, with Britain stretched to the limit by a global conffict, and fac-
ing in India a Congress—led “Quit India” campaign, the Raj seemed
at its most vulnerable.
	Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Central Asia

                                               Catching
footsoldiers andlieutenants will not be enough to stop
evengreatercataclysms.
	Newsweek October 1, 2001

                                            In
1995 Congressordered the creation ofa
database ofailforeign students; colleges
would have to tell the INS if a student moves
or drops several classes or even switches
majors.
	Time October 10, 2001

                              This form of economic organization seemed
most congruent with the principle of social justice, which all Islamic
tendencies advocate, and yet it was not based on social ownership of
all means of production, on whose rejection there was broad agree-
ment.
	The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan

Just and unjust wars.
	Just and Unjust Wars

george@mail.george345.com