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Here are keyword search results from the Tuesday, September 14, 2010, headline of The New York Times.

"Political Memo: After Volatile Primary Season, G.O.P. Faces New Test"

Here is the list of searched books:

After spending the night with his wife at the Roosevelts over the Christmas holiday, he peppered FDR with memos on legislation and personnel, particularly his thoughts on recognizing the railroad industry.

But like Ronald Reagan, FDR preferred to keep all policy memos to a page or two, no matter how important.

The NSC, for example, was 'bandying it about in memos.

367 'There never seems to be 
 Demarest memo to Rose Zamaria, April 11, 1989, 'Memos-Rose Zamaria 2/89-8/92' folder, Speechwriting, White House Office of, Administrative Files, George Bush Library.

They uncovered government memos that suggested she was prose
 cuted to 'break' Julius, and condemned this as a perversion of justice.

The group also successfully filed suit to obtain records regarding Mrs. Clinton's secret health care task force-including internal memos detailing the creation of a government 'interest group database' to collect personal information on interest group leaders, such as their home phone numbers, addresses, 'biographies, analysis of credibility in the media, and known relationships with Congresspeople.'z'

                                                                There are no historical commonalities 
which to build; indeed, the historical experiences that the West shares with the Islamic world are cru
 sades, colonialism, imperialism, and military intervention-not exactly the stuff from which happy-ever-aftering is made.

It is always about race and racism seasoned with other forms of prejudice, indiffer
 ence, and hate.

Harry Daugherty was certainly Harding's key backer, but Warren pos
 sessed another seasoned operative: his wife.


 And then, in a Febuary 13, 1985, letter to Thomas Sharkey, Principal Supervisory Agent for the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco, Greenspan made the specific pronouncement that the management of the Keating thrift enterprise Lincoln Savings and Loan was 'seasoned and expert in selecting and making direct investments.'

Bernard was a seasoned investment advisor and founder of the respected Value Line Investment Survey, but even he had misread the markets and the psychology of the investing public.

                                            Mr. Balanoff is not a member of the Governor's staff and did not purport to speak 
It strains credulity to believe that a seasoned Chicago pol such as Jarrett 'did not understand' that a gobsmackingly obvious 
quid pro quo 
 was being suggested to her at the behest of Blagojevich.

It had been seasoned with cardamom, and the scent quickly filled the air.

Camp Dodge had two units of seasoned troops; influenza had struck one group in the spring, and only 6.6

Encouraged, Jackson and his communications director Rick Bryant showed up for discussions in the luxurious Four Seasons hotel in Chi
 cago, only to find that they would not be meeting with Blagojevich or his chief of staff...

                He's a caricature of an investment banker, eighties
style-white collar on his striped shirt, slicked-back hair, Martha 
The Man Who Owns the News I   i i i 
 Stewart-worthy wife and children, and a regular table at the Four Seasons.

His rooms are stocked not just with luxury shampoos and lotions but with toothbrushes and razors-the things you'd expect at a Four Seasons-only Wynri s are of an even higher quality.

Even African rivers that are navigable may be navigable for some limited distances between cascades or waterfalls, or by boats of limited size, or for some 
Applied Economics 

 limited times during the rainy seasons.

We call these 'seasons' in a modern-day 80-year cycle, and they are much like our annual seasons in weather.

In the first two seasons, income inequality grows, with the rich getting richer and the top income groups taking the lion's share of the gains.

Standardized to Customized Economy 
a c 3 c r 
 The point is that the new upper classes and innovators set the trends for the next New Economy Cycle, which unfolds over four seasons.

In the next two seasons, the gains pass through increasingly to broader income groups as the new technologies become more accessible and govern
 ments react in the Shakeout Season to favor the everyday worker and household, including trends like rising labor unions.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   See Generation Cycle; New Economy Cycle 
elections: of 1932, 318; of 1936, 320; of 2008, 316,326; of 2012, 66-67, 309, 316, 317; and fundamental trends that drive the economy, 66-67; and health care, 309; midterm, 93-94; and Presidential Cycle, 93-95; and science of forecasting, 6; and Shakeout Season, 66-67;and strategies for Next Great Depression, 309 
Elliott Wave patterns, 73, 98-99 
 Elliott Wave Theorist, 95 emerging countries: baby boom in, 350; baby-boomers in,239-40;and bubbles, 33, 35; bull market in, 79; and commodities, 76,102; and Decennial Cycle, 93; depression in, 28,30; export exposure of, 27; and fundamental trends that drive the economy, 51, 69; GDP in, 350; and Geopolitical Cycle, 79; and global demographic trends, 14, 177-79, 182,184,188-91,193-96,238-42; and Great Crash (2009-10), 20, 2l, 23, 25, 26-27,33, 35; and impacts of Next Great Depression, 312, 314, 315,329,330,331,333,335-38,339, 344,345,347-51; Maturity Boom Seasons in, 349; and migration, 239; and New Deal (I930s), 322; Next New Deal in,14,322,333,335-38, 350; and recommendations for Next Great Depression, 277, 278, 279, 280, 287, 289,328; and Revolutionary Cycle, 85; and Shakeout Season, 349; slowing in, 280; technologies in, 350; and terrorism, 347, 348.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     See also Soviet Union 
S&L crisis, 117 
S&P 500, 9, 72, 73, 266,277 
S-curve cycles/trends: and bubbles, 33; and change and transitions, 258; and Commodities Cycle, 79; and determining risk and return, 253, 255, 269; and forecasting methods, 8, 9, 10, 11; and fundamental trends that drive the economy, 63; and Geopolitical Cycle, 79; and global demographic trends, 192; and Great Crash (2009-1003; and Growth Boom Season/Stage, 63; and new and recurring cycles for forecasting, 71; and Next Great Depression, 295, 296, 297, 312, 313; present-day, 57-58; and Revolutionary Cycle, 90; of technology, 52-58,90 
Saudi Arabia, 184, 192, 231-32 savings, 50-51,269 Scandinavia, 340, 341 Scottrade,290 
 seasons, 59, 98, 298.

Only in South Korea, the United States, and the Christianized 
regions of India is that percentage close to half of all re
 newed Christians.

Newer ones included the Union for National Socialist Lawyers, the National Socialist Doctors' Union, the Union of National Socialist Teachers, and the League of Struggle for German Culture.

The demand for many of the newer technologies was growing rapidly, but capacity was expanding even faster.

'' To put this ideainterms of the Hegelian dialectic, out of the clash between thesis and an
tithesis comes synthesis, the rising up of a newer, more advanced stage of his

The Paranoid Paradoxes of Race
What Dave Chappelle Can Teach
Us about American History
The Birth of Political Correctness and the
White Man's Newest Burden
De Cardio 
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Hunting for Racial Wolves in Sheep's Clothing
4 111
ISBN-10: 0-465-00216-1
Racial Paranoia's Canonical Texts
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
5 139
Peter Piper Picked Peppers, 
but Humpty Dumpty Got Pushed 
The Productively Paranoid Stylings of Hip-hop's Spirituality 
vi Contents
When Everyday Life Becomes a Media Event
frican American comedian Dave Chappelle shocked his fans in 2005 when he walked away from the third season of his hit Comedy Central television pro
,   gram, 
Chappelle's Show, 
 and away from the $50 million he was supposed to earn making it.

                                                                                                                                                               For the slave masters who had to discern the cloaked 
The Birth of Political Correctness and the White Man's Newest Burden 

 hile it was economics that drew Europeans to Africa in search of inexpensive overseas labor power for their expanding global empire, labor they used in their colonies to produce cheaper raw materials for the con
 sumer products demanded by their growing populations back home, slavery also rested on religious foundations.

In the early days of the twenty-first century, the newest Cumberland Gap was not geological but digital-yet another vir
gin territory fertile with freedom and ferment, this one called the Inter- 

The newest West for freedom-seeking utopians doesn't exist on the land; it is not be
 yond the Alleghenies, or in the vastness of the Far West.

As for Vermont, it most recently had given the nation Governor Howard Dean, M.D.-who nearly won the Democratic nomination in 
 on the first wave of protest to be generated by America's newest 'local' frontier, the new West of the Internet.

They often overpay for the newest and hottest stocks, while neglecting older, traditionally sound investments like oil stocks, consumer staples, and utilities.

                                                                                                                            It cited an Oakland 
236 - Panthers 
school-board proposal for student identification cards designed to cut down the truancy, vandalism, and violence that had plagued the district: 
 The vast Black, Chicano, Asian and conscious White Youth communities of the Oakland-Berkeley area understand that this newest extension of police surveillance is patterned after fascist Amerikan tactics of genocide murder and imprisonment practiced by Amerikan-financed puppet governments in Vietnam, the Philippines, Chile and South Africa.

That's my newest lover.

 The importance of being ahead of the curve in utilizing the newest forms of communication in registering, informing, and mobilizing voters couldn't have been more striking than it was in 2008.

But informed opinion, as reflected in news
 paper editorials, speeches by notables, and ultimately in the 1864 elections, slowly shifted to Lincoln's side.

When it made the news, however, most people just considered it to be in extremely bad taste.

                                                                                                                                           One way we learn is through the mass 
Introduction   7 
media; journalists can frame issues in ways that challenge or reinforce our own worst racial cliches and stereotypes: complicated college rape investigations are reduced to sim
plistic racial melodramas; news wire services caption Kat
 rina photographs so that white victims merely 'find' food while black ones explicitly 'loot' for it.

 Many white Christians considered slavery to be the di
vine will of God, an ordained mechanism for spreading 
 the news of his promise to the damned and forgotten.

There were disclaimers at the beginning and end of the program, but people were still overwhelmed by the spectacular bigness of the story itself and by Welles's use of a realist, documentarylike nar
rative style to relay the tale with breaking news reports be
 tween songs.

                        There was something faintly com
orting about disastrous 'breaking news' that wasn't so 
 calamitous that it couldn't be properly framed and covered by the network news anchors.

Whether they characterize the media's relationship to the power structure as overly cozy or cold, scholars blame much of today's heightened skepticisms on propensities specific to the current state of 
The fast-moving pace of our current news cycle com
bines with an insatiable market in sensationalism to dis
 suade many academics from entering that fray and going too public with their work.

If NBC doesn't cover something the way other out

 did, of course, was turn on the television to see if one of the news channels had a 'breaking' story about what was going on up the street.

When that didn't materialize, we decided to check the 11 p.m. news for some kind of sum
 mary (long after the officers had left) of what the 'bomb scare' (as one of my neighbors claimed it had been) was all about.

                                     The Nightly News Nightmare 
The Nightly News Nightmare 

Stephen J. Farnsworth and S. Robert Lichter 



Appendix A: Campaign Information Items Used in the Content Analysis   209 Appendix B: Internet Resources on the News Media and 
Presidential Elections   213 
References   217 
Index   235 
About the Authors   245 

I. I.

                                                                                                                            CHAPTER 1 

he news media are often viewed as the fourth branch of government, a perspective that bestows a sense of dignity, authority, and impor
tance comparable to the Supreme Court, the presidency, and the Con
 gress (cf.

This vision of the news media as the 'fourth estate' is not misplaced, since the news media influence the presentation and interpretation of campaigns as well as the performance evaluations of those who ultimately are elected.

Each network evening news story, and there are over 1,000 of them coded here for each of the past five presidential election cycles, is analyzed along several different dimensions that allow for studies of media content from many different perspectives.

This is done here through die process of content analysis, in which each news segment related to the presidential election is carefully coded into cate
gories that describe whether the segment was positive, negative, or neu- 
 tral toward each candidate as well as who the source of that commentary was (candidates, citizens, outside experts, and reporters themselves are examples).

Each story is also coded into categories that describe which topics were addressed in each news segment (campaign strategy, tax cuts, or health care are examples).

These data dissect every campaign stews segment that aired oil the evening news programs of ABC, NBC, and CBS during every presidential election lion 1988 to 2004.

                         These data include 
evening news segments froth the general elec
 tion period, froth the primaries, and fiorn the 'preseason' campaigns that occur the year before the primaries and the presidential election.

                                                                                                                                         Our com
parative data allow us to say that many other news outlets-including other television news outlets and several of the nation's leading news- 
papers-do a better, often a far better,job of providing citizens with the infbrrnation needed to understand and evaluate the campaign, the candi
 dates, and the issues.

In other words, the mediated coverage of network news has become so negative and so inac
 curate that the unmediated speeches, advertisements, and Internet web pages of the highly self-interested campaigns can qualify as the more sulr stantive, more useful, and more accurate forms of campaign discourse.

Three-quarters of those surveyed by Louis Harris and Associates in 1996 expressed sup
port for the news media's role as a watchdog on government and 63 per
 cent on balance think that reporters help democracy more than hurt it through their reporting (1: Smith et al.

                                                                                                                         Reporters may have little under
standing of the uncertainties of polling, including such things as margins of error, but that does not stop them from talking about polls frequently dur
 ing the half=hour nightly news programs (Larson 2001; Owen 2002).

Of all the declines in the quality of network television news in recent decades, perhaps none has been as dramatic as the reduction in a presi
 dential candidate's ability to address the issues in his or her own voice on network television news (luring the presidential campaign.

A study by Kiku Adatto (1990) found that the average length of time a presidential candidate spoke in his own words oil network television news during the 1968 campaign was 42 seconds.

        Network news, with its national reach, offers the opportunity for a shared national 'schema,' or shared orientation toward a particular sub
ject (Graber 1988)-or at least network news did offer that opportunity for a shared perspective before parts of its audience moved away in the di- 
rection of die much wider range of information and perspectives pro
 vided by such media as talk radio, cable news channels, and the Internet (Davis arid Owen 1998; Owen 1996).

                                                                                 (Kurtz 2002b:A20) 
Attention paid to network news coverage 
presidential elections has shown the same dramatic decline in viewers, and in influence, as has net
 work news overall.

contains tire results of 'a series 
 year surveys that show what news sources citizens say they are using as they collect information about that year's presidential contest.

                                                                                                                                                                                 U.S. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS   27 
News coverage of the past several presidential elections has been marked by a particularly steep decline in public attention to the Big Three evenings news programs, as viewers appear to have moved in the direc
 tion of higher-quality news.

It is no wonder that citizens during these years turned to television in increasing numbers and for an increasing share of the news they consumed.

            (Wayne 2003:136-37) 
Amount of Network News Coverage 
 Even before the general election stage of tile presidential selection process begins, the networks routinely face criticism for cutting back on their live coverage of the party conventions.

Critics saw these reductions in cover
 age as evidence of how the network news departments pay less attention to 'hard' political news and more to 'soft' news of lifestyle trends and human interest stories (Patterson 2000).

From the unofficial January 1 start of the 2000 primary season through the eve of the New Hampshire primary January 31, 2000, the network evening news shows were about as likely to feature the challengers, former senator Bill Bradley (D-NJ.,

who subsequently won die seat convincingly in 2000-was the subject of 107 stories during die twelve-month period, more network news coverage during that preseason period than arty single candidate seeking a major
 party nomination for president.

The network news divisions responded by vowing to pay greater attention to the topics thatjournalists considered most relevant to the public inter
 est, regardless of' the candidates' spin on issues and events.

Network news coverage of the Gore and Bush campaigns' strategies (136 stories and 127 stories, re
 spectively) each outnumbered stories about their competing economic policies (44 stories) by about a three-to-one margin.

In fact, late-breaking allegations of Bush's twenty-four-year-old drunken driving arrest generated more network news stories in the last three days before the election (16 stories) than all foreign policy issues received throughout the entire 2000 campaign (10 stories).

For the five presidential election cycles subject to the CMPA content analysis, horse race news has been heavily emphasized on network television, usually at the expense of stories that focus on the pol
 icy proposals of the candidates.

                                                                                                                 The 'politics as sports' focus of net
work television news does little to raise the quality of candidate discourse nor does it give citizens the information they need to evaluate which can
 didate would make a better president.

Mgws: 'Lotus of 
(Speaking Time Percentage)   
2004*   2000   1996   1992 
67% 74% 73% 71% 
12% 12% 13% 12% 
Other sources   
21%   14%   14%   - 
data based on a random 
percent sample 
 all election news stories.

Brown, who eventually emerged in 1992 as the strongest challenger to the well-financed Clinton primary operation, was featured or mentioned in only seventeen network news stories during tile month before the New Hampshire primary, as compared to sixty-eight features and mentions for Clinton; thirty-nine for Sen.

In these ways, candidate fraining is the news media's gift to itself, and it is a gift that keeps on giving.

                                                                                 Given the convergence of media opinion regarding how much time re
porters should spend talking about themselves arid to each other in news reports, it is impressive how many voters rebel arid try to redirect earn
 paign discourse in the direction of more substantive matters.

supercilious behavior fit into a news frame that the then vice president was a major-Icague know-it-all, a vision of the vice president that was frequently used in 
Saturday Night 
 parodies of Gore (Paletz 2002).

The latter two were seen as more newsworthy because of the 'serial exaggerator' news frame that haunted Core and worked to Bush's advantage throughout the 2000 campaign.

To be sure, the declining amount of coverage, the heavy mediation of news content, and the shrinking sound bites are all serious problems.

But our scientific content analysis shows that the 2004 general election campaign was notable for the one-sided nature of network news coverage.

                                                       CHAPTER 4 
A PLAGUE ON ALL YOUR HOUSES Negativity, Fairness, and Accuracy 

ith this chapter, we turn to the most controversial aspect of eam
paig n 
 paign news.

While news coverage ofprevious presidential elections was usually more 
112   CHAPTER 4 
balanced than it was in 2004 there were serious problems with the nega
 tivity, fairness, and accuracy in all five campaigns we studied.

              Michael Robinson and Margaret Sheehan conducted the first 
large-scale content analysis of print and broadcastelection news, which 
 cused tin the tone of coverage during Campaign 1980.

Los Angeles Times political reporter Robert Shogan (2001:171) reported that Richard N. Bond, a former Republican Party national chairman, said that GOP attacks on the news media were designed to be like coaches yelling at umpires, 'in the hope, as Bond put it, that `maybe the ref will cut you a little slack on the next one.''

Contrary to the conventional wisdom, the 1996 primaries, like the general election that followed, were marked by positive and informative candidate messages that were undennined by network news coverage that selectively focused on the most negative elements.

spite Dole's overwhelmingly positive stump speeches during the pri
 maries (78 percent positive, to be precise), a majority of Dole's sound bites (56 percent) that ran on the evening news were negative.

             Larson (2001) found that 87 percent of network news stories fea
turing poll results did not use experts to interpret the polls on-air, an ob
vious way for reporters to provide viewers with air interpretation for 

At that time, a cousin of George W Bush, the Republican nominee, working as a vote counter at Fox News, declared 
 that the Republicans had taken that crucial state, the state containing the electoral votes that would decide the next president.

Ellis, and the network's decision to place him in such a prominent role, was defended by Fox News President Roger Ailes, who described Ellis as 
 'a consrutunate professional' who acted 'as a goodjournalist talking to his very high-level sources' (quoted in Kurtz 2001a:C8).

deed, the evidence that news activates cynicism is so strong that die researchers raise the possibility that at least some citizens exposed to years of negative coverage of government and politics are perceiving poli
tics and policy though an overall negative frame that dominates one's thoughts about politics: 
 A public that has accepted the belief that officials are acting in their own self-interest rather than in die interest of the common weal can be easily pritned to see self-protuotion in every political act.

Citizens exposed to 
152   CHAPTER 4 
 a heavier diet of strategic, or horse race, campaign news generated higher levels of cynicism than those exposed to coverage that was less focused on the 'game schema' of polities (Cappella and jamieson 1997).

When they consumed news about as policy-oriented a matter as health care refirnn, citizens exposed to more strategic-oriented news showed greater cyni
 cism about die political process than they had previously possessed.

 This multicount indictment of network news is particularly troubling in light of the central role that the news media play in linking citizens to candidates.

                                                       CHAPTER 5 
DOES IT BETTER'? The Networks versus Other Campaign News Sources 
 fter every presidential election, the television networks promise to do better next time.

By basing our analysis on each individual sound bite rather than entire stories, and by examining every story during an election season rather than looking only at samples, we can determine in a far more ex

tensive and precise way just how poor arid how much worse a job televi
 sion news has done in campaign coverage in recent elections.

As this chapter demonstrates, we have come to a point in American journalism where the campaign speeches arid advertisements of candidates-so widely disparaged as the self-interested pleadings of the desperately am
 bitious-sometimes can be compared favorably to news media accounts.

While public television floes not have the commercial breaks throughout the broadcast found on the Big Three networks, the news hole (i.e.,

actual airtime apart from commercials or promotions) of the 
NewsHour is 
 slightly less than that of the three commercial network evening news shows combined.

This is not to say that the Big Three could successfully emulate PBS, whose evening news
 cast is seen by a far smaller and more elite audience.

To measure local stews coverage, we examined campaign news fiorn a sample of fifteen local newspapers, representing cities of varying sizes and fiotn different geo
 graphic regions.

                                                                                         The local newspaper composite 
included the 
Las Vegas Review_7ournal, Dallas MorningNews, Fargo Fo
rum, Salem Statesman Journal, Oakland Tribune, Manchester Union
Leader, Winston-Salem journal, 
Chicago Tribune, Boston Globe, Tucson Citizen, Flint Journal, Shreveport Times, Harrisburg Patriot-News, Miami Herald, 
 Los Angeles Times.

Thus, public broadcasting offers a model of eleetion news that is more thorough, more substantive, and more pos
 itive in tone than its commercial network counterparts.

I Iowever, this conclusion runs counter to a recent 'revisionist' portrayal of PBS election news that depicted the comuter
 cial and public television newscasts as fintdantentally similar in style, substance, and duality.'

In the remainder of this chapter we will see what the coverage tells us about the possibility of quality election news in sources other than the networks' evening news

During the 1996 general election, for example, CMPA analyzed 2,360 news and editorial items from a wide range of television and print news outlets, including local as well as national news.

Past research involving local news coverage has found some similarities between network and local news coverage, and some differences (cf.

Both ABC and the 
Nightly News 
 had less than half the percentage of substance found in the top four candidate-controlled campaign discourse categories.

(Tire relatively high performance of CBS was the result of the network's decision to include free-airtime statements during their evening news
 casts in 1996.

the news media suggest that the campaigns are more negative than they actually are and that the candidates are more critical 
each other than they actually are, 
Washington Post 
 (28 percentage points)-and nearly reached that level at CNN, where Clinton had a 21-percentage-point advantage.

                                      For example, conservative tele
vision cotmncrttator Pat Buchanan, who challenged Bush from the ideo
 logical right in the 1992 Republican primaries, fared far better on the television nightly news programs than did the more moderate incumbent president that year.

In addition, notwithstanding research showing that about 90 percent of the White House press corps voted for Clinton in 1992, a CMPA content analysis of news coverage of Clinton's first two years in office found that negative evaluations made up 73 percent of network news coverage of his new administration, with only 23 percent positive evaluations.

It appears that the news media can be more substantive in orientation, particularly if you pay them to be so!

million grant from the Markle Foundation designed to improve the quality of campaign news coverage (Kerbel 1998:132).

                                                     Nader was rarely cov
ered by network news reporters during the campaign, even though his can- 
 didacy proved to be ofhistorie significance, dealing a fatal wound to Gore's hopes for the White House in 2000.

Wiry should you as a citizen take the trouble to vote when, judging from what die networks re
port, it looks as if there are no important issues, and none of the candi
 dates deserves your attention, much less your respect? Why watch the news if it doesn't consistently focus on the issues that will help citizens compare the candidates? With rights come responsibilities, and this is true not only fur citizens but also for the Fourth Estate.

     One likely 
192   CHAPTER 6 

 reason they perceive the process as lacking in substance and civility is that campaign news accentuates the least attractive elements ofelectoral realities.

The rapid movement of viewers in recent years from network television to cable news and to a lesser extent to the Internet, is well documented.

The sharp decline in citizen use of network television as a source ofcanhpaign news over recentyears was illustrated in the first chapter of this work (table 1.1).

                                                                                                                   These roving eyeballs denhon
strate that the television networks have a sound financial reason for ad
dressing some of the problems we have raised with respect to the trivial, negative, and skewed campaign material that dominates the nighty news

One source of optimism is that polls indicate that citizens can see the differ
 ences among various source of campaign news and information.

The Declining Network News Audience 
Not only is the declining quality of network television's coverage of presi
 dential elections bad for candidates and citizens but it hurt the media cony parties themselves.

People are moving away from the network news in the direction of more effective and informative media sources.

                                                                                                                        Further evidence ofsuch a pub
lic willingness for higher-quality news programming is found in the steady erosion of the influence of network news in election politics and the rela
 tive strength of those media outlets, including print, CNN, and PBS, that our content analysis demonstrates offer far more substantial coverage.

We believe it is in the news media's best inter

    A network news operation more responsive to public desires, our evi
dence suggests, would allow candidates to say more, offer more even
handed commentary, provide a greater volume of information on-air, and 
198   CHAPTER 6 
 focus more oil the country's key issues.

One of the easiest ways to reduce the pressures that induce the networks to offer trivial, superficial, sound
 bite coverage is for those news programs to be longer, at least once a week but perhaps every night.

                                                         The powerful cynicism most voters have toward the national government most of the time-to
gether with America's Constitutional traditions to keep the news media as far away froru government control as possible-are highly effective barri
 ers to government intervention even in the volume of news programming provided, regardless of how low the quality of those programs may sink.

ing industry is also not likely to be pressured in any meaningful way by lawmakers who want to stay in the good graces of television station own
 ers from whom they will buy advertising time and from whom they will desire favorable news coverage of their next campaign (West and Loomis 1999).

While others may call for greater government regulation in thus area, we consider voluntary network news reform the best way-and the only po
 litically viable one-for the news business to move in the direction of higher standards for network news coverage.

          Another possible reform to reduce the news media's influence-return
ing authority for the presidential nomination process back to flue political 
 party bosses-rnay be a cure worse than the disease.

 barrage of negative commentaries that are the hallmarks of today's evening news programs.

                   In this way, competition from the expanded, less
mediated formats could indirectly nudge the quality of network news
 casts upward.

                                                       On virtually every measure we have considered in this analysis of presidential campaign cov
erage-Iroui volume, to horse race, to content, to tone, to issues, to sound bites-the Big Three network news programs have been weighed in the bal
 ance and fixmd wauting.'rlrey

have repeatedly been compared unfavorably to most other news outlets and, most dramatically, even to the candidates' campaigns theruselves.'lo

                          To appropriate another Marxist metaphor, 
however, without substantive improvement from its performance in re
 cent presidential elections, the broadcast network model that dominated election news in the latter half' of the last century may simply wittier away in the next one.

Other news media outlets, and the umuediated campaign information sources themselves, are providing great competition for these horse race-dominated, issue-starved, nega
 tively oriented programs.

Network television evening news shows, as America has known them since the 1960s, must evolve or they will likely die like the dinosaurs befure them.

                                                                                                                            Those 589 sto
ries were part of a total of 7,575 campaign news stories and editorials examined during the general election campaign from PBS, CNN, the 
New York Times, 
Washington Post, 
Christian Science Monitor, 
 Wall Street.7ournal,

On the Big Three network evening news programs there were 379 preseason stories (February 1 through December 31, 1987, 597 primary season stories (January 1 
 through March 15, 1988), and 589 stories during the general election campaign (September 8 through November 8, 1988).

                                                                                                  APPENDIX B 

(A key source of political and campaign news used by many viewers in the United States and around the world)

Sec also CNBC; CNN; Fox News Channel; MSNBC campaign advertising, 171, 176, 177 campaign agenda.

See also television network news 
 News, 173, 203; campaign news coverage, amount of, 44; horse race to.

                              See also cable televi
sion news; Larry King Live 
Committee of Concerned journalists (CCJ), 156-57n2 
compensatory coverage, 68,70,124; nomi
nation campaigns and, 128-29, 132 Concord 
Condey Chuck, 87 
 Conservatives, 8, 14.

147 Chotnsky, Noany 14 citizens: media use, 56; news media, evalua
tion of, 7-8, 56, 104, 109, 192-93; policy 
issue focus, 57, 104; political cynicism, 113-14, 151-52, 154,177-78; political debates, participation in, 59,64; political knowledge, 43, 55-56,97-98; talk shows, evaluation of, 193 
civil rights movement, 19 Clancey, Maura, 116, 124 Clark, Wesley, 47 
Clinton, Bill, 34, 70; campaign web site, 175;expectationsgatne
d, 38
41; impeachment, media coverage of, 49, 153; Lewinski scandal, 20,40,95-96, 153; media contempt, 105, 117, 181; media framing of, 99; presidential cant
paign (1992), 59, 87; presidential eatn
paign (1996), 135, 173; scandals, media coverage of, 13,20,40,63,95-96; tone ofcoverage, 115,121,122-23,127, 128-29,134,178-79,180 
 Clinton, Hillary, 49-50 Clymer, Adam, 105 CMPA.

                                                                            See alto cable television news CNN, 
,22,23,85,100,205;audience, 25; citizen participation, 8, 64; free airtime speeches, 172,173; horse race vs. sub
stantive focus, 181-82; presidential elec
 tion missteps (2000), 144, 145; self-referential focus, 16, 79, 81; tone of coverage, 178, 179.

                                                                               11, 12, 20, 21, 23, 39,41,47,48,51,71,72,73,95,96, 100,113,114,174,180,194,195,201, 204,207 
Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 199 
Fiedler, Tone, 142, 143 filmy 17-18 
Finnegan, Michael, 89 Fislrkin,James S., 195 Fitzwater, Marlin, 21,80-81,101-2, 115 Florida,3,69,142-43,145,146,155 Flowers, Geunifeq 13, 20, 100, 129 Forbes,Sabina,63-64 
Forbes, Steve, 136; media coverage, amount of, 50; talk show interviews, 63-64,135; lone ofcoverage, 130,132,135 
Ford, Gerald, 41 
Fox News Channel, 23,149 50,161-63, 173; audience, 25; media bias, 30, 161-62; presidential election missteps (2000),144,145,149-50; tone of cover
 age, 162,162-63, 176.

                                                                     See also cable television news 
Mudd, Roger, 194 Mueller John E., 19 Muskie, Edmund, 38,70 Mussolini, Bonito, 17 Mutz, Diana, 21,35 
Nailer, Ralph, 89, 183-84; campaign airtime, 83, 84-85; media coverage, 42 Nagourney,Adam, 13,138 
National Council on Public Polls, 66,141 National Enquirer, 134 
Nazis, 17 
NBC, 26,3O,64,75,172,173,205; campaign news coverage, 44; presiden
 tial election missteps (2000), 144, 146.

                                                                                                                       See also CNBC; MSNBC; television net
work news 
ABC Nightly 
News: horse race vs. substantive focus, 168, 1619, 171, 172; National Council 
Public Polls censure, 66, 141; tone 
coverage, 176, 177,178 
Nelson, Michael, 3, 29, 48, 62, 63, 144 Neunran, Russell, 151 
Neustadt, Richard E., 54,112 
New I Ianrpshire prinmry, 12, 20,38,46-47, 71-72; focus 
media coverage, 169-70 New Mexico, 147 
news hole, 164 N
sHour(PBS),9,30,134,164-66,165, 195; campaign news coverage, amount of, 164, 170, 186-87n1; horse race vs. substantive focus, 164, 167, 168,169, 171; tone 
average, 164,176, 177, 178 
news media: citizens' evaluation of, 7-8,56, 104, 109,192-93; competitive environ
nreat,13-14,21-22;democracy arid, 1, 189-90; presidential election missteps (2000),15,29,112,144117,149-50; transformation 
 environment, 22-24; trivial focus, 198.

                          See also television net
work news 
news media credibility gap, 203 
news media narcissism, 78-82, 103-4, 104-5,106-7 
 newspapers, 18; Internet and, 207; media negativity, 172; as political resource, 24, 25,26,56; reporter's narcissism, 78-79, 81-82; trivial focus, 198.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   See also specie presidential election 
presidential election (1944), 93-94 presidential election (1960), 34 presidential election (1980), 58, 114,124 presidential election (1984), 8, 124 presidential election (1988), 51-52; horse race vs. substantive focus of media cov
erage, 168; media coverage, amount of, 44, 45; media coverage, focus of, 51-52, 52, 54; tone of media coverage, 122, 123 
presidential election (1992): candidate air
time, 83, 83; debates, 59-61; horse race vs. substantive focus of media coverage, 52, 52, 54, 61, 168; media coverage, amount of, 44, 45; policy issue stances, 107-8; tone of media coverage, 115, 122,122-23,178-80 
presidential election (1996): candidate air
time, 83,83; horse race vs. substantive focus of media coverage, 52, 52, 167, 768,171; media coverage, amount of, 44, 45; tone of media coverage, 122, 122,134,176 
presidential election (2000), 2-3, 141-50; absentee ballots, 142-43; candidate air
time, 83,83-85; Congressional hearing, 149-50; exit polling, 143-45; horse race vs. substantive focus of media coverage, 52,52-53,54,65-67, 16'8,171; media coverage, amount of, 44, 44, 45; news media missteps, 15, 29, 112, 144-47, 147-49; postelection media coverage, 148-49; tone 
media coverage, 120-21,122,176 
presidential election (2004): candidate air
time, 91-92,92; Fox News Channel coverage of, 161-63, 162; horse race vs. substantive focus of media coverage, 52, 52-53, 53-54, 65,171; media coverage, amount of, 44, 44; negative ads, 89-90; now of media coverage, 118-19, 122, 123,176 
 primary campaigns.

Fox News C:hau

media bias and, 99; news media narcissism and, 103-4; of policy proposals, 107 
Media Monitor, 183, 207 
 media negativity, 15, 29-30; citizen cynicism and, 177-78; consequences of, 1.50-54;

                                                         4   ANN COULTER 
Asked about its make-believe reporting on Borja's undaunted heroism, the 
Daily News 
 observed that 'the paper had never explicitly said Officer Borja had rushed there soon after Sept. 11, only that at some point he had rushed there.''

The resurrected, but still unsubstantiated, rumor was published in thousands of news reports during the campaign, including major front
page coverage in the 
Baltimore Sun, USA Today, 
New York Post, 
New York Daily News, 
and the 
Boston Herald, 
and a full-page story in 
 Daily News.

                                                   McCain Running Mate's Rallying Cry' 
-Daily Record 
(Glasgow, Scotland), September 5, 2008 
'Sarah Palin: A Pit Bull with Lipstick' 
-Fresno Bee 
(California), September 5, 2008 
'Enter the Pit Bull with Lipstick' -Media General Washington Bureau, September 5, 2008 
'Sarah Barracuda: Pitbull in Lipstick' 
-Democratic Daily, 
September 6, 2008 
'The Difference Between Palin and Bush? Lipstick' 
-Moderate Voice, 
September 6, 2008 
'Pitbull in Lipstick: Palin Rips Obama' 
-Daily News 
(New York), September 4, 2008 
 So there did seem to be some vague connection between Sarah Palin and lipstick in the public consciousness when Obama made his remarks on September 9.

ter decades of patiently explaining to conservatives that before becom
ing journalists they had their opinions 'surgically removed,' as CBS's 
60 Minutes 
correspondent Lesley Stahl told Fox News's Bill O'Reilly back in 2000,
 suddenly liberals can't stop complaining about how bi
 ased the media are-against liberals.

They complain about what's front-page news and what isn't.


Mainstream media journalists are so desperate to be victims that they've had to leap beyond their torment at the hands of Fox News 
 to start claiming they're victims of ...

                               This is how liberals rewrite his
tory: No matter how many times we correct them, they just keep 
''Vandalism' Looks a Lot Like a White House Lie' 
-Deseret News 
(Salt Lake City), June 12, 2001 
 repeating provable lies.

Moreover, Krugman must be promoting his theory of liberal media bias around the news
 room, because there's an epidemic of liberal journalists attacking the media for covering up Republican scandals.

Demographic Characteristics of 
6 7 
11 12 13 14 15 
19 20 21 
24 2s 
 Steve Schifferes, 'Is the UK a Model Welfare?' BBC News, August 4, 2005.

90 91 
92 93 
Interview with Colin Powell, Fox 
News Sunday, 
Fox News Network, Septem
 ber 12, 2004.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See also specific reporter 
York Tares Book 
York Times 
37, 39, 116 Newland, Martin, 38-39 
29, 30, 114, 118, 144145, 162, 184,193,230 
Nexis, 72, 80, 81, 83, 247 
(ABC), 134,151 Nixon, Richard M., 108, 113, 121, 122, 124, 127, 135, 188, 193, 219, 259, 260 
nonquestions, media asking of, 246 North Carolina Republican Party, 87-88 NPR (National Public Radio), 13, 50, 97, 98,134,183 
Chains, Barack: announcement of presidential candidacy of, 256, 257; and attacks on opposition's family, 140; audacity as major theme of, 87, 226; and Ayers, 22, 23, 26, 78, 89-92, 96, 195, 262; Blitzer questions to, 84, 85; books by, 87; campaign financing for, 226-27; and Glintons, 82, 83; Cohen comment about, 173; comments about Michelle of, 231; death threats against, 256-58, 262; and drugs, 76, 78, 83; experience of, 240; 'Fight the Smears' website of, 93-94, 95, 97; funding for, 178, 239; Gandhi compared with, 250; as half-black celebrity, 7; and Ifill book, 16; Illinois Senate race of, 14038, 181; income/charitable giving of, 234-35, 236, 237; and Iraq, 86; and Jackson, 46; JFK as model for, 120, 232; and Joe the Plumber, 151; Kerry campaign influence on, 97; and kiss
and-tell books, 112; liberalism of, 78; lying by, 109-10; McCain comments about, 174, 181; on magazine covers, 230; and media partisanship, 20, 22-24,26,83-84,93,95-96,123, 218,224-27; media's lack of interest in facts about, 78; and meetings with foreign leaders, 96; and Michelle's 'proud' comment, 138; as Muslim, 74, 75, 94-95, 96; and opposition research, 138; and Palin, 22, 148, 173-74, 175, 176, 240; passport file of, 150-51; polls about, 216, 218; praise for, 224-27; predebate talking points of, 23-24; and race issues, 7, 11-12, 95, 172-73; and Republican Attack Machine, 74-76, 78, 79-80, 8536, 87--88,90-92, 94,95-97; Secret Service protection for, 257; selection as presidential candidate of, 108; and 2008 Democratic primaries, 74-76, 78, 79, 83, 89, 90-91, 154, 176; as victim, 24; Williams interview of, 225; and Wright, 24, 26, 74, 76, 77, 78,87-89, 90, 93, 94, 95, 96, 137, 181, 195, 225, 226 
Obama, Michelle: and Ayers-Obama relationship, 90; charitable giving of, 236; and death threats against Obama, 256--57; Kotecki Vest letter to, 256-57; 
media descriptions of, 228, 230-32, 234; Princeton thesis of, 230; 'proud' comment by, 77, 78, 96, 138-39, 157, 180, 239; public service career of, 234-35; and Republican Attack Machine, 77, 78, 95, 96; and 'strong woman syndrome,' 240; wealth of, 234-35 
O'Donnell, Lawrence, 1023 
Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, U.S., 117, 132-33 Olbermann, Keith, 80, 88, 117, 118, 135, 239,245 
Oliphant, Tom, 253-54 O'Neill, John, 99,102-5, 107 O'Neill, Paul, 130 
opposition research, 137-38, 166 O'Reilly, Bill, 135, 182, 256 Oswald, Lee Harvey, 259-60 out-of-wedlock births, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40-41,43,46,60-67,70 
Palin, Sarah: bravery of, 243; and 'Bush doctrine,' 241; as Christian, 162; experience of, 240; family of, 135-37, 
140,163-64; Fey as, 228; foreign policy knowledge of, 225, 241, 242; Gibson interview of, 240-41; hypocrisy about, 162-64; as liar, 110; as Liberal victim, 2; and lipstick comments, 174-76; and media partisanship, 20-22, 136-37, 219, 225; media research on, 136-37; NYT stories about, 149, 150; and Chains, 22, 148, 173-74, 175, 176, 240; opposition research about, 138; Parker call for withdrawal of, 114; racism of, 22; Republican National Convention speech of, 173, 177-80; and Richter divorce, 148149, 150; and sexism, 240-41, 242, 243; style of, 75; threats/violence against, 256, 263 parental rights, 61-67 
Paul, Ron, 157 Paulson, Henry, 235 PBS, 16, 17, 121 Pearl Jam, 250, 251 pen names, 199 People magazine, 71, 144 Perle, Richard, 129 Petraeus, David, 239 
Daily News, 160, 232, 263 Phillips, Stone, 160 
Phone, Valerie, 4, 200 
Pledge of Allegiance, 86, 136, 183 policy proposals, victims as means of launching, 2, 12 
Pollitt, Katha, 163-64 polls, 184, 209-19 popular culture: as anti-Bush, 247-51; and single motherhood, 45-46, 48, 59, 67-71 
poverty, 37, 39, 40, 41, 51 Powell, Colin, 246 pregnancy pact, 42, 68 presidency: and assassinations of 
presidents, 25830, 262-63; biographies of, 123-35; and descriptions of wives of presidents, 22834; lying by candidates for, 109-10; and racism, 11-12; and replacement of U.S. attorneys, 2034 Priest, Dana, 152 
Proposition 209 (California), 218, 219 Purdum, Todd, 82-83, 149, 161, 252 
Quayle, Dan, 45, 46117, 48, 54, 69, 219 
 race/racism; and CCC story, 24-25; and adoption, 44; and Allen maraca comment, 165-72; and assassinations, 260, 261; in colleges and univesities, 8-9, 10-11; and death threats, 257; and Duke lacrosse players, 2, 11, 30; and elections of 2008, 11-12, 22, 88-89, 95, 165-72; and half-black celebrities, 7-8; and McCain, 88-89, 172-73; and media partisanship, 24-25, 31; and Obama, 7, 11-12, 95, 172-73,257; and Obama (Michelle) Princeton thesis, 230; of Palm, 22; and presidency, 11-12; propositions about, 21.8-19;

I was left on my own to deal with this completely baffling and shocking news; I had no adult to turn to for help, comfort, guid
 ance, or answers to my questions.

Once the day was chosen, the news spread throughout the king
 dom and Mordecai, realizing that it would mean the end of all the Jews, knew that his people's only hope for salvation lay with Esther.

Obviously, it was terrible news but the magnitude of what she told me just didn't register.

The news barely dented page four of the 
New York 
Times-or page 
of the 
 anapolis Star.

             Noted the 
 The marital troubles of Mr. and Mrs. Cox have been no secret.

              The big news, however, was Hiram Johnson, sinking and never to rise again: 
Wood 312 Lowden 311
/2 Harding 105 Johnson 991/2 Sproul 76 Coolidge 28 La Follette 24 Poindexter 15 Hoover 4 
du Pont 3 Butler 2 Ward 1 Knox I Kellogg 1 Lenroot 1 
 On the eighth ballot, the totals barely budged, but Harding continued gaining ground (even the four Ohio 'deserters' returned).

                                   Cox, at his 
Dayton News 
office, received the news via Associated Press 
telegraph wire at 4:50 

When the Democrats nominated Cox and Roosevelt, the news came via the horse-drawn Ludlow-to-Woodstock stagecoach-a day late.

After Wooster College fired Chan-' cellor, he regained his nerve, went on the offensive, reiterated his racial charges, and vowed to sue the 
Dayton News 
 for $100,000 for printing his various statements to Sherwood Snyder, Lawrence V West, and Dean Compton, which he now claimed had never been made.

Dayton News 
backed him up, charging: 'The statement 
The journal 
 lished was deliberately made up in the office of that newspaper.'

I know is right': 
 News, 19 August 1920,p.

(New York) Times-Union Atlanta Constitution 
(Pennsylvania) Gazette Boston Globe 
Herald Boston 
(Connecticut) Telegram 
(West Virginia) Daily Mail Chicago East North 
Daily Herald Chicago 
Cincinnati Union 
Advocate Coshocton (Ohio) 
7hbune Dayton 
Decatur (Illinois) Daily 
Review Denton 
(Maryland) Journal 
Evening Telegraph 
Elyria (Ohio) 
Chronicle-Telegram Fitchburg 
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(Maryland) Post 
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Literary Digest McCall's 
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f4 Times-Democrat Lincoln (Nebraska) 
State Journal Los Angeles Times 
(Ohio) News 
(Ohio) Daily Star New York Call 
New York Sun New York Times New York 
Tribune Ohio 
State Monitor Oneonta (New York) Daily Star 
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Herald Reno 
Evening Gazette 
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Gazette Schenectady Union-Star 
Sporting News Syracuse Herald Syracuse 
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Warren (Pennsylvania) 
Washington Times 
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Republican-Herald Zanesville 
(Ohio) Times-Recorder 
The New 
New York Archives North American 
Ohio History 
The Western Journal 
World's Work 

 Committee on Naval Affairs.


 This book depends on a combination of personal narratives and factual analyses presented in the reports of human rights organizations, United Nations agencies, and major news organizations, as well as secondary and historical research published in books on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict or its history.

When a news
 paperman shouted, 'Roosevelt wins! And Howe!' Louis finally reached down and broke out some sherry he had put away twenty-two years earlier when the Billy Sheehan fight was underway in Albany, swearing he wouldn't open it until Roosevelt was president.

The yacht con
 tained a small mimeograph machine that produced a daily 'newspaper' made up of news briefs obtained by radiogram to keep the passengers at least modestly informed of events.

 Like word of his nomination in Chicago, Garne4 did not hear the news until the following day, long after radio listeners around the world learned of it.

The only good news was that this lack of transportation made starting a riot harder.

The overnight news was grave.

The center
 piece of the new law was the National Recovery Administration (NRA), which for several months after the Hundred Days became the biggest news in the country.

                            Chicago Tribune Detroit 
Press Detroit 
York Daily 
New York Herald-Tribune New York Times 
Washington Post 
The Atlantic Esquire Harpers Holiday 

Ladies' Home Journal The Literary Digest The Nation 
The New Republic (TNR) Newsweek 
The New York 
Books The New Yorker 
Saturday Evening Post Time 
 David Grubin Productions, FDR.

A sobering Catholic News Service story reported in 2006 that although the U.S. Catholic population rose by 1.3

McLaren, who had retired several months earlier, was guest preaching on breaking down oppressive systems and bringing good news to the poor and oppressed.

Television evolved to include live, remote broadcasts, then fractionalized from three networks into a panoply of outlets, including twenty-four-hour news channels, a multiplication process that has grown exponentially with the Internet.

So when he left the department in September 1933, he moved at once into preparation of a new weekly news and opinion magazine, Today.

'Nom That's What I Call a News Lead' 
 Office on Saturday, March 13, at Wallace's request, to discuss how best to maintain order in his state.

He once gave Goodwin a terrific scare by sending a fake news story to his office detailing harsh criticisms of LBJ that Goodwin had supposedly made to a reporter.

'As the first major testing ground in the industrial Middle West, Illinois was an important, perhaps decisive, prize for both President Carter and Ronald Reagan yesterday, putting the two front-runners well on the path toward a head-to-head race in the fall,' The 
New York Times 
 reported in a front-page news analysis on March 19.

Caddell held the telephone up to his television so that Hertzberg could hear ABC News's Ted Koppel discussing the tragedy.

 Post-ABC News poll in late May found that 36 percent of respondents identified drugs, crime, and violence as their primary concern-more than double the response for any other issue.

In addition to Kusnet, the speechwriting staff in the first year included Curiel, who had come from a journalism background that included 
Washington Post, 
New York Times, 
 and ABC News, and Alan Stone, a veteran congressional staffer who had joined the Clinton campaign from the failed bid of liberal Senator Tom Harkin o£ Iowa.

Cheney had ABC News on, and they had been staring at the TV in silence as smoke and flames poured from the North Tower of the World Trade Center when the second plane hit.

'Ike's Historic 1961 Warning,' Chicago Dady News, April 14, 1969.

 Ordinary German citizens reacted to the first news with a mixture of shock, consternation, and lack of understanding.

News from the front and letters home, however, indicated that they were dealing with a tough-minded opponent who was allegedly mistreating German prison

He gave the chore of breaking the news to the country to Molotov, 
 473 whose speech he 'edited' with other Politburo members.

On July 24 they liberated Majdanek, the first extermination camp, and stories about it filled the news around the world.

                           Our best source of information, we knew, would 
be television news; there are far more journalists in the world than intel
 ligence agents.

This hor
 rifying news hit us personally.

Soon, a new credibility gap will emerge as the Pentagon attempts to massage the news.'

The tawdry recklessness of this infla
 tionary process led to comments like those of cable television talk show host Chris Matthews, who announced: 'The Pentagon has created a new Office of Strategic Influence which plans to put out false news stories to the world's newspapers.

In an October 1998 speech, Levin declared: 
 The 'containment' strategy continued to deteriorate, prompting news media warnings.

These negative news-story sound bites did not improve the quality of the Administration's decision making, as proper interagency exchanges might have done.

As it was, the first flood of news stories depicted the CPA as cruelly throwing hundreds of thousands of Iraqis out of work with no financial cushion.

The news media gave little attention to the findings that Iraqi intelligence had destroyed evidence of its laboratory activities and that 'dozens of WMD-related program activities' had been concealed from UN inspectors, or to the opportunities for transfer and concealment of materiel that Kay cited.

This attack on Chalabi built on the many news media stories that said State and CIA officials judged the intelligence provided by Chalabi and the INC to be poor (and even dishonest)-inferior to the information pro
 vided by other Iraqi groups.

The news about the war in the past few years has been bad
 though in 2007 it turned promising enough to allow the Bush Administration to rebuff congressional pressure for an accelerated withdrawal of U.S. troops.

             187 bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993: Yasin was imprisoned by Sad
dam after the first year while the regime attempted to negotiate the conditions of his 
 transfer to U.S. custody, according to a CBS News interview conducted in the Iraqi prison.

'The Yasin Interview: A 60 Minutes Exclusive,' 60 Minutes, CBS News, June 2, 2002, available at 

       Back home, Americans felt a growing sense of humiliation and out
rage as they saw the crisis in Iran play out on the evening news night 
 after night with seemingly no light at the end of the tunnel.

 thing terrible has happened! You gotta come watch the news.'

 A few days ago the news agencies reported that the Defense Secretary of the Crusading Americans [William Perry] said that 'the explosion at .

All very good news, indeed.

                                 AHMADINEJAD STUNS WORLD 
Arab News, June 26, 2005 
AIAhram, July 7, 2005 
Agence France-Presse, June 25, 2005 

In one passage, Amini quotes Muhammad (from a hadith, not from the Qur'an), saying: 'Listen to the good news about 
 the Mahdi! He will rise at the time when people will be faced with severe conflict and the earth will be hit by a violent quake.

 Though it was largely unnoticed by the mainstream media in the U.S. and Europe, the release of the manifesto made news in the Middle East and was a significant development in the raging battle between the Radicals and the Reformers.

On June 7, U.S. and Iraqi intelligence forces tracked down and killed Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the head of 'Al Qaeda in Iraq' (AQI), and several of Zargawi's top advisors, in a dramatically successful eve
ning air strike that instantly electrified Reformers and the Rank-and
 File alike as news spread throughout the country.

News coverage of the mushrooming humanitarian crisis and the 
 fervent and unrelenting pleas of the Kurdish leadership eventually moved the U.S. and the U.N. into action.

News is being reported openly.

The news service went on to report that this security official had helped interrogate ten of the arrested evangelical pastors, had complained that Christian activities in Iran had gone 'out of control,' and was 'insist
ing that their church do something to stop the flood of Christian litera
 ture, television, and radio programs targeting Iran.''

In October 2004, Compass Direct, an international Chris
 tian news agency, reported that 'a top [Iranian] official within the Ministry of Security Intelligence spoke on state television's Channel 1, warning the populace against the many `foreign religions' active in the country and pledging to protect the nation's `beloved Shiite Islam' from all outside forces.'

The news about Him spread throughout all Syria; and they brought to Him all who were ill, those suffering with various diseases and pains, demoniacs, epileptics, paralytics; and He healed them.'

                                                                                                                                                        Among them: 
• Revolutions (Luke 21:9, NIV) 
• The rise of false prophets and false messiahs (Matthew 24:4-5, 11, 23-27) 
• Wars and rumors of wars (Matthew 24:6) 
• Nations rising against nations (Matthew 24:7) 
• Kingdoms rising against kingdoms (Matthew 24:7) • Famines (Matthew 24:7) 
• Plagues (Luke 21:11) 
• Earthquakes (Matthew 24:7) and 'great earthquakes' (Luke 21:11) 
• 'Terrors' that lead to 'men fainting from fear' (Luke 21:11, 26) 
• Persecution of the believers (Matthew 24:9) 
• Apostasy and betrayal of one another (Matthew 24:10) • Increasing lawlessness (Matthew 24:12) 
• People's love for one another growing cold (Matthew 24:12) 
• 'The roaring of the sea and the waves' (Luke 21:25) 
• The good news (the gospel) of Christ's love and forgive
ness will be preached 'in the whole world as a testimony to all the nations'-even Muslim nations, even Radical nations-'and then the end will come' (Matthew 24:14) 
 Jesus cautioned His followers not to speculate on the exact time of the Rapture or the Second Coming.

  In Matthew 
4:24-25, you 
 will find the news of Jesus' love and forgiveness spreading throughout all of Syria and Jordan.

In Acts 
 you will read that God poured out the Holy Spirit on the apostles, who immediately began preaching the good news of Christ's love and forgiveness to the Parthians (from northern Iran); the Medes (the Kurds); the Elamites (from southern Iran); the Mesopotamians (Iraqis); those from Cappadocia, Pontus, Asia, Phrygia, and Pamphilia (Turks); Egyptians; Libyans; people from Crete; and Arabs.

 ' Islamic Republic News Agency, June 4, 2008.

html, accessed August 25, 2008; Ahmadinejad, 'NBC Exclusive: Ahmadinejad on the Record,' interview with Brian Williams, NBC News, September 20, 2006,

Troops in Afghanistan Number More
 Than 32,000,' Associated Press, April 10, 2008; 'Canada to Boost Troops in Afghanistan,' Xinhua news agency, July 26, 2008; 'UK to Send More Troops to Afghanistan,' Afghanistan News Network, August 8, 2008; 'Pentagon Plans to Send More Than 12,000 Additional Troops to Afghanistan,' U.S. News &World Report, August 19, 2008.

See Cesar Soriano, 'Iraqi Leaders: Memo Details al-Qaeda Plans,' 
ENINITES // 588 
USA Today, 
 June 15, 2006; see also 'Officials Give Details on al-Zargawi Strike,' U.S. Multi-National Force Iraq news service, June 18, 2006.

See 'Morocco Makes More AI 
ENONOTE3 // 535 
 Qaeda Arrests,' CBS News, June 25, 2002; 'Morocco Dismantles 'Terrorist Network': Police,' Agence France-Presse, August 29, 2008; 'Morocco Arrests 17 Terror Suspects,' Associated Press, November 20, 2005; 'Morocco Arrests Four Female Terrorist Suspects,' Deutsche Presse Agentur, September 1, 2006; 'Dozens Held Over Morocco Plot,' Aljazeera, February 21, 2008.

As a novelist, he has been interviewed on hundreds of radio and TV programs, including ABC's 
Nightline, CNN Headline 
News, FOX News Channel, The His
tory Channel, MSNBC, The 
Rush Limbaugh Show, 
and The 
 Sean Hannity Show.

                          A SLOBBERING LOVE AFFAIR 
My former colleagues at CBS News, as you might imag
ine, were not happy with 
and one even told Howard Kurtz of the 
Washington Post 
 that writing it 'was an act of treason.'

An NBC News correspondent even admitted that 'it's almost hard to remain objective' when covering such a towering presence as Barack Obama.

My left-wing friends, for example, hate FOX News and they honestly believe that all you get on FOX News are conservatives-one loudmouth right-winger after 

would be a better word-think he's the sanest guy in television news, maybe the only one with the guts to speak truth to 

The Project for Excellence in Journalism found that MSNBC gave McCain the most negative news coverage of any television network.

A few bigots yell something nasty at a McCain or Palin rally and it was national news-the 
New York Times 
 pronounced the Republican candidates guilty of 'race baiting.'

Needless to say, editors have every right to decide 

 what they think real news is.


 A few days later the tapes showed up on FOX News, where they were played over and over again.

I had just started with CBS News and I was one of the pro
 ducers covering the campaign of George McGovern.


 henever I speak about bias in the news, the one point I make sure to drive home is this: contrary to what some conservatives think, there is no vast left-wing conspiracy to slant the news.

                                                               Let me 
assure my conservative friends that Brian Williams does not show 
up at NBC News headquarters at Rockefeller 
Center in the morning, 
summon his top lieu
tenants, usher them into a little out-of-the-way room where 

he dims the lights and pulls the shades, and then, after every
one gives 
everyone else 
the secret handshake and salute, asks his journalistic comrades, 'How 
are we going to screw those conservatives today?' 

I'm sure it is nothing more than an odd coincidence 

that the three papers that got booted-the 
Washington Times, 
New York Post, 
and the 
Dallas Morning 
 News-all endorsed McCain for president.

This time I was looking for everything ABC, CBS, and NBC News ran.

Charlie Cook, a well-respected, long-time journalist who specializes in election forecasts and political trends, told the audience, 'I think a lot of people in the news media were too young to cover Camelot and John Kennedy, they were too 

 young in most cases to cover Bobby Kennedy and so I think they were star struck by this Obama phenomenon.'

If I had still been at CBS News dur
 ing the campaign and had landed an interview with Barack Obama, I would have questioned him the old school way.

                 It's not that 

 those white males were bigots and would intentionally slant the news against women or African-Americans.

Not exactly a breaking news bulletin.

ABC News, 19, 20, 21, 69, 75, 84, 93, 96-97, 123, 129-30, 151, 155,170,171 
ACORN, 8, 40, 57, 59-60, 84 Air America, 132 
Al Qaeda, 30 
Media Freedom, 
American University, 1, 2, 10,167 Anderson, Brian C., 130-32, 176 Anderson, Pamela, 46 
'A Nixonesque Move by Team Obama,' 119 
AP, (see Associated Press) Associated Press, The (AP), 83, 85-88 
Astaire, Fred, 42 Atlantic, The, 15-16, 48 Axelrod, David, 114 
Ayers, Bill, 9, 40, 59-61, 84, 87, 88,89-103,144 
Babington, Charles, 87 'Bamalot,' 10, 151-57 Barbour, Haley, 149 Barnes, Fred, 164 Barnicle, Mike, 5, 44 Baskin-Robbins, 17 
BDS, (see Bush Derangement Syndrome) 
Beale, Howard, 29 Beam, Alex, 67 Beck, Glenn, 128 Bellantoni, Christina, 118 Bercovici, Jeff, 34 Beyonce,120 
Bias, 1, 2,176 Biden, Jill, 119 
Biden, Joe, 20, 58-59, 118-119 bin Laden, Osama, 9 Blackwell, Kenneth, 43 Bloomberg, 84 
Boston Globe, 
67 Boyer, Peter, 27 Braxton, Toni, 120 Brokaw, Tom, 13, 34-35, 101-2, 106,136-37 
Burton, William, 92 
Bush Administration, 52-53 Bush Derangement Syndrome (BIDS), 45 
Bush Doctrine, 20-21 Bush, George H.W, 107 Bush, George W., 54, 148, 154 
Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, 
Caddell, Pat, 165, 176 
Canadian Broadcasting Com
pany, 48 
Capitol Hill, 24 Captain Renault, 18 Capus,Steve, 33-35 Carter, Jimmy, 107 
CBS Evening News, 
CBS Morning News, 
CBS News, 1, 2, 16, 17, 19, 28, 41, 69, 71, 86, 123, 129-30, 143, 165,170-71 
Center for Media and Public Affairs, 19 
Chafee, Lincoln, 46 Chavez, Hugo, 102 Chicago Annenberg Challenge, The, 61,99 
Chicago Sun Times, 
40, 100, 120 
City Joumal, 101 
Clinton, Bill, 9, 64, 75, 95, 107, 110, 119, 156, 164 
Clinton, Hillary, 4, 39, 65, 74, 92, 
94-95,170 CNN, 17, 55, 59 
Colbert, Stephen, 12 Cole, Juan, 47 Colmes, Alan, 30 
Columbia Joumalism Review, 
13 Contract with America, 108 Cook, Charlie, 21, 139-40 Cornell, 29 
30 Comic, Katie, 106, 129 Cowan, Lee, 15 C-SPAN, 139 Cronkite, Walter, 8 Crouse, Timothy, 86 Curl, Joseph, 118 
Dallas Morning News, 
118, 120 Daley, Richard, 92 
Daniel, Douglass K., 87-88 Davis, Sammy, Jr., 42 
92 Democratic National Convention, 39, 70, 100 
Dionne, E. J., 47 Doniger, Wendy, 47 Dohrn, Bernardine, 87, 91, 93, 102 
 Dowd, Maureen, 47 Down Syndrome, 49.

Similar stories were being told in the Pale of Settlement, to which Russian Jews were confined, as late as the 
189os zs 
 As we have seen, the Nazis preferred to attribute the rise of the Rothschilds to the manipulation of stock market news and other sharp practice.

                 As the 
Illustrated London News 
described it in 1867: 
 They are washed with plenty of hot and cold water and soap, and receive six ounces of bread and a pint of gruel for supper; after which, their clothes being taken to be cleaned and fumigated, they are furnished with warm woollen night-shirts and sent to bed.

From that came countless e-mails from the news folks, the agents, the producers, the 

In the Event of My Untimely Demise 
 aspiring writers, the single, the desperate, the crazy, and, very importantly, the many folks who said, 'You should write a book.'

 can see evidence of them every day on the home page of your favorite news website (or if you insist, on the front page of your local newspaper).

Our media methods and tropes-from the very idea of 'cable 
news' to the argumentative political theater of 
 to the online jousting of the blogs-are mimicked worldwide.

Did Al-Manar traffic in 'news'? Did it deserve to be considered part of the 'marketplace of ideas'? Are calls to murderous jihad 'ideas'? Much of the AI-Manar broadcasting menu, government affidavits said, 
 celebrated suicide bombings and violent jihad against the United States, Great Britain, Israel, and the West as a whole.

Roberts wasn't there to make news, but to avoid it.

You need something every day, every news cycle.'

                                                                                                                               LOCAL V NATIONAL AUTHORITY 
Brian Williams had covered his share of disasters as a reporter, but he could not believe what he was seeing and hearing as he prepared to anchor the NBC 
Nightly News 
 from New Orleans.

The 'copy' he produced kept the telegraphers busy, and the country's news
 paper pages full.

                                                                                      For those workers, there was some good news in the pro
ceedings in the Great Hall: the announcement of new deals with Boeing (to purchase planes made in the United States) and General Motors (to 
 build new auto manufacturing facilities in China).

The Taliban rulers there were generating alarming headlines: smuggled-out news of brutal execu
 tions; repressive rules to constrict the rights of women in their society; and threats to destroy two colossal, deeply revered statues of Buddha carved into a rural hillside centuries earlier.

                                                                                      Sullivan (1964), 84 Newsweek magazine, 169 
Newton, Isaac, 
Nightly News (NBC-TV), 141 Nixon, Richard 
and 'Deep Throat,' 69 and elections of 1972, 218 and environment, 218 and free speech, 86 
and presidential power, 159, 160, 170-71 recruitment of academics by, 
'Southern Strategy' Of, 70, 71 
and Soviet Union, 218 and Watergate, 160 
'No Child Left Behind Act' (2001), 2-53 Norquist, Grover, 
102-3, 104 
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 179, 19'2, 193 
Obama, Barack Jr. education of, 21, 30 and Edwards' reform theme, 241 and evolution, 62 
health care plan of, 97 and immigration, 52 Lincoln compared with, 22 and media, 172 
national unity theme of, 22 
as new generation black man, 36, 37 
personal and professional background of, 21 
presidential campaign of, 21-23, 36, 97, 
Springfield speech of, 21, 22-23 and who is a person, 21-23, 26 Obama, Michelle Robinson, 21, 23 O'Connor, Sandra Day, 109, 
oil, 139, 213, 217, 220-21, 225, 243 Olympics (1976), 218 
one America,' and who is a person, 26,27 
O'Neill, Thomas P. 'Tip,' 134, 172-73 101st Airborne, Bush speech to, 174-75 open doors, and immigration, 41, 42, 44
opportunity, freedom of, 232 optimism, as national faith, 242 O'Reilly, Bill, 14,157 Ornstein, Norman J., 173-74 
Paine, Thomas, 9, 81, 164, 181 Palestinians, 195, 243 'Palmer Raids,' 85,244 Patriot Act, 87, 153 
patterns, seeing, 13-14 Paul, Ron, 237 
Pearl, Danny, 76 Pelosi, Nancy, 24, 25 Penn, William, 41,44,45,52,145-46, 164,214 
elections of 1948 in, 206 environmental views in, 214 evolution vs. intelligent design in, 6o immigrants in, 44, 45, 51, 53, 214 
and local vs. federal authority, 145-46 religion in, 6o, 67-68 
Pentagon Papers, 75, 86 
Peoria, Illinois, Lincoln speech in, 29, 30 Perot, H. Ross, 179, 191-92 
as American Argument, 7,21-37 creation of, 32 
'death' of, 32 
and Declaration of Independence, 7 and expansion of meaning of personhood,35 
judicial decisions about, 116 Pew Hispanic Center, 51 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and colonial models, 12 design of, 214 
and founding of America, 63 immigrants in, 44, 5
 53 labor unions in, 234 
Love Park rally in, 52-53 Old State House in, 29 Phillips, Tom, 
tq Pilgrims, 9, 12, coo Pinchot, Gifford, 216 
 Pledge of Allegiance, 67, 73, 151 political campaigns, 6, 227-41, 243 political parties, 17, 24.

An award-winning reporter and writer, Fineman is also an NBC news analyst, contributing reports to that network as well as MSNBC.

The good news was that for the next couple of years I served, worked, learned, and lived in an environment that was not too dif

Chris Gardner 
 ferent from a college setting.While

lies that were celebrated as such, veiled lies meant to be taken seriously, and then the ads would end and the news would come on and you would be presented with 
 Ronald Reagan-as skilled and telegenic a liar as politics has ever seen, Joe Isuzu's perfect Dostoyevskian double-getting up on TV and on the one hand lying through his teeth about Iran-Contra, and then on the other hand comparing Daniel Ortega to 'that fellow from Isuzu.'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     When the administration sub
mitted its 'Clear Skies' plan to Congress, who among us diddt automatically know that it was a giveaway to polluters? Or that 'Healthy Forests' was somehow going to result in more trees being cut down? America by the early years of this century was a confusing kaleidoscope of transparent, invidious bullshit, a place where politicians hired consultants to teach them to 'straight talk,' where debates were decided by inadvertent coughs and smiles and elections were resolved via competing smear campaigns, and where network news programs-subsi
dized by advertisements for bogus alchemist potions like En
zyte that supposedly made your dick grow by magic-could feature as a lead story newly released photos of the Tom Cruise 

wes a weird scene at Bible study on an otherwise un
 eventful evening.

                                                    From Aftermath News: 'James Hanson, a newspaper reporter who earned his law de
gree from the University of Michigan College of Law, has traced that debris to an American Airlines 757 that crashed in a rain for
 est above Cali, Colombia in 1995.

Around that same time, there was a surprising piece of news from noted peace activism icon Cindy Sheehan, the so-called war mom who'd gained notoriety by holding 
sit-in against the 
 war at Bush's ranch in Crawford, Texas.

And the most recent news was that Cindy Sheehan was even considering running against Nancy Pelosi in Pelosi's district.

Extremely poor and backward countries had mustered the resources to get the good news to every village: no more children need be killed, or made useless and miserable, by this hideous disease.

He had followed the Watergate hearings and yearned to meet the man who had dominated so much of the news of the 

In great sound bites for the evening news, Blagojevich had said publicly that Hiroshima-level explosions were a possibility as the railroad cars carrying the napalm rolled through the dense urban areas of Chi
 cago and northwest Indiana.

Blagojevich remembers Reverend Jack
 son's words after hearing the news: 'Blagojevich, our boy just got fired.

Tapes caught the governor weighing the possibilities: 'Unless I get something real good for [Senate Candidate 
 identified in news reports as Valerie Jarrett], shit, I'll just send myself, you know what I'm saying.'

Ms. Brackett also is a news host for 
cago Tonight, 
 the flagship public affairs program on WTTW, the PBS affiliate in Illinois.

'Freed, Many Rejoin Taliban,'New York Daily 
 February 13, 2004; 'Ex-Detainee Leading Pakistani Militants,' Washington Post, October 13, 2004, A-14; and John Mintz, 'Released Detainees Rejoining the Fight,' Washington Post, October 22, 2004, A-1.

' New York Daily 
 March 26, 2006.

 I thought for a moment, and then delivered the bad news.

                                         You read the financial 
A Rocky Marriage   
news and consider investing in Yahoo, a blue-chip technology com

The news media often plays a major role in this frenzy.

He was fanatical about ignoring economic, 
 political, or corporate news.

Bailout Tally (Continued) 
 The good news is the final bill should be considerably smaller than $15 trillion.

                                                                                                             The Man Who Owns the News 
Autumn of the Moguls 
Burn Rate 
Where We Stand 
(with Peter Rutten and Chip Bayers) 
White Kids 
Broadway Books 
Neu, York 
Copyright 0 2008 by Michael Wolff 
All Rights Reserved 
 Published in the United States by Broadway Books, an imprint o£ The Doubleday Publishing Group, a division of Random House, Inc., New 

Leela has talked out every aspect of the book with me, been as acute an analyst of News Corp.'s

My good luck has again and again been compounded by her keen perceptive
 ness about all things Murdoch, her fine-tuned interviewing skills, her in-the-trenches knowledge of the news business, and her unflagging humor.

                                                                                                                                                       deputy CFO; Andrew Neil, former editor in chief, Sunday 
Mark Oliver, media consultant, CEO, Oliver and Ohlbaum Associates; Norm Pearlstine, chief content officer at Bloomberg; M. Peter McPherson, former chairman of the board of Dow Jones; David Penberthy, Sydney 
Daily Telegraph 
editor; Chapman Pincher, 
Daily Express 
reporter; Mario Platero, U.S. editor, 11 
Sole 24 Ore; 
Joyce Purnick, reporter for the 
New York Times 
and reporter at the 
New York Post 
at the time of the Murdoch takeover; Jeff Randall, business reporter for the 
Daily Telegraph 
and former edi
tor at the 
Sunday Times; 
Jane Reed, director of Times Newspapers Limited; William Rees-Mogg, former editor of the 
 London; Arthur Siskind, former News Corp.

                                                                                                                                                                        Karen Elliott House, former publisher of the 
Wall Street Journal; 
Edward Jay Epstein, author; David Faber, CNBC chief correspondent; Philip Falcone, senior managing director, Harbinger Capital Partners; Ivan Fallon, chief executive, Independent News and Media UK; Steve Fishman, 
New York 
azine writer; Jonathan Foreman, former 
New York Post 
reporter; Michael Fuchs, former head of HBO; Michael Garin, a founder of Lorimar Telepictures; Stephen Glover, British journalist and one of the founders of the 
Roy Greenslade, media columnist and commentator, the 
Richard Greenfield, Wall Street media analyst at Pali Research; James C. Goodale, former general counsel and vice chairman of the New York Times Company; James Harding, editor in chief, 
of London; Bert Hardy, former chief of News International; John Hartigan, chairman and CEO of News Limited; Tony Hendra, author and humorist; Les Hinton, CEO of Dow Jones; Alan Howe, former 
Sunday Herald Sun 
editor; John Huey, editor in chief, Time, Inc.; Arianna Huffington, co-founder and editor in chief of the Huffington Post; Sir Bernard Ingham, Margaret Thatcher's former press secretary; Richard Ingrams, co
founder and former editor of 
Private Eye; 
Jay Itzkowitz, former sen
ior corporate lawyer at Fox Entertainment; Michael Jackson, 
television and news media executive; Sir Simon Jenkins, columnist, the 
former editor of the 
of London and the 
Evening Standard; 
 Lon Jacobs, News Corp.

     general counsel; Michael Jones, former political editor of the 
Sunday Times; 
Peter Kann, for
mer CEO, Dow Jones; Trevor Kavanagh, former political editor of the 
 Sir Chips Keswick, former Murdoch banker at Hambros Bank; Robert Kindler, vice chairman for investment banking at Morgan Stanley; Jonathan Knee, Wall Street banker; Andrew Knight, director of News Corp.;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Phillip Knightley, author of 
The First Casualty 
and former 
Sunday Times 
reporter; Ed Kosner, for
mer editor of 
New York 
magazine; Dominic Lawson, former editor of the 
Sunday Telegraph; 
James B. Lee Jr., vice chairman, JPMorgan Chase; Joanne Lipman, former 
Wall Street Journal 
tor; Sir Nick Lloyd, former editor of 
News of the World; 
Frank Luntz, political consultant; Brian MacArthur, former editor at the 
of London and the 
Times; Stephen Mayne, Crikey founder; Tom McGrath, entertainment and media executive, for
mer chief operating officer of the Viacom Entertainment Group; Bill Mechanic, former CEO and chairman of Fox Studios; John Micklethwait, editor of the Economist; Kelvin MacKenzie, former editor in chief of the Sun; Piers Morgan, former editor in chief of the 
News of the World 
and the 
Daily Mirror, 
John Motavalli, author of 
the Revolution; 
 John Nallen, News Corp.

                                                                                       general counsel; Andrew Ross Sorkin, business reporter for the 
New York Times; 
Roger Smith, Wall Street analyst and former Warner Communi
cations executive; Michael Schrage, former 
Washington Post 
media business reporter; Malcolm Schmidtke, former editor of the 
Sunday Age; 
Stanley Shuman, managing director of Allen and Company LLC; Anne Spackman, editor in chief, Times Online, 
of London; Patrick Spain, CEO of HighBeam Research; Rob Spatt, attorney for Simpson, Thacher and Bartlett, LLP; Paul Steiger, for
mer managing editor of the 
Wall Street Journal; 
Irwin Stelzer, econ
omist and Murdoch confidant; Cita Stelzer, research associate, Hudson Institute; Andrew Steginsky, fund manager; Peter Stoddard, former editor of the 
of London; Robert Thomson, editor in chief, the 
Street Journal, 
former editor in chief, the 
of London; Richard Tofel, former Dow 
senior executive; Donald Trelford, former editor in chief of the 
Rebekah Wade, editor in chief, the 
Jonathan Wald, senior vice president for business news, CNBC; Lord Wakeham, former British MP; Jann Wenner, founder of 
Rolling Stone; 
Francis Wheen, 
Private Eye; 
Robert Wiesenthal, executive vice president and chief financial offi
cer, Sony Corporation of America; Charlie Wilson, former editor of the 
of London; Petronella Wyatt, reporter for the 
Daily Mail, 
daughter of Murdoch confidant Woodrow Wyatt; David Yelland, former editor of the 
Richard Zannino, former CEO, Dow Jones; Mortimer Zuckerman, proprietor of the New York 
 Daily News.

                                                                                                                                          The Man Who Owns the News 
FALL 2007-WINTER 2008 
Rupert Murdoch, a man without discernible hubris-or at least conventional grandiosity-had nevertheless begun to believe that his takeover of Dow Jones and the Wall 
 Journal, something he'd dreamt about for most of his career, might actually indicate that he and his company, News Corporation, had a certain destiny, a higher purpose of which the world should be made aware.

Not long before, Murdoch had favored his older son, Lachlan, and before 
The Man Who Owis the News 1
 that his daughter Elisabeth, to eventually run News Corp.

In fact, unbeknownst to the rest of News Corp.,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        y   I   
In light of the fact that Rupert Murdoch now owned the most important-all right, the second most important-newspaper in the world, not to mention having created the world's most success
ful media company and being quite possibly the most influential businessman of the age (certainly the most influential for the longest time), why wouldn't he want to figure out just how he'd done what he did and claim credit for it? (Of course, another rea
 sonable view, one that Murdoch-for so long a deal-a-minute guy-also seemed to subscribe to, was about how little meaning or calculated direction or vision there had been in the growth of News Corp.

The Man Who Owes the News 15 
 On the other hand, it also seemed a potentially great mistake to attribute too much sentiment or craving for positive recognition to his motivations.

The News Corp.

The News Corp.

     That characterization paralleled how Murdoch defined the pro
fession too: there were the elites, whose contempt for him encour
aged him to regard 
as all the more contemptible, and there 
The Man Who Owns the News 1
were those who worked for him, who were, necessarily, true believ
 ers in him.

                                The Mxe Who Im the News I s 
As soon as the takeover was sealed there was another, reflex
 ive response: an attempt to calm the waters, curry favor, and even discover an admiration for the man heretofore the Antichrist.

News Corp.

If you or yours have been part of News Corp.,

     The Mai Who Owis the News I i i 
When I became the media columnist at 
New York 
 magazine, in 1998, my first column was about Murdoch's imminent divorce from Anna, his wife of thirty-two years.

 Now, it is true that William Shawcross, whose biography of Murdoch was published in 1992, clearly thought Murdoch was in a wind-down phase (Murdoch's second wife, Anna, thought this too, frequently telling people that he had assured her of his imminent retirement 'And she believed him!' said Prudence, his daughter from his first marriage), when, in fact, News Corp.

The Mao Who Owns the News 1
 dining room, where we shared his health food drinks, or at his Manhattan home on Park Avenue-his temporary home while his new apartment on Fifth Avenue is being refurbished-when his wife was away and he was looking after his children.

            He perhaps knows as much about the various aspects 
The Man Who Owns the News 
of putting out a newspaper-paper, printing, distribution, adver
 tising, reporting, editing, headline writing, promotion-as anyone in the world.

Bert Hardy, an advertising sales executive Murdoch recruited in London in 1972-and whom Murdoch will fire eleven years 
The Mai Who Owis the News 
  later-will later regard the Murdoch years as the most amazing and satisfying of his career.

                   At first 
The Man Who Owns the News I 
 blush, there's no reason not to like him-no reason to be on your guard at all.

What's more, as a newspaper- 
The Mao Who Owas the News 
 man, his style of journalism-the workingman's tabloid-has been out of fashion for a generation.

The Mao Who Owes the News 
 Such happiness has not been taken for granted by the people running Dow Jones.

At Dow Jones itself you could find executives and reporters consulting their Bloomberg terminals, while the Telerate machines weren't even 
the News 
 turned on.

                                                       So the possi
bility that the family might convert its holdings into cash is not 
The Mai Who Owns the News 
broached, nor is the possibility that it might create with the 
Post, or 
Financial Times 
 a quality publishing powerhouse, with the scale, brand, and cash flow that might dominate the information industry.

What is News Corp.

but a com
 pany built around the instincts, impulses, and gambles of its leader? Both of the troubling events that occur at the end of this year involve Murdoch's family, which is the central governing principle of News Corp.

Inside News Corp.,

The consternation he is causing in late 2004 is related to what is perhaps the most confounding and dramatic moment in the his- 
The Mai Who Owes the News 
 tory of News Corp.

At News Corp.,

The Man Who Owns the News 
 part of anything.

She says to Rupert that they'll have to tear the whole thing 
The Man Who Owns the News 
 137 down-and he says no way! And she says, well, negotiate, definitely don't agree to the asking price.

                                The Mai Who Owes the News 1
By the end of Election Day, George Bush is once again presi
 dent, and John Malone has a menacing 19 percent voting stake in News Corp.-a

                                                                                                            And his prostate cancer-
a carefully controlled story in 2000-is now, when it's mentioned, and it's rarely mentioned, a further demonstration of his indomi- 
The Mai Who Owns the News 
 tability, isn't it? He's recovered, hasn't he? And never missed a day of work.

Post-Rupert, the board of News Corp.-even

It isn't helping that Chernin and Ailes are agitating against Lachlan, who, after a mostly successful chapter running News Corp.'s

There is the sense of a whole new generation 
The Mao Who Owns the News 1
 of nice, reasonable, and, well, normal guys ready to run outsized media businesses: Chernin at News; Jeffrey Bewkes, the number two at Time Warner; Bob Iger, the number two at Disney.

Fox News, which rubs Chernin, a Democrat, wrong, is still an irritant, but Murdoch, with a little help from Chernin and Gary Ginsberg, has even been warming up to the Democrats.

                                                     The dispar
agement was Hollywood-style-that is, the veneer of smoothness, 
Tie Mai Who Owes the News 
 even courtliness, of deniability, o£ the deftest political behavior, and gracious accommodation remains the norm.

And if you know anything at all about doing business with Murdoch, you know you have to gossip about something, have to hold out the possibility of unsettled relationships, of changing alliances, of exploiting other people's weakness, of far-flung, unthought-of 
The Mao Who Owns the News 

Indeed, at one time or another he has tried to buy every national news company in the country- 
 and been rebuffed.

(Hence, he started his own network and his own twenty-four-hour cable news channel.)

The Man Who Owns the News I as 
 Chernin has enough trouble dealing with Fox News.

The last thing he needs is endless stories and this is how it would play
of tawdry, dubious Fox News taking over the respected and unim
peachable Wall 

                                                                                                                                           The Mao Who Owes the News 1
Robert Thomson is a Melbourne boy, thirty years younger than Murdoch-both were born on March 11, which Murdoch seems to find significant-who started at the Melbourne 
as a copy

They met for beers at the Dervish-a Times Square Turkish restaurant and one of the News Corp.

                                                                                                                                               Indeed, in a break
fast conversation with Cox-the kind of meeting any high-net
 worth investment advisor might try to hustle with a high-net-worth individual-Steginsky claims to have instructed Cox on the virtues of Rupert Murdoch and News 

in1981, he called up the CEO of News 

News Corp.

                                 The Man Who Owes the News 
Billy Cox, who was forced out not long after he started mak
 ing trouble at Dow Jones, moved to Europe, settling finally with his family in Rome.

The Man Who Owns the News 15
 Murdoch, to many of them, is that most modern rough beast, an amoral technocrat, a market vulgarian, a destroyer of virtue.

The Man Who Owns the News 15
 At the center of the Murdoch family structure, dominating not just by longevity (although that surely helps) but by all manner of maternal force and wiles, is Dame Elisabeth Murdoch.

I don't care if I don't see a 
The Man Who Owns the News I 
 newspaper for days.

   It's the Australian ver- 
The Man Who Owos the News 16
 sion of Dunkirk or Pearl Harbor or Bunker Hill.

Keith agrees, in writing, 'not to attempt to corre- 
The Man Who Owns the News 
 spond by any other route or by any other means than that officially sanctioned.'

He has the touch (he helps Joseph Pulitzer create the famous one-time tabloid issue of the World, which appears on January 1, 1901, and a few years later 
The Mao Who Owis the News 16
begins the tabloid London 
Daily Mirror) 
 and he has the business model: mass.

Rupert, who will one day control a significant part of the world's sports programming and own stakes in a handful of profes- 
The Man Who Owns the News 16
 sional teams, hates sports.

                                                    The Mao Who Owns the News 
Meanwhile, Rupert has another year of Oxford left in which to think about the 
 Adelaide News.

Arguably, the more entitled you are, the better a proprietor 
The Man Who Owns the News 
 you are.

The Mao Who Owns the News 
 is no such thing as added value; there is no such thing as premium pricing.

The Mal Who Owis the News 
 Arthur Sulzberger Jr., for instance, who first petitioned Peter Kann for a Dow Jones-New York Times Company merger after the Telerate disaster in 1997, was back with the same message after the 2000 Time Warner merger with AOL.

The Mai Who Owns the News 
 Nevertheless, the process goes slowly.

The Man Who Owns the News I s 
 Well, no thanks, says the family, essentially doing something they have never done before, which is to exert their control.

                                             It is this remove from the realities 
business, this condescen
sion toward people in business, and this sense 
entitlement that comes from believing that you are involved in endeavors worthier 
The Mao Who Owos the News 
 than business that distinguish what Murdoch calls, with as much disdain for them as they have for him, 'the elites.'

Dow Jones' owners-Hugh's wife, now Jane W W Bancroft, and her children-pretty much never darken the door of the paper 
The Mae Who Owes the News 18

Clarence Barron's stepdaughter, Jane W W Bancroft, wife of Hugh Bancroft, had three children: 
The Man Who Owns the News 18

So what you have is just one of fortune's inevitable 
The Man Who 
Owns the News 
 messes, always ending in the acrimony and squabbling of heirs clinging to ever decreasing portions of the original estate.

                            The Man Who Owns the News 1
The Sulzbergers are followed by the Grahams, where Kath
 arine Graham was the first lady and matriarch of the press.

The Mai Who Owns the News 1
 Prue, Murdoch's daughter with his first wife, Patricia Booker, is the only one of his children not directly competing for his business affections.

But her husband, Alasdair MacLeod, after a News Corp.

stint in London, took a high-ranking spot in Australia in 2004, so Prue is hardly neutral in the News Corp.

In fact, the only job Prue gets at News 

Murdoch, at this point, still doesn't see girls as having much of any
 thing to do with what he does, certainly not as part of the future of News Corp.

isa girl's job-when she returns to London, she's briefly a researcher at 
News of the 
 World's Sunday magazine.

In the interview she recounted how, after her father's public slight, she had had 'the biggest row I've ever had 
The Man Who Owns tie News 1
 with my father.

The following February, weeks away from having her first baby, Cornelia, with a loan from Australia's Common
wealth Bank facilitated by her father, she and Elkin buy two small 
The My® Who Owes the News 1
 NBC affiliates in California for $35 million.

Within a few months of his abrupt and emotional leave-taking from News in 2005, he and his wife, Sarah, have not just settled into Sydney but have become pop culture figures-he as famous in Australia as Prince William in England, and she the head of the major Murdoch charity, and in 2007, the fetching hostess of a pop- 
The Mae Who Owns the News I 
 ular morning show.

                                                           At fifteen, while working for the 
Daily Mirror 
in Sydney, he 
The Man Who Owns the News I 
was famously snapped sleeping during a press conference, and the photo appeared in the rival 
Sydney Morning Herald 
 the next day.

Among the reasons James has come to be described in this language (usually when phrases are repeated at News 

 Around this time, inside News Corp.,

This reinforces the idea that staying away from the epicenter of News 

The Man Who Owns the News I 
 The couple have two children, Anneka, born in 2003, and Walter, born in 2006.

The Man Who Owns the News I 
 In the spring of 2006, as he's getting Andy Steginsky's reports about the dysfunctional Bancrofts, he decides to finally resolve his family's filial and financial dilemma.

The Man Who Owas the News I 
 Murdoch: No, just on a question of power.

On the other hand, this sense of him not listening to you, of him just taking the conversation anywhere he wants, makes him more 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 Murdoch too.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 In October, Lee invites Zannino to lunch with Murdoch in a private dining room at JPMorgan Chase at Park Avenue and 47th Street.

                                             Even if everybody knows
and they do; how can they not?-that Murdoch has it in for estab
lished norms and polite society and customs of the nation, that, at 
The Man Who Owns the News I 
root, he is always making some primitive, emotional, I-can-live
 only-if-you-die assault, still, he always somehow makes it look as if the numbers add up.

In order to make his bid for Dow Jones, he's got to get rid of John Malone, his largest shareholder since Malone's midnight raid on News' Australian shares in 2004, when Murdoch was preoccu
 pied with election-night anxieties and festivities.

The Mao Who Owns the News I 
 Or it could come from what happened to him at Oxford, or, for that matter, at Geelong Grammar.

And while they are allowed to feed-pretty much gorge-they are 
The Man Who Owns the News I 
 still regarded with contempt, mockery, and condescension.

He uses his company, Pergamon Press, a publisher of, among other things, specialized scientific literature (so his interest in the 
News of the World is 
even quirkier than Murdoch's), whose value he has inflated by various financial sub
terfuges, to make a stock offer of £26 million for 
 News of the World.

Murdoch, having won over the Carrs (Sir William admires Murdoch's mother), gets them-after he threatens to walk away 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
from the deal and leave them helplessly saddled with Maxwell
 to make him, along with Sir William's nephew Clive, co-CEO of the company.

News of the World will 
 then acquire certain assets Murdoch owns in Australia.

Thus Murdoch becomes the rude so-and-so for dredging up 
The Mao Who Owes the News I 
 the whole sordid mess.

In a huff, Cardinal Heenan, Britain's ranking Roman Catholic, pulls an article he had agreed to write for the 
News of the 
 World The Profumo Affair becomes the Murdoch Affair.

The Mai Who Owas the News I 
 Frost then singles out John Addey, sitting in the audience, for clapping loudly when Murdoch defends himself.

                                  The Man Who Owns the News 1 
He will note to me almost forty years later that he hasn't spo
 ken to Frost since.

With the unions threatening to make trouble for other IPC papers if 
The Mai Who Owes the News 1 
 jobs are lost, Maxwell offers to take the paper off IPC's hands.

He's running back and forth to Australia, a regular diet of twenty-five- 
The Mao Who Owes the News 1 
 hour flights.

       One letter: 'I will let Mrs. McKay go if the 
News of the World 
and the Sun publicly announce that they will not cor
 rupt our kids any more by printing all that filth.'

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
The Wall 
Street Journal, 
along with the 
New York Times, 
 has stayed safe, in part, because people fear having their good names compromised if they go after it.

The Man Who Owns the News I 
Zannino: (internally) 
 I've got to get the hell out of here.

                                                                                                         The Man Who Owns the News 1 
Impatience is one of Murdoch's key character notes-an attri
bute that appears in countless situations, one responsible for so many abrupt turns of conversation or of the state of play, the char
 acteristic that may have resulted in his reputation in some quarters for being antisocial.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 Hence, the mustachioed McPherson, fond of chewing on an unlit cigar, is greeted with a skeptical 'Who's he?' by the Bancrofts.

(In 1990, when News Corp.

The Man Who Owns the News I 
 Howard Squadron, the senior partner, is a minor politico in the city.

                                                                                                 will merge its Sky satellite net
 work in the United Kingdom with British Satellite Broadcasting, Goldman Sachs, its banker on the deal, will be required by News 

What's more, he can't afford a mean- 
The Mai Who Owns the News 1 
 ingful stake in Downe's company-and he isn't, if he can help it, a noncontrolling investor.

                                                                                    In the history of New York schools and the 
The Mai Who Owas the News 1 
connections they facilitated, none may be so profitable as the intro
duction of Stan Shuman of Allen and Company to Rupert Mur
doch at a parent function at the Dalton School, where Shuman's son Michael, and Murdoch's son Lachlan, both five, are in kinder
 garten together.

                                                                                                 The Man Who Owns the News 1 
While Dolly Schiff probably has the wherewithal to maintain the Post's cash needs, she is deeply relieved-and somewhat incred
 ulous-to find an interested, charming (she is famously susceptible to charming men), promising buyer.

What is clear is that on one side there is Felker and his writers and, on the other, a set of board members who have grown weary 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 of Felker for the most predictable reasons: He spends too much money and gets all the attention.

                                                              to a foreign publishing conglomerate controlled by a man whose journalistic 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
approach appears alien to us and whose commitment to our city is untested,' declare 'the editors, writers, artists, and photographers' of 
New York 
 magazine in a letter to the board of directors.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 This is the state of play when Murdoch shows his hand to Felker: He's picked up the votes.

Or to protect News Corp.

from an unlikely figure---a liberal Ivy League yuppie and Kennedy-phile in a company that has contempt for Ivy League liberal yuppies and for the Kennedys-to a central 
The Mao Who #was the News I 

His job is (although no one at News Corp.

                                                                                                                                                                          The Man Who Owns the News I 
The family's race against the clock-to declare its desire before the bid was leaked and the market is able to declare its desire-was hampered by their inability to appreciate several overriding busi
ness factors: 
While the family controls the voting shares, in a public com
 pany such control is not absolute.

                   And they 
The Man Who Owas the News I 
 don't go up against the implacable resistance of the voting tier of a two-tier stock company (Murdoch's own company was organized this way).

(His contemporaries in stature, 
The Man Who Owns the News 
 Henry Luce at Time and Harold Ross at the New Yorker, have yet to fade into comparable obscurity.)

and is certainly not a paper of general appeal,' noted the 
New York Times 
when the 
surpassed the 
Daily News 
 to become the nation's largest-circulation daily paper.

Business hadn't yet become a dramatic event--a 

The paper was able to grab a national audience of business readers because local papers had such weak 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 business coverage.

                                   The Man Who Owns the News 1 
Arriving in the eighties, Murdoch is actually in a place discon
 certingly similar to that of Donald Trump: He's got ambition much larger than his asset base.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 What Murdoch gets is a business that over the next twenty-five years or so will never make him any money-and which may cost him as much as a billion dollars.

       The Man Who Owes the News 1 
Still, because he can, he buys the 
in Boston and the 
 in Chicago.


       He considers buying the after
noon Hearst paper in Baltimore, the 
News American, 
 with the idea of making it a Washington, D.C., paper too.

Here too he's demonstrating an eighties sensibility: He sees business as a compe- 
The Mai Who Owns the News I 
 tition among individuals.

But Ross, vulnerable in the wake of the Atari 
The Mao Who Owns the News I 
 fiasco, freaks.

                He wants to 
The Man Who Owns the News I 
 be able to explain it to his mother, who demands explanations.

The Mai Who Owis the News I 
 Television stations are one of his fixations-in part because, given his immigrant status, his inability to buy television stations rankles him.

The Man Who Owns the News I 
 He's interested in efficiently knowing who he needs to know.

In the United States the television deal makes News Corp.

Such a write-up would raise shareholders' equity and increase News Corp.'s

Another quirk of Australian rules: News Corp.

million purchase in 1978 included 
New York 
The Man Who Owes the News I 
 West magazines, now fetches, on its own, $55 million.

  Indeed, he is using his 
The Mae Who Owas the News 
 eighties might to do something very un-eighties.

                                                 Oh, and there is the 
South China Morning Post 
For $300 mil
lion he converts a minority stake into a controlling interest because 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
Dow Jones, with 19 percent, decides it doesn't want to be in busi
 ness with Murdoch and agrees to sell him its shares.

           That is, between 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 David Faber's first report of the offer at noon and the close of the market, Dow Jones has had a profound turnover in its shareholder base.

The Man Who Owns the (Yews I   
 Stern, who was fired shortly after Burkle made the claims, is now threatening to sue News Corp.,

In addition, Stern is set to claim in his suit that the editor of the Post, Col Allan-the thirty-four-year News Corp.

                                                                                                              HIS NEWSROOMS 
The newsroom at the Wall Street ,journal, in the World Financial Center-put up on the landfill from the excavation when the 
World Trade Center was built in the 1970s-has seemed to Murdoch, on the few times he's visited, rather more like the back
 room of an insurance company than a news operation.

                                                                                            The Man Who Owns the News 
The horrible conditions in the rackety old Bouverie Street building only added to the air of adventure about the enter

     On one occasion an acid drain split overnight and the 
News of the World 
hacks arrived in the morning to find the type
writers on their desks reduced to smoldering and partly dis
 solved lumps of metal.

The Man Who Owns the News 
 Hearst and Pulitzer empires were built on such papers.

                                                                                                                                              The Man Who Owns the News 
Murdoch's only real deviation in Australia from the single-copy tabloid strategy is the 
the first national newspaper in Australia, a quality broadsheet that he launched in 1964-the only newspaper he'll ever create, as well as the proof positive of his jour
nalistic bona fides that he'll cite over and over again in the battle for the 

and the 
News of the World 
 are what he somehow hopes to bring to the United States.

National Enquirer
MOM BOILED HER BABY AND ATE HERI-which sells four million copies a week and is published by the Pope family, with its 
The Mom Who Owns the News 
 supposed organized-crime connections (Mafia boss Frank Costello is rumored to have put up the money for it), is the height of the form.

The Mao Who Owes the News I 
 Nor can you argue that it hasn't, on its own terms, been wildly successful.

As Murdoch first starts to think about pursuing the Wall Street Journal in late 2005, Rebekah Wade, the thirty-seven-year-old edi
tor of the Sun--still Murdoch's largest and most profitable publica- 
The Man Who Owns the News I 
 tion-is sitting in a jail cell in South London.

 Dunleavy stories, whether true or not, are part of News Corp.'s

This disorganization, however, facilitates a tabloid effect because there is no reasonable and procedural process for 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 gathering the news.

Hence, Allan is the one who is left to dictate what the news is going to be that day.

                                                                                                   The Mai Who Owes the News 
Judith Regan, however, is a working-class Irish-Italian from Long Island, who acquired poise at Vassar and then, in some down
wardly mobile twist, went to work for the 
 National Enquirer.

A year before her final tumble out of favor, in a state of pique and hubris notable even for her, she made the unilateral decision to up and relocate her publishing company, Regan Books--a divi
 sion of Regan Media, itself a division of HarperCollins, a division of News Corp.-to

In the 
 view, Judith's moving her boutique publishing imprint to Los Angeles was possibly a harbinger of a major shift in the media landscape (the view inside HarperCollins and News Corp.

'Judith' became, as much to News Corp.

                                                  (After she is 
TYe Mat Who Owns the News 1 
 fired, this becomes the central charge she levels against News 

      They must have been 
The Mai Who Owes the News 
 waiting for it, could have counted on it like the sun rising-Judith going bananas.

                                                                                                                     MAY 23, 2007 
Murdoch ultimately sees the distinction between what he does and what the elites of journalism do as not so much about journalism 
The Man Who Owns the News I 
 as about turf.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 Reuters had turned everything upside down.

Selling a company, or not selling a company, is a highly codified drama in which a buyer or seller 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 ultimately bests the other by their knowledge of the nuance of the process.

The Man Who Owns the News I 
 It opens the door to all discussions.

General-interest news outlets that once maintained a strict, hierarchical sense of news have-in the face of competition from specialty outlets and in an effort to attract a wider, often younger or more female demo- 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 graphic-embraced a softer, more feature-oriented idea of what's important.

Maintaining neutrality would be 
The Mai Who Owos the News 1 

                                    It's instructive to consider the legacies of Murdoch's three most direct owner-operator peers (each of whom he helped destroy): 
The Mao Who Owns the News 1 
Robert Maxwell, whose likely suicide by drowning in 1991, off the back of his yacht 
Lady Ghislaine 
as it cruised around the Canary Islands, happened just as his empire was about to implode; Conrad Black, whose trial for looting his own company was in progress dur
 ing the Dow Jones battle; and Ted Turner, who made a fortune almost as great as Murdoch's but lost his company.

And then, like Maxwell and Black but minus the criminal com- 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 237 plications, he lost financial control of his company and, ultimately, of his newsroom.

Here is a real-time report on Murdoch in the New 
York Post 
room, detailed as it occurred, sent to me minutes after it happened: 
 He slips into the newsroom just after 3:00.

And he walks top-heavy too-that way news editors have of leaning forward into their stride, on a mission.

He's not engaged, and then he's caught 
The Mai Who Owis dhe News 1 
 up in the most basic details, overly focused, abrupt, nagging.

Here was Murdoch, 'intemperate and disagreeable,' with his 'bitter animus, stridently voiced,' 'deliberately seeking, through 
The Nam Who Owes the News I 
 extravagance of language and extremity of views, to get a reaction or a rise,' when not otherwise 'non-communicative,' appointing lieutenants who egged him on 'in his impulsiveness and ape him in intolerance and rudeness,' who were constantly engaged with him 'in muttered conversation,' with Murdoch's face 'framed in a scowl which seemed to stop not far short of malevolence.'

It is his great certitude that makes him, in the words of former 
Times editor Andrew 
The Mai Who Owis the News 1 
 Neil, the Sun God.

First of all, it's the most successful, most thriving, and largest news organization in the world.

    There is certainly no feeling of existential dread-Could 
this go 
tomorrow?-which is the feeling at so many other news organiza
 tions in the markets dominated by Murdoch.

It is pretty easy, in the 60 percent of the market he controls in Australia, at his dominant papers and broadcast outlets in the United Kingdom, at the Post and at Fox News in the United States, to feel a sense of relief that you've made it to a safe harbor.

The Mao Who Owns the News 1 
 people, Murdoch people, are less than top of the class, that they have fewer options-which is why they're at News Corp.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 Journalism, when you work for Murdoch, is good sport.

In 2006, for instance, the Post got wind that a student at the prestigious Collegiate School had threatened 'to go Columbine'; with Post reporters at its door, 
The Mao Who Owes the News 1 
 the school was savvy enough to hire Rubenstein and have the story downplayed.

                Not out of

TYe Mai WYa #was the News 
 any specific antipathy-he's clearly fascinated by him and has no issue about journalistic scruples but because he can't relax with Murdoch as his boss.

     Elefante understands 
The Man Who Owns the News 
 that James is there to snow them.

                                             But the effect of the 
reporting and its 
The Man Who Owes the News 1 
57 aggrandizement of unlikely saviors, along with the evident futil
 ity of the Bancroft family's heroic or mock-heroic efforts to find another buyer, serves most of all to make Murdoch look better and better-or at least singular.

                                                                                                         The newsroom may want Donald Graham at the 
Washington Post 
or even the Sulzbergers at the 
but as Karen Elliott House, Peter Kann's wife and the paper's former publisher, will acknowledge to me in the aftermath of the deal, among the most 
The Mao Who Owns the News 
 senior editorial managers, Murdoch is much preferred to the assorted liberals.

(Not that he doesn't fixate: In late 2007, the Sun, in London, will frequently devote its front page to the anti-European Con- 
The Man Who Owns the News 
 stitution campaign, an issue so boring, even Murdoch admits, that the paper is losing a hundred thousand readers a day.)

                                               As the 
Adelaide News 
becomes more determinedly left
wing, Menzies becomes more determined to hinder Keith 
The Mao Who Owes the News 
  Murdoch's son-including forcing Murdoch into a major fight to win the single television license available in Adelaide.

             But as likely, 
The Mau Who Owns the News 1 
 Murdoch's ire here is competitive too.

                                                                                                                                                                 The Man Who Owns the News 1 
'State government' must have been what made the tumblers click here-in Australia, regional governments are significant power centers-because he's not somebody who's just looking to be socia
 ble with the neighbors.

New York Pos4 
 which has begun its course of losing News Corp.

The Mao Who Owns the News 1 
 Murdoch is the countertemperament.

Within a few years, Murdoch will, under Wyatt's tutelage, come to see the real nature of rot and decay in British life (per Wyatt: unions) and, within a few more years, the real hope for the 
The Mao Who Owns the News 1 
 future (per Wyatt: Thatcher).

The Mai Who Owis the News 1 
 Stelzer is furthermore a gossip, a man about town, a raconteur.

                                                                                                                And there is Eric 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
Breindel, the former socialist and junkie (his incipient career in lib
eral politics was ended by a heroin bust) and social figure (Harvard, friend of the Kennedys, friend of Henry Kissinger, lover of 
Washington Post 
heiress Lally Weymouth), who, as a 
 nist, becomes a virulent anti-Arab, anti-welfare, anti-communist voice.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 If there is a moment of dangerous grandiosity in his career, it's in the late eighties.

and accompanied Murdoch on Washington visits (and gone on to be an on-air commentator at Fox News).

'He spends a few days in Washington and he gets full of energy,' says the Republican pollster and consultant Frank Luntz, who has advised News Corp.

The diaries of Alastair Campbell, Blair's communications chief, present an almost step-by-step primer on the art of submission to Murdoch-how much you need to give up, how much you can hope 
The Man Who Owns the News 
 to retain.

It begins with Blair coming to address a News Corp.

What's more, Peter Chernin, the News Corp.

                                 Indeed, he gives Ailes what he has never given any of his editors-never given the Times of London, 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
even though his pledge has the force of law, and likely never will give the Wall Street Journal, although he'll swear he will: funda
 mental editorial independence.

It is understood that Murdoch can't go behind Ailes' back and talk to the talent and executives at Fox News without him first talking to Ailes, and that Ailes himself can't be overruled about what goes on the air.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 The four firms, for their part, perturbed but tolerant, point to the $60-that it is just off the charts and to the family.

Hushed, vast, meticulously designed, off-putting for any visitors (off-putting, in fact, to many people at News Corp.),

In other companies, if a deal is perceived as being likely to have a neg- 
The Mai Who Owis the News 
 ative effect on the share price, there are few circumstances in which it gets done.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 Murdoch revises the letter-there's no 'fuck off,' but it's still harsh, laying out all the frustrations of the last two months of dealing with the Bancroft family-and gives it to his lawyers to send.

 The joy, the anticipation, on the eighth floor is about Murdoch, once more, getting to reinvent himself.

                                    people simply saying oth- 
The Man Who Owas the News 1 
erwise, actually thought to be technologically cunning and pre
 scient and even hip (the one thing News Corp.

His very inclinations and personality may be the prob- 
The Man Who Owes the News 1 
 95 lem-his need for constant change and new conquests.

Diller is hardly the first News Corp.

And it's hierarchical-everyone has a place, and everyone has someone higher than him; there is always a brighter star-whereas 
The Man Who Owns the News I 
 Murdoch has only ever functioned with himself on top of a leveled organization.

The Man Who Owns the News 13o
He gets his 
New York Post 
 back in 1993.

Without a print news operation in America for four years--during the banking crisis he's sold all his publishing properties in the United States except for 
 he's back in business.

Handbury has worked for News Corp.

for most of his career, and then will go on to buy a book publishing business that News is sell
ing called Murdoch Books-annoying Murdoch with his contin
 ued use of the name.

He doesn't bring unique experience 
The Man Who Owns the News 
 or a substantial record of success to the table.

In this, except for the fact that he's not an old newspaper hack, he's a prototypical News Corp.

He's not one of the guys (one of the reasons he was so eager to leave Australia with its never-ending male-bonding ritu- 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 

     But Malone is too smart or Murdoch too poor-it's hard to con
trol distribution without cash on your books-or they're just too 
The Mao Who Owes the News 1 
 suspicious of each other.

                                                                                                                                                               Four years after that, hav
ing worked the regulatory obstacles, he'll add ten stations by acquiring the Chris-Craft group of stations, which seventeen years before had helped thwart his takeover of Warner Communi
 cations, giving News Corp.

The Man Who Owns the News 1
 He ain't conventionally smart.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 That's technology-it helps to unsettle things, and then, if you're a tenacious son-of-a-bitch, you can maybe grab an advantage.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 Now, this is bad, and it will end unhappily.

Indeed, the only real material development of this partnership is something called iGuide, which opens fabulous offices on West 17th Street in Manhattan, instantly becomes the leading technology company in New York, meant to compete with AOL and Prodigy (its true com
 petitor will be the barely imagined Yahoo!-that is, News 

He gets that cable news is remak
 ing the news business and is unhappy about not being in it-and understands that it's his own fault for doubting cable.

                                                                                                                                                            The Man Who Owes the News 1 
The guys at the networks have forgotten this lesson and come to believe it's about programming, even about quality, or some such nonsense-more Hollywood baloney-rather than about monop

While News Corp.

The Man Who Owns the News 
 It's a portrait of a solitary existence: He gets up at four or five in the morning and has a bowl of porridge-'A horse,' he says, 'has to have its chaff '-and then after a shower and shave drives down the hill to work.

                                 Joyce will tell the 
she eventually finds a cache of 'coquettish' (in the 
 words) pictures of Wendi taken by her husband (these are the pictures that News Corp.

The Mao Who Owes the News 1 
 allows as how, at the California State campus, she is regarded as one of the most talented students to pass through the school's economics department.

                                          Her story, with its 
The Man Who Owns the News 1
domestic dramas, evident personal miscalculations, thoughtless
 ness, and immaturity, isn't particularly extreme or more chaotic than that of a great proportion of striving young people-she's just traveled farther.

He calls Wendi and says, 
The Man Who 
Owns the News 
 'There's somebody coming to Hong Kong who you've got to take to Shanghai.

                                                                                                                  The Man Who Owns the News 1 
Prue, in the kitchen, gets off the phone and races upstairs, eyes blazing, shouting to her husband, Alasdair: 'My God, you won't believe itl' 
Given the billions at stake, the influence at issue, and the dynastic preparations that have been made, not to mention a cer
 tain antediluvian and strong-willed matriarch-Dame Elisabeth -who will not be so easily appeased, this is a domestic cock-up of epic proportions.

                                an incredibly awkward emperor's-new
clothes situation because the new look, the new joie de vivre, the 
The Mao Who Owos the News 1 
 new living arrangements-he's temporarily living in the Mercer Hotel in SoHo, like a rock starcant be mentioned.

Indeed, Wendi and James, before the Internet bubble blows, become on News Corp.'s

Likewise, News steps back from its historic need to control and becomes an investor in backing other entrepreneurs.

Rupert, for fifty years, has gone it alone, whereas Wendi meets people and collects them and introduces them and assembles a very un-News-like mutual admiration society.

Her charm, flirtation, and guilelessness (at least the appearance of guileless
 ness) are put in service to News Corp.'s

News Corp.'s

The Mnn Who Owns the News 1 
 In the first days of 2000, the business world is rocked by Time Warner's radical Internet strategy-its merger with AOL.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 In one sense, it solves News Corp.'s

Here's a random selection of the names that pepper a few hours of conversation with her-people she's talking to, visiting with, or with whom she's discussing business opportunities: Larry Page 
Edward Tian Zhang Ziyi Sergey and Anne Brin Tony Blair 
David Geffen Barack Obama Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan Torn Perkins 
Tom and Kathy Freston Graydon Carter 
Barry Diller Michael Bloomberg John McCain Anna Wintour George W Bush Mick Jagger 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
Christian Louboutin Diane Von Furstenberg Natalia (the Russian model) Justin Portman 
Brad Pitt 
Gordon and Sarah Brown David Cameron 
Pan Shiyi Robin Li Jiang Zemin Jiang Mianhang Steve Bing Cherie Blair Hamilton South Michelle Obama Karl Lagerfeld Mike Milken Silvio Berlusconi Richard and Lisa Perry 
It's a marked, odd, and possibly transformative shift for Murdoch: He's become an official member of the glamour estab

She's hustled the old biddies at 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 Brearley, the staid Manhattan school at which her older daughter is now enrolled, and had the school implement a comprehensive Chinese-language program.

                                                                           First he was characterized as a guttersnipe, then as an outlaw and pirate, and finally now as a threat 
The Man Who Owis the News 1 
to our way of life-culminating during the battle for Dow Jones, on June 26, in the first part of an 'investigative' series meant to demonstrate his unsuitability to own the Wall 

                                                                   Mr. Murdoch's third wife, Wendi, is a mainland Chinese who once worked for his Hong Kong-based satel
lite broadcaster, Star TV Her role in managing investments and honing elite connections in China has underscored uncertainties within the Murdoch family about how the 
 family-controlled News Corporation will be run after Mr. Murdoch, 76, retires or dies.

                             The Mai Who Owos the News 1 
The Times' strategy-a doomsday scenario, foreseeing a one
 newspaper nation, a last-man-standing paper-has been to make the paper national.

(Its two tabloid competitors, the Daily News and the New 
 Posy sell a million more copies between them than the Times in New York City.)

The rattled, humiliated, second-guessing Times has become a leitmotif at the Fox News Channel.

Fox News has helped turn the Times into a caricature, a joke.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 In its panic about Murdoch, the Times is quite possibly missing the larger story about him.

But Fox News is original.

It has taken the News Corp.

Lewis is one of the few people who scares 
The Mai Who #was the News 1 
 Ailes because he has notes of many conversations that should never have occurred.

 Ailes and Fox News have, unexpectedly and disproportionately, come to be the voice and identity of News Corp.

    The Man Who 
Owns the News 1 
 The logic here is clear to him, if not to anyone else.

On the other hand, in a development that will be unsettling to Murdoch for exactly the opposite reason, Lachlan fails to tell his father that he's thinking of buying parts of the Packer media busi
 ness-which could mean he might someday be a News Corp.

 petitor (indeed, Lachlan's non-compete agreement with News Corp.,

Certainly, it becomes harder and harder to 
 imagine News 

After his awkward start with Prue-the early separation from Prue's mother, Prue and Anna's difficult relationship, his disinclination to see a girl as 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 having professional potential-he got with the dynastic program.

When I ask him about the mechanism to break a tie, Murdoch responds: 'There are four votes now, but when my little kids grow 
The Man Who Owns the News 
up, they will get votes when they are twenty-five or thirty or some

Prue has a sprawling, comfortable house overlooking Sydney Harbor in Vaucluse, one of the most expensive neighborhoods in 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 357 Australia.

(On the day I see Prue, her husband, Alasdair MacLeod, one of the seniormost guys at News 

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 Also, her father's divorce from Anna and marriage to Wendi have given her a kind of leveling confidence when it comes to her siblings: Nobody understands better than Prue.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 He makes the point without obvious recrimination but with a sense of great burden.

                  My dad was, you know, we went through the news
papers every breakfast, through things, we, we would, we   when 
we got home, Dad would come home usually with, um, business
 people-every night would be, um, um, be either someone come over for a drink or dinner, usually dinner, then there'd be people in business or in politics around all the time, so he had a constant, you know-even on weekends, right.'

He learned the newspaper business and pretty much did everything he was supposed to do that Dad 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 did, and then he was brought back from the provinces to take his rightful and inevitable place at HQ.

The Mai Who Owes the News 1 
 But never mind.

                 in 2005

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 and the substantial press surrounding it were managed by Elisabeth's husband, Matthew Freud.

Into the world of Rupert Murdoch came a man of 
The Mat Who Owns the News 1 
 unspeakable craftiness, lounge-lizard smoothness, deep connected - ness, superb analytic abilities, and possibly dynastic ambitions of his own.

(News Corp.

                                                                                                   The Mae Who Owns the News 1 
James, now destined to take over the empire (and the Murdoch children do call it 'the empire'), may be the kid his father under
 stands least of all.

Murdoch went on, saying that he failed to understand the Palestinian complaints, and James replied, 'They were kicked out of their fucking homes and 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 had nowhere to fucking live.'

Now, BSkyB had beaten out cable before, introducing digital television 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 in 2002 and tying up key sports rights, in the process flattening dominant U.K. cable operator ITV But, by 2006, ITV was back in the game, offering broadband service to its U.K. customers.

The Mai Who Owes the News 1 
 The family 'farted around, they were dysfunctional.'

 Inside News Corp.

Billy Cox, accompanied by his wife, Beatrice-who are, via Andy Steginsky, News Corp.'s

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 Oh, and the printing facilities.

'The fact that you have to go to bed at eight o'clock, you can't get any breaking news.

                    The old 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 days of the Journal are the subject.

                                     The Man Who Owns the News 1 
5 'How can you stop Rupert from interfering?' the elder Bill Cox 
 demands to know.

Still, with the support of 28 percent of the family's votes, this should put them just over 50 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 

But this, while giving News a victory, is hardly a PR coup.

Here was the old man, in white shirt, singlet visible underneath, doing one of the same basic jobs he'd been doing since 1953, when he took over the 
Adelaide News 
 in Australia from his father.

In August 2007, after News won Dow Jones, Gary Ginsberg told his boss that he was planning to go to Paris for the wedding of his 
The Man Who 
Owns the News 1 
 friend Doug Band, Bill Clinton's chief aide, to the handbag designer Lily Rafii.

Murdoch might be talking about a national paper covering politics and foreign news, but his editor, Robert Thomson, was hurrying to assure the 
readers and advertisers that it would remain a business paper, that there would be no dilution of 
 its focus.

share price was down by 35 percent, with News 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 executives putting the blame directly on Dow Jones.

Indeed, at the rate the news
 paper business was imploding, if he had waited six months News Corp.

Ginsberg and Chernin, with gallows humor, sat on the phone together discussing the relative fortunes they'd each lost on their News Corp.

But I think that misses the true 
The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 quality of the change.

The Man Who Owns the News 1 
 They like each other-and these guys are disliked by many of the same people.

When I asked Blair about the possibility of him going to work for News Corp.,

                And while it is 
The Mai Who Owns the News 1 ass 
 not that he would give Fox up-because the money is the money; success still trumps all-in the larger sense of who he is, he seems to want to hedge his bets.

Then, after the Dow Jones deal, as Microsoft was trying to corner Yahoo!, Murdoch, creating a story for a day or two, put it out that News Corp.

He has conjured, too, how, in Murdoch style, he might con- 
The Mao Who Owes tke News I 
 vince the Sulzbergers to let him in if he promises to leave Arthur in charge-and how he could then make Arthur his puppet.

 combining ad sales, merging, selling-all scenarios which would lessen the Post's cash drain on News Corp.,

He had figured out how to monetize his deepest hankerings 
The Mai Who Owns the News 1 
 and whims.

          END NOT ES 
1   Murdoch 
toying with changing 

Bill OReilly, News Corporation, Fox News Channel Twentieth Century Fox Film Corp.,

123   News of the World deal Shawcross, 103-17.

Former News Corp.

News Corp.

363   Lachlan is weak in the United States, News 


ABC, 21, 22,308 
J Court, Holmes, 179 Addey,John, 128 Advance publishers, 203 Ailes, Roger, 38, 41, 42, 45, 218, 246, 28284, 314,345-48,349,364,393,398 
Al Fayed, Mohamed, 122 
Allan, Col, 5, 8, 51, 101-2, 199, 212-13, 224, 245, 246, 391 
Allen and Company, 28,111, 147, 151, 153, 166 
Alter, Jonathan, 7-8 Altman, Roger, 165 ,4merican Idol (TV show), 113,138 Angelo, Jesse, 245 
Ansett Airline, 142, 34,0 AOL Time Warner, 330 Apple, 315 Ashmead-Bartlett, Ellis, 65 Associated Newspapers, 67, 132, 176 Atlantic Richfield, 176 
Auletta, Ken, 77 
Australia: Channel 10 TV, 185; Cmden Farm, 57-58, 59-60; 'The Dismissal,' 
 266-68; as egalitarian, 68; first tabloid, 67; Gallipoli, 62-63, 65-66,197; Lachlan Murdoch in, 50, 100-102, 352, 364, 365-66; Murdoch airline, 142, 340; Murdoch family in, 21, 57-77, 264, 356-57,360,362,363,365-66; Murdoch's fame in, 15; Murdoch's television station, 21; national newspaper launched, 205, 219; News Corp.

Chernin, Peter, 41-46, 48-49, 145, 163, 217, 218,219,281,282,288,289,298,302-4, 333, 349, 363, 364, 375, 393, 400 Cherry, Jake and Joyce, 320, 321-22 Chicago Journal of Commerce, 170 Chicago Sua-Times, 177, 188-89, 209 Chicago Tribune, 174, 342 
China, 103, 104, 163, 252, 297, 311, 313, 319, 524,529-32,334,341-42,385,403 Chippindale, Peter, 200 
Chisholm, Sam, 99, 368 Chris-Craft Industries, 181 Clinger, Michael, 310 Clinton, Bill, 186, 198, 219, 280, 281, 312, 391 Clinton, Hillary, 280, 281, 390, 397 
CNBC, 161, 16738, 191, 255, 316, 380 CNN, 22, 47, 236, 24-6,282, 306, 311, 314 Collegiate School, 248-49 
Columbia Pictures, 177 Comcast, 316 Commonwealth Bank, Sydney, 75, 147 Cond€ Nast, 233 
Cook, Jane Bancroft, 79, 88, 89, 221 Costa, Michael, 222, 223, 291, 381 Costello, Frank, 207 Courier-Journal (Louisville), 93, 301 Courier-Mail (Brisbane, Australia), 70, 101, 204 
Cox, Beatrice, 55 
Cox,Bill, Jr.,27,55,89,164,223,228,382, 385 
Cox, Billy, III, 27-29,53, 54-56,89,90,91, 164, 166, 383 
Cox, James Middleton, 94 
Cox, Jessie Bancroft, 24, 27, 88, 89,1+4 Cox, William, 89 
Cox Enterprises, 94 Cox family, 93, 94 Crovitz, L. Gordon, 6, 79, 80-81 Crowe, Russell, 199 
Cruden Investments, 61 
Cudlipp, Hugh, 131 
Cumberland Newspapers Group (Australia), 74 
Dacre, Lord, 242 
Daily Express (London), 71-72, 76, 249 Daily Mail (London), 67, 132, 133, 176 Daily Mirror (London), 237,250 Daily Mirror (Sydney), 200, 265 
Daily News (New York), 35, 152, 233, 235, 340,401 
Daily Sketch (London), 132 
Daily Telegraph (London), 65, 212, 236, 248, 374 
Daily Telegraph (Sydney), 102 Dalton School, 96, 100, 150, 207 Darling, Sir James, 68, 69 Davey, Gary, 326-27 
Davis, Marvin, 186,187 Dawson, Geoffrey, 65 
De Kretser, Leela, 13,589 Den of Thieves (Stewart), 172 Denver Trust, 379, 387 Delphi company, 330 
DaVoe, Dave, 38, 251, 288, 289, 381 Diana, Princess of Wales, 173-74,178 Diller, Barry, 42,190,297,298,318-19, 335, 395 
Dimbleby David, 126 Dimon, Jamie, 118 DirerTV, 111, 119,120 Disney, 43, 44, 308 Dolan family, 401 Dow, Charles, 86 
 Dow Jones.

                   23-30,49, 139, 165; shareholder premium issue, 379, 387; Tinn• cover story and, 290; vote on Murdoch offer, 194-95; younger generation and Dow Jones, 85-86 
Band, Doug, 391 Bandleq James, 221 
at the Gate (Burrough), 172 Barren, Clarence, 24, 86 
Barren, Jessie Waldron, 24,86 Bartholomew, Harry Guy, 131-32 Bartley, Robert, 261 
BBC, 122,252 
Beattie, Dick, 166, 229, 291 Beattie, W Geoffrey, 286 Beaverbrook, Lord, 71-72, 76, 131, 226, 249 Berlusconi, Silvio, 331 
Bewkers, Jeffrey, 43 Bing, Steve, 391 Bingham family, 93, 301 Black, Conrad, 122, 235, 237, 247-48, 374 Blair, Jayson, 343 
Blair, Tony, 276, 280-81, 372-73, 395, 396-97 
Bloomberg, Michael, 28,193, 315, 390 Bloomberg LP, 26-27, 28,193 -94, 315, 399 Bluhdorn, Charles, 179 
Boesky,Ivan,179 Bone, 335, 395 Booker, Patricia, 32, 76, 95, 96 
Globe, 209 
Herald, 177, 189, 209 Branson,Richard, 310,374-75 Brauchli, Marcus, 6, 9, 90 Brandy, Susan, 154 
Brearley School, 98, 150, 207, 33637 Breindel, Eric, 276-77 
Briganti, Irons, 346 Brin, Sergey, 336 British Satellite Broadcasting, 310 Brown, Tina, 8, 233, 234 
BSkyB (British Sky Broadcasting), 2, 3, 50, 99, 100, 103, 147, 193, 248, 294, 361, 368, 369, 373, 374, 375, 376; Sky News, 284; Sky Television, 309-10; soccer broadcasts, 305 
BT (British Telecom), 312 
Courier-Express, 209 Buffett, Warren, 195, 255-56 Bull, Bartle, 155 
365-66 Burden, Amanda, 155 Burden, Carter, 155, 156, 157, 158 Buckle, Ron, 198-99, 256, 257, 258, 391 Burmugh,Bryan, 172 
Bush, George H. W, 261, 279 Bush, George W, 38, 39 
Cablevision, 401 Cameron, David, 396 Cameron, James, 299 Cammaker, Josh, 223-24, 227, 228, 290 Campbell, Alastair, 280-81, 372-73 Campbell, Lewis, 381, 382, 384 
Car & Driver, 183 Carey, Hugh, 269 Carr, Clive, 125 Carr, David, 9 
Carr, Sir William, 123-25 Carr family, 123-25 Carter, Jimmy, 94,340 
CBS, 22, 71, 155, 184, 220, 305, 307 
Centerview Partners, 166 Chambers, Anne Cox, 94 Champion International Corporation, 182 Chandler family, 93 
Chapple, Frank, 274 Charles, Prince of Wales, 68 Charlie Rose (TV show), 107, 108-9 Chase Manhattan Bank, 36 
 Chelberg, Lizzie Goth.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   J. Simpson deal and, 217-18; The Simpsons, 300 
Fox News, 7, 11, 38, 44, 48, 98, 167, 204, 209, 210, 211, 218, 244, 246, 280, 287, 344, 345--08, 393; Ailes as head of, 41, 282-84; Barack Obama and, 347, 398; birth of, 314; Christmas campaign, 283-84; politics of, 281-84, 341, 398-99; power of, 247; Sunday news show, 220 
Fox Studio, 42,48,93-94,186,187,297, 299--300,319 
Freud, Charlotte (granddaughter), 368 Freud, Matthew (son-in-law), 2, 4, 99-100, 211,250,354,359,567-70,396 
Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver and Jacobson, 166 Frost, David, 127-29,130-31 
Full Disclosure (Neil), 243 
Gallipoli (film), 63 
Gannett Publications, 171, 178,203 
Gates, Bill, 172 Gavenchak, Genie, 199 GE, 247, 255, 257, 258,286 Geelong Grammar School, 68--69,98, 121, 150 
Geffen, David, 335-36, 395 George magazine, 162 Giddy, Harry, 70 
 Gigot, Paul, 261 Giles, Frank, 240-41 Ginsberg, Gary, 3, 6, 13, 4.4,161-63,166,

                                                                                                                               110-13, 116-17, 138,166,252,381 
Lewis, Brian, 346-47 Lewis, Ross, 29 Lindner, Carol, 179 Links Club, New York City, 111, 114,116 
Lippman, John, 317-18, 319 
Lipton, Martin, 159,166,179,251-54,290, 291 
David, 66 
Weekend Television, 
127,150 Long, Gerald, 241 
Longer, Claudine, 275 Lord, Day, and Lord, 146 
Los -4ngeles Herald Examiner, 
Los,4ngeles Times, 
93, 342 
Louisville Times, 
Luce, Henry, 169 Luntz, Frank, 280 
MacElree, Jane Cox Hill, 27, 79, 89, 90, 385 MacLeod, Alasdair (son-in-law), 95, 96, 294, 327, 357, 359 
MacLeod, Clementine (granddaughter), 373 MacLeod, James (grandson), 358 
Maeder, Freddie, 95,96 Major, John, 279 
Malone, John, 38-39, 45, 120, 306-7, 311, 314 
Mann, William, 104 
Market for Glory, The 
(Jenkins), 249 Maxwell, Robert, 122, 124, 125, 130, 176, 179,235,237 
McClintick, David, 177 MCI, 311, 312, 330 McKay, Mick, 135 McKay, Muriel, 135-36 McPherson, Peter, 79,138,142,144-45,229, 253,381,382 
Menzies, Robert, 264-65 
Merrill Lynch, 91, 137, 164, 166, 222, 227, 229, 285, 286, 291, 381, 384, 399 
39, 187 
C. E, Jr., 179 Meyer, Eugene, 149 Microsoft, 255,400 Milbank, Tweed, Hadley, and McCloy, 146 Milken, Michael, 111, 145, 172, 179, 237, 277, 279, 307, 311, 331 
Miller, Judy, 343 
Miller, Roy 'Rocky,' 213 Mirror Group, 235 
(Lundon), 66-67, 123, 126, 131, 132-33 
(Sydney), 74,102 
Modern Bride, 
Moore, John, 340 
Morgan, Jacqueline Events Bancroft Spencer, 79 
Morgan, Piers, 237, 250-51 Morgan Stanley, 285,379 MSNBC, 162,247 
Murdoch, Aiden (grandson), 102 
 Murdoch, Anna (second wife), 12, 32, 32-33, 36, 94, 95, 97, 101, 128, t29,135-36,187, 272,275,295-98,303,311,352,357-58, 361, 362, 368, 370; car accident in Britain, 136; divorce o£, 10-11, 32-33,35, 60, 97, 326, 327-28; forced off News Corp.

J. Simpson firestorm, 161-62, 217-18; Lachlan Murdoch leaves, 50, 107, 347, 352, 363, 365, 366-67; as largest news organization, 24.4;

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1-2, 3, 6-7, 8-9, 23-30, 46-53, 53-57, 76-81,85-85,109-19,137-45,161, 165-68,194-95,197-98,214,221-24, 226-30,251-54,284,288-91,348 -49, 377-88, 391-93; restrictions on media ownership, 181, 185, 189, 280; tabloids and Murdoch style media, 151, 202-20; testimony before Senate committee, 340; trade magazines purchased, 183, 184 
at Adelaide News, 72-73; as bank customer, 75, 147; business model, 204; Cruden Farm, 57-58, 560, 326; early newspaper fights, acquisitions, and mergers, 73-77, 183; Fairfax family and, 62, 73-75, 204; fame, 15; family 
Rupert Murdoch (continued) background, 57-77; first newspaper, 1; Gough Whitlam election and, 266-68; Herald and Weekly Times purchased, 191, 339; national newspaper launched, 205,219; percent of media controlled in, 191, 244; sale of father's legacy, 70-71, 101, 204; television station, 21, 176, 185, 264-65 
arrival with family (1968), 
5--16, 95-96; biggest editorial debacle, 241-42; competitors and, 234-37; as the 'Dirty Digger,' 131, 134, 136; as dominant media outlet, 244; Frost interview, 127-29, 130-31; influence of, 133-34,174, 280-81; kidnapping attempt, 16, 135-36; Lord Beaverbrook and, 71-72, 76; media acquisitions and sales in, 121-56,174-76,195, 361; memoirs o£ Christine Keeler and, 126-29; from 1968 to 1972, 120-36, 174; at Oxford, 69-70, 71, 263, 265; print unions, breaking of, 191-92, 273-74; rejection of cultural Britishness, 129-30; satellite television business, 2, 147, 193, 310, 361, 371; Sky network merger, 147, 193, 361; soccer broadcasts, 305; tabloid models, 205-6; television satellite launch, 310; Times of London, changes in, 230-34; Wapping offices, 191-92, 201, 211 
Murdoch, Sarah O'Hare (daughter-in-law), 97, 100, 101, 104, 351, 362 
Murdoch, Walter (grandson), 105 Murdoch, Wendi Deng (wife), 4, 16, 32-38, 51, 52, 59, 94, 97,101, 104, 109, 163, 219, 296,317-37,541-42,351,394-95,397; Murdoch's prostate cancer and, 331-33; opinion of Murdoch family, 106; politics of, 335, 347, 394, 398; trust-breaking desired by, 45-46, 107; wedding of, 328 Murdoch Books, 302 
Murdock, David, 179 MySpace, 256, 293, 336, 440 
Nallen, John, 116, 288, 289, 380-81 National Enquirer, 151, 206-7, 208, 215 National Star, 19,151,207-8, 267 
NBC, 22, 26, 99,161, 167, 168, 247, 255, 314 NDS company, 310 
Neil, Andrew, 220, 242, 243 Neva, Vivi, 336 Newhouse, Donald, 93-94 Newhouse, S. I., 97-94, 233 News, The (Adelaide), 1, 70, 71, 7273, 75, 183, 202, 204, 264, 362, 389, 393; Stuart campaign, 265 
 News America Digital Publishing, 103 News American (Baltimore), 178 News Corporation, 1-3, 7, 10, 308; acquisition of Fox, 297; airline acquisition, 142; Anna forced off board, 328; approves bid for Wall Street Journal, 141; as Australian company, 54; in Australian media, 191 (see also News Ltd.);

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Malone and poison pill, 39, 43, 120; MCI deal, 312-13; Murdoch buys out family's shares, 301-2; Murdoch children and spouses at, 32, 50, 95, 96, 98, 102, 103, 341-42,553; as Murdoch company, 42, 249-30, 288-89,293,54
,; Murdoch love affair with junior staffer, 281; Murdoch loyalists, 8, 18-19, 31-32, 213, 240, 245-45,245-46,28'9,293,504,402; Murdoch politics and, 27280; Murdoch's branding statements, 2, 3, 5; Murdoch's management style, 46, 52; Murdoch's prostate cancer and, 331-33; Murdoch's quarterly earnings call (2008), 402; net 
worth, 188; New York City building project, 3,592; O&Os, largest stable of, 308; problems at, spring and summer 2005, 41-45; risk and, 189; sale of publishing properties, 301; sexual harassment rules, 211; share price, 289, 331, 392-93, 402; successor issue, 355, 356; as technologically resistant, 292-93; transforming from Australian to U.S. company, 38-40; as two-tier company, 167; vote counting for Wall Street Journal sale at, 380; Wapping offices, 273; Wendi Deng at, 325, 329-30, 331, 336; Wall Street Journal purchase price, 394, 402 Newsday,401 
 News Ltd.,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             20, 72, 97, 125, 200, 357, 360, 362 
of the World (London), 96, 123-25, 131, 132, 201, 205-6, 237, 250, 272, 273, 274, 369, 393; Christine Keeler memoirs, 126-29 
Newspapers: advertising, 75,178, 204, 210; afternoon papers end, 152; aspects o£ production, 17; as cash business, 74-75; debt, use of, 76; decline of, 9, 49, 77, 110, 152, 348; elite, 6-7, 57, 84, 137,220-21, 232; families who own, history, 92-95, 123; Fleet Street journalism, 15, 71-72, 123; Harvard journalism mafia, 245; Murdoch and print unions, 191-92; Murdoch as a throwback, 57,152, 257, 389-91; Murdoch family and, 21; Murdoch in Britain and, 121-36; Murdoch's, number of, 17; Murdoch style, 177, 202; newspaper war, 7, 74; Northcliffe formula, 67; NY newspaper strike of 1978, 340; owner-operators, 234--00; running of, 72; second
generation proprietors, 17; single-owner markets, 152; tabloids, 23, 59, 66-67,121, 126, 131, 179,198-220; transformation of content in the 1980s, 230-31; in U.K., 1980s, 173-74; Watergate effect, 203-4 
7, 22, 160,178 Newton, Maxwell, 276 
west, 177,189 
New World Communications, 307, 308 New 
77, 169 
York Herald Tribune, 154 New York Journal 
York magazine, 9, 10-11, 12, 48, 50, 
153-54, 178,188-89; board of, 154-55; Murdoch purchase, 148,153-60,177, 185,275 
New York Observer, 36 
 New York Post, 5, 8, 10, 13, 29, 45, 48, 51, 92, 176, 177, 363; as American tabloid, 208-9; Business section, 245; divorce of Murdoch announcement in, 326; election of Ed Koch and, 269-70; endorsement of Giuliani, 277; endorsement of Jimmy Carter, 340; endorsement of Obama, 397; fate of, 348; influence of, 7; Langan's bar and, 200; location of, 287; as money-loser, 44-45, 57, 209, 301, 402; Murdoch forced to sell, 189; Murdoch purchase of, 148-53, 177, 185, 275; Murdoch repurchases, 208, 280, 301; newspaper strike of 1978, 340; Newton column in, 276; 'Page Six,' 198-99, 211, 221, 222, 224, 245, 249, 391; paid sources at, 7; Podhoretz column in, 276; Power of, 247-50; reporter Dualeavy, 181, 211-12; report on Murdoch in newsroom, 238; vendetta against Primedia, 11.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           '21' Club, 144, 153, 386 
USA Today, 
22, 171, 178 
Vanderbilt, Cornelius W., 155 Vanity Fair, 10, 402 Varadmajan, Tunku, 103 Vassar College, 98 
Viacom, 39 
Village Voice, 48,155-56, 158, 160, 177, 188-89,530 
Virgin Media, 375 
Von Holtzbrinck, Dieter, 382 
Wachtell, Lipton, 164, 223, 227, 229, 251, 253, 285, 289 
Wade, Rebekah, 8, 210-11, 213-14, 569 
(Dow Jones): alternative buyers to Murdoch, 25599, 286, 383, 384; as anti-Murdoch, 116, 225, 227-28, 256; Bancroft family (see Bancroft family); Dow Jones board, 28, 47, 53, 77, 7891, 110-11, 117-18, 138,142,163--64, 222,228--29, 258, 28495, 381, 382; Dow Jones sells Murdoch 
South China Morning Post, 
 193; editorial agreement with Murdoch, 6, 227, 230, 232, 233, 250, 253-54, 283,285,288--91, 38495; editorial pages and politics, 257-61, 284; as elite, 57, 84, 137, 232; history of, 86-92,168-72,177,193-94; incorporation in Delaware, 379; Kann at, 25-26, 27, 28, 29, 76-77, 118, 139-40, 171, 193, 258; Kann successor issue, 7891; library of, 179; missteps and missed deals, technological, 315-16; Murdoch in articles, 177,185; Murdoch pursuit and purchase of, 1-2, 5, 7, 8-9, 23-30,46-53,53-57,76-77,83-85, 109-19, 137-45, 161, 163, 163-68, 194-95,197-98,214,221-24,226-30, 251-54,284,288--91,348-49,377-88; Murdoch running of, 3, 5-6, 391-93, 400; Murdoch takeover, media coverage, 3, 6, 8, 9, 48; News Corp.'s

                                                                                                                                                                                  (Chippendale and Home), 200-201 
Southard, Peter, 51 Stuart, Rupert Max, 265 Stuntz, Marian Faris 'Cita,' 269, 274-75 Suburban Publications (Australia), 74 Sulzberger, Arthur, Jr., 6, 28, 76-77, 92, 343, 344,401 
Sulzberger family, 21, 92, 258, 339-40, 400, 401; Hillandale home, 21, 339 
Sunday Herald 
Sun, 278 
Mail (Australia), 73 
Sunday Telegruph 
(London), 274 Sunday Times (London), 175, 198, 232, 240; 
Hitler Diaries 
and, 242; Stelzer column, 275 
Times (Perth), 75 
Times (Giles), 240-41 
(London), 8, 173, 178, 200,201,205-6, 210-11, 245, 281, 369, 393; Murdoch purchases, 13133; Murdoch's politics and, 262-63; Page 3 girls, 59, 130, 133, 134 
News-Pictorial (Melbourne), 67 
Sydney Morning Herald, 
TCI, 306-7 Telegraph Group, 235 Thatcher, Margaret, 191, 262, 272, 273, 278, 279,280 
Thomson, Kenneth, 175 
Thomson, Ping, 51 
Thomson, Robert, 5, 6, 51, 57, 142, 244, 291, 348,391 
Thomson, Roy, 175 
Thomson Corporation, 175; merger, 195, 222-23,229,285-86 
Tierney, Brian, 256 
Time, 22, 160, 169, 231, 290, 307 
Time, Inc., 47, 178, 182, 185, 188, 191, 308 Times (Louisville), 301 
Times Mirror Company, 93 
Times of London, 5, 17, 48, 51, 57, 65-66,69, 142, 198, 220, 232, 2+0,291, 393; Hitler 
and, 242; Murdoch as proprietor of, 181,230-34,244; Murdoch's acquisition, 174-76, 232, 253, 273, 286; Murdoch's editorial agreement, 230, 253, 283,289; in Wapping, 142,191-92,201, 273-74; Wyatt column in, 273 
Time Warner, 36, 43, 77,308, 514,330 
(film), 299 
Tofel, Richard 'Dick,' 29, 169 Towbin, A. Robert, 157 Triangle Publishing, 193 Tribune Company, 93,203, 401 Trinity School, 100, 245 Trumaa, Harry, 21, 398 
Trump, Donald, 34, 37, 172, 173 Trump, Ivanka, 238 
Tufa, Peter, 158 
Turner, Ted, 71,235, 236-37, 314 TVGuide, 48, 193, 301 
 Twentieth Century Fox.

Bond traders and money managers said that investors were reacting to fears that a Democrat in the White House will mean increased spending, a larger budget deficit and increased inflation, which would be bad news for fixed-income investments.

'The late finish was powered by the results of 
 a new Cable News Network poll which showed that the presidential race had narrowed....

ABC News polls, 13, 75 Abramoff, Jack, 17 Affirmative action, 153, 154 Agricultural subsidies, 19, 86, 91-92 
AIG, 115 
Airline industry, post-September 11 aid package for, 118 
Alcoa, 78 
Alesina, Alberto, 172 
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT), 184,185 
Altman, Daniel, 74 American Airlines, 78 American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), 75, 80, 81 
American Conservative, 
173 American Conservative Union, 12-13 
American Institute for International Steel, 87 
Amtrak, 155 Antle, Jim, 173 Aquaslide'N' Dive Corporation, 104 Archer, Bill, 55 
Armey, Dick, 80 
Arrogance o£ Bush Administration, 16,40-41 
Arthur Andersen, 111 
Atlantic Monthly, 
144 Australia 
trade with, 92, 96, 97-98 VAT in, 187 
Baby boomers, retirement of, 167, 169, 173, 185 
Bagehot, Walter, 112 Bahrain, trade with, 97 Baicker, Katherine, 36 Bainbridge, Stephen, 113, 205, 208 Baker, James, 28-29 
Bandow, Doug, 13 
Barnes, Fred, 11, 92, 132, 134, 200 Barringer, William, 87 
Barro, Robert, 57, 165, 203 Bartlett, Roscoe, 65 Bartley, Bob, 49, 53 Bastable, C. E, 87 Baughman, Laura, 88, 90 Becker, Gary S., 165 
Bell, Steve, 125 BellSouth,78 Bentsen, Lloyd, 126 Berle, Adolf, 110 Bernanke, Ben, 36 Bernstein, David, 143 
Berthoud,John, II Bhagwati, Jagdish, 97 Big business, 
Corporate interests Birnbaum, Jeffrey, 38, 173 
Blair, Tony, 33, 116 Blinder, Alan, 53 Blodget, Henry, 112 Blumenthal, Sid, 144 Bodman, Samuel, 37 Bolivia, trade with, 97 Boot, Max, 37, 130 Boozman, John, 66 Borjas, George, 206 Buskin, Michael, 23 Botswana, trade with, 97 Bradley, Bill, 178 Brady, Kevin, 66 
Brady, Nicholas, 6 Brinkley, Alan, 120 Broiler, David, 9-10 Brookhiser, Rick, 43 Brookings Institution, 133, 176 Brown, Michael, 38,40 Bubbles, economic, 112-13 Buchanan, Patrick, 49, 84 Buckley, William E, 13 Budget Act of 1974, 159 Budgets 
balanced, 158, 159, 164, 173 Bush Administration, 14, 15, 61, 102, 131-39, 170, 173, 192, 199, 200 
Clinton Administration, 13, 18, 51, 122-30,140 
deficit reduction, 
Deficit reduction 
Reagan,133,138-39,163 Burgess, Michael, 65 
Burns, Arthur, 34, 145, 146, 147 Bush, George H. W, 135 
economic policy, disinterest in, 23 no-new-taxes pledge, abandonment of, 7, 48, 49, 124-25,171 
presidential election of 1992, 12, 23,48,122-23,124-25,156 Reagan-style conservativism and, 5-7 
trade policy, 84 
 Bush, George W, and Bush Administration.

I was no longer busily bringing them the good news.

Should the government of America return again into the hands of Britain, the tottering situ
ation of things, will be a temptation for some desperate adven
 turer to try his fortune; and in such a case, what relief can Britain give? Ere she could hear the news, the fatal business might be done, and ourselves suffering like the wretched Britons under the oppression of the Conqueror.

million in fees from a New Mexico state financial agency after donating more than $100,000 to Richard
 son's efforts to register Hispanic and American Indian voters and to pay for expenses at the 2004 Democratic National Convention, the news service reported.

CBS News gushed after the election: 'Change is definitely coming to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave.,

George Stephanopoulos, 'Staff Trouble At Treasury Department?' ABC News, March 6, 2009; available online at:

Eric Ruth, 'Feds boost Bank of America again,' 
The News jour
 January 17, 2009.

+ news + journal&cd=1&hl=en&ct= clnk&g1=us&client=firefox-a [accessed March 30, 2009].

Robert Gearty and Greg B. Smith, 'White House urban czar Adolfo Carrion OKd architect Hugo Subotovsky's Bronx plans,' New York Daily News, March 12, 2009; available online at: 

A Kind and Just Parent: The Chil
dren of Juvenile Court, 70-71 Abbott, Greg, 268 
ABC News, 3, 4, 27, 28, 32, 41, 44, 49, 84, 147 
Abramoff, Jack, 12 Acar, Yusuf, 159 Accredo Health Group Inc., 153 Adams, Angela, 56-7 
Adams, Dontae, 56-7 Albright, Madeline, 146 
Albuquerque journal, 
21 Allen, Paul, 113 Allstate Financial, 46 Alston & Bird, 29 Altman, Roger, 181 America's Clean Water Foundation, 33-5 
American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), 57 
American International Group, Inc. (AIG), 6, 7, 33, 167, 179-81, 246, 285-6 
American Lawyer, 
the, 88, 89, 118, 119 
American Rights at Work, Amtrak, 74, 98-100, 134 Anderson, Richard, 108 Andrews, Helena, 42 Appelbaum, Binyamin, 51 Aramark, 220 
Area Foundation, 238-9 
Bachmann, Michele, 249 Ballotpedia, 244 
City Paper, 230 Bansal, Sushil, 159 
Barr Laboratories, 264-5 Barras,Jonetta Rose, 159-60 Bauder, Donald, 22-3 
Bear Steams, 6, 31, 179, 284 Beverly, Louis, 227-8, 230 Biden, Hunter, 11, 77, 80-82, 84-85, 88-89,90-93,99 
Biden, Joseph ('Joe'), 5, 10, 11, 18, 49, 73-101, 134, 177, 198, 200, 271 
Bingaman, Jesse Francis ('Jeff'), 158 
Blackwell Consulting Services, 59, 61-62 
Blackwell, Robert, Sr., 59-62 
Ariel Capital Management, 47 ASK Public Strategies, 56, 72 Association of Community Organiz
ers for Reform Now (ACORN), 12, 227-50,292 
Atkinson, Caroline, 6, 31 
Atlantic Development Group, 150 Austin, Aaron, 21 
Axelrod, David, 7, 55-7, 72 Ayers, Bemardine Dohm, 71 Ayers, William, 69-71, 232 Aziz, King Abdullah bin Abudul, 38 
Blagojevich, Rodney ('Rod'), 54, 60,96,98,122,135-136,188, 202-9, 223, 278 
Blair, Dennis, 38 Blumenthal, Paul, 192 Boricua College, 150 
Globe, 51, 52, 277, 280 Boston Scientific Corporation and Cerner Corporation, 153 Boxer, Barbara, 268, 272 
Brand, Stanley, 264 Brooks, David, 1-3, 5 Brosens, Frank, 6, 32 Brown, Gordon, 291 Browner, Carol, 9, 11, 142-7 Bryant, James, 218 
BTM Development Partners, 150 Bunning, James, 279 
Burger, Anna, 196, 200, 202, 216, 224 
Bush, George H. W., 17 
Bush, George W., 4, 12, 17, 33, 99, 104, 106, 133, 134, 138, 142, 144, 156, 162, 169, 175, 179, 184, 189, 190, 193, 197, 198, 232, 249, 266, 279,281,285 
Byrd, Robert, 141-2 
Cain, Daniel W., 203 Caldera, Louis, 184 Camelot, 42, 45 Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, 11 Canney, Ryan, 223-4 
Cannon, Jonathan, 6,33-5 Cari, Joseph, 96-8 Carlson, Stephen, 43 
Carney, Timothy P., 188, 192-3, 285,292 
Carrion, Adolfo, 9-10, 12, 147-52, 286 
Carter, James ('Jimmy'), 17, 189 Carter, William ('Billy'), 7 Cato Institute, the, 8 
Carron, David, 60-61, 203 Cawley, Charles, 78 
CCMP Capital, 153 Celis, Mauricio, 267-8 Cellini, William, Sr., 135-6 Centex S.A., 173 
Center for Responsive Politics, the, 83, 89, 168, 284, 286, 292 Cerner Corporation, 153, 155 Chagoury Gilbert, 258-9 
Chair, Jonathan, 36 Chevron, 146 
Chicago Business, 
Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, 
Chicago Magazine, 
Chicago Reporter, 
Chicago Sun-Times, 
97, 122, 187 
Chicago Tribune, 
47, 49, 54, 57, 62, 135, 154, 186, 189 
China National Offshore Oil Corp, 36 
Chinagate, 108-9, 253 
Chiquita Brands International, 119
Chronicle of Philanthropy, 
257 Cincinnatus, 2 
Citadel Investment Group, 168 Citigroup, 168, 171, 179, 182-3, 185, 189, 282, 284, 285 
Citizens Consulting, Inc., 235, 243 Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW), 152,192 Citizens Union, 152 
Claremont McKenna College, 103 Clay, William, 48 
Clinton administration, the, 2, 30, 49, 80, 104, 108, 109, 118, 119, 124, 143, 144, 146, 148, 153, 170, 173, 174, 181, 183, 186, 188, 250, 261,288 
Clinton Foundation, the, 257-66 Clinton Global Initiative, 257, 264-5 Clinton, William Jefferson III 
('Bill'), 17, 20, 21, 81, 96,104, 108, 124, 163, 173, 188, 189, 222, 250-275,287,288 
Clinton, Chelsea, 64, 254 
Clinton, Hillary, 7, 18, 20, 45, 64, 67,148,163,197,249-275,277, 285,287 
CNN, 17, 27, 28 Cochran,John, 78-9 Cohen, H. Rodgin, 6, 31-2 Cohn,Jonathan, 156 Commission for a Sustainable World Society, 143 
Commodity Futures Trading Com
mission, 174,190 Commonwealth Edison, 8, 72 Communities Voting Together (CVT), 238, 239,242 
Congel, Robert, 265-6 
Congressional Quarterly, 
185 Consolidated Securities Entities pro
gram, 31 
Consumers Organized for Reliable Electricity (CORE), 72 
Consumers Rights League, 238, 242 Conyers, John, 247 Coren,Jonathan, 149-50 
Corn, David, 123 Corr, William, 11 Council on Foreign Relations, 175 Countrywide Financial, 163-5, 278
Covington & Burling, 10, 118-22 Craig, Greg, 207-8 
 Crow, Sheryl, 254 C-SPAN, 181 Cucullu, Lt. Col.

                                                                                                                                                                       Gordon, 121 
D.E. Shaw, 170-1,174-5, Dadey, Dick, 152 
Daley, Richard J., 43, 48, 50, 53, 72, 133, 135, 188, 210 
Daschle, Thomas, 6, 10, 16-17, 24
30, 39, 127, 153, 192 
Davis, Wright & Tremaine, 110 DaVita Corporation, 153 DeMin, James, 252 
Democratic National Convention, the, 24, 210, 220 
DeParle, Jason, 153, 156 
DeParle, Nancy-Ann Min, 9, 153-6 Despres, Leon, 43 
Dodd, Christopher, 274-89 Dodd, Jackie Clegg, 281, 286 Donahue, Paul, 222 Donilon, Thomas, 185 Donovan,Shaun, 148 Douglass, Linda, 98 Downey, Thomas, 146-7 Dubai Ports World, 146 
Durbin, Richard ('Dick'), 58, 62 
49 Educap,29 Edwards, Donna, 238-40 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 134, 176 Emanuel, Rahm, 5, 49, 87, 133, 182, 186-9,210 
Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA), 57 Employee Free Choice Act (EFCA), 131,197,224 
Ericcson, Edward, Jr., 230-1 Escobar, Pablo, 242 
Falkoff, Marc, 120-1 
Fannie Mae, 32, 163-5, 184, 185, 187, 282, 283 
Farrakhan, Louis, 70 
Federal Election Commission (FEC), 85, 131, 132, 162, 197, 199, 237, 238,240 
Feinberg, Robert, 281 
Financial Times, 
the, 172 Fitton, Thomas, 288 Fitzgerald, Patrick J., 136 
Foreign Policy, 
FOX News, 27-8,44 Franken, AI, 177, 272 Freddie Mac, 32,186-7, 282-3 Freedom of Information Act, 109, 117,145 
Freeman, Charles, 6, 35-9 

Freeman, Tyrone, 210-16, 223 Fried, Bernard, 94 
Froman, Michael, 183 Froomkin, Daniel, 175 Frye, Jocelyn, 11 Furman, Jason, 183 
Gaffen, David, 182 Gaffney, Frank, 39 Gardner, Stephen, 22 Gaspard, Patrick, 11, 199 Geithner, Timothy, 5, 6, 11, 16, 17, 25,30-2,167,175-82,183,190, 192 
General Electric Co., 146 Gensler, Gary, 190 
George Washington University, 254 Georgetown Day School, 2 
Gerry, Alan, 266 Gibbons, Richard, 155 Gibbs, Robert, 27, 30, 151, 154, 177 
Glamour, 44 Goldberg, Whoopi, 41 Goldman Sachs, 2, 11, 32, 168, 169, 171-3, 179, 185, 188, 190-3 Gongadze, Georgy, 260 
Good Morning America, 4, 44 Goolsbee, Austan, 185 
Gore, Albert, Jr., 96, 108, 143 Gortari, Carlos Salinas de, 172 Grajeda, Annelle, 215-16 Grassley, Charles, 57-9 
Greatest Transition in World History, the, 1, 4, 6 
Greenspan, Alan, 174 Gregg, Judd, 7, 17 Griffin, Kenneth C., 168 Grove Parc Plaza, 51-2 Grupo Televisa, 172 Guantanamo Bay detention facility, 120-1 
Gubert, Alan, 35 
Guidant Corporation, 153 Gupta, Sanjay, 17 
Habitat Company, the, 51 Hall, Gregory, 245 Hanks, Donna, 227-30 Harmony Palace restaurant, 109 Harnden, Toby, 29 
Harper, James, 8 Harper's magazine, 258 Harris, John, 203-6 
Courant, 286, 287 Harvard, 2, 42, 43, 46, 48, 53, 54, 
148,170-1,280 Hatch, Orrin, 175 Hayes, David, 11 Heidelbaugh, Heather, 245, 247 Hempton, John, 95 
Herbert, Lucas, 152 Hill, Christopher, 18 Hill, 
156 Hindery, Leo Jr., 26 Hobbs, Byron, 219 Holbrooke, Richard, 163, 279, 287 Holder, Eric, 5, 8, 10, 118-26, 152 Home Depot, 74, 88,

                                                                                                                                                                                                       3 Lee, Wen Ho, 21 Lehman Brothers, 168, 171, 285 Leno,Jay, 126-27 
Levine, Stuart, 96-97 Levitt, Arthur, Jr., 174 Lew, Jacob, 183 Lewinsky, Monica, 21, 253 Liddy, Edward, 181 Liebowitz, Anna-Lou ('Annie'), 15, 19 
Light, Paul, 4, 142 
Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, 8 Lippo Group, 109 
Locke, Gary, 7,106-11, 112 Loglisci, David, 156-57 Loop Capital Markets, 191 LoPresti, Marc, 95 
Loren, Steven, 97 Lynn, William, I1 
Madison, George W, 191-92 Madoff, Bernard ('Bernie'), 31, 270 
MarketBeat, 182 Martinez, Matthew, 130 Maryland Bank, National Associa

tion (MBNA), 77-82 McCain, Cindy, 44 McCain, John, 9, 12, 81-82, 106, 119, 132, 161-62,165, 168, 169, 170, 193, 247, 252, 267 McCarthy, Andrew, 71, 125 McCauliffe, Terence ('Terry'), 163 McGraw, Darrell, Jr., 123 McKinsey & Company, 29 Medicare Payment Advisory Com
mittee, 154 
Meet the Press, 
21 Merrill Lynch, 105, 172 Middle East Policy Council, 36, 37 Mineta, Norman ('Norm'), 132, 134 
Moores, John, 23 Morrissey, Ed, 158, 291 

Mother Jones, 23, 24, 284 Mozilo, Angelo, 163, 165, 278-79 Multinational Monitor, the, 172 Mundy, Liza, 43 
Munoz, Cecelia, 11 
Napolitano, Janet, 16 Nation, The, 174 National Education Association, 10 National Group, The, 86, 87 National journal, 183 
National Partnership for Women & Families, 11 
National Public Radio, 45, 107 National Review, 37, 44, 177 Nazareth, Annette, 6, 31 
NBC News, 24, 27, 281 New Republic, The, 156 New York Daily News, 149, 223 New York Times, the, 1, 3, 4, 5, 17, 19, 25, 41, 49, 50, 63, 74, 99, 107, 147, 153, 156, 166, 170, 173, 179, 185, 207, 234, 235, 244, 247, 248, 263 
Newsweek, 3, 72, 259-60 
North American Free Trade Agree
ment, 130 
North Shore Gas, 46 
O'Hanlon, Michael, 105 O'Melveny & Myers, 10, 185 Obama Victory Fund, the, 49 Obama, Barack, 1-13, 15-17, 19, 20, 23, 24-25, 27-29, 32, 35, 49, 52,53,161-63,165,167,210, 277, 278, 289; ACORN and, 227
50; Bill Ayers and, 68-72; corpo
rate America and, 63-69, 168-69, 188; criticism of Michelle Obama and, 44; cronyism and, 59-60, 62, 96; czars and, 141-43; Joe Biden and, 73-74, 82, 84, 85; Joe the Plumber and, 169-70; lobbyists and, 47-48, 82, 87, 106, 111, 153; 
open government and, 117, 166 pork barrel spending and, 100; unions and, 19S-202 
Obama, Michelle, 5, 11, 39, 41-72, 118, 188, 284,

only have room to acknowledge a few: 
Roger Ailes, the visionary chairman of Fox News, who gave me the 
opportunity to translate the hopes and fears of average Americans 
 average Americans and kept his promise to change my life forever.

This economic upheaval hit with full force during the writing of this 
 book, and it required almost a complete rewrite as bad news tumbled into worse.

 news comes to you courtesy of news alerts that are sent directly to your phone-a popular application among twentysomethings who care enough about the world around them to stay informed.

You don't have to be on the staff of a newspaper or TV news show.

To be fair, this generation of retirees is better informed 
 about national and international events than their children, and they are more likely to consume more news-even if it is of the old-fashioned paper kind-than their grandchildren.

                                                                                                               Religious Landscape Survey,' 2009 

AARP, 146, 223, 241, 244, 246 ABC News, 
accountability: corporate, 114 fair trade and, m8 
in government, 121-34,143,147,149,154, 266 
Acura, 68-69 advertisements, 39, 72 for drugs, 236 
Generation 2020 and, 199-201 morning programming and, 4 aerospace industry, xxi-xxii African Americans: 
political parties and, 131 religion and, r59 
age, 69
70 AIG,13L 134 airlines, xxiv-xxv, xxvi, xxxii, 64 alcohol and drug abuse, 256-57 Alias, Mel, 7 
Alpine Access, 63 Amazon, 98 American companies, 99-roo, 108, zo8 American exceptionalism, 180, 186, 208 American Express, xxxiii 
American Idol, xxxiii 
American Petroleum Institute, ir-s2 Ameriprise, 220, 243 Anheuser-Busch,36 
apartment rentals, xxvii, 3 Apatow, Judd, c8q Apple, z0-21, 58-59, 96 iPhone, xxxii, zo, 61, 84, 171 iPod,2o,58,84,171,192,195 iTunes,20,193,199 
Mac, 19 
 PC and, 58-59 Applebee's, 28 AT&T, 64.66

                         xi, 139 movies, 37-38,193-95,204-5 MSNBC, 61, 142, 144, 146 Murdoch, Rupert, xx-xxi, 187 music, 192-93, 195, 198, 204 MySpace, xxxiii, 
 182, 188, 203, 
National Council of Churches, 170 national security, 108 
NBC, xxxiii, 61 
News with Brian Williams, xxxiii, 51 Netflix,37-38 
Network, xxix,121 New Jersey, 55 Newly Retired group, 219 news, xxxiii, 3
newspapers, 3 New York, 57 New York Mets, 133 
New York Times, 3, 78,130 New York Yankees, 57, iSo-81 Nike, 205 
Noonan,Peggy,139 NPR, xxxiii 
NRA, x69,170 
Obama, Barack, xi-iii, xxix, 31, 65, 67, 84,114, n9-20, 123, 130, r34-47,150,15s, 246 health care and, 230 
religion and, 164-68 Chains Girl, 144 ObamaNation, 146-47 Ohio, 57 
Olbermann, Keith, 139 Olive Garden, 2zon Olympics, 180 one-day-at-a-time mentality, 49 OnStar, 16-17 
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 77 
overweight, 31,171 
Palin,Sarah, 142,162,173-74,2oo parental behaviors, 257-58 PATRIOT Act, 150 
Patterson, John, is Paul, Ron, 1441 PBS, xi 
PCs, 58-59 
peace of mind, zz5-27, 247, 248, 254 Pepsi, xxxii, 3o, 85 
Perot, Ross, 121,153 
personalization, xxviii, 20, 44, 156, 199, 234, 246 personal priorities, 256 
Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 160, 259 Pew Research Center, 221 
pharmaceutical companies, 229, 234-37 Phelps, Michael, i8o 
Pickens, T. Boone, 98 Playboy, 41-42,167 Plum Book, 138 politics: 
Generation zozo and, 203, 211 language and, 148-52 
health care and, zz9-3o Internet and, 143-46 religion and, 158,163,164-68,173 retirement and, 226-27 
see also government power of one,z3,6o Psychographic analysis, 70-72 public servants, 128 
Purpose Driven Life, The (Warren), 167 
radio, xxxiii, 3 Raines, Franklin, u2 Ralphs, 209-1o 
Reagan, Ronald, axis, 134,136,138,139,16q,e7o, 179 
RealClea,Politics, 143 real estate, 51, 52, 64-65 Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 193 
relationship people, 70 religion, xxx, 70, 157
77, 254 discussing, 159,163,164,168,170,172-77 European attitudes about, 16x-62 evangelical/people offaith, 157, 158, 163-64 
happiness and, 16r,254,259,26o McCain and, 168 
Obama and, 264-68 
politics and, 158,163,164-68,173 reestablishing respect for, 259-62 scandals in,170-71 
spirituality and, 70-71, 158, 163-64, z6o survey results on, 283 
top five churches, 167 
young people and, 169-70, 172, 184, 257 Republicans, at, xxi, 125, 130, 131, 134, 135, 136, 139-40,147,149,150,151,152,r69,215 entrepreneurship and, 99 
food and, 29 Medicare and, 237-38 religion and, r63, 164, 173, 174 sexand, 43 
Stevens and 124,126 restaurants, xxxiv, 25, 28, 64, zzon retail stores, xxvii, xxxiii, 92, 264 customer service and, 23, 6o-64, 92 retirement, 225-49, 252, 270 
frequently asked questions about, 224 health care and, 227-59 
 politics and, 226-27 Richard.,

In August 1992, while covering the bloody siege of Sarajevo for ABC News, I was sitting shoulder
 to-shoulder with a veteran producer and friend named David Kaplan when he was fatally wounded by a sniper.

In this nightmare, Kristi was standing in the doorway, receiving the terrible news that her husband had died in a training accident.

Who is in my home? What are they doing? Unfortunately, I was so consumed by news gathering that I tuned out my wife.

Unless listed below, I drew basic information from readily available news accounts, reference works, and Web sites.

Notes 357 
358 Notes 
 The Reverend Lin Barnett's story comes from my interview with him and from Brian Dugger, 'House of Healing, House of Prayer,' Scripps Howard News Service, August 23, 2000.

also Holocaust Pearl Harbor Survivors Association, 334-36 
Wright, Alison, 331-33 
Xerindza, Sofia, 3 
yaw, 55-56 
Yehuda, Rachel, 176-83 Yehuda, Rebecca, 183 Yom Kippur, 249 Young, Donn C., 250 YPLL (Years of Potential Life Lost), 345 
ZuckeS Jeff, 265-69 
Index 383 

Ben Sherwood is a bestselling 
author and award-winning jour
nalist who has worked as executive producer of ABC's 
Good Morning America 
and senior broadcast producer of 
 NBC Nightly News.

                                                                                                                                                                                                             See also Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of2008 
banking: business cycle, history of and, 88-94; competition and, 91-92; deposit insurance and, 45-46; deregulation and, 46-49; Emergency Economic Stabiliza
tion Act of 2008 and, 51-55; fractional reserve, 117-19, 125, 168,14, 178,8, 178,12; free, 91-92; government and, 51-55; Lehman Brothers and, 41, 149; money and, 26; moral hazard and, 151; nationalization of, 51-55; Panic of 1819 and, 88-90; risk and, 52-53 
Bank of America, 19, 39, 51, 168,16 Bank of England, 77 
Bank ofJapan, 82 
bankruptcy: bailouts and, 47, 59, 147-48; business cycle and, 72; Fannie Mae and, 148; financial crisis (2008) and, 147-48; Freddie Mac and, 148; Lehman Brothers and, 39, 41; 'too big to fail' mentality and, 32,41 
Banque de France, 132 
barter economy, 111, 112, 127 bear markets, 51 
Bear Stearns, 18, 37-38, 169,24 Belkin, Michael, 32 
Bernanke, Ben, 96, 129, 172,31; bailouts and, 38; economy, health of and, 37,38; Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 and, 41, 43, 152; financial crisis (2008) and, 7, 35, 37, 50; housing bub
ble and, 30, 34; interest rates and, 34; 'too big to fail' mentality and, 31 'Bernanke put', 152 
Big Three automakers, 40, 56 Bloomberg News, 152 Boockva , Peter, 55 
 boom-bust business cycle.

                           See business cycle 
capitalism, 3, 9, 20, 64, 151 Carden, Art, 24 
Carter, Jimmy, 17 
The Case Against the 
(Rothbard), 161 
CBS News, 42 

In fact, we should see deflationary trends on this indicator alone into the early 2020s, and this is very good news for high
quality long-term bonds and bad news for stocks, real estate, and com

Cities in the Sweet Spot, 1 million-2 million 
Metropolitan statistical areas
July 1, 2004
Salt Lake City, UT
Rochester, NY
Birmingham-Hoover, AL
Oklahoma City, OK
Richmond, VA
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY
Hartford-West Hartford-East Hartford, CT
Louisville, KY-IN
Jacksonville, FL
Camden, NJ
Memphis, TN-MS-AR
-Murfreesboro, TN
Austin-Round Rock, TX
Charlotte-Gastonia-Concord, NC-SC
 Allis, WI
Indianapolis, IN
Providence-New Bedford-Fall River, RI-MA
Virginia Beach-Norfolk-Newport News, VA-NC
Las Vegas-Paradise, NV
Columbus, OH
San Antonio, TX
Orlando-Kissimmee, FL
Kansas City, MO-KS
 Source: Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau.

At times it appears that the financial news is over
 whelmingly positive and that securities seem to be moving up in price without stopping.

'It depends almost entirely on the people involved and their willingness to tell the truth and do the work,'
open: love, sex, 
life j,, 
open marriage 

Deborah Anapol, psychologist and author of 
Polyamory: The New Love Without Limits, 
 in the same ABC News piece that featured Easton.

                                                                                                                                            about the author 

jenny block is a freelance writer 
whose work has appeared in a variety of regional and national publications, including 
American Way, Cosmopolitan 
Spirit, The Dallas Morning News, Dallas Voice, BeE, bRILLIANT People Newspapers, Where, D, D Home, Dallas CEO, Stone, Pointe, Virginia Living, Style Weekly, 
276 open: love, sex,   ,,,/ life i,, ,, open marriage 

Tango, R Health, 

Much of my research and investigation in the news world brings me face-to-face with grave statistics regarding poverty, disease, 
 corruption, and violence.

 When the doctor enters the room with bad news, we see it on his face.

Abby, not understanding this news development, sat in her car seat, chatting to the doll Aunt Patty had given her.

 I glanced over the news story.

                               'You have to stop him:' 

She made a bed for me on the floor: just a pile of news
 papers for a pillow, really, and an old rag of a blanket to pull up over me.

that all of these [news
 papers-he 'named a long list'] were guilty of falsifying news....

This was news to me.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 
Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library Adolf Berle Diary 
Irving Fisher Papers Harry Hopkins Papers Henry Morgenthau Diary Franklin Roosevelt Papers Samuel Rosenman Papers Rexford Tugwell Diary 
Library of Congress Newton Baker Papers Hugo Black Papers Raymond Clapper Diary William Borah Papers Benjamin Cohen Papers Thomas Corcoran Papers Felix Frankfurter Papers Harold Ickes Diary Harold Ickes Papers Hiram Johnson Papers Frank Knox Papers William G. McAdoo Papers Charles McNary Papers George Norris Papers 
312 Select Bibliography 
Hoover Institution Raymond Moley Diary Mark Sullivan Papers 
Kansas State Historical Society Alfred Landon Papers 
National Archives 
WPA-Political Coercion File-New Jersey 
Atlanta Constitution Atlanta Journal Baltimore Sun 
Bangor [Maine] Daily News Charleston News and Courier Chicago Tribune 
Daily Kennebec journal 
Los Angeles Times 
New York Herald Tribune New York Times 
Omaha World-Herald Philadelphia Inquirer Portland [Maine] Press Herald St. Louis Post-Dispatch Washington Post 

Adams, Alva,177 
 Adkins v.

      News accounts that form the basis for the housing crisis narrative came pri
marily from Bloomberg News; the 
Washington Post, 
'How HUD Mortgage Policy Fed the Crisis,' by Carol Leonnig, June 10, 2008; the 
Los Angeles Times; 
New York Times, 
'Housing Woes in U.S. Spread Around the Globe,' by Mark Landler, April 14, 2008; 
'The Next Real Estate Crisis,' by Prashant Gopal, June 5, 2008; the 
Wall Street Journal, 
'Why a Housing Bailout Won't Help,' by Holman Jenkins Jr., May 21, 2008; USA 
 'Cities Suing Lenders in Strategy Against Foreclosures,' by Donna Leinwand, May 16,2008; cnnmoneycom, 'Where Home Prices are Headed Next,' May 7, 2008; and the Associated Press.

Addams, Jane, 100
Phoenix, 9, 12, 25, 52, 62, 63, 68,
Addison, Alabama, 88
Adidas, 138
Scottsdale, 153
Adler, Dankmar, 99
Tahesin West, 153
AIG, 6, 8
Tucson, 159
Alabama, 61
Yuma, 167
Addison, 88
Arkansas, Jonesboro,166
Auburn, 166
Arlington, Texas, 164
Birmingham, 166
Arts and Crafts Movement, 35, 89
Albuquerque, New Mexico, 63
Arts Building (in 1893 World's
All American Homes, 104
Columbian Exposition,
Allhambra (in Moorish
Chicago, Illinois), 100
Granad), 1-2
Atlanta, Georgia, 60, 61, 68, 70, 138,
American Dream, The 
(Cullen), 38
American Express, 7
Atlantic Station (in Atlanta,
American Lung Association, 83
Georgia), 60
American Society of Civil
Auburn, Alabama, 166
Engineers, 65
Audacity of Help, The 
(Wasik), 173
American Vertigo 
(L6vy), 73
Auditorium Building (in Chicago,
Amoco Whiting Refinery, 112
Illinois), 99
Annapolis, Maryland, 27-28
Aurora, Illinois, 118
Apollo Alliance, 168
HomeTown, 119-121, 149
Applied Ecological Services, 159
Town Center, 119
Aqua Center (in Park Forest,
Austin, Texas, 124, 163,166
Illinois), 112
ArcelorMittal, 126
Baltimore, Maryland, 147,165
Aristotle, 2
Bank of America, 6
Arizona, 49, 51, 164
Barber Shop home
model, 120
Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 165 Bear Steams Companies, 6 Beecher, Catharine, 34, 35 Beecher, Lyman, 34 Beiswanger, William, 29 Bellevue, Washington, 164 Bentham, Jeremy, 87 Bergman, Ingmar, 112 Berkeley, California, 93-94, 106,158 
Integral Urban House, 143 Bernanke, Ben, 4, 7 
Bigelow, Perry, 117-121 Bigelow's company, 117-121, 149 Birmingham, Alabama, 166 Biloxi, Mississippi, 166 Bloomberg News, 2-3, 8, 39, 79 Boabdil (Muhammad XI), king of Granada,l 
Bonita Springs, Florida, 17, 20-22,172 
Booth School of Business, 100 Bose, 89 
Boston, Massachusetts, 3, 18, 19, 27, 36, 124, 138, 144, 163 Boulder, Colorado, 162, 163 
BP, 112 
Bradford, William, 31 
Broadacre City (in Wisconsin), 102, 154-156 
Brodhead, Wisconsin, 159 BrookingsInstitution, 129 Brown, Molly, 25 Brunner, Douglas, 22 Bryce, Robert, 58 
Buffalo, New York, 87, 147 Buffett, Warren, 138 Burnham, Daniel Hudson, 97, 99-100 
Burnham and Root, 99 Bush, George W / Bush administration, 47, 63, 88, 140 housing and, 4-5, 8, 14 
Butler, Samuel, 102 
California, 10, 21, 36, 43, 49-51, 53,103,105,109,133-136, 151,173 
Berkeley, 93-94, 106, 143, 158 Danville, 106-107 
Hesperia, 23 Irvine, 164 Lancaster, 23 Loch, 165 
Los Angeles, 5, 18, 23, 37, 52, 68, 70, 72, 128, 133, 163 
Los Angeles County, 165 Merced,165 
Modesto, 165 Riverside, 165 Riverside County, 62, 171 Roseville, 107 
Sacramento, 12, 107-108, 165 San Bernardino,165 
San Bernardino County, 62,136 
San Diego, 41, 68, 70, 148, 159, 163,165 
San Francisco, 9, 23-24, 68, 70, 72, 106, 118, 146, 162, 163,169 
San Juaquin, 62 San Mateo,137 Silicon Valley in, 24, 124, 162 Stockton,165 
California Energy Commission, 106 Cape Coral, Florida, 22-23 Carpenter Gothic style, 35 
Carter, Jimmy/Carter administration, 77 Casa Kirk (in South Chicago), 131 Center for Tax and Budget Accountability, 52 
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 71 Central Park (in New York City), 98 Charlotte, North Carolina, 9, 162,165 
Charlottesville, Virginia, 29, 142 
Chattanooga, Tennessee, 60, 165 Chicago, Illinois, 2, 3, 17, 33, 35, 36, 67, 68, 70, 72, 83, 85, 90, 105, 111, 113, 119, 121, 134-138, 148, 163, 165, 168 Auditorium Building, 99 Chicago Loop, 130 
Chicago Civic Opera House, 98 Fisk Street Station, 100 
Hull House, 100 Jackson Park, 98 Museum of Science and Industry, 94-95,97,100 
Near West Side, 100 North Side, 128 Robie House, 100 Sears Tower, 130 South Chicago, 12Z-132,137, 147,159 
Southeast Side, 129 West Side, 126-127 WLS-AM, 111 
World's Columbian Exposition (1893), 94, 97, 98,100, 101 Chicago Edison Company, 98 Chicago Heights, Illinois, 114, 118 Chicago 
Star, 114 Chicago Loop, 130 
Chicago Low-Income Trust Fund, 126 Chicago Civic Opera House, 98 Chicago 
Christian, Jeff, 160 Chrysler, 8 Ciba-Geigy, 141 Citigroup, 7 
Civano (in Xucson, Arizona), 159 Claretians, 126-128, 131-132 Clark, William, 139 
Clean Air Act of 1970, 68 
Clemens, Samuel (Mark Twain), 24 Cleveland, Ohio, 2, 125, 147m 165 Cleveland Heights, Ohio, 150 Clinton, Bill/Clinton 
administration, 47 
Coachman Industries, 104 Coca-Cola Company, 61 Coldwell Banker, 137 College of William and Mary, 27, 28 College Station, Texas, 166 Colorado, 24, 36, 135, 162 
Boulder, 162,163 Colorado Springs, 166 Denver, 138, 163, 165 Lakewood, 164 Colorado Springs, Colorado, 166 Columbus, Christopher, 1 Columbus, Georgia, 165 Commonwealth Edison, 101 Community Supported Agriculture, 151 
Congress for the New Urbanism, 146 Connecticut, 163 
Hartford, 34 
Cook County, Illinois, 117, 134-135 Coral Gables, Florida, 150 
Coral Springs, Florida, 164 Costco, 122 
(Downing), 345 
(McDonough), 141 Craftsman homes, 37, 89, 103 Craigslist, 22 
Cullen, Jim, 38 
Dade County, Florida, 23,165 Daily Calumet, 123 
Dallas, Texas, 68, 70, 163, 166 Dalton, Georgia, 166 
Dane County, Wisconsin, 53 Danville, California, 106-107 Darrow, Clarence, 125 Dartmouth College, 141 Davenport, Iowa, 166 Dayton, Ohio, 125,147 
Life of 
Great American 
Cities, The 
(Jacobs), 152 Debs, Eugene, 125 
Decatur, Indiana, 104 Delaware, Dover, 166 
Del Sur (in San Diego, California), 159 Demos (think tank), 5 
Denver, Colorado, 138, 163, 165 Des Moines, Iowa, 166 
Detroit, Michigan, 2, 9, 38, 59,125, 140, 147, 148, 165 Dominguez, Carmen, 91 
Dover, Delaware, 166 
Downing, Andrew Jackson, 34-35 Duany, Andres, 149-150,152, 156-157 
Durham, North Carolina, 165 dymaxion home, 142 
(Van der Ryn), 143 Economic Recovery Advisory Board, 8 Edison, Thomas, 77, 97, 98 Einstein, Albert, 141 
Elgin, Illinois, 119 
El Paso, Texas, 63, 165 Embarcadero Freeway (in San Francisco, California), 146 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 154-155 Energy Star, 89,157-158,160,168 Enlarged Homestead Act (1909), 36 Envirodyne, 124,125 Environmental Defense Fund, 141 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 62, 68, 83, 148 Erdman, Marshall, 101, 156 Eugene, Oregon, 166 
Faieta, Beth, 19-23, 25, 41, 51, 172 Faieta, Fabrizio (Fab), 19-23, 25, 41, 51, 172 
 Fallingwater (in Pennsylvania), 101,102,

founded in 1981, is a global information services, news, and media company.

Headquartered in New York, Bloomberg has sales and news operations worldwide.

Deeply conspiratorial and obviously indebted to the authors' extreme views, this book claims that 'money and power' filter the news to reflect their interests, and consequently that even in a democracy with a free press, reporting is a form of propaganda for the ruling class.'

Within another twenty years thanks to permanently negative trade balances, a crushing defeat in Vietnam, oil shocks, 'stagflation,' and the shredding of a moral consensus that could 
 not withstand the successive assaults of Elvis Presley, 'the pill,' and the counterculture, along with news reports that God had died-it had become defunct.'

His warnings did not appear on the nightly news of the major television networks.

News traveled slowly from England across the Atlantic, but in December 1774 the colonists learned that two months before, King George and his ministers had decreed a ban on importation of firearms into the colonies.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Before Gage had a chance even to confirm receipt of the order, the 
Gazette reported this new violation of the colonists' rights as follows: 
We learn from undoubted Authority, that Lord Dartmouth, Secretary of State, has wrote a circular Letter to the Governors upon this Continent, informing them, That his Majesty has thought fit, by his Order in Council, dated the 19th October 1774, to prohibit the Exportation from Great Britain, of Gun Powder or any Sort of Arms or Ammunition, and has signified to them his Majesty's Command, that they do take the most effectual Measures for arresting, detain
ing and securing any Gun Powder or any Sort of Arms or Ammunition, which may be attempted to be imported into the Province over which they respectively 
Upon receiving word of the arms embargo, the Boston Committee of Cor
 respondence sent the news by Paul Revere to their friends in New Hampshire, warning them that two British ships would be proceeding to Fort William and Mary at Portsmouth to secure the Crown's materiel.

Looking at Harvath, he said, 'We've got bad news.'

Opening the email, Harvath read Gallo's update: 
 Wonderful news!

                                                                                             The Kennedys used it as a kindergar
ten for Caroline and other children, Presi
dent Nixon gathered his family here to break the news of his resignation, and President Reagan spent weeks in the solarium, recu
 perating from the assassination attempt on his life.

                                                 At a 2008 year-end summit meet
ing, the Council's assistant secretary-general, Mohammed Al Mazroui, told Gulf 
 'We first have to decide on the location of the Central Bank, then the Central Bank and Monetary Council will have to decide on the gold reserves for the Central Bank.'

Now, weeks later, after weeks of dying and with the war over, the Gunnison 
unlike virtu
 ally every other newspaper in the country, played no games and warned, 'This disease is no joke, to be made light of, but a terrible calamity.'

                                                         359 Sentries 
all trails: Engineering News-Record 82 (1919), 787, quoted in Jordan, 
 Influenza, 453.

 Jonathan Allen, 'Pennsylvania's Murtha, in a Tight Race, Still Wield$ Power,' CQ Today Online News, November 1, 2008.

While still the biggest story, election coverage waned during the summer in the period 
 between the nominating campaigns and the conventions, falling to a low of 21 percent of the news hole in early August.

There was a slight surge in elec
 tion news in July when Obama took a trip to Europe and the Middle East which invigorated coverage in the U.S. and abroad.

While a sizable portion of the electorate consulted new 
 media sources, the majority relied primarily on established television network and cable news for their campaign information.

In addition, audience appetite for political news was fleeting, and dropped off immediately following the campaign.

Circulation increased for a small number of papers, including USA Today, a national newspaper, the 
Wall Street journal, 
whose extensive coverage of economic issues drove readership as the country 
 experienced a financial downturn, and a handful of papers specializing in local community news (MacMillan, 2008).

News Web sites, which had gained a tremendous following during the cam
 paign, saw the biggest drop in traffic.

                                                            million individ
uals per minute visited the online news sites for CNN, MSNBC, Reuters, and 
 BBC, besting a record set during the final game of the World Cup soccer match in 2006 and the NCAA basketball championship in 2007 (Schonfeld, 2008).

lost one-third of its traffic, while Fox News and Yahoo News each experienced declines of over 20 percent (Fahri, 20086).

One of these revolutionary moments was during the 1964 presidential campaign, when television and the nightly 
 newscasts of ABC, CBS, and NBC supplanted newspapers as the primary way Americans get their news.

The 2008 election seems to be anoth
 er of these transformative events, as the Internet became a major source of campaign news for the American public.

According to preelection survey data gathered from the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, 33 percent of Americans claimed that the Internet was a major source for news about the 2008 campaigns.

Even fewer cited radio (15 percent ) and news magazines (2 percent).

Local newscasts continue to rank as the most popular news programs on televi
 sion-capturing 52 percent of the viewing public on a regular basis in 2008 (but have experienced a steady decline since 2002).

Only 29 percent of the American public relied on the nightly network newscasts (ABC, CBS, and NBC) to get their campaign news, representing a decline for the fourth consecutive election cycle.$

With this ver
 bal hacky sack they kicked around the idea of whether the day's news would affect the outcome of the nomination and election.

Access to millions of e-mails also made it easier to mobilize supporters into action (the Obama Action Wire), to rebut negative news stories, to complain about attack ads, or to protest guests on talk shows.

Forty-seven percent of those who listed newspapers and magazines as their primary news source held at least one 
 of the three misconceptions.

By the same standard, most of the news media would be guilty of con
 spiring with the federal government to deceive the American people.

                                                                                                                                                      Brown, Irving, 58 Brownlee, Les, 121 Brownstein, Ronald, 159 Bryce, Lord, 11-12, 169, 199-200, 226 Bukovsky, Vladimir, 61 
Bulgaria, 177 Bumiller, Elizabeth, 93 Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, 153-54 Burke, Edmund, 171 
Bush, George H. W, 4, 10, 14, 59-60, 72, 80, 176,233 
Bush, George W, 2, 6, 7, 17-24, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 36, 41, 42, 43, 48, 49, 50, 62-64, 65, 66-72, 74, 76, 88, 92, 94, 99, 100, 101, 103, 106, 108, 110, 119, 120, 126, 134, 140, 141, 146, 161, 164, 166, 176, 177, 184, 189, 190-91, 193, 196, 197, 198, 199, 204, 224, 234-38 
Butler, Smedley, 52 
Bybee, Jay, 113-16, 119, 132 Byrd, Robert, 41 
Cambodia, 4, 193 Camp Liberty, 125 Camp Redemption, 125 Campaign finance reform, 248-49 Campbell, Les, 69 
Card, Andrew, 5 
Carnegie Endowment, 53, 187 Carnivore email wiretapping system, 165 Carothers, Thomas, 53-55, 72-73, 74, 187, 190 Carrol, Eugene, 60 
Carter, Jimmy, 4, 72, 79, 164 Carthage, 200 
Cassirer, Emst, 100, 202, 203 Castro, 54 
Catholicism, 40, 50 Catledge, Turner, 93 CBS News, 110, 121, 217, 240 Censorship, 152, 186, 231, 239, 248-49 Census Bureau, 184 
Center for Defense Information, 60 Chabot, Steve, 173 
Chalabi, Abroad, 67 Chamorm, Violtta, 59-60 Chamber of Commerce, 57 Charles 1, 241 
Chattanooga Times Free Press, 87 Chavez, Hugo, 62-64 
Checks and balances, 25-26, 143-45, 149, 250 
Cheney, Lynne, 90 
Cheney, Richard, 18, 44, 88-90, 92, 141, 145, 161 
Chernus, Ira, 24 Chicago Tribune, 33, 85 Chile, 55, 58 
China, 55, 72, 83, 235-36 Christianity, 50,235 
Science Monitor, 79 Church, Albert, 135-37 
CIA, 3, 7, 37-38, 47, 52, 53, 55, 56, 59, 60, 69, 78,88,89,93,94,109,123-24,130,133, 137-38 
Ciepley, David, 220-21, 226-27 Civil War, 191-92, 231 
Clarke, Richard, 84, 85 Clement, Paul, 180 Cleveland, 174-75 Clinton, Bill, 4, 6, 9, 10, 14, 15, 29, 33, 65, 72, 80-84,92,93,105,106,153-54,165,169, 177,184,189,190,199,211,215-17,226, 233-34,236,238 
 Canton, Hillary 92, 156 CNN, 23, 35, 85, 88 Coalition Provisional Authority (Iraq), 22.

                                                                                                                                                                       238 Fort Hood, Texas, 130-31 
Foundation for Defense of Democracies, 220 Founding Fathers, 6, 8, 11, 25-26, 48, 61, 70-71, 77, 100, 108, 149-50, 172, 175, 181, 182, 199,20M 1, 204, 211, 228, 231, 234, 236-37,241,242-43,246-47 
Four Freedoms, 232-33 
Fourth Amendment, 185, 228-30, 239-40 Fox News Network, 21-22, 37 
France, 12, 58, 61, 113, 191, 192, 197, 199 
34, 111, 126, 178, 201-03, 224-241 
from Fear, 33, 47-48, 233 
Freedom of Information Act, 127-28, 164 
to Farm Act, 214 
French Revolution, 199, 226 Fries, Jakob Friedrich, 202 Frist, Bill, 84 
Frost, David, 233 From, David, 96 Fukuyama, Francis, 201-04 
37 Garfield, Richard, 216 Gay marriage, 41 Gay rights, 2, 
by FBI), 152 
Accounting Office, 57, 79, 98 
will, 226, 246 
Conventions, 112-13, 122, 124, 140 Genitals (torture), 123, 129 
Genocide, 82-83, 147 
Mason University, 13, 61 
111, 179, 200-01, 242 Georgia,199, 236 
Germany, 12, 78, 134, 190, 192, 194, 195, 202, 238 
Gershman, Cut, 57, 58, 60, 61, 63, 68 Ghost prisoners, 140 
Gilbert, Gustave, 195 
Ed, 112 Girl Scouts, 156 
Global Hegemony, Benevolent, 208 
God, 3, 18, 41, 74, 161, 167, 204, 209, 246 
Joseph, 107 
Goering, Hermann, 195 Goldwater, Barry, 42, 151-52 Gonzales, Alberto, 112, 113, 119, 131-34, 143, 144, 166, 176 
Good faith belief (homicide exemption), 114 Gorbachev, 12 
Gore, AI, 28, 177 
 Goss, Potter, 47, 137-38 Gowa, Joanne, 192 Graham, Lindsay, 124 Graver, Chutes, 130-31 Great Britain.

                                                                                                                          175, 247 
Jones, Frederick, 69 
Jones, Stephanie Tubbs, 172, 
Journal of Personality and Social Prychalagp 213 Journalists, 27 
Julius Caesar, 199 
Justice Department, 24, 26-27, 72, 113-17, 119, 131-34,158,179-80,185 
Kant, Immanuel, 191 Karimov, Islam, 235 Karpinski, Janis, 139 Kay, David, 20 
Keau, Thomas, 89 
Rein vs. New London, 227-28 Kemble, Eugenia, 58 
Kennedy, John E, 4, 53, 162 Kennedy, Ted, 132-33 Kennedy School 
Government, 156-57 Kentucky, 186 
Kerik, Bernie, 45 
Kerry, John, 17, 23-25, 28-29, 33, 38, 41-44, 46, 112, 122, 164, 177, 247 
Keynes, John Maynard, 96 Khmer Rouge, 166 Kimball, Roger, 202 King, Gertrude Besse, 243 Kinsley, Michael, 73 Kissinger, Henry, 101 
Knight Richer News Service, 90 Koh, Harold, 118 
Korea, 193 
Koresh, David, 157 Kosovo, 81-84, 92, 176 Kosovo Liberation Army, 81 Kristol, William, 96,208, 210-11 Krupps Steelworks, 195 
Ku Klux Klan, 40 Kull, Stephen, 21 Kumar, Martha, 93 Kundera, Milan, 76 Kuwait, 80 
Lagouranis, Tony, 142 Lantos, Tom, 154 Laos, 193 
Latin America, 50-56, 58-59, 62-64, 73, 79, 166 Latvia, 199 
Leach, Jim, 59 
Leader (strong), 17, 34, 238 Leahy, Patrick, 132 Lebanon, 69, 79, 176, 193 Lehrer, Jim, 208, 
Leonard, William, 163 
Leviathan, 7, 31, 77, 96-99, 102-03, 153, 158, 169,184-85,212,225,249-51,25
 Levy, Jack, 190 
Lewinsky, Monica, 15, 80-81, 91 Lewis, Flora, 93 
Libby, Lewis, 96 Liberals, 159-660 Liberty, 34, 111, 126, 178, 201-03, 224-241 Library 
Congress, 208-11 
Libya, 193 
 Lies, 3-5, 18, 27, 28-29, 76-107, 121, 163-64, 168, 247-48.

                                                                                               202, 238 NBC News, 95, 111 
Negro removal (eminent domain), 228 Negroponre, John, 55, 101 Neoconservatives, 58, 96-97,208-11 Netherlands, 140, 234-35 
 Neustadt, Richard, 156 Nao American, 162-03 New Deal, 151, 220-21.

                                                           See abo FOR New 
Journal of Medicine, 130 New Jersey, 36, 38, 44 
24, 73, 91 
New York, New York, 34, 36, 38 New York Daily News, 142 New York Review of 
 New York Tmes, 38-39.

Even if 'black people as a group' might still be justified in displaying some general distrust of white America writ large (already a controversial con
tention), 'the time-tested skepticism in black communi
ties' must still provide space for distinctions between and among particular white citizens that blacks meet while go
 ing about their daily lives.

                                                              So also thank you 
Mickey Kaus Merrill Kinstler Harry Liberman Gary Lawson David Limbaugh Jay Mann 
Gene Meyer Jim Moody Jeremy Rabkin Jon Tukel Angie Saridakis 
 to my soon-to-be-fully-tested editor Sean Desmond, who took over at the page-proof stage, and my copy editor Toni Rachiele.

Pollster Richard Wirthlin briefed them on which words and phrases had tested well, and then talk turned to the editing process: Some of the speeches 
 were being rewritten after the president had signed off on them, the writers complained.

It tested whether the world had an effective way of protecting itself against a repeat-offense aggressor without having to invade his country to oust him from power.

                                                                                                                                                                It was not until 
that Britain followed the Bismarckian example, when the Liberal Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George introduced a modest and means-tested state pension for those over 

The general point of the bill was to alleviate concerns people might have about get
 ting themselves or their fetuses tested for birth defects.

The Fed chief would be repeatedly tested-by a currency crisis, a major hedge fund collapse, and a technology bubble.

                                                                                                      AMERICA'S DEADLIEST EPIDEMIC 

Routine substance abuse screening for all injured teenage hospital patients may be the best way to curb drug abuse, concludes a Uni
 versity of Michigan study published in the Journal of Pediatric Surgery which found that 40 percent of pediatric trauma patients in one emergency room tested positive for drugs, including heroin, alcohol, and marijuana.

So the CEO, Stephen Cloobeck, had a box with about thirty pillows from all over the globe delivered to his home in Las Vegas, and he tested each one over a two-week period for length, weight and, in his words, 'puffiness.'

        While I certainly haven't been tested like the survi
vors in these pages, I've hit some bumps and experienced my 
2 Introduction 
 share of loss and grief.

Over the course of a decade, he tested lucky and unlucky people in the most ingenious ways and concluded that there are four reasons why good things always happen to the same people.

Rather, it's a five-step program that he's tested with great suc
 cess on regular people.

 We back-tested this cycle over the last century.

Property rights are likely to be tested as never before in our his

And just as Einstein refused to accept his own theory until his predictions 
The Great Influenza 
 were tested, one must seek out such findings.

Most of the problems that surfaced were due to long lines and record turnout, not the 'fraud or other chicanery that marred closely con
 tested presidential elections in 2000 and 2004.'

In August 2005, the House Government Reform Committee opened a perjury investigation of a baseball player who had testified to the committee that he did not use steroids but tested positive for steroid use a few months later.

1 11, 
 days later the Soviet Union proved its claim, testing its first H-bomb.

But why not treat a teen arrested for marijuana use much the same way we treat someone arrested for drunk driving when no injury occurs? Why not use the arrest as an opportunity and require kids cited for marijuana possession to be screened psychologically and referred for help if appropriate, and to attend sessions to learn about the dangers of marijuana use and how to decline the next time they are offered a joint? The incentive to be screened and attend such classes would be the threat of the alternative: for the first couple of arrests, loss of a driver's 
 license or a fine stiff enough to sting that has to be paid by the teen or worked off; for continued use, intensive treatment, including random testing and staying clean to avoid jail time.

                                                    LSD testing and, 21 Mill, John Stuart, 132 Milland, Ray, 18 
Miller, Tim, 152 
Miller Brewing Company, 58, 144 Mills, Wilbur, 4 
Miltown, 21 
Milwaukee, drunkenness in, 30 Mind-altering drugs, use of, during post-World War II period, 21 Minelli, Liza, 4 

                                                                                                                                                                                      See also Children 
children and substance abuse by, 5,67-68,107-111 
easy availability of drugs in schools and attitude of, 41 
need for societal support for, 62-63 prevention of teen substance abuse and,176-177 
teen marijuana problem and, 119,126 
teens' attitudes toward substance use and, 45-49 
underage drinking at home and criminal liability of, 47 
'zero tolerance' policies and, 44 Parents Television Council, 54 Paroe-Davis, 20 
Parole, 97, 98 
Parole officers, substance abuse training for, 99 
Partnership for a Drug-Free America, 181 
Patent medicines, spending on, 
at turn of nineteenth century America, 20 
PCP, 5, 30, 85 
Pediatric trauma patients, positive testing for drugs and, 65 Peels, 58 
Peer pressure 
drinking, gender and, 139 smoking and, 137 
substance abuse, gender and, 136 Pennsylvania 
drug abuse-related spending in, 103 drug court graduates in, 93 
People magazine, 2 Pepper, Claude, 146 Percocet, sales of, in schools, 42 Performance-enhancing drugs, professional sports and, 55-56 Pharmaceutical companies, 3 direct-to-consumer advertising by, 27 
Pharmaceuticals, reducing craving in brain for drugs and, 78 Pharmacology, 3 
 'Pharming' parties, 27, 29, 37 Phencyclidine.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          See also Incarceration 
costs for, 91-92 
drug abusers and addicts in, 6 drug treatment programs as alternatives to, 69, 94-95 federal funding of, 99 
jobs and revenues and, 88-89 substance abuse and inmates in, 86-87 
Prison towns, federal funding to, 88-89 
Probation, 99 Professional sports, performance-enhancing drugs and, 55-56 
Prohibition, 17-18, 129 Prohibition Party, 17 Proposition 36 (California), 94 Prostitution, 'saloon culture' and, 17 Pseudoephedrine,31 
methamphecamine and, 26 Psychiatrists, patients treated with hallucinogens by, 21 Psychoactive drugs, women and prescribing of, 141 Psychotropic drugs, 27 
treatment of mental illness and, 21 Public education programs 
for children and teens, tobacco industry and, 155-158 gender and tailoring of, 141-142 prevention of substance abuse an 174 
Public health community, stigmatization of substance abuse and,164,165 
Public housing, substance abuse and addiction and, 113-114 Public opinion, industry campaign contributions and, 147 Public places, smoking-free environments and, 15, 153-155,175 
Public policy 
alcohol industry, tobacco industry and, 160 
substance abuse and addiction and, 16-117 
Purdum, Lexy, 37 
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, passage of, 20 
Radio advertising, alcohol manufacturers and, 56, 57 Radio markets, alcohol advertising and, 149 
Raft, George, 87 Raines, Andrea, 135 Ramstad, Jim, 4 
Rand Corporation, 98n Random drug testing, 45, 93 Rangel, Charles, 114, 130 Rape, substance abuse and, 50, 85, 100, 106, 107, 137 
Raves, 26,31 
Ravitch, Richard, 114n Reagan, Nancy, 25, 26, 185 Reagan, Ronald, 14, 19, 112 Recidivism, 99 
incentives for reduction of, 98 religion and reduction in, 97 Recovery 
clock of, vs. child development clock, 109 
religion and spirituality and, 167 self-esteem and, 96 
'Recovery dorms,' 52 
magazine, cigarette advertising in, 14 
Red Cross, 11 Redstone, Shari, 185 Reduction-in-crime argument, 
legalization and, 128-129 9Reefer Madness,9 121 Reentry Policy Council, 101 Reform schools, 99 Rehabilitation, for juveniles, 99 Rehnquist, Justice William, 1 Rehr, David, 145 
Reimubursement system, substance abuse, physicians, patients and, 74, 75 
Religion, substance abuse treatment and, 96-97, 167, 173-174 Reno, Janet, 93 
alcohol industry campaign contributions to, 145 tobacco industry campaign contributions to,144,150,156 Research funding, on substance abuse and addiction, 76-80 Residential treatment centers, 69 costs related to, 95 professionalizing providers and, 167-169 
Respiratory diseases, 76 
in children, substance abuse and, 68 Restless leg syndrome, 3 Revolutionary War, tobacco and 
financing of, 10 Rice, Linda Johnson, 185 Richards, Ann, 4 
Rio cigarettes, 15 Riordan, Dick, 125 Ritalin, 2, 5, 26 availability of, via the Internet, 40 college students and use of, 51 sales of, in schools, 42 
Riverhead public housing (Manhattan), 114n 
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, 11,14, 15, 60, 61, 62, 144, 151, 152, 153, 157, 158 
Road rage, 3 
Roaring Twenties, 18 
cigarette advertising to women during, 11-12 
marijuana use during, 21 Robberies, substance abuse and, 86,100 
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 181 Robinson, Edward G., 87 'Robotripping,' 27 
Rockefeller, John D., 17 Rockefeller drug laws, 94 Rock stars, drug and alcohol abuse and, 2 
Rolling Stones, 25 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 18n Rophynol, 30 
Rosenblatt, Stanley, 154 Rosenblatt, Susan, 154 Rosenwald,John, 183,184 Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 61 Roth, Mike, 185 
Rumsfeld, Donald, 172 Rupp, George, 185 Rusk, Dean, 172 
Sacramento County Department of Health and Human Services, 110 
 'Saloon culture,' 17 SAMHSA.

Ambivalence within these liminal spaces is a positive force for rethinking domination, con
 testing unilateral dictates, and the crucible for novel articulations (see also Graves 1998b).

I felt confident that my college years would be my sexual experimentation years, when I would find The One by testing out various scenarios and partners and discovering which of my trial runs I might want to become my lifelong reality.

Perhaps he realized that our testing these waters was inevitable, so why not with Lisbeth? 'If you think you can make that happen, bring it on,' he said.

The Pasteur Institute was also testing a pneumonia vaccine, but without success.

                                                                                                                                                                           Whereas registered 
nurses once performed a multiplicity of tasks and became very familiar with each patient, many hospitals have created a plethora of lower-wage occupations-phlebotomists to draw blood, techni
cians to perform tests, nurse-aides to take blood pressures-leav
 ing the RN to cover more patients and do a far narrower range of tasks.

                                                                                                            His son still travels the country today carrying documentation about some of this surveillance, lobbying the government to de
classify top-secret records on the matter, and claiming that his father's suicide attempts were the product of secret Central Intelligence Agency drug tests and mind-altering techniques not all that different from the kinds Naylor de
 scribes in her book.

There may be an inflation signal in these indicators, but formal statistical tests show that none of them are reliable predictors of inflation.

All the proposed bill would do is prevent health in
 surers and employers from discriminating on the basis of genetic information gleaned from medical tests.

And she says, `Wait a second, I remember you when you were crying that we needed more money or you were crying that you thought you'd fail one of those tests.'

Her son Donald is a low-key and methodical steward who carefully developed the company's interests in the education market; its Kaplan unit, which offers preparation for standardized tests and mail-order degrees, is now the company's main profit driver.

The actual consequences, however, include unnecessary medical procedures, such as delivering babies by Caesarean section, as well as ordering medically unnecessary tests that doctors feel are financially necessary to protect themselves against lawsuits.

Applied Economics 
question of 
how safe 
how effective, 
 and at what cost, must be considered as regards the years of tests and trials prescribed by the FDAs drug approval process.

Applied Economics 

 up anger among elderly voters by requiring tests of physical vitality for people over a given age.

The thousands of patients in England waiting more than six months for audiology and colonoscopy tests are mentioned on page 365 of the August 25, 2007 issue 
of the 
British Medical Journal, 
 in an article titled 'Thousands of Patients Wait More Than 26 Weeks for Tests.'

The statement by an Illinois state official condemning the use of tests that were harder to 'disadvantaged' minorities to pass was quoted from pages 3133 and 3134 of a compendium compiled by the U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission under the tide, 
 Legislative History of Titles VII and XI of Civil Rights Act of 1964.

the tests have come back from the lab and you have ovarian cancer.

                                                                         MIGHT AS WELL LAUGH ABOUT IT NOW 

The show executives had called in paramedics, who ran a few tests and concluded that it was a simple faint
 ing spell and the only thing they could do for the knot that had sprouted on my head was an ice pack or two.

                                   What students would not learn from 
reading his apologetics is that ballistics tests, eyewitnesses, and ex
 tensive legal reviews all confirmed his guilt.

Finally, Article VI bans religious tests for office-a key component of religious liberty-and instead binds all federal and state officeholders, by oath, to the Constitution (but not to ordinary laws or treaties).

 For the last fifteen years, Iran has demonstrated a consistent, coherent strategy: It tests its strategy, vets its proxies, judges who is serious and who isn't, and makes plans accordingly.

But there may be nothing on earth that compares with the protracted audition presidential candidates must undergo-a series of tests in the performing arts in which policy positions and coalitional strate
 gies often take a backseat to the capacity of an aspiring president to connect with the electorate on the basis of the personality he or she projects.

Then the country would face economic crisis coupled with political stalemate.

People blamed their slowly worsening circumstances on themselves rather than coming together in a movement for political change.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The political scientist Richard Valelly, in his book 
Two Reconstructions, poses the question: Why did the creation of black voting rights and biracial politics prove short-lived in the post-Civil War era of Reconstruction but durable in the 'Second Reconstruction' of Lyndon Johnson? For a generation after the war, blacks held major office throughout the South, but by 1901 
 their rights had been wiped away.

And the political corollary: 

These are the very people whose daily struggles Obama listened to while he was a community organizer on the South Side of Chicago, and when he developed an early political alliance with the SEIU.

When Obama went through his three weeks of midsummer straying to the political center-right, he heard from his supporters, 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               201 Levy, Frank, 143 
Lewis, John L., 145 Liebman, Jeffrey, 9 Light, Paul, 93 Lincoln, Abraham, 1, 2, 5, 6,15-16, 33, 34,36,44,53,58,59,6M4,66,73, 108, 117, 188, 199 
Lima, Ryan, 15 
Lipsky, Michael, 97, 202 Lovins, Amory, 163 Lykketoft, Mogem, 158 
McCain, John, 25-26, 96, 126, 181, 191 Medicaid, 82, 83, 85, 86, 148, 168, 182 Medicare, 25, 77, 79, 80, 81-87, 98, 103-105,111,148,168,172,178, 188,189 
Messina, Jim, 10 Meyerson, Harold, 202 Miller, G. William, 56 Minow, Newton, 7 Mondale, Walter, 21 Morris, Dick, 62 
NAFTA, 34, 106, 144, 172, 173 Nelson, Ben, 188 
Nelson, Bill, 188 
Nixon, Richard, 55, 72, 78,197 Norquist, Grover, 189 
Norris, Michele, 125 Nunberg, Geoffrey, 89,196 
Chains, Bamck Appointees, 15 Audacity of Hope, 8, 11, 141 Character, 4, 8, 44, 64, 179, 181 Dreams from my Father, 7 Economic program, 25-26, 37, 78, 
115-118,144-145,184-185 Energy policy, 14, 116-117, 122-124, 165-166 
Financial policy, 30-31, 85, 87, 138-142,189 
Foreign policy, 10, 14, 71, 115-118, 189 
Health policy, 165-168,172 History, 12,14 
Leadership, 1, 2, 4-6, 21, 31-33, 35-37,44,71,73,74,75,85-87, 89,103,112,115-118,125,142, 179-180,187-190,199-200 On race, 8, 17, 51 
Partisanship, 4, 9, 12-13, 16, 90, 115-118,179-182,189,193-194 Political skills, 4, 5, 9, 12-13, 15-16, 90,115-118,193-194 Repositioning, 9-11, 31-32 
Tax policy, 25, 97-98 Trade policy, 173-176 Oliver, Mary, 179 
O'Neill, Thomas P. 'Tip,' 55 
Patrick, Deval, 91 
Paulson, Henry, 74,122, 133-135, 142 Peace Corps, 14, 44 
Pelosi, Nancy, 12 
Penn, Mark, 62, 106, 113 Perle, Richard, 71 Perot, H. Ross, 77 
Peterson, Peter G., 78, 79, 80, 81 Pollsters, 5, 9, 56, 75, 103, 104-111, 113 Powell, Jody, 55 
Pryor, Mark, 188 
Public investment, 24, 28, 38-39, 92, 117-118,122-126,160-161 
Rapaport, Miles, 92, 202 
Reagan, Ronald, 3, 4, 6, 55, 57, 72, 76, 79, 87, 88, 94, 99,101, 108, 110, 114, 184,191 
Beth, James, 49 Reich, Robert, 10, 202 Reischauer, Robert, 82-86 Rendell, Ed, 92 
Republican Party, 24, 110, 114, 180, 181, 183-184,188-189,191-193 
Rich, Frank, 17 Ritter, Bill, 91 Rivlin, Alice, 82, 84 Robinson, Jackie, 17 Roosevelt, Eleanor, 38 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 3, 5, 6, 15, 17,22,31,32,33,34,35-44,45,48, 49,50,53,54,58,59,62,64-70,74, 75, 77, 92, 95, 108, 109, 122, 124, 126, 128,129,130,134,135,137-138,140, 142, 144, 145, 167, 179, 180, 183, 184, 186, 188, 195, 196, 199 
Bank holiday, 36, 39, 40-43 Great Depression, 17, 35-44, 122, 124, 126, 129, 134, 142, 145, 195 Financial regulation, 40-43, 136
World War II leadership, 64-69, 195 Roosevelt, Theodore, 198, 201 
Rose, Stephen, 113 
Rosenman, Sam, 39, 66 Rouse, Pete, 194 
Rove, Karl, 71, 188, 189, 191, 192 Rubin, Robert, 9, 25, 82, 141 Russell, Richard, 47-48 
Salam, Reihan, 183-184,195 Sawhill, Isabel, 82-85 Scalia, Antonin, 10 Schlesinger, Robert, 70 Schwerner, Michael, 49 
Section 527 organizations, 191-192 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 135-138 
Service Employees International Union (SEIU), 146, 150 
Shalala, Donna, 59 Short selling, 136-138 Shnrm, Robert, 108 Smith, Adam, 100 
Social Security, 9, 25, 36, 77-87, 98, 167,182 
Solow, Robert, 83 Sorensen, Ted, 46 Speth, James Gustave, 177 Spriggs, William, 10 Steagall, Henry, 39 Steinbeck, John, 196 Stern, Sir Nicholas, 160 Stewatt, Potter, 134 Stimson, Henry, 66 Sullivan, Amy, 108-109 Tamllo, Daniel, 32 
Tax policy, 15, 24-25, 30, 76-79, 82, 85, 92,94,114,115,122,127,161-163, 183 
Taylor, Fredrick Winslow, 151-152 Thomas, Clarence, 17 
Trade policy, 159,172-176,187 Trade unions, see Labor movement Ttuman, Harry S., 109 
Unemployment, 23, 26, 30, 55, 116, 123, 124, 126, 127, 143, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158,186 
UNITE-HERE (union), 153 Urban Institute, 81, 83, 85 
Valelly, Richard, 63-64,201 Vandenberg, Arthur, 39-40 Vietnam War, 6, 72 Volcker, Paul, 32, 56, 132 Voting Rights Act of 1965, 33, 49-54 
Wage insurance, 158 Wagner Act, 144 Waldman, Michael, 89 Walker, David, 79,81 Wall StreetJournal, The, 10, 11 Welfare policy, 58-60 Westen, Drew, 107,109 Wieseltier, Leon, 17 
Willkie, Wendell, 67 Wolfowitz, Paul, 71 Woods, Tiger, 8 
About the Author 
 Robert Kuttner is founding co-editor of The American Prospect and a senior fellow at the think tank Demos.

                                                                                         RACIAL PARANOIA 
Real Black: Adventures in Racial Sincerity 
Harlemworld: Doing Race and Class in Contemporary Black America 
The Unintended Consequences of Political Correctness 
The New Reality of Race in America 
A Member of the Perseus Books Group 
Copyright © 2008 by John L. Jackson, Jr. Published by Basic Civitas, A Member of the Perseus Books Group 
 All rights reserved.

Even a traditionally race-neutral figure such as Bill Cosby, once dubbed 'America's favorite dad,' might show up on the African continent with some kind of political project to launch, especially since he has been putting his money (million-dollar donations to important African American institutions) and his mouth (controversial criticisms of poorer African Americans' cultural pathologies) smack
dab into the middle of public debates about contemporary 
digging only netted more gossip, weirder and wilder re
 ports, even mock stories about black celebrities, everyone from Oprah Winfrey to Al Sharpton, conspiring to get the show cancelled because it made black people look bad.

It was the Klan's commitment to the Bible, a literal reading with racial inflections, that provided moral weight for their holy crusade against racial amalgamation and blacks' short-lived political gains during Reconstruction.

                                                                                                            In an American context, liberation theology might even be made to mark 
Political Correctness and the White Man's Burden   
the world are steeped in complicated religious justifications for societal changes that have always used sacred texts, religious stories, and deific laws to authorize political de
mands, especially demands by the exploited and disenfran
 chised for social autonomy and equality.

America's long history of religiously validating political claims foreshadows the Religious Right's recent scale tip
 ping in electoral politics-or even our current fears of 'fundamentalist Islam' as a threat to national security.I

Even politicians, ever coy and careful with their public pronouncements, didn't feel required to be particularly cautious about supporting 
Political Correctness and the White Man's Burden   
 racial inequality.

They made no bones about the fact that they believed blacks were inherently inferior to whites; even many of those political figures who fought against slavery and for equal rights feared that Africans might truly be hereditarily inferior.

                          Racists were out in the open, embodying the exactness of posted placards, a confidence 
Political Correctness and the White Man's Burden   
tellectual underachievement in the 1970s and 1980s, they felt pummeled by their colleagues and responded by de
nouncing those critics for their supposed use of ideo
logical and political commitments as justification for suppressing legitimate scientific inquiry about racial dif

                                    That's because 
Political Correctness and the White Man's Burden   
 were accused of saying until the tapes were produced, and they couldn't refute the recordings themselves.

In light of the civil rights movement's moral recalibrations and the ascendance of political correctness as the norma
 tive standard for public conversations, Murphy thinks 'talk is cheap,' especially when the talk is about race and racism.

The most prevalent rumors circulating within black communities today tend to have more in common with Cointelpro than with 1996, concentrating on systematic 
 political ideologies rather than personal attacks.

Something like the spirit of their accusations animated everyday political con
 versations in the neighborhood and catalyzed community fears.$

cording to Johnson, Mayor James Hamilton Jr. created a false 
 conspiracy to use as a political issue against Governor Thomas Bennett Jr., who owned some of the accused slaves.

In recent decades, a time marked by rapid change in both the political and media environments, reporters have be
 come even more important sources of information for citizens.

                                                                                                                                Candidates them
selves have adapted by increasingly becoming individual political entre
preneurs selling their messages to the voters directly, often through sophisticated, media-friendly (and citizen-friendly) appeals like John Mc
Cain's 'Straight Talk Express' in 2000 and Ross Perot's televised in
 fomercials in 1992 (Owen 2002; Patterson 1994; Polsby and Wildavsky 2000; Vavreck 2001).

While reporters are less likely to receive such public adulation today, journalists continue to play an important role in keeping political candidates and government officials accountable (Cook 2005).

As in 1996, no policy issue dominated the fall campaign in 2000 the way 
 Iraq dominated political discussions during 2004, the economy pervaded public debate in Campaign 1992, or crime arid defense issues defined Campaign 1988.

These two stories demon
 strate that, even a generation ago, the nation's top political reporters placed horse race issues front arid center in their newscasts.

'Reporters present at the scene laughed so hard they could be heard on the film soundtrack,' observed political scientist Herbert Par
 rnat (2002:42-43).

This overall pattern differed little from network to network or according to the aspects of their candidacies that were most frequently addressed-their policies, their political skills, and the way they conducted their campaigns.

Evaluations of their political skills were slightly less favorable, with Gore receiving 41 percent and Bush 34 percent positive comments.

Political novice Steve Forbes, a wealthy magazine publisher who could remain in the race thanks to his willingness to spend down his immense personal fortune, received the lowest rating of any remotely viable candidate, with 36 percent positive press.

When journalists flame political events strategically, they activate existing beliefs and understand
 ings; they do not need to create them.

(Cappella and jarnieson 1997:208) 
 Above all, says political scientist Roderick I fart, today's negatively oriented media coverage of politics tends to suggest that elections and politicians are not worth much respect.

It could have been used as evidence against the political system itself, for the system allowed such a self-centered, ambitious, and ultimately self- 
 destructive man to rise to the pinnacle of power in America (Owen 2000; Sabato et al.

This sampling procedure, designed by political scientists Ann Crigler and Marion just, yielded the equivalent of a single 'composite' local newspaper without any consistent regional or local bias.

America's elec
 tions, its central marketplace of ideas, is being filled by mainstream media with junk food that slowly rots our political discourse.

Surveys show that most voters direct most of their ire at reporters, not at the candi
 dates, the political parties, or even the much-maligned political consultants.

                                                                                                                                                                                         The many political con
troversies of 1968, and Humphrey's subsequent loss to Richard M. Nixon, led to major reforms in the nomination process that gave rank-and-file par
tisan voters effective control over both the Democratic and Republican presidential nominations in 1972, and for every presidential campaign since then ((teaser 1979; Maisel 2002; Polsby 1983; Polsby and Wil
 davsky 2000).

Reducing media influence in presidential nominations by reducing the citizen influence in them would be a terrible idea from the standpoint of political participation, particularly when nearly half the coun
 try's adults don't vote in presidential elections as it is.

                                                                                                                                                    W, 21,34,39,41,43,70; media 6atning of, 99, 101-2; presiden
tial campaign (1988),51-52,125; presi
dential campaign (1992),59-60,86-87; tone of coverage, 115, 121, 123,130, 132,178-79 
Bush, George W, 3, 34, 62, 70; campaign airtime, 83,84; candidate viability, 65; drunk driving arrest, 13, 54; media cov
erage, amount of, 48,50; media fronting of, 99; media savvy, 104-5; National Guard controversy, 138-39; sound bites and, 89-90; talk show campaigning, 183; tone of coverage, 88-89,111,118-19, 120-21,130,130 
Butterfield, Fox, 86 butterfly ballots, 143 
 cable television 
news: audience, 24, 50-51, 64; Internet web sites, 50-5 I; as political resource, 26, 56, 64.

                                                                                                                                        See also NewsHour 
Peels, rtin, Rick, 36 
Perot, Rosa, 21
69 ; campaign web site, 175; infomercials, 23, 87-88; talk show cant
pargmng, 23, 87,180 
Per ret, Geoffrey, 34 
Pew Research Center for the People arid the Press, 7,9,10-11,21,23,24,25, 
,56,75,85,167,192,193,194,196, 204 
Pincus, Walter, 90 Atts, Byron, 28 
Plain Talk about Jobs, Debt, and the Wash
ington Mess' (Perot), 88 
Plante, Bill, 58 
policy proposals, media framing of, 107 
political parties: media criticism, 117; weak
ening of, 200-201, 202 
polls: instant polls, 139-40; reporters' con
fusion over, 66-67, 139-41; tracking polls, 72 
Polsby, Nelson, 1, 71, 121, 201, 202 Pomper, Gerald M., 42, 69, 90-91, 125, 129,148,183 
Postman, Neil, 18, 96, 151 
presidential elections, 31; candidate airtime, 83,83-85,91-92,92,172-74; candidate viability and, 65-68; horse race vs. sub
stantive focus of media coverage, 51-58, 52,58,61,65-67, 167,168,171; locus of coverage, 91-93, 92; media coverage, amount of, 44, 44-45, 170; media cover
 age, lowering trend in quality of, 159-60; preseasons, media coverage of, 49, 49-50; tone of media coverage, 114, 115, 118-25, 122, 134, 176, 178-80.

citizens voter turnout, 15,154 
Wade, Steven M.,38 Waldman, Paul, 3 Wall Strvet)ournal, 30; horse race vs. sub
stantive focus, 167, 168, 169,171; tone of coverage, 177, 178 
Week (PBS), 25 'War of the Worlds', 17 
Post, 30, 148, 178 Watergate scandal, 112-13 Wayne, Stephen J., 9, 43 Weaver, David, 174 
Welles, Orson, 17 Wertheimer, Fred, 28 West, Darrell M., 65, 86, 200 Whitaker, Bill, 66 
White, Theodore H., 34, 57 Wildavsky,Aaron, 1,201,202 Wilgoren,Jodi, 13, 137, 138 Witcover, Jules, 59 
Wlezien, Christopher, 148 WMUR (television station), 169 Woodruf,Judy,144 Woodward,Bob, 105,112,113,114 
Zahn,Paula, 63-64 Zernike, Kate, 65, 137, 138 

Stephen J. Farnsworth is associate professor of political science and inter
 national affairs at the University of Mary Washington in Fredericksburg, Virginia, and a former newspaper journalist.

                                           Even sports columns have a political 
agenda, such as Robert Lipsyte's pompous denunciation of Cold War politics in a 
1995 New 
 York Times sports page column.

'Lurid reports of child sex abuse, drug trafficking, pornography and political intrigue that have held Omaha en
thralled for nearly two years,' the 
 article began, 'were a `carefully crafted hoax,' a county grand jury in Nebraska has concluded.''

Giving two sides of the story in a child kidnapping case is part of the process; giving two sides of the story in a political race is a dirty trick of the Republican Attack Machine.

Kiesling's jacket flap boasts that in February 2003, he 'publicly resigned his position as political counselor of the US Embassy in Athens to protest the Bush 
 administration's impending invasion of Iraq.'

When Clinton was caught doling out Lincoln bedroom sleepovers, White House coffees, and dinners to big campaign contributors based on lists of political donors on file at the Democratic National Committee,' the Clinton White House denied that the database was being used for campaign purposes, explaining that it was the presi
 dent's Christmas card list.

Over and over again, conservatives are forced to keep reminding people: 
 m The Willie Horton ads were the most magnificent campaign ads in political history.

attorneys serve at the pleasure of 
GUILTY   205 
 reer civil servants, not political appointees-would be like ignoring Gennifer Flowers's audiotape-backed claims of an affair with Clinton, while running an innuendo-laced front-page article on John McCain's friendship with a female lobbyist.

And, of course, Obama held his first political coming-out party at the home of Ayers and Dohrn.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   See also specific person or type of victim 
Vieira, Meredith, 81-82,117 Vietnam, 98-108, 109, 122, 138, 227 Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW), 100 
The View (ABC), 231 Village Voice, 38,198 violence, 254--64 
Wall Street Journal, 75, 149, 158, 160, 200, 222 
Wallace, Chris, 245-46 Wallace, George, 260 Wallace, Mike, 218 Warren, Rick, 16, 96 Washington Post: and Allen-Webb campaign, 166-68, 169-70, 171; and Biden lawsuit, 137; and Bush
Fitzgerald story, 159; Clinton stories in, 245; Craig story in, 28; and Edwards
Hunter story, 156; and elections of 2008, 78; influence of, 74; Kerry stories in, 100, 103; and media as victims, 184; 'On Faith' website of, 162; and Palin-Gibson interview, 241; physical descriptions of political women in, 228; and presidential dmg stories, 78; and Republican Attack 
 Machine, 78; as Slate owner, 173; voter interest polls by, 17.

I urge you to demand that the United States reorder its national priorities, that we follow a principled and effective foreign policy that is rooted in the respect for law and the effective use of multilateral and bilateral diplomacy; that we eschew war and 
76   +   Chapter Four 
violence as the means of 'getting our way' in the world; and that we respect cultural, religious, and political differences, and we in
 sist on democratic principles and the respect for internationally recognized human rights.

                         I visualize this clinic as one which is in
terconnected with all institutions, agencies and political organiza
 tions which contribute to the misery of the patients.

Crimes against women cross every religious, racial, political, educational, and socioeconomic line; it is unfortu
 nately the one thing women have in common around the world no matter where they come from or what their background.

A family that can work through differences without resorting to angry words and actions creates members of the global community who will take the same approach to solving conflicts which extend across political and religious borders.

There are few examples of such a unilateral view becoming the overriding thesis of our foreign policy, and as a result of our occupation of Iraq and Afghanistan, our threats toward Iran, and our castigation of countries like France who opposed our tactics, we have become diplomatic and political pariahs around the globe.

Fans of political history will enjoy this book.'

Accordingly, few people voted; and the 'people's choice' was Democrat James E. Martine, a long
time political joke alternately known as 'Farmer Jim,' 'The Sage of 
 Cedar Brook,' and 'The Farmer Orator.''

It was a victory of the 'Progressives' of both parties, who are determined to live no longer under either of the political organiza
 tions that have controlled the two parties of the State....

The talk quickly turned political; White revealed that Roo
 sevelt's old associate, General Leonard Wood, was preparing a run for the presidency.

He was, therefore, tolerated and he served well and efficiently for a moral and political example.

The country recognized in Hoover a man who was fully equipped and qualified for the Presidency, who was not seeking it and was making no concession to any political group, and the trend of public opinion was all his 

 Some men hoped to bring about the revolution by political conventions and general strikes; others employed more direct approaches.

If you were hiring a man to run a political party, you'd hire William Harrison Hays.

[Vice President] Marshall announced a few days ago that the platform of a political party ought to be written on a postal card.

I regard him as the greatest menace to our American Institutions and political system who has occupied 
 prominent political office within my recollection.

His charges, with the inferences he seeks to have drawn from 
 the publication of the letter referred to, are false, malicious and clearly put forward for political purposes....

That same year, Palmer suffered a heart attack and abandoned his political ambitions.

Greenspan surely deserves credit for the strong performance of the economy during his chairmanship, but he also had some notable mistakes, includ
 ing thrusting himself unnecessarily into political matters and failing to respond to bubbles in asset markets.

They are nominated by regional 
Declaration of Independence 
The Political Economy 
of Central Banking 
 boards of directors and approved by the Fed's board of governors.

The Fed's legal structure is quite complicated, making it hard to as
 sess its real degree of independence from political pressure.

The designation of a chairman every four years provides another potential lever of political pressure.

No doubt there is still a steady undercurrent of political pressure on 
 the Fed: members of Congress are not shy about giving advice to the Fed, and the chairman is frequently called in to talk to individual members and key committees.

                                         He had travelled in politi
cally charged circles for many years before becoming Fed chairman, 
working on a number of political campaigns and heading the Coun
cil of Economic Advisers (CEA) during the contentious post-Wa
 tergate years.

                                                                                                           In the science fiction series Star 
the prime 
directive for a starship captain is that there can be no interference with the internal affairs of other civilizations; it is not an overstate
 ment to say the prime directive for Fed officials is to avoid political matters that unnecessarily risk the independence of the Fed.

Greenspan came of age during a pe
 riod of intense political pressure on the Fed, and he only reluctantly opened the Fed to outside scrutiny.

All of the problems that arise in countering asset market bubbles-imprecise models, pol
icy lags, political ramifications of putting a check on market exuber
 ance, and the need for a risk-management approach-also apply when the Fed is raising interest rates to cool off an overheating economy.

Paul Volcker stepped in at the most challenging point in modern Fed history: in the face of massive political pressure and with inflation running out of control he was obliged to stomp on the monetary policy brakes immediately.

First, has he handled the economy and financial markets effectively-has he eased policy too much or too little? Second, why does such a strong proponent of trans
parency seem to have had so much trouble communicating? Third, is he or the Fed as an institution susceptible to political pressure? 

As this book goes to press, the perfect storm of weak growth, rising inflation, and falling financial markets has unleashed a wave of crit
 icism of the Fed.

               A good early test of who is right will come in 
2010 when the new president decides whether to reappoint a non
 political technocrat (e.g.,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            See Great Depression discount rate, 29 
discount window, 179 
discretion, monetary policy, 95-97, 100 
distribution of income, 41-42 
economic forecasting 
art and science of, 128-132 computer models, 5-6 data trend analysis, 6 
by Fed, 6, 102, 106 
by Greenspan, 82-85, 131 lack of accuracy in, 183-185 economic growth 
relationship between price infla
tion and, 16-17 unemployment rate and, 16, 17 elections 
economy and, 39-40 
Fed actions during, 76-77 external finance premium, 21 
federal funds rate, 33 
changes in, 32-33, 160, 175-176, 178,182 
as policy tool, 29-30 Taylor role and, 155-156 Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), 28,42 appointment of, 37-38, 42 Bernanke's leadership of, 132-136 
decision process of, 109-110, 135-136 
doves, 74, 136-137 
dissenting meetings votes, 74-75, 85, 132-134, 206 
forecasts by, 105-106, 107-108 Greenspan's leadership of, 85-87, 132-134 
hawks, 74,136-137 
transcripts of meetings of, 57-58 Federal Reserve 
approach to market bubbles, 9, 147-158,207-208 communication by, 9, 51-58, 105-108,141-145,189-194 criticism of, 44-45, 181-183 decision process of, 28-29 economic forecasting by, 6, 102, 106 future outlook for, 203-210 independence of, 12, 38-39, 42-43,49-50,75-77, 195-201 
legal structure of, 42 liquid assets of, 178-179 policy setting by, 27-36 policy signaling by, 137-139 political backlash against, 46, 151, 157 
political pressures on, 39-50, 195-201 
risk management by, 159-164 role of, 11-14 
transparency of, 6, 12, 45, 55-58, 141-145 
Federal Reserve Act (1913), 28 Federal Reserve Banks, location of, 28-29 
 Federal Reserve chairman.

                                                                                                                                                                                                               See federal funds rate 
George, Eddie, 171 Gertler, Mark, 151, 198 global competition, 67, 199-200 gold prices, 185-186 
gold standard, 100-101,117-118 Gonzalez, Henry, 44-45 
Great Depression Bemanke on, 113-119 causes of, 117, 117-119 deflation during, 113-114, 116 gold standard and, 117-118 influence of, on macroeconomics, 15 
Great Inflation, 15, 19 Greenspan,Alan ambiguous communication by, 6, 45,51-56,80-82,141-145 assessment of, 90-91 credentials of, 61-62 
crises during tenure of, 69-71, 168,169 
criticism of Bernanke by, 171-172 data analysis abilities of, 128 dominance of FOMC by, 8, 132-134 
economic forecasting by, 82-85, 131 
financial bubbles and, 87-90 FOMC leadership by, 85-87 forecasting record, 82-85 on housing bubble, 154-156 on independence ofFed, 196-197 as inflation fighter, 38, 74-75 inflation target views, 98-100, 109 inflation under, 64-68 
mistakes made by, 73-91 on neutral funds rate, 30 political influences on, 75-77 popular perceptions of, 7-8, 
62-64,144-145 reappointment of, 44 reputation of, 2-5 successes of, 61-71 
tax cuts, influence on, 78-80 'Greenspan put,' 71 
Greider, William, 27, 58, 82 
'Helicopter Ben,' 2, 173 high-yield bond spread, 33 home prices 
fluctuations in,22-23,32,89-90 growth in, and income growth, 153 
as key indicator, 33 
housing bubble, 89-90, 154 Fed reaction to, 155-157 Greenspan and, 89,154-156 identification of, 152-154 lessons learned from, 10 housing market, 4 
financial accelerator model and, 22-25 
problems in, 32-33, 162163, 169-170 
Hurricane Katrina, 34-35 
income distribution, 41-42 inflation, 4, 38, 174, 186, 196-197 balancing with risk of recession, 193-194 
costs of, 14 in Europe, 66 expectations, 186-187 Fed's role in managing, 13-14 funds rate and, 29-30 
under Greenspan,64-68 in Japan, 66 
lack of, under gold standard, 100 as lagging indicator, 39-40, 64-65 relationship between economic 
growth and, 16-17 supply shocks and, 34-35 unemployment rate and, 16-20, 200,209 
inflation breakevens, 186-187 inflation targets 
adoption of, by central banks, 98, 99 
benefits of, 105 Bernanke's preference for, 95-112,134 
critics of, 45 
debate over, 108-109 
Fed views on, 103, 106-109, 205-206 
Greenspan and, 81-82, 98-100 OLIR, 102-104 
political backlash against, 110-111 
 interest rates.

                                                                                                                              See nonaccelerating infla
tion rate of unemployment (NAIRU) 
National Commission on Social Se
curity Reform, 61-62 Newman, Frank, 49 
'New Paradigm' economy, 64 New Zealand, 98 
nonaccelerating inflation rate of un
employment (NAIRU), 16-20, 41 
Norman, Sir Montague, 52 
oil prices, 34, 67, 185-186 Okun's Law, 16 
O'Neill, Paul, 77 
Open Market Desk, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 25, 130 opportunistic disinflation, 66-67, 75 optimal long-run inflation rate (OLIR), 102-104, 108 
Patman, Wright, 44 Paul, Ron, 45 Paulson, Henry, 166 Phelps, Ned, 18 Phillips, Bill, 17 Phillips Curve, 17-20, 110, 200 policy directives, 56-57 
policy rules 
versus discretion, 95-97 inflation targets, 97-100 money supply growth targets, 96-97 
political pressure on the Federal Re
serve, 12, 39-50, 75-77, 195-196 
populist views of monetary policy, 40-41,197,199 Posen,Adam, 182 
potential output growth, 16 
presidential elections, economy and, 39-40 
Primary Dealer Credit Facility (PDCF), 178 productivity growth, 66 historical averages, 83 
of mid-1990s, 82-83, 84, 88 put contracts, 71 
Reagan administration, 47 recessions, 2 
assault on Fed during, 45-47 balancing risk of, with inflation, 193-194 
under Bernanke, 169-171 under gold standard, 101 under Greenspan, 67, 101 Reed, James A., 29 
regional reserve bank boards, 37-38 Reinhart, Vincent, 134 
Reis, Ricardo, 2 
risk management, 159-164, 177-179,207 
Roach, Stephen, 189 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 121 Rosenberg, David, 182 Rubin, Robert, 2, 49, 79-80 Russian financial crisis, 70 
Schwartz, Anna, 116-117 
The Secrets of the Temple (Greider), 27,82 
Senior Lending Officer's Survey, 23-24,130 
Shiller, Robert, 153, 182 Social Security, 209 stagflation, 169-171 Stern, Gary, 207 Stiglitz, Joseph, 21 
stock market boom, 88, 89 stock market crash, 69 
subprime mortgage market, 171, 176, 177 
Summers, Lawrence, 2 supply shocks, 34-35, 65-66 Survey of Professional Forecasters, 187 
 synthesis framework.

But just as the system itself was not devised by the soldiers who actually enforce it, what it reflects isn't the goodness or badness of those soldiers but rather a political logic that exists beyond them as individuals.

And policies of expulsion or transfer are the publicly declared objectives of leading Israeli political parties to this day, most notably the party of Deputy Prime Minister Avigdor Lieberman, Yisrael Beiteinu, or 'Israel Is Our Home.'

Palestine Inside Out 
 The fighting, and the subsequent apparent split between the West Bank and Gaza, marked the culmination of a political crisis set in motion by the Palestinian Legislative Council elections won by Hamas in January 2006.

People across Leb
 anon's complex religious and political spectrum, from Shia Muslim to Maronite Catholic, supported Hizballah's resistance operations against the Israeli army in the years leading up to the Israeli withdrawal in 2000 not because they believed in its Islamism, or its ideology, but simply because they wanted an end to Israel's brutal occupation of Lebanon.

Those concrete realities matter far more than the announcement, at Annapolis, of a 'new beginning' for a political process that has already had far too many beginnings and far too little to show for them.

Given that a Palestinian state requires both a real government and continuous territory, and that the basis for both is being steadily undermined by Israel's own policies, he writes, 'they believe the only long-term way to end the conflict will be to abandon the idea of dividing the land, and, instead, simply insist on the civil, political and national rights of the two peoples, Jews and Arabs, who populate the land, in one State.'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         More and more people, on both sides of the conflict, are coming to real
ize that the age of the two-state solution has drawn to a close, as Alvaro de Soto also admits in his confidential report to the U.N. Committed Zionists from across the political spectrum will resist the move toward the one-state solution in the way that privileged groups have always his
 torically resisted the erosion of their privileges.

                                                                                                                                                                                                   Aaraj, Raliik Ibrahim el-, 25 
Abbas, Mahmoud, 81, 87, 263, 265, 272, 276-77 
Abdel-Shaft, Haidar, 265 Abdullah, King of Jordan, 249 Abrams, Elliot, 165, 275-76 'absentee landholders,' 9-32, 67, 68, 231-33,257-59 
Absentee Property Law (1950), 68, 257 Abu Dis, 71, 76, 87 
Abu El Ajeen, 66 Abunimah, Ali, 294 Adalah (Legal 
for Arab Minority Rights in Israel), 283-85 Addameer,79 
Adh Dhahiriya, 30, 112 
Advisory Opinion of the 
Court of Justice (2004), 15, 20, 28, 83-84,119,274,294 
290, 291 
on Movement and Access (AMA) (2005), 165-66,275-76 agriculture, 15-32, 33, 44-47, 57, 58-61, 65, 68, 71-72, 87, 104, 110, 113, 
123,138-39,136,166,169,194, 195-96,198,199-200,202-3,229, 233, 236, 238, 244, 246, 258 Aharoni, Nati, 180 
Ahmed, 260 'Ajjul, 49 AI'Agaba, 105 al-Agsa Hospital, 28 Al-Agsa Mosque, 89 al-Athamah family, 176-77, 266 AI Auja, 55-56 
AI Awda Hospital, 156 Alawna, Majdi, 190 
AI Badhan checkpoint, 31 AI Baqa', 112 
al-Bireh, 1-3, 5, 65 
AI Brazil Quarter (Rafah), 67 
Brigade, Israeli, 201 Alfe 
201, 202 Algeria, 292 
AI Hadidiya, 105 Alian, Yasser, 34-36 al-Ittihad Hospital, 193 Aliyan, Samira, 95, 97-99, 100 
al-Jinan clinic, 42,-43 AI Kasaba, 56-57 At Khadr, 30 
Allenby Bridge, 3-4, 115, 154, 155-56 Allen, Yigal, 77-78, 81, 83, 224, 252, 278 Allen Plan (1967), 77-78, 81, 83, 92, 120, 224,278 
All that Remains 
(Khalidi), 223 At Lubban ash Sharqiya, 31, 105 al-Makassed Hospital, 72, 75 Alon, Haggai, 29 
al-Quds University, 76 At Ram, 55,71-72 al-Ras, 21 
al-Sawahrah al-Shargiyah, 41 al-Watani Hospital, 51-52 al-Zaitun checkpoint, 41-42, 43 Amana, 128 
ambulances, 32, 72-76, 183, 192-93 America Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC), 276 
Amleh, Amal al-, 3-4 
Amnesty International, 6, 8, 109-10, 172-73, 183 
Anata checkpoint, 66, 73 An Nabi, 67 
Annan, Kofi, 183 
summit (2007), 64, 277-78, 292 anti-Semitism, 237, 239, 285-87, 290 Aeon, Michel, 269 
Arabs, 49 
Arab Center for Applied Social Research, 283 
Arab el-Swahrah neighborhood (Jerusa
lem), 106 
Arab Higher Committee, 246 Arabic language, 46, 48, 51, 97, 135, 137-38,180,185,188-90,223,251, 267 
Arab-Israeli War (1948), 63, 136, 148, 160,198,201,221-36,243,248-55, 286-87,283,289-90,294 
Arab-Israeli War (1967), 10, 16, 18, 64, 131-32,133,161,286,294 
Arab League, 176 
Arab Legion, 249, 252-53 'Arab Sector,' 229 
Arafat, Yasser, 80, 81, 85-86, 87, 88, 130, 265 
Area A, 83, 85, 117, 119, 211 Area B, 83, 85, 211 
Area C, 83, 85, 104, 211 Argentina, 237 
Ariel, 31, 34 Ariel, Uri, 147 Ariel, Yisrael, 132-33 Arieh, Shaul, 203 Armistice Line (1949), 16, 198-99, 202, 274,295 
Arroub refugee camp, 59-61 artists' colonies, 230-33 Arun, Naseer, 90-91, 223 Ashdod, 166, 169 Ashdod-Ashkelon road, 260 Asira ash Shamaliya, 66 Association for Civil Rights, 84 Association of Forty, 232 Atara checkpoint, 67 
Atfaluna Society for Deaf Children, 167 Augusta Victoria Hospital, 72, 73-75 Auschwitz concentration camp, 286 automobile permits, 37-38, 45-47, 63, 191 
Avraham Avinu settlement, 141-42, 218 Awarta checkpoint, 47 
Awiwi, Nidal al-, 217-IS Ayn Hawd al-Jadida, 230-33 Azun Arms, 15-16, 22-23, 27-28, 65 
Bab al-Zawiyah market, 212-14, 216, 220 back-to-back transportation, 53, 58-61, 60 
Bahour, Abeer, 2-3, 5-6, 12 Bahour, Sam, 1-3, 11 
Balata refugee camp, 177-78 Balfour, Arthur James, 238, 239, 241, 242,290 
Balfour Declaration (1917), 238, 290 'bantustans,' 157, 291, 296 
Barak, Ehud, 87, 294 Baran, Ze'ev, 106 Barghouti, Mustafa, 260, 265 Bar-Ilan University, 133 Basic Land Law (1960), 257 Basic Laws, Israeli, 148, 263 Baskin, Gershon, 292-93 Basleh, Ismail, 169 
Bassam (ambulance driver), 73, 75 
Beach refugee camp, 160-61 Bedouin, 224, 236, 257 Beersheba, 257 
Menachem, 120,246 
Yossi, 287-88 Beirut, Lebanon, xiii, 234 Beita, 31 
Beit El settlement, 1, 3, 73 Beit Furik, 49, 104 
Beit Hadassah, 140-41 
Beit Hanina neighborhood (Jerusalem), 106 Beit Hannon, 176-77 
Beit Iba checkpoint, 49, 56, 66 Beit Iksa, 65 
Beit Jala, 194 
Beit fibrin, 135-36 Beit Kahil, 33 
Brit Safafa neighborhood (Jerusalem), 106, 118 
Beit Sahour, 65, 104, 126, 194 Beit Stra, 33 
Beit Ta'amir, 33 Ben-Gurion, Amos, 244 
David, 100, 235-36, 243-44, 246,252-53,255 
Benvenisti, Meron, 65, 104, 119, 156, 223,252,254,239-60,285 Berlin Wall, 200 
Bernadotte, Folke, 255-56 Bethlehem, 5, 33, 56, 65, 71, 76, 104, 126, 127, 194-95,195, 196 Bible, 11, 16, 131-32, 295 
Bil'in, 293 Binyamin, Rav, 130 Bit Nabala, 71 
Birth of 
Israel, The 
(Flapan), 223 
Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 
(Morris), 223 
Bir Zeit, 67 
Birzeit University, 118-19, 197, 282 Blake, William, v, xiv 
Boim, Ze'ev, 64 Bophuthatswana, 296 Border Police, Israeli, 41-43, 48-50, 56, 
67,72-76,97,118,191-92 B'Tselem, 4, 18, 37, 38, 39, 4819, 57, 97, 114, 115, 122, 123, 134, 168, 174, 175, 180-81, 186, 193-94, 212, 216-17,285 
bulldozers, 24, 66, 67, 90, 107-11, 182-86,233,259 
Burke, Edmund, 291 
Bush, George W, 90, 91, 165 
bypass roads, 12-13, 32, 33-34, 35, 37, 37, 38, 50, 59, 85, 87, 201-2, 212, 229, 232, 337 
Campbell, Mrstie, 157 
Camp David meeting (2000), 87-89, 92, 278,294 
Canaan, 160 
Carmel, Moshe, 251-52 Carmeli Brigade, Israeli, 251-52 Carter, Jimmy, 88, 274, 275 Carter Center, 273 
Case for Israel, The 
(Dershowitz), 248 Chagos Islanders, 262 
checkpoint 300, 191-92 
checkpoints, 3-4, 12, 27, 30-32, 33, 39, 41-63, 42, 44, 45, 46, 53, 60, 66-68, 72-77,85,119,133-60,161,162, 163,166-67,170-71,172,191-95, 205,277 
Cheshin, Amir, 103 Chirac, Jacques, 278-79 cholera, 112 
Christians, 8-9, 56, 77, 126, 138, 196, 210-11,238,239,269 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, 69 Ciskei, 296 
citizenship, 9, 11-12, 17, 77-78, 101-2, 112,116-17,118,143-30,230,238, 239,278,281-84 
citrus trees, 25, 66 
civilian casualties, 8, 50, 79, 80, 82, 88, 90, 130, 172-73, 175-77, 182-94, 196,219,265-69,270 
Civil War, U.S., 291 Clinton, Bill, 87, 88 Coca-Cola, 3 collective punishment, 8, 111, 175-76, 189 
Collin, Steig, 156 
Collusion Across the Jordan 
(Shlaim), 223 colonialism, 238-43, 287, 297 Committee of Arab Mayors in Israel, 283 'concentration points,' 230 Constitution, U.S., 144, 150 
corruption, political, 85-86 Crane, Charles, 240-41 Crystal Hotel (Nablus), 192-93 curfews, 12, 30-31, 66, 79, 85, 161, 185-94,196,213,216,217 -18 
Daba'a, 26, 201, 202 Dadaism, 230-31 Dahar, Anan Abu, 180 Dahiyat al Bareed, 55 Dahlan, Muhammad, 275, 276, 281 D'ana, Najah, 138-39 
Danin, Ezra, 254 
Working for 
in Israel and 
(Shulman), 135-36 Darwish, Mahmoud, 77 
Davar, 133 
Dayan, Moshe, 131-32, 259 day care, 206 
Dead Sea, xiii 
Debray, Regis, 86, 278-79 Declaration of Independence, 144 Deir El Balah, 66 
Deir Qaddis, 30 
Deir Sharaf checkpoint, 50-52 democracy, 80-81, 265, 270, 273-74, 279,282,283-85,292 Democratic Constitution, 
283-85 'demographic problem,' 9-14, 103-4, 111-12,113,119-27,203,287 88, 292,295-97 
dense inert metal explosive (DIME), 174-75 
'de-Palestinization,' 100 Dershowitz, Alan, 248 Dhahiyyeh, 60 
Dheer, Ala'a Abu, 185-86 Diego Garcia bomber base, 262 disease rates, 112, 157, 166, 186 District Coordination Office (DCO), 36, 45, 52, 67, 190 
divestment, 297-98 Dobkin, Eliahu, 245 Dome of the Rock, 69, 89 donkeys, 60 
Drobles, Mattiyahu, 120, 124 Drobles Plan (1978), 120-23, 124 Dromi, Uri, 295 
Duchamp, Marcel, 230 
Dugard, John, 29, 64, 100, 101, 163-64, 170,177,264,266,267-68,297, 298 
dunums, 18, 65, 66, 139, 277-78 Dwairy, Marwan, 283 
earth mounds, 31, 194-95, 199 East Jerusalem, 63-77 
boundaries of, 63-64, 68, 70-71, 76-77 building permits in, 105-7, 110, 111 checkpoints for, 66, 68-70, 72-76, 82, 205 
economic situation in, 71-72, 105-7 entry permits for, 68, 72-77, 166, 205 food supplies in, 71-72 
home demolitions in, 105-7, 110, 111 housing situation in, 99, 101, 105-7, 110,111-12,278 
identity cards for, 54, 55, 56, 69-70, 95-100 
infrastructure of, 65, 105-6, 112 Israeli depopulation efforts for, 9
-119 Israeli occupation of, 1-2, 8, 10, 19, 
20, 24, 28, 30, 57, 63-77, 82, 91, 103-20,133,205,274,294 
Israeli settlements in, 6, 12, 30, 64-65, 103-20,125-27,133,137,161,220, 27278,280 
Jordanian control of, 63 
land appropriations in, 64-65, 103-19 medical facilities in, 72-76 municipal plan for, 103-19 occupation of, 
as Palestinian capital, 80-81, 87, 273 Palestinian population of, 63-77, 82, 105-7,264 
as part of West Bank, 64-65, 68-72, 76,S0-8I,205 
residence permits for, 65, 68-69, 93-102,111,115-18 
schools in, 205 
sewage system for, 112 unemployment rate in, 71 villages around, 5, 24, 41-43, 55, 
64-65,68-72,76,87,205,278 Wall (Separation Barrier) near, 24, 68-72, 69, 70, 74, 75, 101 
East Jerusalem Hospital Network, 55 Economist, 100 
Ecumenical Accompaniment Program in Palestine and Israel (EAPPI), 210-11 
education, 2, 12, 26, 27, 31, 34-37, 57-58, 65, 76, 97, 99, 109, 118-19, 129-30, 30,138, 148, 150-51, 165, 167, 196,197,203,204-7,209-12,216, 229-30,232,295 
Egypt, 153, 158-60, 164-65, 166, 277 Ein Hod, 230-33 
Eitam, Effie, 11 el-Arish, 159 elections, Palestinian (2006), 84, 264, 265,271-76 
electric fences, 201-2 
electric power, 97, 98, 100, 156, 175-76, 200,204 
Electronic Intifada, 294 
Eli settlement, 105, 128-29, 130 Eton March settlement, 131 Emanuel settlement, 128 English language, 81, 89, 185 Erekat, Saeb, 277 
Erez, 67, 154-55, 163, 164, 168, 170 Erez Industrial Zone, 67 
Essential Drugs List, 171 
ethnic cleansing, 250-51, 260-61, 288-90 Ethnic Cleansing 
(Papp€), 223 
European Union (EU), 90, 273, 274 Expulsion 
Palestinians (Masalha), 223 
'facilitated' categories, 55 Fatah, Ghazi, 259 
Falk, Richard, 88 
family life, 1-6, 21-22, 34, 61, 71, 78, 97-99, 101, 102, 106-9,113-19, 137-38, 162, 166-67, 170, 172-74, 
177-86,197,205-6,217-18,226-28 Farata, 33 
Farjun, Yair, 260-61 
Farra, Mona el-, 153-56, 158, 164 Farsoun, Samih, 90-91, 223 Fasayel, 66 
Fateh, 85, 86, 89, 167, 263-65, 269, 271, 273,275-77,278,280 
Fattouh, Tabard, 186-87 Fayyad, Salem, 276 
'Filastin al-Muhtalla' (Occupied Pal
estine), xiii-xiv, see also Occupied Territories 
Financial Times, 91-92 
Firas (ambulance driver), 184-85, 186 first intifada (1987), 79-81, 118, 162, 266 First Zionist Congress (1897), 237 Fishbach, Michael, 256-57, 259 Fishman, Alex, 172 
Flapan, Simha, 223, 249, 252-53 flying checkpoints, 62, 205 Forward, 149 
450th Battalion, Israeli, 191 
Fourth Geneva Convention (1949), 7-8, 19, 64, 110, 183 
France, 240, 241, 273 
French Hill settlement (Jerusalem), 126, 128 
Future Vision 
Palestinian Arabs in Israel, 
Galilee, 224-28, 243, 252, 257, 258 Ganim, 36 
Gaza, 153-77 
agriculture in, 110, 156, 166, 169 air raids against (sonic booms), 173-74,204 
air space of, 164, 173-74, 204 artillery attacks against, 172-77, 204 building permits in, 110 
businesses in, 169-70 
checkpoints for, 153-60, 161, 162, 163, 166-67, 170-71, 172, 277 children in, 161, 170, 172-74, 204, 277 
civilian casualties in, 172-73, 176-77 closure of, 59, 82, 101-2, 115, 153-57, 161-71,196,204-5,264,268-69, 273,288-89,291 
coast of, 164, 168-69 curfews in, 161 economy of, 7, 59, 78-79, 156-57, 160, 161-63, 164, 165, 168-70, 171, 175,204,264,274-73,277 Egyptian border of, 153, 158-60, 164-65,166,277 
electric power in, 156, 175-76, 204 as enclave, 107-11, 153-60, 198, 204, 243, 260, 264, 291, 296 
exit permits for, 153-60, 162, 163, 197 family life in, 162, 166-67, 170, 172-74,197 
fishing industry of, 156, 168-69, 170 food supplies in, 59, 156, 157, 164, 168-70,171,175,204 
fuel supplies for, 164, 204 governmental authority in, 264, 265, 271-76,280-81 
gross domestic product (GDP) of, 162 
Harass support in, 263-81 
house demolitions in, 107-10, 172, 176-77 
humanitarian aid for, 162, 164, 170, 171 
human rights violations in, 166-77, 205,288-89 
infrastructure of, 156, 161, 174-76, 204 
international consensus on, 167, 172-73,268-69,273-76 
Israeli military operations in, 107-11, 153-57,161,163-77,178,182,194, 204,220-21,266-67 
Israeli occupation of, 1-2, 8, 10, 64, 90, 92, 107-11,133,153-77, 220-21,264-65,272-76,291,295 Israeli redeployment from, 92, 153, 156, 163-65, 260, 272-76, 288-69, 342 
Israeli settlements in, 92, 133, 161, 163-64,173,287 
labor force of, 157, 161-63, 164, 165, 169-70 
maps of, zviii, 342 
medical care in, 75, 153, 156, 158, 164,165,166,167-68,171,175, 176 
occupation of, see Occupation OCHA weekly updates on, 163, 170-71 
in Palestinian state, 80-81, 84-86 population of, 82, 119, 160-61, 170, 235,295-97 
population registry of, 119 
poverty rate in, 7, 59, 156-57, 168-70, 171,175,204,264,274-75 
refugee camps in, 107-11, 160-61, 204,260 
residence permits for, 84, 99, 101-2, 117, 119, 156 
roadblocks in, 161 
sanctions against, 167, 273-76 schools in, 109, 165, 167, 197, 204-5, 206 
'security zones' in, 161 sewage system for, 175, 176 statistics on, 163, 166,169 -71 unemployment rate in, 157, 162, 165, 277 
U.S. policy on, 154, 156, 165, 177, 268-69 
water supplies for, 161, 175 
West Bank compared with, 78, 84, 99, 101-2, 119, 156, 166, 168, 177, 178, 182,197,206,263-64 
work permits for, 164, 165 
specific towns 
and villages Gaza City, 79, 160-61 
Gaza Community Mental Health Pro
gramme, 173-74 'Gazafication,' 198 
General Assembly, U.N., 10, 88, 177, 223, 253, 262, 297 
General Security Service (GSS), Israeli, 38-41 
Geneva conventions, 7-8, 19-20, 25, 39, 64, 79, 81, 110, 183, 294 genocide, 250-51, 260-61, 288-90 Germany, 287 
Ghalia, Huda, 172-73, 266 Ghanem, Alam, 190-91 Ghazi Hospital, 192 
Gilo, 56, 123, 126 Ging, John, 204 Givat Ze'eg 70 Glubb, John Bagot, 249 Golan Heights, 295 Golani Brigade, Israeli, 178-79, 227 Goldmann, Nahum, 254 Goldstein, Baruch, 82, 219 Greenberg, Gershom, 132 
Great Britain, 17-18, 20, 122-23, 127, 238-41,243,248,249,262,273, 
290,291 Great Powers, 273 
Green Area, 127 Greenberg, Aaron, 223-27 Green Line (1949), 16, 198-99, 202, 274, 295 
gross domestic product (GDP), 162 Gush Dan, 128 
Gush Emunim (Bloc of the Faithful), 120, 132-33 
Gush Etzion, 30 Gush Katif, 260 Gush Shalom, 285 
H1 area (Hebron), 211, 213, 218,343 H2 area (Hebron), 211-12, 213, 216, 220,343 
91, 165, 260, 265, 277, 289, 292 Habibi, Emile, 221-22,230 
Habla, 26, 201, 202 
Haddad, Laila el-, 158-60, 164-65 Haganah, 201, 234, 248, 250, 251 Hague Convention Respecting the Laws 
and Customs of War on Land, 19 Haifa, 23, 78, 235, 251, 252, 253, 256, 257,286-87 
Covenant, 283 Halhul-Sa'ir junction, 105 Halper, Jeff, 285 
Halutz, Dan, 266 Hamad, Yusuf Abu, 107 Hamas, 84, 86, 89, 167, 263-61 HaMoked, 114, 154-55 Hanani, Muhammad, 49 Hanson, Victor Davis, 144 Haram al-Sharif, 89 
Har Homa settlement, 64, 126-29, 126, 278 
Hass, Amira, 76-77, 220-21 
Hayja, Muhammad Abu al-, 232-33 health care, 26-28, 32, 36-37, 42-43, 49-52,55,57-58,65,72-76,153, 156, 158, 164, 165, 166, 167 68, 171,175,176,183-87,192-93 Hebrew language, 27, 45, 48, 73, 97, 193, 223 
Hebron, 30, 33, 56, 57, 60, 67, 76, 78, 82, 112-13,135-42,195,197,209-21, 213, 214, 215, 217, 218, 343 
Hebron Civil Administration, 60 Hebron massacre (1994), 82, 219 
Hedges, Chris, 266-67 Herzl, Theodor, 236-37 High Court of Justice, Israeli, 12, 29, 79, 84, 90, 105, 117, 123, 146, 263 Hinnom Valley, 110 
Hizballah, 269-70 Hizma, 55, 73 Holocaust, 285-86 holy sites, 56-57, 69, 86, 89, 102, 110, 195, 196, 218, 219 
housing permits, 101, 105-7, 111 humanitarian aid, 55, 56, 62, 135-36, 142, 162, 164, 170, 171, 183, 209-12,279,280,281 
Human Rights Council, 177 Human Rights Watch, 182 'human shields,' 180-81, 183 Huwwara checkpoint, 44-117, 46, 49, 66, 67,104 
Ibrahimi Mosque, 57, 212, 219 
identity cards, 2, 5, 35-36, 40, 43, 45, 47, 51,33-54,55,36,69-70,95-102, 114, 117, 119, 181, 189-90, 191, 219 Idhna, 137 
imperialism, 238-43, 287, 297 import taxes, 71 
income levels, 61, 63, 102, 162 infant mortality rate, 102 informers, 38-41, 76-77, 79, 164 intelligentsia, 206-7, 286 International Convention on the Elimina
tion of All Forms of Racial Discrimi
nation, 282-83 
International Court of Justice (ICJ), 8, 15,20,28,83-84,119,274,294 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 85-86 
interrogations, 38-41, 76-77, 79, 164, 181,183 
intifada, first (1987), 79-81, 118, 162, 266 intifada, second (2000), 7, 8, 89-91, 107, 109-10,166-67,265-66 Iran-Contra affair, 165, 275 
Iraq, 133 
Ireland, 153, 154, 155-56 
'iron wall,' 13-14, 223, 243, 288 
'Iron Wall, The' (Jabotinsky), 13-14, 288 Iron Wall, The (Shlaim), 223 
Iskaka, 30-31 Islam: fundamentalist, 289 
holy sites of, 56-57, 69, 86, 89, 102, 212,219,231,234 
political influence of, 271-72, 273, 289 
religious observances of, 56-57, 219 Shia, 269, 270 
Sunni, 269 Israel: 
agriculture in, 229, 233, 236, 244 air force of, 67, 68, 173-74 
army of, 30-32, 49, 56, 57, 65, 66-68, 104-5, 112-13, 186, 201, 220, 249, 250-51 
borders of, xiii-xiv, 3-4, 23, 28, 91-92, 120,143,154,155-56,203,225-26, 238,239-40,274,289,295 
British support for, 238-39, 240, 246, 249, 273, 290 
children in, 138, 143, 150, 209-12, 295 
citizenship of, 9, 11-12, 17, 77-78, 101-2, 112, 116-17, 118, 143-50, 230,238,239,278,281-84 
civilian casualties in, 8, 80, 82, 88, 90, 130,172,175-76,177,194,265-66, 268-69,270 
constitution for, 283-85 
defense force of, 30-32, 49, 56, 57, 65,66-68,104-5,112-13,186,201, 220,249,250-51 
as democracy, 116, 143-45, 150, 241, 265,270,273-74,279,282,283-85, 290,292-97 
'demographic problem' of, 9-14, 103-4, 111-12, 113, 119-27, 203, 287-88,292,295-97 
divestment movement against, 297-98 economy of, 78-79, 102, 144, 161, 162 
electric power in, 229-30, 232, 234 flag of, 199, 223 
founding of, 10, 18, 63, 68, 80, 82, 145,201,221-34,274 government of, 10-11, 28-29, 61, 80, 91-92, 100-101, 102, 106, 111, 116,120,125-27,133-34,143-50, 
163-64,203,206,253 -57, 274-75, 284, 292, 297 
historical analysis of, xiii-xvi, 221-28, 246-50,290,295 
independence declared by (1948), 224,227,234-36,248-49,250,251, 274 
infant mortality rate in, 102 international recognition of, 80, 274 Jewish immigration to, 11, 12, 17, 99-101,116,127-29,162,224,235, 236,245-46,255,285-86 
Jewish population of, 97, 99-119, 239, 263,279-80,295-97 
as Jewish state, 9-14, 77-78, 99-101, 113-14,116-17,132-33,143-50, 228,234-47,254,281-98 
labor market in, 21-22, 56, 78, 101, 161-63,198 
Land of (Eretz Israel), 10-12, 131-33, 134,246 
Law of Return for, 12, 17, 100-101, 116, 129, 148, 150 
legal system of, 11, 12, 13, 16-19, 53-54,64,68,79,84,100-101, 113-17,127,129,132-35,143-50 marriage in, 148-49 
as multicultural state, 293-98 nationality in, 11-12, 77-78, 101-2, 112,116-17,118,143-50,230,278, 281-84 
national security of, 7, 13, 16, 22-23, 28, 52, 80, 82, 88, 90, 136, 194, 262, 296 
navy of, 168-69 
occupied territories of, 
Occupied Territories 
official maps of, 21, 81, 92-93, 228-30 
Palestinian population of, 9-14, 77-78,98-127,132-34,143-48, 150, 160, 203, 227 49,258-59, 261-62, 263, 264, 278, 281-98, 
see also 
parliament of (Knesset), 11, 100, 116, 147,284 
peace movement in, 135-36, 142, 
285-90,293,297-98 per capita income of, 102 
police forces of, 41-43, 48-50, 56, 57, 67, 72-76, 96, 97, 118, 135, 137, 142,191-92,211,232 
poverty rate in, 102 
pre-1967 borders of, 9, 10, 16, 63-64, 91,93,131-32,133,280,283,287, 295 
religious laws in, 132-33, 148-50 schools in, 129-30, 138, 150-51, 206, 229-30,232,293 
social services in, 125, 203, 206, 274-75,284 
state identity numbers in, 113-14 tourism in, 56, 196 'unrecognized' villages in, 221-36 U.S. support for, 63, 86, 87-91, 
143-44, 149-50, 154, 156, 165, 177, 183,268-69,271,273-76,281 water supplies in, 229-30, 232, 234, 236 Israeli Population Administration, 116 Israel Land Administration (ILA), 146-47,233,236 
lzbat Jalud, 15-16, 22, 23 
Jabal Abu Ghneim, 64, 126-27,126 Jabali, Muhammad, 49 
Jabalia refugee camp, 79 Jabbour, Ayman al-, 169 Jabel al-Mukaber clinic, 43 Jabotinsky, Vladimir, 13-14, 242-43, 246, 288,289 
Jaffa, 78, 234-36, 235, 237, 243, 246, 257, 260, 285 
Jaljoulia checkpoint, 30 
Jalud, Mohammad, 15-16, 17, 22-23, 24, 25,57,38-59 
Janco, Marcel, 230-31 Jawila, Amal Abu, 117 Jawila, Mirfat Abu, 117 Jayyus, 25 
Jefferson, Thomas, 144 
Jenin, 57, 90, 182-84, 190-91, 194, 205-6,230 
Jericho, 55, 57 Jerusalem, 98-119 boundaries of, 24, 63-64, 68-71, 125-26 
British mandate for, 243 Damascus Gate of, 95 
demographics of, 103-4, 111-12, 113 East, 
East Jerusalem 
expansion of, 63-64, 68 holy sites of, 56-57, 69 housing units in, 64, 111-12 as Israeli capital, 63, 64, 100-101, 103,246 
Jewish population of, 97, 99-119 map of, 339 
 Master Plan for (1978), 103-4 municipal plans for, 64-65, 92, 103-19, 12.27

Latif, Abdel, 26 Lavi, Shlomo, 245 Law of Retum, Israeli, 12, 17, 100-101, 116, 129, 148, 150 
League of Nations, 240 Lebanon: 
in Arab-Israeli War (1948), 224, 227 author's childhood in, xiii, xv, 234 borders of, 221, 240 
Israeli invasion of, xiii-xiv, 269-70 Palestinians in, 261, 270, 272 Leitersdorf, Thomas, 120 
Levi, Shabtai, 251 Levy, Gideon, 138, 260 Lieberman, Avigdor, 11, 134, 287 Lifshits, Naftali, 256 
Likud party, 11, 120, 242 livestock, 135-37 
living standards, 1-3, 7, 8-9, 21-22, 56, 58-62,63,78,101,102,156-57, 161-63,168-70,171,175,187,192, 
198,204,274-75 Livneh, Eliezer, 133 
Loubieh, 227 
Lobbed, Bushra, 167-68 Lulu, Eliahu, 245 
Loth (medic), 177-78 Luz, Jalal Abu, 108-9 Lydda,252-53 
Ma'ale Adumim, 70, 120, 131, 278 Ma'ariv, 133 
MRI scans, 168 Muhalad, Jihad, 187-88 Muhsen, Tha'ir, 49 Muhtaseb, Marzuk, 142 municipal taxes, 97, 99, 100 Musallam, Omar, 205-6 Muslims, see Islam 
Nablus, 7, 31, 44-47, 45, 46, 49, 50-52, 
Machsom Watch, 62, 285
57-58, 66, 67, 76, 78, 90, 101, 104,
McMahon, Henry, 239
Madrid conference (1991), 81, 126
Nahal Oz, 164
Mahabareh, Ahmad al-, 72-73
Nahr el-Bared refugee camp, 261
Mahmud, Shadi, 49
nakba (1948 dispossession), 228-29, 232,
Makdisi, Ussama, xiii-xiv
Maklef, Mordechai, 251
Naqab Desert, 230-34, 236, 243, 257
Malhi, Ahmed, 205
Nasn, Muhammad, 190-91
Mapai party, 133, 245
Nasser, Ahlam, 73-75
Mapam party, 253
Nasser Hospital, 167-68
maps, xviii, 21, 81, 83, 92-93, 121,
'national institutions,' 146-48
228-30, 247, 336, 337, 338, 339,
National Insurance Institute, 98
340, 341, 342, 343
nationalism, xv-xvi, 13-14, 77-78, 81-92,
Marir, Yasser Abu, 117-18
Markowitz Commission, 229-30
National Union, 10-11, 147
marriages, 97, 113-19, 148-49
national unity government, Palestinian,
Masalha, Nor, 132, 223, 245, 250
Masango, Duduzile, 210-11
Natsheh, Maryam al-, 139-40
Mazie, Steven, 149
nature reserves, 93, 123, 137, 279
Mearsheimer, John, 143-44
Nature Reserves and Parks Authority, 137
Mecca negotiations (2007), 275, 276
Nazareth, 78, 118, 119, 285, 295
Meir, Golda, 78, 253
Nemrin, 227
Meshaal, Khaled, 272
Netanyahu, Benjamin, 133-34
middle class, 1-3, 8-9
New Israel Fund, 29
Milstein, Uri, 251
Nicaragua, 165, 275
Ministry of Construction and Housing,
Ni'lin, 55
Israeli, 124
Nissim, Moshe, 183-84
Ministry of Education, Palestinian, 
'Notification of Live Birth,' 114
Ministry of Health, Palestinian, 171
Nu'man, 65
Ministry of the Interior, Israeli, 65,
95-100,107,113-16,149 mini lands, 17-18, 23, 200 Mizrahim Jews, 235 
Moldova, 17, 99, 
Moledet, 10-11, 147,287 Molotov cocktails, 30-31, 33 Montagu, Edwin, 238-39, 290 Morris, Benny, 223, 243, 244, 249-50, 251,255,289 
mosques, 57, 89, 212, 219, 231, 234 
bureaucracy of, 1-6, 19-20, 95-100, 106,113-15,122-23 
enclaves created by, 6-7, 62, 85, 92-93,107-11,153-60,172,204, 212-21,264,279-80,290-92,296, 340 
family unification prevented by, 1-6, 21-22, 78, 97-99, 101, 102, 113-19, 182-86,205-6,217-18,226-28 
Occupation (continued) fragmentation as result of, 6-7, 9, 15-32,57-61,62,71-72,85,92-93, 101-2,156,198-203,211-21, 279-80,290-92,340 
historical analysis of, 222-28, 246-60, 290,295 
international law violated by, 6-7, 19-20, 28, 39, 64, 69, 73, 80, 81, 83-84, 88, 91, 101, 119-20, 123-24, 128, 135, 166, 168-69, 170, 180-83, 189,193-94,205,250-51,266,270, 274,277,279,294-95 
language of, xiv-xv, 5, 68, 81, 86-87, 89,101,102,103,119,124-25,127, 134, 137, 143, 150, 172, 194, 211, 271-72 
legal justifications for, 12, 13, 16-19, 53-54, 64, 68, 79, 84, 101, 113-17, 127,134 -35, 35,143 
media coverage of, 88-89, 172-73, 223,268-70 
military enforcement of, 6, 8, 13, 28-32,33,34-36,41-63,65-70,79, 84,90,104-13,118-19,123-25, 134-38,142,143,184-86,209-12, 214,215,220-21,288-90 
OCHA weekly updates on, 30-32, 33, 54-57,65-68,104-5,112-13,163, 170-71,277-78 
political opposition to, 79-61, 84, 85, 86,89,167,194,263-81 randomness as factor in, 6, 22-23 U.N. resolutions on, 10, 19-20, 223, 253,262,273,274,294 
violent resistance to, 7, 8, 30-31, 79-81, 88, 89-91, 107, 109-10, 118, 162,166-67,263-66,274 
Wall (Separation Barrier) for, xiv, 14, 15-32, 16, 55, 58, 61, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 74, 75, 86, 91, 93, 101, 136-37, 194-96,197, 198-203, 199, 200, 
202, 205, 274, 275, 336
security services in, 38-41, 76-77,
war crimes and policies in, 175-76,
122,123 -24
soldiers deployed in, 52-54, 67,
69-70, 73-75, 84, 172, 173, 177-82,
Zionist agenda of, 13-14, 128, 147-48
see also East Jerusalem; Gaza; West
statistics on, 23-24, 30-32, 33, 54-57,
Occupied Territories: 
apartheid compared with, 116-17, 290-93,296,297-98 
author's visits to, xiii-xvi, 184-86 checkpoints for, 3-4, 12, 27, 30-32, 33, 39, 41-63, 42, 44, 45, 46, 53, 60, 66-68, 72-77, 85, 119, 153-60, 161, 162, 163, 166-67, 170-71, 172, 191-95, 205, 277 
curfews imposed in, 12, 30-31, 66, 79,85,161,185-94,196,213,216, 217-18 
destroyed villages in, 227-36 house demolitions in, 8, 67-68, 90, 105-13,172,176-77 
human rights violated by, xv-xvi, 4, 7-6, 10, 19-20, 21, 28-30, 48-50, 77,79,83-84,116-17,122,166-77, 180-83,189,193 -94, 205, 281, 284, 288-89,294-98 
international consensus on, 100, 133-34,138,167,172-73,223, 268-70,273-79,292-93,297-98 Israeli settlements in, see settlements, Israeli 
land appropriations in, 6, 9-32, 33, 57, 65, 68, 77-78, 91-93, 105-11, 119-27,135-40,145-48,19&-203, 231-33,257-59,277-80,281 maps of, zviii, 83, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343 
permits issued for, 1-7, 11, 24, 25, 26, 37-41,45-47,52,54-58,60,63,65, 6&-69,70,72-77,95-102,105-7, 110, 111, 112, 115-18, 153-60, 162, 163,164,165,191,197,202-3,205, 226 
roadblocks in, 22-23, 36-37, 41, 50, 58-61, 60, 62, 85, 161, 194-95, 205 
'seam zone' of, 16-17, 21, 22-23, 24, 26,57,58,101,202-3 
15C-51,187,196-97,203,205,206, 216,233-34,236,277 -78, 78,295 Odeh, Abdel-Latif, 25 
Odeh, Ahmad, 114-15 Odeh, Ghazi Bani, 188 Odeh, Hala, 114-15 Ofra settlement, 49 
'Old Man Travelling' (Wordsworth), 207 olive groves, 21, 23, 24, 25, 28, 33, 66, 104, 128, 138, 139, 194, 227, 233 Olmert,Ehud,9,11,112,264,277,288, 292, 295, 296 
Omar, Mu atasem, 26-28 Omer, 236 
One Country (Abunimah), 294 one-state solution, 281-98 One-State Solution, The (Tilley), 294 Operation Autumn Clouds, 174, 176-77 Operation Ben-Ami, 252 
Operation Defensive Shield, 182-84, 186 
Operation Determined Path, 182-84 Operation Matate, 224-27, 252 Operation Summer Rains, 174-76 Operation Yiftach, 224, 252 
Oranit, 22 
Oslo Peace Accords (1993-1995), 2, 20, 77, 81-87, 83, 88, 89, 92, 119, 162, 198, 205, 211, 213, 261, 264, 265, 
271-72,280,281,287 Ottoman Empire, 17, 18, 20, 239 Ottoman Land Code (1858), 17, 18, 20 Oz, Amos, 285-86, 287, 288 
Palestine, 221-62 
agriculture in, 68, 203, 229, 233, 236, 244,246,258 
Arab-Israeli War in (1948), 63, 136, 148,160,198,201,221-36,243, 248-53,286-87,289-90,294 Arab population of, 9-14, 119-27, 203,236-49,251,238-59,261-62, 281, 287-90, 292, 295-97, see also Palestinians 
borders of, 238, 239-40, 243 British mandate for, 17-18, 20, 122-23,127,240-41,243 'demographic problem' of, 9-14, 119-27,203,287--88,292,295-97 
Green Line in (1949), 16, 198-99, 202,274,295 
Jewish colonization of, 13-14, 128, 147-48,230,234,236-49,250,251, 255,257-62,281,282,284,286-87, 288,289-98 
land transfers in, 9-11, 68, 203, 221-62,286-90 
Occupied (Filastin al-Muhtalla), see Occupied Territories 
population transfers in, 9-11, 68, 203, 231-33,243-47,249-59 
refugees from, 8-11, 59-61, 68, 78, 79, 81-62, 91-92, 99, 107-11, 133, 135-37,148,160-61,168,177-78, 182-84,203,204,206,226,230-33, 237-62,268,272,273,280,282, 283,293-94 
right of return to, 148, 225, 234-36, 249-50,253-54,261-62,273,280, 283,293-94 
U.N. Partition Plan for (1947), 223, 243,245-48,247,250,253,274 see also specific towns and villages Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid (Carter), 88 Palestine and the Palestinians (Farsoun and Arun),223 
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 80, 265, 272 
Palestine National Council (PNC), 80 Palestinian Authority (PA), 1, 12, 80-81, 84-89,90,167,171,203,263-63, 269,271,273,274-77,278,280-82 Palestinian Centre for Human Rights in Gaza, 110 
Palestinian Identity (Khalidi), 223 Palestinian Legislative Council, 264, 271-76,281 
Palestinian Medical Services, 192-93 Palestinian National Initiative, 265 Palestinian Petrol Authority, 113 Palestinians: 
as 'absentee landholders,' 9-32, 67, 68,231-33,257-59 
agriculture of, 15-62, 33, 44-47, 57, 58-61, 65, 68, 71-72, 87, 104, 110, 113,123,138-39,156,166,169, 194,195-96,198,199-200,202-3, 229,233,236,238,244,246,258 
Palestinians (continued) 
as Arabs, 77-78, 98-127, 132-34, 143-48,150,160,227-49,258-59, 261-62,263,264,278,281-98 arrests of, 25, 48, 63, 66, 118, 136-37, 142, 143, 166-67, 168, 177-82, 189, 190-92,205,232,277 assassinations of, 266, 286 automobiles owned by, 37-38, 45-47, 63,191 
beatings of, 47-49, 79, 183 birth certificates for, 95, 98, 101, 113-15,117 
births of, 49-50, 95, 98, 101, 102, 113-15,117,186-87 businesses owned by, 2-3, 26, 34, 36-37,43,44-47,71-72,169-70, 196, 198, 212-20, 214, 215 'center of life' established by, 100 children of, 34-36, 45-47, 80, 95, 97, 108-9, 143, 161, 170, 172-74, 179, 181-82,185-87,191,192,196,204, 205-6,209-12,220,266-67,277 as Christians, 8-9, 56, 77 
civilian casualties of, 50, 79, 80, 90, 172-73, 176-77, 182-94, 196, 219, 266-68 
collective punishment of, 8, 111, 175-76,189 
criminal elements of, 96, 97 curfews for, 12, 30-31, 66, 79, 85, 161, 185-94, 196, 213, 216, 217-18 declaration of independence by (1988),80-81 
democratic traditions and, 80-81, 265, 270,273-74,279,282,283-83,292 demolished homes of, 8, 67-68, 90, 105-13,172,176-77 
deportations of, 119, 238 dispossession of, 15-32, 33, 57, 65, 68,77-78,99,105-11,133,135-37, 145-48,177-82,198-203,204,206, 212,221-62,273,277-80,283, 293-94 
economic situation of, 1-3, 5, 7, 8-9, 10, 21-22, 26, 29, 34, 36-47, 56, 58-62, 63, 71-72, 78-79, 82, 85, 89, 101,102,106-7,125,156-57,160, 161-63,164,165,168-70,171,175, 
187, 189, 192, 194, 196, 198, 203, 204,206,212-20,238,264,274-75, 277, 280, 284 
education of, 2, 12, 26, 27, 31, 34-37, 57-58, 65, 76, 97, 99, 109, 118-19, 148,150-51,165,167,196,197, 203,204-7,209-12,216 
elections of (2006), 84, 264, 265, 271-76 
emigration of, 8-9, 10, 89, 99, 133, 206 
exile of, 8-9, 10, 78, 81-82, 89, 99, 119,133,168,206,261-62,282 families of, 1-6, 21-22, 34, 61, 71, 78,97-99,101,102,106-9,113-19, 137-38,162,166-67,170,172-74, 177-86,197,205-6,217 -18, 226-28 
flag of, 31, 79 
food supplies of, 58-61, 157, 168-70, 171, 175, 187, 192, 204 
government of (Palestinian Authority), 1, 12, 80-81, 84-89, 90, 167, 171, 203,263-65,269,271,273,274-77, 278,280-82 
health care of, 26-28, 32, 36-37, 42-43,49-52,55,57-58,65,72-76, 153, 156, 158, 164, 165, 166, 167-68,171,175,176,183-87, 192-93 
housing permits for, 101, 105-7, 111 humanitarian aid for, 55, 56, 62, 135-36,142,162,164,170,171, 183,209-12,279,280,281 identity cards for, 2, 5, 35-36, 40, 43, 45,47,51,53-54,55,56,69-70, 95-102,114,117,119,181,189-90, 191,219 
imprisonment of, 25, 38-41, 48, 63, 66,79,118,136-37,142,143,153, 166-67,168,177-82,183,189, 190-92,205,232,277 
income levels of, 61, 63, 102, 162 infant mortality rate of, 102 
as informers, 38-41, 76-77, 79, 164 'inside' vs. 'outside' for, xv, 68, 101, 102,103,119,124-25,127,134, 
137, 143, 150, 194, 211 intelligentsia of, 206-7, 286 
interrogations of, 38111, 76-77, 79, 164, 181, 183 
Israeli government spending on, 125, 203,206,274-75,284 
in Jordan, 3-4, 97-98, 99, 114-I5, 261,272 
in labor market, 21-22, 41, 56, 78, 101,157,161-63,164,169-70,198 land ownership by, 6, 9-32, 33, 57, 65, 68, 77-78, 91-93, 105-11, 119-27, 135-40,145-48,198-203,231-33, 257-59,277-80,281 
leadership of, 80-81, 84, 85-89, 90, 167,263-81 
in Lebanon, 261, 270, 272 
limited autonomy of, 77-78, 83-84 living standards of, 1-3, 7, 8-9, 21-22, 56, 58-62, 63, 78, 101, 102, 156-57, 161-63, 168-70, 171, 175, 187, 192, 198,204,274-75 
marriages of, 97, 113-19, 148-49 in middle class, 1-3, 8-9 
as Muslims, 56-57, 69, 77, 86, 102, 219,271-72,273,289 
nationalism of, xv-xvi, 13-14, 77-78, 81-92,261-62,264,270-76,280, 286-93 
national unity government of, 276-77, 280-81 
parliament-in-exile of, 81 passports of, 2-4, 55, 56, 205, 219 permits needed by, 1-7, 11, 24, 25, 26,37-41,43-47,52,54-58,60,63, 
133-37,148,160-61,168,177-78, 182-84,203,204,206,226,230-33, 237-62,268,272,273,280,282, 283,293-94 
right of return for, 1-3, 148, 225, 234-36,249-50,253-54,261-62, 273,280,283,293-94 
search and seizure of, 63, 66, 177-82, 190-92 
as second-class citizens, 77-78, 101-2, 112, 116-17, 118, 143-50, 230, 278, 281-84 
state identity numbers of, 113-15 taxation of, 12, 17, 20, 71, 84, 97, 99, 100,125,264,274-75 unemployment rate for, 38-41, 56, 61, 71, 85, 157, 162, 165, 277 'voluntary transfer' of, 9-11, 203 women as, 45-50, 113-15, 137-38, 151, 153, 179, 181-82, 186-87, 207 
Palmach, 224-27 Paltel, 3 
Papp€, Ilan, 223, 250, 251, 285 
Paris Peace Conference (1919), 239-41 parliament-in-exile, Palestinian, 81 passports, 2-4, 55, 56, 205, 219 
patrol boats, 168-69 Peace Now, 18 
peace process, Israeli-Palestinian, 81-92 Annapolis summit on (2007), 64, 277-78,292 
apartheid as concept in, 116-17, 
105-7,110,111, 112, 115-18, 119,
Camp David meeting on (2000),
'demographic problem' in, 9-14,
political factions of, 79-81, 84, 85, 86,
population of, 2-3, 9-14, 22, 63,
final status of, 86, 87-88, 281-98
Israeli peace movement and, 135-66,
land appropriations as issue in, 9-11,
Poverty rate of, 7, 58-62, 102, 156-57,
language of, 68, 81, 86-87, 89,
Madrid conference on (1991), 81, 126
as refugees, 8-11, 59-61, 68, 71, 78,
Mecca negotiations on (2007), 275,
79, 81-82, 91-92, 99, 107-11, 133,
peace process, Israeli-Palestinian (con
media coverage of, 88-89 national liberation as concept in, 271-72,287-90 
one-state solution for, 281-98 
Oslo Accords for (1993), 2, 20, 77,
65, 67, 68, 78, 104, 197, 198-203,
81-447, 83, 88, 89, 92, 119, 162,
199, 200, 202
198, 205, 211, 213, 261, 264, 265,
Qaryut, 31
Qassam rockets, 172, 175-76, 177, 194,
Quartet participation in, 90, 273-74,
Qedumim settlement, 67
right of return in, 148, 225, 234-36,
Quartet, 90, 273-74, 276
Question of Palestine, The (Said), 241
Qurie, Ahmed, 86
Road Map for, 86, 90-91, 264, 272
Qurini, Ahmed al-, 192-93
self-determination in, 13-14, 77-78,
Qurtuba Elementary School, 209-12
Qusin checkpoint, 56
settlements as issue in, 19-20, 81, 84,
rabbis, 148-50, 237
Rabin, Ytzhak, 80, 84, 131, 132
two-state solution for, 80, 81-90,
Rachel's Tomb, 196
Rafah, 67-68, 90, 108, 153, 158-60, 163,
U.S. role in, 86, 87-91, 154, 156, 165,
Rahat, 236
Ramallah, 5, 30, 39, 54, 55-56, 70, 73,
Peel, William Wellesley, Lord, 243-44
76-77, 78, 117, 118-19, 205-6,
Peel Plan (1937), 243-44, 246
Peled, Mike, 293
Ramat Eshkol, 126,128
Peres, Shimon, 131, 132
permits, 1-7, 11, 24, 25, 26, 37-41,
Ramleh, 252, 253, 257
Ras al-Ain neighborhood (Nablus),
Ras al-Amud neighborhood (Jemsalem),
163, 164, 165, 191, 197, 202-3, 205,
Ras Atiya, 25, 201, 202
Philip Morris, 3
Rashi, 132-33
Pisgat Ze'ev settlement, 106, 126
Rasmi, Captain, 39-41
Plan Dalet (Plan D), 250-51
Ras Taa, 202
Planning and Building Committee,
Reagan, Ronald, 275
Israeli, 107
Reconstruction, 291
Popper, Nathaniel, 149
Red Crescent, 73
poverty rate, 7, 58-62, 102, 156-57,
Red Cross, 36, 109, 142, 183, 266
Red House, 250
'Reform and Change' electoral list, 273
Prelude, The (Wordsworth), xiv
refugees, 8-11, 59-61, 68, 71, 78, 79,
'present absentees,' 68, 231-33,
81-82, 91-92, 99, 107-11, 133,
Procter & Gamble, 3
public transportation, 37, 41-42 'public use' land, 127 
Qa'adan family, 146 
Qalandia, 44, 53, 54-55, 69, 76 Qalqilya, 15, 16, 21, 24-25, 26, 28, 33, 
237-62,268,272,273,280,282, 283,293-94 
RE/MAX Real Estate, 128 Remnick, David, 269-70 rental contracts, 98 Retroactive Transfer: A Scbeme for the Solu
tion of the Arab Question in the State of Israel, 254 
Returning to Haifa (Kanafani), 286-87 Revisionist Zionism, 13, 242-43 Rice, Condoleezza, 64 
right of return, 1-3, 148, 225, 234-36, 249-50,253-54,261-62,273,280, 283,293-94 
Road 1, 106 
Road 60, 30, 31, 104, 105, 122 Road 90, 66 
Road 317, 30 Road 505, 67 Road Map to Peace, 86, 90-91, 264, 272 
road networks, 6, 12-13, 22-23, 30, 31, 32-41, 35, 37, 38, 50, 59, 66, 85, 87, 93,104,194,199,201-2,212,229, 232,337 
Roi settlement, 105 
Roman Orthodox Housing Complex, 104 Rosen, Nit, 293-94 
Ross, Dennis, 88 
Rothschild, Lionel Walter, 238, 290 Route 181: Fragments of a journey in Palestine-Israel, 223-28 
Russia, 11, 12, 17, 90, 99, 100, 162, 224, 273 
Rotten, Tim, 143-44 
Sabra and Shatila massacres (1982), 268 Sabras (native-born Israelis), 130 Sacred Landscape (Benvenisti), 223 Safad, 257 
Said, Edward, 241, 242, 296-97 St. John Eye Hospital, 7576 Salah Ed-Din road, 67 
Salfit, 30-31, 34 Salim, Ma'an, 25 Salim, Mohammad, 25 Samaria, 11, 16, 131-32, 295 Samiramees, 71 
Samuh, Fadel al-, 140-41 
'sanitary margins,' 32 Sanniriya, 65 
Sarraj, Eyad el-, 173 
'seam zone,' 16-17, 21, 22-23, 24, 26, 57,58,101,202-3 
search and seizure, 63, 66, 177-82, 190-92 
second intifada (2000), 7, 8, 89-91, 107, 109-10,166-67,265-66 
Secret Life of Sated, the III-Fated Pessopti
mist, The (Habibi), 221-22, 230 'security' blocks, 39-41 
Security Council, U.N., 7, 8, 80, 88, 177, 273, 274, 294 
Segal, Rafi, 120, 124 Senator, Werner David, 245 Sephardim Jews, 235 settlements, Israeli, 119113 Allon Plan for (1967), 77-78, 81, 83, 92, 120, 224, 278 
as colonization program, 12-13, 18, 19-20,77 -78,81,83,91-93,99, 105,119-43,224,278 
in Gaza, 92, 133, 161, 163-64, 173, 287 
government support for, 102, 106, 12527, 133-34 
houses invaded by, 140112 
housing units for, xiv-xv, 64, 106-12, 119-29,277-78 
illegal outposts of, 105 
international law violated by, 19-20, 128,135,145-46,275 international opposition to, 133-34, 138 
Israeli Master Plan for, 122-23 for Jewish immigrants, 99, 127-29 land appropriations by, 18, 78, 135-40, 145-48,227-36,279-80,281 
legal rationalization for, 132-35, 143, 145-48 
military support for, 134-38, 141, 142, 266-67 
Palestinians attacked by, 134, 135-42 Palestinian villages replaced by, 227-36 
in peace process, 19-20, 81, 84, 87, 91-93,126,278-80 
population of, 99, 119-29, 279-60 
settlements, Israeli (continued) 
real estate brochures for, 127-29 religious rationale for, 132-33 
road network for (bypass roads), 12-13, 32, 33-34, 35, 37, 37, 38, 50, 59, 85, 87,201-2,212,229,232,337 territorial surveillance by, 123-25 vigilantes in, 134, 135-36, 138 
in West Bank, xiv-xv, 6, 12-13, 18, 19-20, 28, 29, 32, 41, 81, 84, 87, 91-93,105 -11,119-27,121,125, 126,133,156-57,161,194-96, 209-21, 213, 214, 215, 217, 218, 275,277-80,283,287 
see also specific settlements Shahak, Israel, 260 Shajara, 226-28, 229 Shamir, Yitzhak, 80, 256 Sharett, Moshe, 244-45, 254, 255 Sharon, Ariel, 9, 89, 91, 92, 130, 157, 260, 264, 266, 288 
Shartabi, Tareq al-, 141-42 Shatareh, Shadi, 49 
Shati, Mujahid al-, 73-75 
Shave Shomron checkpoint, 31-32 Shavit, Ari, 289 
Shehadeh, Salah, 266 Sheikh Saad, 41-43, 72-73 Sherif Hussein of Mecca, 239 Shetrit, Uri, 110 
Shia Muslims, 269,270 Shiloah, Tzvi, 133 
Shin Bet, 76-77, 89, 164 Shlaim, Avi, 223, 238, 249, 250 Shomron,129,130 
Shqeirat, Laila, 41-43, 72 
Shu'afat neighborhood (Jerusalem), 106 
Shu'fat refugee camp, 70 Shulman, David, 13
-36 Siegman, Henry, 92, 156-57, 270, 279, 281 
Silwan neighborhood (Jerusalem), 110 Sivan, Eyal, 223-28 
slavery, 290 
Sma'aneh, Abroad, 192-93 Smedley, Lord justice, 262 Sobhi (vegetable vendor), 71-72 Sofer, Amon, 9-10, 288-89 
Innocence and 
(Blake), xiv 
sonic booms, 173-74, 204 
Soto, Alvaro de, 271, 273-74, 281-82, 285,290 
souks, 212-20 
South Africa, 116-17, 272, 290-93, 296 special planning committees, 123-24 state identity numbers, 113-15 
'state land,' 18, 33, 37, 146-47 Steinberg, Mati, 89-90 
Stem Gang, 256 
stone throwing, 66, 80, 188, 191, 210 Subuh, Farid, 44-47 
Sufa, 163, 164 
suicide bombings, 80, 82, 90, 265-66, 268-69 
Suleiman, Fathiya, 184 Sunni Muslims, 269 Supreme Court, U.S., 146 Sur Baher, 118 
Sweden, 176 
Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916), 239 Syria, 133, 224, 225, 227, 240, 241, 261, 272 
Ta'ayush, 135-36, 285 Tabs, Mahmoud Abu, 168 Taha, Mithqal Abu, 108 Talmud, 132-33 
tanks, 66, 67, 108, 176, 185, 186, 188 Tarqumiya checkpoint, 33, 113 taxation, 12, 17, 20, 71, 84, 97, 99, 100, 
125,264,274-75 Taybeh, 56 
Tehilla, 127-29 
Tel Aviv, 63, 154, 201, 234 
Tel Rumeida, 57, 138, 209-12 Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH), 142, 210 'territorial cells,' 172 
terrorism, xv, 13, 16, 80, 82, 90, 123-24, 130,182,265-70,296 
textiles industry, 169 Three Wise Men, 126 Tiananmen Square massacre (1989), 133 
Tiberias, 257 Tilley, Virginia, 294 
Times (London), 78 
Tomb of the Patriarchs, 56, 218, 219 Torah, 132-33 
torture, 8, 79, 183 tourism, 56, 110, 196 Tovah (Jewish settler), 129-31 Transfer Committee, 254-55 Trans-Israel Highway, 201 Transkei, 296 
Tubas, 105 
Tulkarm, 26, 27, 50, 51, 57, 198 tunnels, 37, 37, 66, 201-2 
an, 226, 227 Turki, Ahmad al-, 192 Tutu, Desmond, 177, 291, 297 Twaneh, 134 
two-state solution, 80, 81-90, 264-65, 271-72,273,279,280,281-82, 285-90,292 
unemployment rate, 38-41, 56, 61, 71, 85, 157, 162, 165, 277 
 United Nations (U.N.),

                                   Once in a while, I'm lucky enough to witness what since the early 
has been known as a 'defining moment,' when the character or perception of a political figure is crys

Instead of coercion, he chose persuasion; instead of drawing the sword, he would draw on his own character and political instincts.

                                                                           Chapter Five 

he had no carefully worked out political philosophy or rigorous approach to governing be
 yond a penchant for action.

Without it, he would have been like Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., or his own sons James, Elliott, and Franklin junior in later years: the bearer of a famous name and a fierce political ambition but nothing else to set him apart.

Roosevelt caved, drawing a labored distinction between economic internationalism, which he said he favored, and political international
 ism, which he said he opposed.

The League, he noted accurately, was not the League conceived by Woodrow Wilson but instead had become a 'mere meeting place' for political discussion: 'I do not favor Ameri
 can participation.'

They argued that going to Califor
 nia would be a political mistake.*

              Chapter Twenty-four 
'Wooden Roof' and Other Cabinetry 

 the president-elect was in political trouble.

No letters or accounts reflect
 ing his feelings survive; all we know is that he had left a broken man, his political career in ruins, and returned as the most dynamic new head of state in the world.

The last hundred years have brought 
negative exam
 ples--Stalin, Hitler, and Mao-and several positive ones that compel our attention to the role of particular human qualities in the unfolding of momentous political events.

Raines later said, 'The phrase was in the political air that year.

Nixon, Frank, tin Nixon, Hannah, 16n Nixon, Richard, 21n, 78n, 9o, 286 Norris, George, 140,146,287, 288 North Sea, mining operation in, 43 Noye, Philippe de la, 13 
Ochs, Adolph, 52 
O'Con or, Basil, 53, 96, i081110,326 old-age pensions, 8r, 166, 309-17 O'Neal, Edward A., 280 
Osborne, Thomas Mutt, 351n-521 
Ralmer, A. Mitchell, 45 Parker, Dorothy, 77 Parks, Lillian Rogers, 222n, 373n patronage jobs, 167, 237 Patron, George S., 122 
Peabody, George Foster, 59-60 
on FDR, 34
35, 4
42, 63-64, 67-68, 7
FDR's governorship and, 71, 72, 81 
as secretary of labor, 165-66, 214, 293, 3
Social Security and, 310-15,383n Phillips, William, 162 
Pierce, Franklin, 111, 134 Pierce, Jane, 195n Pinchot, Gifford, zoo Pinkerton, Jim, 372n-73n Pittman, Key, 97, 163, 165 Pittsburgh speech (1932), 131-32, 161, 275,276 
Polio, xiv, 17,22,48-66,7o, 143, 255-56, 326-8, 353n, 354n 
election of 1932 and, 83-87, 93-94, 97
FDR's respect for common man and, 11, 62, 64, 65 
FDR's 'walking',' and, 62-63, 70-71, 83
as national metaphor, 8, 66, 327-28 newsreel and photo prohibition and, 63, 83, 94, 256, 327 
onset of, 49
51, 128, 204, 207 treatment for, 60-62, 70, 225, 289-90, 328 
Porcellian Club, 27 Posner, Richard, 374n Post, Bob, 257 
Powell, Jim, 331-32, 384n Presidential Power (Neustadt), 234 presidential transition, 139-w4, 208 assassination attempt and, 167-77 bank crisis and, 149-55, 157, 178-62, 189-g1, 197-204 
Cabinet selection and, 144, 158-67 Progressive movement, progressives, 37, 81, 91, 92, 98, 124n, 165, 166, r67, 204, 230, 236, 
73, 302 Prohibition, 56, 82, 180, 271, 276, 277, 373n 
election of 1932 and, 89, too, 105, 132 Proskauer, Joseph M., 100, 354n Protestants, 70, 125, 164 
'Psyche' (Moore), 44 
Public Works Administration (PWA), 292, 305 
Optimism Of, 25, 54
55, 6o, 129, 165 Political instincts and genius of, xiii xiv, 8, ri-r2, 143-47, 220-21 pragmatism of, 7, 29, 286, 291-92, 
presidential ambition of, 
r, 18, 32, 36, 37, 55, 64, 67, 81 
 Press coverage of, 3, 41, 46-47 49, 52, 58, 6o, 68, 80-61, 85, 90; 91, 97, 99, 1o1,105-6,1x6,126,134,145,168, 169, 172, 173,.218,

Sensing potential greatness, Howe had undertaken to teach him politics and had become an all-purpose political aide and confidant, acting as everything from surrogate to strategist to speechwriter.

'Three years in the Map Room-that hadn't educated me to do political speeches for the president,' Elsey said with a laugh.

He traveled across the country and back by train, making five major speeches and around forty minor ones-all ostensibly non-political addresses savaging what he started calling 'the good-for-nothing, do nothing, Republican Eightieth Congress.'

He wanted to make it clear that political and economic equality would not mean social equality-'or that a Negro should court my daughter.'

                                                                                                                                          Sorensen was 'not a Harvard man or an Easterner or a Catholic or an Irishman or 
tary Democrat, or a political middler or culturally sophisticated or rich or an aristocrat or an urbanite or an intellectual dilettante or widely traveled or weak on the civil-liberties side or primarily interested in 
Why England Slept 
 type of foreign affairs or a master of the Ivy League casual style or anything at all of a playboy,' William Lee Miller, a home-state friend, wrote.

 In the 1968 campaign Nixon had talked about 'quiet Americans,' the 'quiet majority,' and 'the silentcenter, the millions of people in the middle of the American political spectrum who do not demonstrate, who do not picket or protest loudly.'

                                                                                                                                  WHITE HOUSE GHOSTS 
Rafshoon geared up the administration for a big 'new foundation' publicity push; the slogan was gaining cultural traction: the political comic strip 
 even devoted a week to ridiculing it.

'Are they important in terms of the political pecking order?' Peggy Noonan was quoted as saying in 
 The New York Times.

He would praise them for making progress in expanding political power for minorities and for creating a black middle class.

 Part of the problem also lay in Clinton's speechwriters' political bent.

The two men's relationship was tense, each drawn to the other's political acumen but disdainful of their personality.

Clinton would be the apex, between and above the political parties.

Shooting the breeze, Chris Matthews, the Carter speechwriter turned political commentator, threw out an idea about what Clinton's message ought to be.

 'We are here in the middle hour of our grief,' Bush told an audience that included four former presidents and most of the capital's political, military, law enforcement, and intelligence leadership-and the nation.

AP Photo/The White House/Eric Draper: 26 
About the Author 
 teaches political journalism at the oston University Washington Journalism Center.

                                                                                 NEW YORK 2007 

Abbreviations and Glossary 
Note on Russian Spelling and Dates xv Maps 
Introduction 3 

r The First World War and the Russian Revolution z r z On the Way to Communist Dictatorship 41 
3 Civil Wars in the Soviet Union 62 

4 Nazism and the Threat of Bolshevism 
g First Nazi Attempt to Seize Power 1 oz 6 Hitler Starts Over 117 
Battle for Communist Utopia 131 
8 Lenin's Passing, Stalin's Victory 141 9 Stalin's New Initiatives 16o 
Stalin Solidifies His Grip 173 
29 War Against the Jews: Death Squads in the East 
30 The 'Final Solution' and Death Camps 
i 1 
Nazi Party as Social Movement 
12 Nazism Exploits Economic Distress 
13 'All Power' for Hitler 
14 Fight Against the Countryside 
15 Terror as Political Practice 
16 'Mass Operations' 
17 'Cleansing' the Soviet Elite 
31 Greatest Crisis in Stalin's Career 
32 Between Surrender and Defiance 
33 Soviets Hold On, Hitler Grows Vicious 
34 Ethnic Cleansing in Wartime Soviet Union 

35 From Stalingrad to Berlin   
36 Stalin Takes the Upper Hand 
3^7 End of the Third Reich   
18 Winning Over the Nation 
19 Dictatorship by Consent 
20 Persecution of the Jews in the Prewar Years 
21 'Cleansing' the German Body Politic 
Epilogue 579 
Notes 595 
22 Rival Visions of World Conquest 
23 German Racial Persecution Begins in Poland 
24 Hitler and Western Europe 
25 The Soviet Response 
26 The War Spreads 

27 War of Extermination as Nazi Crusade 
28 War Against the Communists: Operation Barbarossa 
Photographic Credits 
Russian Constitutional Democratic Party

This book focuses on the dominant powers of the time, the Soviet Union and Nazi Ger
 many, but analyzes the catastrophe itself in global terms, in an effort to lay bare its large-scale political and ideological nature.

All this happened in what was to be only the first phase of the great social and political catastro

The political explanation on February 1'7, 1919, of the need for the camps was provided by a report written by Dzerzhinsky and co-authored by Kamenev and Stalin: 
Along with sentencing by courts it is necessary to retain administra
 tive sentencing-namely, the concentration camp.

From the first days of the revolution under Kerensky, special political commissars had been appointed, and Trotsky continued this procedure.

                               The commissars were there to maintain vigi
lance on the morale and 'political reliability' of the troops and discour
 age desertions-which were and remained endemic.

 The Cossacks had enjoyed special social and political status under the tsarist regime.

With the rise of Fascism in Italy, Mussolini opened another radical option on the European political landscape.

The uproar in Germany was universal, and all political parties drew 
 together to consider what to do.

Our task, the mission of the National Socialist movement, is to bring our own people to such political awareness that they will not see their goal for the future in the breath-taking terms of a new Alexander's conquest, but in the industrious work of the German plow, to which the sword need only give soil 

 By mid-February 1925, only months out of prison, Hitler was laying the groundwork for a new approach to gaining political power.

y the time Lenin died at age fifty-three on January 
21, 1924, 
 the Communist regime was established and its key features in place.

He became a prime example of a new political breed, men and women who devoted themselves selflessly to some higher cause and who were prepared to deny themselves all the worldly comforts to attain their ends.

 he new Communist leaders were bedeviled by major economic, cultural, and political problems.

145 On January 
23, 1922, 
 the Politburo renamed the secret police the State Political Administration- Gosudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie, or GPU.

All beat Russia-because of its backwardness, its military backwardness, cultural backwardness, political backwardness, industrial backwardness, agricultural backward- 
S o   

 eimar democracy was able to shut out the extremist parties like the Nazis and the Communists for a while, but at the end of the 
 when the economy collapsed, Germans gradually deserted more moderate parties and, in desperation and doubt, threw their support behind political extremism.

As deputies they had railway passes and could travel all over the country at state expense and give political talks.

 oviet law enforcement in the 192os and 1930s was far from being ever present and all knowing.

By mid-1934 around twelve million residents in 'regime' cities zoo 
 had passports, which more or less guaranteed or 'privileged' supplies.

                        In com- 
 mitting suicide an individual is trying to threaten the Party, to tell it that by mistreating those who commit political crimes, the Party cripples people and forces them to put revolvers to their own heads.'

Hitler's political program, from the battle against Marxism to the renewal of Germany as a great power, matched perfectly with the wishes of the armed forces.

Giving the money may have been less than 'wholly voluntary,' but it is an over
statement to suggest it was a 'mild foretaste of the political extortion' to 

The Soviets reverted to political methods, but there was no doubt that the aim was to create dictatorships along the lines of the Leninist model.

The bourgeoisie would have to be 
 disarmed, and 'open armed conflict with the political power' carried through to victory.

a communication to Walther von Brauchitsch, commander in chief of the army, on March 
 he said the issue would be solved when political conditions were right; Poland 'ought to be beaten down, so that it will not need to be taken into account as a political factor for the next decades.''

For us Communists, antifascists, a people who stood on philosophical and political ground diametrically opposed to Hitler, to suddenly join forces in this war-how could we? Certainly the average citizen saw it that way.

It is a subtle political game.'

423 Future political image Russia: 
 Northern Russia goes to Finland.

The problem was viewed as straight
 forward: the German people had to eat, a priority to keep up morale; Western Europe also had to be fed for political reasons; German troops would have to 'live off the land'; and with the disruptions caused by war, there would be a shortfall.

That endangers our own security and the rapid pacification of the conquered areas; (2) the originators of barbaric and Asiatic meth- 
 ods of war are the political commissars.

       The Soviet Union adopted the ideological mask of collective leader
ship, all in the name of the proletariat and peasants, but the political 
 581 structure put in place by Lenin was especially susceptible to being manipulated by shrewd operators like himself and his successor.

The terror of these early years was real enough, but it was primarily aimed against Jews, specific social outsiders like criminals, and certain 
 585 political opponents, above all the Communists.

                                          Richard Bessel, 
Political Violence and the Rise of Nazism: The Storm Troop
ers in Eastern Germany, 
 2925-I934 (New Haven, Conn.,


Abel,Theodore, 213-14 Abetz, Otto, 434
35 Abraham Lincoln Brigade, 359 Abwehr (German Military Intelli
gence), 363 
Afrika Corps, 509 
Agriculture, Commissariat Of, 229 Alexander II, Tsar, 24 Alexander III, Tsar, 24 
All-Russian Congress of Soviets, 139, 144 
All-Russian Extraordinary Commis
sion for Combatting Counterrevolu
tion,Speculation, Sabotage, and Misconduct in Office, 
Cheka All-Union Congress of Soviet Architects, 258 
Amann, Max, 98, 113, 188 American Jewish Congress, 315 American Relief Administration (ARA), 76 
Andreyev, A. A., 266 Anfilov, Viktor, 484 Anielewicz, Mordecai, 537
8 Animal Farm (Orwell), 17 anti-Semitism, 12-14,18, 81, 94, 122, 
7,454,534,562; anti
Bolshevism and, 12,84,91-2, 98-Io1,io7-9,111,118,119,213, 
also 'Jewish 
Bolshevism'); attitudes of German populace toward, 3
30,453; in Austria, 322; eugenics and, 332; in German-occupied territories, 400, 4
 8,419; in Nazi Party political strategy, 95-98,1o7,1o8,120,124, 189,I93,197,200,203,213-1(i, 315.318,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                23, 74,140,147, 150-2,158,160,168,269,271,273-4, 277,28o 
Bulgaria, 418
19,483-4,515,532,554, 555,557,593 
Bulge, Battle ofthe, 557,560
2,564, 565 
Burke, Edmund, 501 
Byelorussia, 69,148,358,386,389-90, 395,422
Caldwell, Erskine, 476 Cambodia, 594 Canada, 
6o, 363 Canaris, Admiral Wilhelm, 363 Case Yellow, 376,379 
Catherine the Great, Tsarina, 67,511 Catholic Center Party, German, 85, 125,201,286,299-301,338 Catholic Party in Bavaria (BVP), 86, 118,299 
Catholics, 89,205,213,255,295,300, 321,327,334,365,368 
Central Committee (of the Bolshevik, later Communist, Party), 9, 50,131, 138,148,162,18l,346,347,392,58I; and Communist Party purges, 268-71,273,277,28o;and de-Cos
sackization, 70; expansion of, 151; Jews on, 68; and Lenin's illness and death, 
152; Politburo created by, 146-7; Red Army and, 504; requests for Gulag labor to, 264; Stalin elected to, 30,137; terror practices authorized by,243,245,246,250;and October Revolution, 34-6,139; Trotsky and, 153-4 
Cesarani, David, 322 Chamberlain, Neville, 351, 352, 375 Chancellery of the Filhrer (KdF), 365
Cheka (Soviet secret police), 46-5, 50-53,5',63
2, 141,144, 162; clergy members arrested by, 248; de-Cossackization by, 70-1; peasant uprisings and, 74; replaced by GPU,145 
Chelmno death camp, 457,46o, 530, 587 
Chetniks, 398 
Chicago Tribune, 
485 China, 347,558; Communist, 
157, 594 
Christ the Redeemer, Cathedral of (Moscow), 250,258-9 Christianity, 455 
Chuev, Felix, 252 
Churchill, Winston,103, 379, 382, 482, 484,485,492,494,543
4,561,568-9; at Casablanca Conference, 526; Moscow missions of, 500-1, 554-6; Stalin warned of German invasion by,407;atTehran Conference, 544-6,548-5o; walkabouts of, 527; and Warsaw uprising, 552-4; at Yalta Conference, 556-9,591-2 Ciano,Galeazzo,424 Citadel, Operation, 530-1 Class, Heinrich, 97 
Cold War, 14, 14,588 collectivization, 168-75,179, 179,227, 235-7,250,266,586 
Columbia University, 213 Combat Technical Group, 137 Comintern, 
Communist International 
Commissar Order, 4z6-8 Commission for the Rehabilitation of the Victims of Political Repression, 479 
Committee for the Constituent Assembly, 64 
Committee for the Struggle Against the Counterrevolution, 33 Communist International (Comintern),85,100,104,109,111, 
144, 190,258,345,403,442,472,591, 593 
Communist Manifesto, The 
(Marx and Engels), 330 
Communist Party, 17, 29, 52, 61, 84, 146,i6i,i65,i8o-1,254,262,265, 442,582; and German invasion, 472, 488-91, 493; and Lenin's testament, 153; assassinations of leaders of, 238; Central Committee of, 
Central Committee; Congresses of, 75,141, 143,145,146,154,157
60,163,276, 346,347,355,503;de
Cossackization and, 71; dekulakization offensive of, 169-72;disunity in,153-5; drafting of members of, 6o; ethnic groups expelled from, 515,517,518; fellow travelers Of,263;French, 381,466, 472; German, 
Communist Party of Germany (KPD); Greek, 400; in electoral politics,136; Kazakh, 235; Lenin cult in, 156; Machine Tractor Station and, 236; organization of, 135; paramilitary groups of, 
to; peasants terrorized by members of, 230-1;Polish, 255,387-8,536,552-4; Political Bureau of, 
Politburo; purges of,16,145,156,261,267-81, 580; radicals in,167,168; religion 
and, 247-50; Ukrainian, 
Yugoslav, 399, 588, 591 Communist Party of Germany (KPD), 86-go, 104, 
113, 185, 212,219,296-7,300,585; banning of, 286; concentration camps for mem
bers of,302-3,311,587; dissolution of, 301, 357; in elections, 125,18q, 190,2o4-6,2I7,299;founding of, 86; general strike against reparations called by, 105; and Hitler's appoint
ment as chancellor, 221, 288; Hitler's rhetoric against, 187,193, 533; 'hunger government' protested by, 
information service of, 191; Jews in, 89, go; linked to assassination 
attempt on Hitler, 376; Nazi violence against, 296; paramilitary group of, 207; peasant recruitment efforts of, 198; persecution of, 3o6; Reichstag fire blamed on, 298,299,3o6-7; street violence between Nazis and, 209-10, 295-6; uprising attempts of, 87,1oo-1,1o6,112 
Communist Youth, 
Komsomol concentration camps, 3,55; German, 
Nazi concentration camps; Soviet,7,46,55-9,72,113,170,171, 235, 236, 243, 
,255, 256, 259, 46o 
(see also 
Congress of Peasants' Deputies, 44 Congress of Soviets, 36, 39, 41, 43, 49, 257 
Conquest, Robert, 235 
Constituent Assembly, Russian, 34, 35,37,39,42,43,46,4',580 Constitution, Soviet, 147, 175 Conradstein (Kocborowo), killing center, 366 
Conti, Leonardo, 365,366 Corrective Labor Camps and Labor Settlements, Main Administration Of, 
corrective labor colonies (ITK), 263-4 Cossacks, 57,63,64,69-72,230,422 Council for Aid to Jews Among the 
Poles, 537 
Council of People's Commissars, 38; 
see also 
Cripps, Stafford, 357 Croatia, 398, 416, 418 Cuba, colonial, 55 Cultural Revolution, Soviet, 250 Cuno, Wilhelm,104,105 Czechoslovakia, 73,323,381,416,564; Communist Party in, 76,1oo; Jews deported from, 324,325,370,466; Nazi occupation of, 3
,355; postwar, 592; Soviet prison
ers of war from, 55
Czerniakow, Adam, 535
Dachau concentration camp, 326, 337, 341, 369, 567, 584 
Dagestan,513 Daimler-Benz, 294 Dalstroi, 245 Darlan,Admiral Frangois, 419 Darrd, Walther, 199 
Darwin, Charles, 16,33 
Darwinism, social, 12,16,188,219 Davies,Sarah, 247 
Dawes, Charles, 116 D-day,551 
death camps, 45
see also names of specific camps 
Defense Ministry, German, 291 Dekanozov, Vladimir, 394 dekulakization,63,167-74,176-9, 
Democrats, German, 86 
Deniken, General A. I., 69,72 Denmark, 379,4o6,415 Diels, Rudolf, 298 
Dimitrov, Georgi, 357,403,472,492-3, 593 
Djilas, Milovan, 556,588 Dolot, Miron, 232-3 Domarus, Max, 288 
Don, Revolutionary Committee of the, 70 
D6nitz, Admiral Karl, 525 Drexler, Anton, 93, 95, 97 Dulles, Allen, 569 Duma, 21-3,135 
Diisseldorf Industrial Club, 219 Dzerzhinsky,Felix,35,46-8,52,59,72, 150,175 
Dzhughashvili, Ekaterina,131-2 Dzhughashvili, Vissarion, 131 
Eberhard, General Kurt, 449, 450 
Ebert,Friedrich,83,87,124-5 Eckart, Dietrich, 97,99 Eher Verlag, 
Elchmann,Adolf, 322
4,326,370, 373,400 
Eicke, Theodor, 353 
Eimann, SS Major Kurt, 366,367 Einsatzgruppen (EGr), 352-3,363, 364,366,370,37
, 449-5I,46o,463,538 
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 567, 568, 594 Eisenstein, Sergei, 38 
Eisner, Kurt, 84, 86, 88, 9o Elser, Georg, 376 
Enabling Law (Germany, 1933), 300-301,316 
Engels, Friedrich, 32, 99, 330 Erickson,John, 502 
Esser, Hermann, 91, 1o4 Estonia, 357,384,392
6,444,547 ethnic cleansing, 5,583,592; Nazi, 363-4,367,369
(see also 
Jews, extermination of); Soviet, 254-5,511
ethnic Germans, 364; deportations of, 391; resettlement of, 372,373,374; in Soviet Union, 253
3,535, 592-3 
eugenics, 331-4 euthanasia, 365
 Evian Conference (1938),323 
famines, 74-6, 141, 228-36, 248 
Far Northern Construction Trust, 245 Farben, I. G., chemical concern, 464-5,467 
Fascism, 108,332,358,472,476; Italian, 3,102-4,111,117,190, 216-17,3o6,466-7 
Feder, Gottfried, 91
'final solution,' 16,274,452
68, 537 
Finland, 135,136,149,357,384,413, 418,422,423,511;postwar, 547;SS recruits from, 415; Winter War with, 392
3,401,403,405,473,474 Fischer, Ruth, 9o 
'five ears of corn, law on,' 229 
Five-Year Plan, 161-6,169,174,175, 181,228-9,231,235,242,258,263, 268,287 
Flossenbiirg concentration camp, 339
Food Supply, Commissariat of, 63 forced-labor camps, 
concentration camps, Soviet 
Ford, Henry, 164 
Ford Motor Company, 164 Forster, Albert, 366 F6rster,Jurgen,449 
magazine, 334 Fotieva, Lydia, 151 
Foundations of Leninism, The 
(Stalin), 156
7 Four-Year Plan, Nazi, 320 France,107,108,321,329,349,350, 405,526,546,557,574;fall Of,266, 38o-2,397,413; and Hitler-Stalin pact, 357; appeasement of Hitler by, 312
14,351; Communists in, 358, 466,472; Gulag condemned in, 257; in Berlin Olympics, 320; German invasion of, 348,375,379-80,393; intervention against Bolsheviks by, 66; Jews deported from, 466,587; liberation of, 554; maps of, 4o6; peace offers from Hitler to, 366; Poland and, 347,352,354,361; POWs, 48o; Ruhr invaded by, 1o4-5, 112,116; Soviet friction with, 161; Soviet negotiations for alliance with, 356; Vichy, 419-20,434
35,501,509; Wehrmacht volunteers from, 416 Franco, General Francisco, 313,321, 358 
Franco-Prussian War, 
I I I 
Frank, Hans, 457,46
 Franz Ferdinand,Archduke of Austria, 82 
Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, 185 
Free Corps, 87,90 
Freedom of Conscience, Decree on, 248 
Freemasonry, log Freiberg, Dov, 462-63 French Revolution, 26,27,301,311, 340 
Frick, Wilhelm,186, 186,285 
(guerrilla), 426 
Front, The 
(play),504 Fuchs, Klaus, 592 
Galen, Clemens August von, 368 Galton, Francis, 331 
Garlinski, J6zef, 465 
gas chambers, 338,452,46o-6,521, 5
30,566,587;mobile, 367,399, 457,460,461,529 
Gdynia (Gotenhafen) killing center, 366 
Getter, Mikhail, 491 Gemlich,Adolf 92 General Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Councils (Berlin, 1918), 84 General Government 
General Motors, t63 
George V1, King of England, 546 German Combat League (Deutscher Kampfbund), I11-15 
German Earth and Stone Works, 335, 340 
Germanization, 291-2 
German National People's Party (DNVP),196, 206, 216, 217, 285, 294, 299,301 
German Women's Enterprise (Deutscher Frauenwerk), 305 German Workers' Party (DAP), 93-5 Gestapo, 3,274,303,318,363,373,456; asocials arrested by, 335, 338, 339; Einsatzgruppen and, 353,445; gassing operations run by, 369,465; Germans shot for defeatism by, 568; Soviet prisoners executed by, 570 Gibson,Archibald,416 
Globocnik, Odilo, 461-4 
Goebbels,Joseph, 18,126,187,192, 
cott of Jewish businesses advocated by, 315; diaries of, 194, 211-12, 220-2,301,454; on deportation plans for Polish Jews, 371, 372; and elec
tions,196,197,217,299-300; in Hitler's bunker, 575-6; and invasion of Soviet Union, 431, 439,440; on 
325-6; and extermina
tion of Jews, 445,454-56,458,526, 534,538; propaganda machine of, 190,194, 208; at Reichstag fire, 298; speeches at mass meetings by, 186; suicide of, 577; war plans described 
to press by, 350 Goebbels, Magda, 577 Goglidze, Sergei A., 276 Goldschmidt, Jakob, 213 Gorbach, Grigorii, 245-6 G6ring, Hermann,113, 218, 221, 222, 285, 432,453 
Gorky, Maxim, 8, 48, 76,138,171, 259-60,580 
Gosudarstvennoe Politicheskoe Upravlenie, 
GPU,145,150,162,423,540;see also OGPU 
Graf, Ulrich,113 Graziosi, Andrea, 237 Great Britain, 334,348
50,384,405, V6,413-I4,457,531,560, 561, 592; in advance on Germany, 554,568; air battles over, 266; appeasement of Hitler by, 3
14,351; in armistice negotiations with Ger
many, 568-7o; in Berlin Olympics, 319-20; Communist Party in, 76, 358; and fall ofFrance, 379
81,393; and German invasion of Soviet Union, 407
8,455,484; Greece and, 397-8; Gulag condemned in, 257; Hess in, 494; Hitler's attitude toward, 126,321,329,564; 
Great Britain 
Hitler's plans for invasion of, 382-3, 402,413; House of Commons, 352; and Hitler-Stalin pact, 357; Indian Army, 433; intervention against Bolsheviks by, 66; interviews with Hitler published in, io9, It o; Japan
ese capture of soldiers of, 492; and Jewish refugees, 323,447; lend-lease agreement with, 485; linked to assassination attempt on Hitler, 376; Nazi radio broadcasts to, 532; in negotiations with US and USSR, 500-1,544
50,552-9,589;in North African campaign, 509,525; peace offers from Hitler to, 366,375; Poland and, 347,352,354,361; POWs, 48o; reparations and, io4, 112; Soviet negotiations for alliance with, 356; Soviet support for strikers in, 
suicide rate in, 202; uncondi
tional surrender demanded by, 526, 589; unemployment in, 2o4; War Cabinet, 482 
Great Depression, 76,194,197,200, 201,293,305 
Great Terror (Soviet), 241, 244-6, 251-2,264-5,278,347,396,540; against national minorities, 253-6; purges in, 281; religious persecution Of, 250,255 
Greece, 397-8,400-1,406,414,433, 441, 515; Jews deported from, 466, 587;postwar, 555,591 
Greens (Russian peasant armies), 66 Greiser, Gauleiter Arthur, 367, 461, 464 
Gross, Jan, 364 
Grossman, Vasily,233-4,273-4,573 Gross-Rosen concentration camp, 340,341 
 Grynszpan, Herschel, 325 Guchkov,Aleksandr 1.,

Milchakov, Aleksandr, 584 Military Revolutionary Committee (MRC), 35
8,46, 139 
Miliukov, P A. (Kadet Party leader), 22 
Ministerial Defense Council, Ger
man, 369 
Mittlebau-Dora concentration camp, 341 
Mogilev death camp, 457 M6hl, General Arnold von, 91 Moiseyev, General Mikhail A., 585 Moldavia, 395,483 
Moldenhauer, Paul, 203 
Molotov, Vyacheslav M.,144, 152, 153,162,229,381,401-2,413,556, 575; appointed commissar of foreign affairs, 356; dekulakization cam
paign of, 170, I71; and famines, 167, 228, 232, 248; and forced labor for canal projects, 177, 257; and Ger
man invasion, 407,409,47
4, 482,483,492; and invasion of Poland, 385; 
non-aggression pact negotiated by, 356
8 and occupation of Baltic States, 392-4; and purges, 273,278; terror defended by, 251-2; war
crimes trials proposed by, 547 Mommsen, Hans, 213, 307 Montgomery, Field Marshal Bernard, 561,568 
Morell, Theo, 365 Morgenthau, Henry, 559 Moscow, battle for, 487-90, 492-6, 498 
Moscow Club of the Nobility, 02 Moscow Committee 
of Public Safety, 45 Moscow Declaration, 548 Moscow University, 488 Moscow-Volga Canal (Dmitrovsky Canal), 256-7 
Moskalenko, Marshal Kirill S., 483 Mtihsam, Erich, 9o 
Miiller, General Eugen, 425-6 Miiller, Heinrich, 373, 445 Miiller, Hermann, 200 Muller, Hermann J., 332 Muffler, Joseph, 289 
Muller, Karl Alexander von, 91, 114 Munich conference, 314, 324, 351 Muslims, 513-i6 
Mussolini, Benito, 
117, 123, 216, 354, 531
2, 534; death of, 576; fall of, 466-7;Franco supported by, 359; Greece invaded by, 397; at Munich conference, 351; rise to power of, 102-3,110-13,118,212,217 
Napoleon, Emperor of France, 259, 290,430,476,535
Nashkoyev, Murad, 517-18 National Socialist Doctors' Union, 195 
National Socialist German University Student Group,192 
National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), 
Nazi Party National Socialist Women's Group (NS-Frauenschaft),195, 304-5 Navy, Soviet, 476 
Nazi concentration camps, 113, 113,319, 337-41,353,360,521,529,574,584, 589;asocialsin,335,338-9,587 evacuation Of, 565-7; gassings in, 367
9,399,529; Jews in,326,335, 338, 339, 399, 587 
(see also 
death camps); political prisoners in, 302-3, 311,36o, 541, 587; Poles in, 339, 364, 370; 
see also names of specific camps 
Nazi Party, 104-10,117,1ill, 124-27, 185
97,297,309,443,527,532, 540-1, 582,585; 'actions' against Jews by, 315-18,324,326; agricul
tural program of,198-2oo;annual commemorations of, 325, 376, 459, 508,526; anti-Semitism and anti
Bolshevism of,98-1o1,1o8,Ir8-19; aristocratic support for, 293; attempted putsch 0£,110-15,124; charities of, 327; doctors in, 293-4; drumhead courts of, 573-4; eco
nomic policy of, 293; in elections, 196,201-6,214,217,287,295, 299-3oo; escalation of actions against Jews of, 269; financing of, 186-7; foundation Of, 93-4;Fuhrer cult in, 123; Himmler's speech on extermination of Jews to, 540-2; justice system purged by, 307-8; Ludendorff as candidate for, 125; Nuremberg rallies of, 192, 194
5, 313,320,333,338;organizational structure of,188-9,191,194;para- 
military groups of, 
SA; SS; platform of, 95-8; police and justice system of, 335; popular support for, 303-5,308,312; propaganda of, 189, 193-4; publishing house of, 118; and Reichstag fire, 298; purge of, 16; removal of ban on, 124; rise to powerof,118,124,211-12,216-i9, 285 
(see also 
Hitler, Adolf, appointed chancellor); speakers' school of,I9o-1;Strength through Joy program Of, 3o5-6;suborganiza
tions of, 195; text of, 
see Mein Kampf, 
torture cellars of, 303 Nazi-Soviet pact, 348,354-9,361, 384, 392,415,471 
Nebe, Arthur, 373,45
Netherlands, 378-So, 4o
5; Jews from, 4
587; SS recruits from, 415 
Neuadel aus Blut and Boden 
(Dam), 199 
Neuengamme concentration camp, 341,369 
Nevsky, Alexander, 503 
New Economic Policy (NEP), 75, 76, 143-6,I54,I58,i6o,16i,i65,i68 
New YorkAmerican, 
New York Times, The, 
t 11, 
476, 525, 
164 Nicholas 11,Tsar,21-3,99,136,271 Niekisch, Ernst, 88 
'night of the long knives,' 2
Nikolaenko,Polia,278-9 NKVD,46-7,238-9,243,266,271, 
3,450,483,502,540; in Baltic states, 394-6; in Byelorussia, 391; camps administered by, 58, 59,177, 
64,479,589; during German invasion, 478-9,489,490,493;estab
lishment of, 46; ethnic cleansing by, 51
,5N,50-i8; in Great Terror, 245-7,253-6,261; OGPU incorpo
rated into, 237-8; in Poland, 386,388; purges and, 275,276,278;reorgani

zation Of, 529;in Ukraine, 245,261, 391 
Nolte, Ernst,13 Normandy invasion, 551 North Africa campaign, 433, 438, 509, 525 
North Caucasus, Revolutionary Committee of the, 71 Norway, 379, 415, 587 
Noske, Gustav, 87 
'November criminals,' 83, 105, 202-3 
Nuremberg Laws (I935),318-z9,324, 419 
Nuremberg trials, 354,556 
(film), 38 
October Manifesto (1905),135 October Revolution, 7,24,29,34-40, 49,74,180,274,441,583;anniver
sary Of,59,1o6,112,159,165,394-5, 402,491,494; consolidation of Bolshevik power in, 41-3; creation of Red Army following, 6o; distribu
tion of land to peasants during, 136; events leading to,29-33;French Revolution as inspiration for, 301; resistance to, 44-6; Stalin during, 138 
OGPU,173-7,227,229,234,236-8, 242 
Okhrana (Tsarist secret police), 24, 48,540 
Wehrmacht, High Com
mand of 
Old Bolsheviks, 261, 280 Olyanov, Alexander, 24 Olympic Games, 319-20 Omsk troika, 245 
'On the Protection of the Property of the State Enterprises, Collective Farms, and Cooperatives and the Strengthening of Public (Socialist) Ownership' (1932 law), 229 
Operation Barbarossa, 407,4 
415, 421,424,425,429
40,453,481,494, 530,585; slaughter of Jews during, 44I
Operation Blue, 499 Operation Citadel, 530-1 Operation Harvest Festival, 539-40 Operation Marita, 397-8 Operation Overlord, 545,550 Operation Reinhard, 462 Operation Torch, 5o8 
Operation Typhoon, 435 Operation Uranus, 507 Ordzhonikidze,Serge, 71,163,270, 273 
Orgburo (Organization Bureau), 146-8 
Orth, Karin, 303 
Orthodox Church, 16, 248, 249, 263, 419,532 
Orwell, George, 17 Ossietzky, Carl von, 297 Oster, General Hans, 340 Ostroumova-Lebedeva, Anna Petrovna, 492 
Oumansky, Constantine, 485 
Palace of Soviets (Moscow), 258 Pale of Settlement, 67 
Panther tanks, 530 Papen,Franz von,205,209,210, 212-13,219-23,286-8,296,298,300, 309 
Paris Commune, 27, 28, 248 Pasternak, Boris, 273 
Paul, Prince of Yugoslavia, 397-8 Paulus, Field Marshal Friedrich, 509, 525 
Pavlov, General Dmitri G., 473
4, 478 
People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs, see NKVD 
People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB), 529 
People's Court, German, 340,585 
Perekovka (newspaper), 257 Petacci, Clara, 576 PEtain,Philippe, 419,420,501 Peter the Great, Tsar, 163 Peters, I. K., 56 
Petrovsky, G.1, 57 
Philippines, American concentration camps in, 55 
Pilsudski, Marshal J6zef, 73 Podlubny,Stepan,243 pogroms, 6,69; Nazi, 325
9; postwar, 390 
Pohl, Oswald, 340 Poincar6, Raymond, 104 Poland, 43,337,339,355;efforts to export Bolshevism to, 73, 75,100, 149,345; ethnic cleansing in, 363-4, 3
74,459,468,585,587; Frontier Defense Corps (KOP) of, 385; German invasion and occupa
tion of, 348,351-6,360-39 377, 381, 384,421,430,433,441,443,444,446, 461, 465,513,551-4 (See also Gen
eral Government); liberation of, 557, 558,564;postwar, 546-7,552
4,558, 592-3; Soviet zone of occupation in, 357,358,364,371,373,384
91,394, 395,401, 450,501,511,532 
Poles: Nazi annihilation policies against, 339,36o,363
4,367,369, 373
4; Soviet terror against, 254-5,3649385-91 Polish Home Army, 552-4 
Polish Military Organization (POV), 254 
Politburo, 9,131,146-5o,152,157,158, r8o,182,238,581,593;canal projects approved by, 256,259; cleansing in occupied territories authorized by, 386; Commission for Judicial Affairs of, 280; concentration and forced
labor camps created by, 59,175-7; creation of, 146-7; in dekulakization campaign, 171; grain shortages and policies of,167-9,228,234,239; and German invasion, 410,472-4; Jewish 
members of, 68; juvenile delin
quency policies of, 243; KPD and, lo6;at Lenin's death, 155;national minorities persecuted by, 253-6; secret police and, 145, 239; purges approved by,275,276;terror prac
tices of, 245, 248, 279 
Poniatowa death camp, 539 Popular Enlightenment and Propa
ganda, German Ministry of, 300 Posen concentration camp, 367 Poskrebyshev,Aleksandr N.,473 Potsdam Conference, 590,592 Pozdnyakova, Yulia, 565 
28, 46, 49,156,165,181,19o, 229,503,594 
Prevention of Defective Offspring, Law for (Germany, 1933), 302, 333 
(journal), 138 Protection of German Blood and German Honor, Law for, 
Nuremberg Laws 
the Elders 
The, 68,99,534 
Provisional All-Russian Government, 64 Prussian Political Police, 298 Pyatakov, Georgy L., 151, 159, 270-3 
Quebec Conference, 559 
racial hygiene, 332-4 
Radek, Karl, 84, 86,1o6,159, 1o6,159,270,272 Radio Moscow, 552,553 
Raeder, Admiral Erich, 290,379 Rasch, Otto, 449 
Rath, Ernst vom, 325,327 Ravensbriick concentration camp, 34
Red Army, 6o,1o7-8,155,234,272-3, 345,405-6,417,583; advance on Germany of, 557, 558, 561, 563-65, 568,571,577;anniversary of found
ing of, 567; atrocities committed by, 
570-3; in Baltic states, 395,401; casualties Of, 432,433,435,440,491, 498--9; in civil war, 6o, 64-6,261; commissars of, 504; concentration camps liberated by, 565, 589; Cos
sacks and, 70; counteroffensive against Germans of, 438-4o, 498-9, 502
45;dekulakization carried out by, 
deserters from, 6o, 480-1; disciplinary measures imposed on,487-8,5o5;establish
ment of, 46,6o; expulsion of mem
bers of ethnic groups from, 514-16; Finland invaded by, 392
3,401; and German invasion, 409, 410, 420, 429, 43
50,484,495; Gulag prisoners as volunteers in, 519; at Kursk, 530-1; Main Political Directorate of, 478,48o; Nazi propa
ganda against, 214; pogroms carried out by, 68; Poland attacked by, 362, 385,388,401; prisoners of war from, 432
34,436,473,480,505,588-90; Propaganda Department of, 477; purges Of, 275-6,349,404,533,540; rallying of support for, 476,505; reinforcements from Siberia for, 416,437; at Stalingrad,5o6-8,526, 528; tanks Of, 475,477,498,530-1; territories liberated from Nazis by, 521, 529,535,555,591; and Warsaw uprising, 551-4 
Reder, Rudolf, 462 Red Guards, 37, 42, 65 
Red Star, 
503,504 Red terror, 56-9,65 Reed, John, 39,43 
Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditarily and Congenitally Based Illnesses, 365 
Reichenau, Field Marshal Walther von, 289, 291,445 Reichsbank,200 
Reichsbanner Schwarz, Rot, Gold (Reichflag Black, Red, Gold), 207 
Reich Security Main Office, 408,454 Reichslandbund (Reich Agrarian League), 294 Reichstag,83,186,200,201,205,212, 215,219,220; captured by Red Army, 57 r; decline of legislative power Of, 206; elections of members of,I18,189--90,204,214,217,312; enabling law in, 286, 287, 300
fire in, 298
7; Hitler's speeches to,320,371,375;Versailles Treaty opposed by, 105 
289; Bavarian, 112, 114 
Reinhardt, Fritz, igo-91 Remnick, David, 584 Reparations Commission, 104 Republicans, Spanish, 313 Restoration of a Professional Civil Service, Law for (Germany, 1933), 30'7 
Revolutionary War Council of the Republic, 65 
Revolutionary Workers' Council, 86 Riabtsev, K. L, 45 
Ribbentrop,Joachim von,356-7,413, 445,468,508
Ritter, Robert, 334,337 
Ritter von Lech, Field Marshal Wilhelm, 438 
Rittersporn, Gabor Tamas, 521 Robespierre, Maximilien de, 159 Rodichev, F. I, (Kadet Party leader), 22 
Rodzianko, Mikhail V, 23 
R6hm, Captain Ernst, 97,110, 
113,187-8,2o8,3O9,3IO Rokossovsky Marshal Konstantin K., 551-3,590 
Romania, 73,89,100,373,393,431, 587; mass killings of Jews in, 416-18, 441; postwar, 555,592; Soviet coun
teroffensive against, 509,532,554 ROmanOVS, 22, 23, 27, 28, 65, 68, 99 R6meris, Mykolas, 395 
Rommel, Field Marshal Erwin, 16, 438,509 
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 594 Roosevelt, Elliott, 548 Roosevelt, Franklin D, 439, 484
7, 526,543-8,550,552
9,569,591; death o$ 570,592 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 331 Rosenberg, Alfred, 99,432 Rosenberg, Arthur, 84-5 Rotefrontkampferbund (Red Veter

ans' League), 207 Royal Air Force, 500 Rudin, Ernst, 333 Rudnev, V. V., 45 Rundstedt, General Gerd von, 379, 38o,438 
Russian Civil War, 3,6o, 62-77,140-2, 148,171,172,261; de-Cossackization in, 70-2; famine during, 74-6; pogroms in, 6,69 
Russian Federation, 148,149,177,241, 249 
Russian General Staff, 36,37 Russian Revolution, 3-5,7,85,88,99, 102,120, 141, 148,308,311; export of, 68,73; factionalism and, 126; neces
sity of repression to maintain, 252; Of1905,26-7,48,135; of October, 1917, 
October Revolution Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), 23,26,29,132,137; All-Russian Conference of, 136; factions of, 
Bolsheviks; Menshe
 'Unity Congress' o$ 27 Russo-Japanese War, 135 Rykov,AlekseiL,269,273,274,581 
SA (Sturmabteilung; Brownshirts), 107,110,187-8,193, 207, 216, 220, 291,3o4;banned by Hindenburg, 209; in Beer Hall Putsch, 114; clashes between Communists and, 195, 209-11,292,295,303;deputy police from ranks Of, 296; founding of, 187; 
funerals of leaders of, 295-6,532; and Hitler's appointment as chan
cellor, 222; Jews attacked by, 215, 315,316,324,326; purge Of, 309-10; rebellion against Nazi Party by, 207-8 
Saarland, return to Germany of, 311-12 
Sachsenhausen concentration camp, 326,338,341 
St. Petersburg University, 24,25 Sapir, Boris, 59 
Savior in the Wood, Church of (Moscow), 258 
Schacht, Hjalmar, 200 Schaeffer, Fritz, 289 Scheidemann, Philipp, 83, 87, 94 Scheubner-Richter, Max Erwin von, 99,111,113,115 Schirach,Baldurvon,192,534 Schirach, Henriette von, 534 Schleicher, Kurt von, 204-5, 209, 211, 
212,219,220,310 Schr6der, Kurt von, 2I9 Schr6der, Ludwig von, 399 Schulenburg,Friedrich Werner Graf von der, 471 
Schutzformationen (Schufos;Protec
tive Formations), 207 
Schwarz, Franz Xaver, 187 Schwede-Coburg,Franz,366 Schwerin von Krosigk, Lutz Graf, 221 Scott, John, 263 
SD (Sicherheitsdienst),324,326-8, 352,353,363,369,374,398,421-2, 467 
Sebastian, Mihail, 416-17 
secret police: Nazi, 
Gestapo; Soviet, 161,172,175,249(see also Cheka; GPU; NKVD; OGPU) Seeckt, General Hans von, 
Seifert, Gustav, 188 
Seisser,Hans Ritter von, 
Semlin concentration camp, 399 Serbia, 398,399,415 Serebriakov, Leonid, 270,272 
Serebrovsky, A. S., 331-2 Seytmuratova,Ayshe,516 Shaposhnikov, Marshal Boris, 401, 492 Sharypina, Yelizaveta, 491 
Shaw, George Bernard, 260 Shchastny,Admiral A. M., 51 Shcherbakov,Aleksandr,493 Sholokhov, Mikhail, 234,273 show trials, 145,
2,269-76,279, 347 
Shtemenko, General S. M, 504 Shulgin, Vasily, 22 
Simonov, Konstantin, 590 Sinta,see Gypsies Slovakia, 415,466 SMERSH, 529 
Smolensk City Party Committee, 268 Smolny Institute, 32, 36, 37, 41 Sobibor death camp, 457, 460, 462, 539,587 
Sobolev, Party Secretary, 254 
Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD),104,113,124,219,2961-7,312; banning of, 301,357; in elections, 125,18q,t9o,196,204,2o6,217,299; Enabling Law opposed by, 301; and Hitler's appointment as chancellor, 221; 'hunger government' protested by, 201; information service of, t91; Nazi violence against, 296; Nazi propaganda against, 214; paramili
tary groups of, 
95, 207; persecution of, 306; Reichstag fire and, 298,299; trade union allies of 105,187 
Socialism in one country, 157-8 'Socialist Fatherland in Danger' decree,50 
Socialists, 5,17,26-30,32,40,43,49, 54,61,293,301,302,585;agrarian, 25; anti-Bolshevik, 56; anti-Semitism and, 67,328,329; Communist oppo
sition to, 190; fundamental tenets of, 142; Hitler's view of, loo, 1o9; Ital
ian, 1o3; nationalism debated among, 138; paramilitary groups of, Ito;peasantry and, 143;Polish, 255; 
in post-World War I Germany, 84-5, 90,92; propaganda against, 91;in resistance to October revolution, 46; underground, in Nazi Germany, 310-14,323,325,329,376
see also specific parties 
Social Revolutionary Party, Russian, 33, 34, 39, 42,44, 45, 72 Sokolnikov, Grigory, 35, 270, 272 Solovetski Monastery, 249 
Solovki concentration camps, 59,176, 259 
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr, 251, 259, 519-21,583-4 
Sonnenstein killing center, 369 Sorge,Richard,4o8 
South Africa, 55 
Soviet Academy of Sciences, 488 Soviet Writers' Congress, 258 Sovnarkom (SNK), 42-3,47,49,62, 64,147-8,182,581;capital punish
ment approved by, 51; civil liberties curtailed by, 43-4; concentration camps created by, 56,176; national
ization of banks by, 45; OGPU and, 175; Stalin on, 152, i8o; terror decree of, 57; Trotsky and, 154 
Spain, 416; civil war in, 313, 321, 359 Spanish-American War, 55 Spartacusgroup, 84,86-7 
Special Action 1005, 463 
Speer, Albert, 336, 341, 381-82,419, 526, 540, 541, 559, 574 
Spellman, Francis, 547 
Squadre d'Azioni, 
Blackshirts SS (Schutzstaffel),2o7-8,216,220, 354, 362, 400, 532, 540, 566, 569; at Auschwitz-Birkenau,465,466; banned by Hindenburg, 209; brutal
ity toward Jewish women of, 534; Death's Head Units, 353,355; deputy police from ranks of, 296; doctors in,369;founding of, 
 7; ghettos destroyed by, 537; Himmler appointed leader of.

He explodes many of the journalistic and political myths that have become widely accepted....

The decades of academic debate about the nature of terrorism had produced a cacophony of definitions, distinguishing between political motivation and naked nihilism, and between attacks targeting civilians 
 and those targeting the military under various circumstances-on duty, off duty, inside, or outside a combat zone.

He saw this as one of the 'self-inflicted wounds which impaired the standing of the State Department within the Government' 
 State has unusually potent antibodies against political direction from the White House.*

In his memoirs, Henry Kissinger praised the abilities and hard work of Foreign Service professionals but noted that 'the reverse side of their dedication is the conviction that a lifetime of service and study has given them insights that transcend the untrained and shallow-rooted views of political appoin

This caused political appointees to advocate, only half-jokingly, 'civilian control' of the Foreign Service-on the model of the Defense Department.

                                                                                                                                       Political commenta

*Franklin D. Roosevelt also expressed frustration with the State Department: 'The Treasury is so large and far-flung and ingrained in its practices that 
find it almost impossible to get the action and results 

 I came into the Reagan Administration along with others who had started their political lives left of center, many of them formerly (or currently) registered Democrats.

                                                                                  It had long been standard procedure 
Washington-on the right and the left-to refer to one's political opponents as extremists, and I had been amply warned 
 to endure the Senate confirmation process with the traditional groveling lack of dignity, so I took Levin's insult in stride.

They will weigh the risks that abandoning our strategy, which had been working successfully, might have destroyed the promising political process launched in Bonn.

 zai did not try to ruin his warlord rival and Pacha Khan eventually joined the political process: In the September 2005 national elections, he won a seat in the Afghan parliament.

That suspicion would in the end derail the U.S. government's preparations and plans for Iraq's political transition.

Referring to State's 'transitional civil authority' proposal, Rumsfeld warned: 'An international presence, or interim international `commission', would not be an adequate substitute for helping friendly indigenous forces establish their political and military authority quickly on the ground.'

Such forces could help provide local political leadership (or assist Iraqi officials in doing so).

A political conference would allow the Iraqis to engage in give-and-take on such fundamental matters as individual rights, federalism, and the role of religion, and these democratic practices might be carried forward into the politics of liberated Iraq.*

The Iraq Political-Military Cell (run by the Joint Staff) was not always suc
 cessful in coordinating between Washington policy makers and CENTCOM.

Our key political values-democratic self-government and the pro
 tection of individual rights-can be safeguarded only if the U.S. remains a sovereign state....

This work had been supervised either by the Executive Steering Group, chaired by Franklin Miller of Rice's staff, or by the Iraq Political-Military Cell, led by military officers on General Myers's staff.

The array of new special committees created in the summer of 2002-the Iraq Political-Military Cell, the Executive Steering Group, and several others-remained active, and they were joined by new interagency teams created to develop plans for relief and reconstruction.*

And the army was corrupt and generally detested among Iraqis for its history of domestic murder, destruction of villages, and political repression.

Each combatant command is served by a senior State Department political adviser, or POLAD, and a senior CIA intelligence liaison.

These officials understandably exercise a great deal of influence-especially on political-military issues, about which military officers may have little back
 ground and no strong views of their own.

Accordingly, he favored thinking of the initial political arrangement after Saddam's overthrow as an Iraqi provisional 
 rather than a provisional government.

Tenet implies here that there was some alternative proposal on the table for an 'open-ended political process that Americans could influ
 ence but not control.'

                                                   In the political dimen- 
sion, the story of post-Saddam Iraq is the painful tale of a missed opportu
 nity to empower an Iraqi authority.

                                                   First, he 'wanted to have more time to consult with my political advisers before plunging into deli
cate discussions about our plans for the interim government' His second and third reasons are revealing: 'Also, I wanted to signal to the Iraqi politi
 cal figures that I was not in a hurry to see them.

 to organize, given that Iraq lacked a census, a political parties law, voting districts, voter registration regulations, and the like.

humiliation of Chalabi received heavy press coverage around the world and was generally interpreted as a sign of irredeemable repudiation by the Bush Administration and as a fatal strike against Chalabi's political ambitions in Iraq.

August-inn a coherent political force: 
 First, they should agree on a commm program.

606   ENDNOTES TO PAGES 292-294 
 292 'immediately promote civil order': Iraq Political-Military Cell, 'Post-War Strategy,' Briefing for Principals Meeting, October 23, 2002.

371 political commissars at our headquarters: Michael Gordon and Bernard Trainor recount the following story indicating the difficulty of close collaboration between policy and operations: 
After Franks endured a particularly difficult grilling from Rumsfeld the [CENTCOM] planners suspected that Feith's aides were feeding tough 
626   ENDNOTES TO PAGES 372-376 
 questions to Washington in advance.

That there should be an open dialogue with all national political groups to bring them into the process.

                                                                                                                                                         Central Command): 
Abu Ghraib and, 484 
Afghanistan reconstruction and, 150, 156, 157 Afghanistan war and, 62, 63, 74, 77, 80-81, 87, 121,131 
bin Laden and, 135 
chain of command and, 5, 289, 318, 371-372, 441 
coalition building and, 89-91 detainees and, 159-160 humanitarian operation by, 107 INC intelligence and, 488 information operations by, 102-103 Iraq as war target of, 15 
Iraq externals and, 259, 372, 555-561 
Iraqi opposition force and, 280, 290, 381-382, 384,396-401,462,481,486,516,517 Iraqi police force and, 363, 365 
Iraqi WMD and, 21S 
Iraq liberation vs. occupation and, 291 Iraq Political-Military Cell and, 292, 360n Iraq war operational plans and, 274-276, 
292-293,347,360,392-393 Iraq war strategy of, 435 
maritime interdiction operations, 146-147 ORHA and, 349, 350, 364 
postwar civil order in Iraq and, 319, 361, 366,415 postwar planning office and, 348 
psy-ops, 171n Central Asia, 127 Central High School (Philadelphia, PA), 24 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA): 
in Afghanistan, 88, 97, 103-104, 106, 113, 119 Baghdad assessment by, 414-415 
Bush Administration and, 272, 520 
Chalabi and, 190-192, 197, 239-240, 380, 401, 488,490 
civil disorder in Iraq and, 415 combatant command and, 371-372 de-Baathification and, 428 
DOD and, 99-100, 104, 114, 117n IIA and, 412, 413, 436 information leaks from, 321 
in interagency process, 48, 77-81 
Iraq-al Qaida assessed by, 259-272, 322-325, 521 
Iraq intelligence mistakes by, 517-518 Iraqi cipposition groups and, -
52-253, 256, 279-281,284,370,382-383,389-390,396, 398, 406, 458, 487, 517 
Iraqi WMD and, 224-228, 314, 325-332, 351, 351n, 352, 471, 489, 491, 514, 518 
Iraq liberation vs. occupation, 368, 496 Iraq military assessed by, 366, 517 Iraq police assessed by, 363, 365, 517 
Iraq regime change and, lull-204, 213, 250, 357 Iraq terrorism assessed by, 187 
9/11 response and, 14, 16, 17 Policy work and, 98-100, 117 protection of sources by, 351 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 53, IOS-109, 122 
Chalabi, Abroad: 
aninosily • toward, 239, 252, 254-257, 294, 370, 486 
de-Baathificatrum and, 431 IIA and, 4113, 404, 409, 413 
as INC head, 189-192, 197, 241, 243, 244, 277 Iraq democracy and, 372, 497n 
Iraqi civil disorder and, 365 
on Iraqi Leadership Council, 411n, 444 Iraqi opposition and, 379n, 397-401, 482 
as post Saddam Iraq leader, 242, 279, 281, 380, 383,420-421,487-490 
(Amnsberlain, Neville, 524 chemical weapons (CW): in Afghanistan, 65 
in terrorist -supporting states, 51, 84, 167, 214, 215 
 in world wars, 184.

ideological warfare via, 169 
in Iran, 232 
 political discourse and, 527 interrogation methods, 165, 165.

                                                                                            2001), 126 Iraq and, 198, 223, 315 under Lenin, 235 
UN veto power of, 336 
U.S. relations with, 1-2, 44-46 Ryan, Colonel Kevin, 3 
al-Sabah, Sheikh Dr. Mohammed, 95 alSabah, Sheikh Sabah, 94 
Sabaya, Abu, 115 Sailor, Anwar, 25 alSadr, Moqtada, 374, 45m, 480-483, 486 Sakharov, Andrei, 27 
Salahuddin political conference, 378, 402, 403, 411,420 
Salih, Barbara, 494, 495 
Sanchez,Lieutenant General Ricardo,449,494, 545 
Sanger, David, 474 sarin gas, 19 
Saud al-Faisal (Prince of Saudi Arabia), 92 Saudi Arabia: 
Baathists and, 430 Chalabi and, 380 DOD coalition building trip to, 91, 93 intelligence work in, 114 
oil revenues of, 31, 32 royally in, 200 
as terrorism supporter, 8, 146, 510 terrorist attack on Khobar Towers in, 17 U.S. Iraq policy and, 207, 303 Scheirer, Michael, 80 
Schmner, Charles, 239 
Schwarzkopf, General Norman, 186n Scowcroft,Brent,234,307-309 Secretary of Defense, 108-109, 148, 151 Secretary of Defense for Intelligence, 60 

                                                                                      freedom, 69-71, 166, 235 Seel, Ted, 397-398 
Senior Level Review Group (DOD), 509-510 September 11, 2001 (9/l1): 
as act of war, 8-9, 17, 18, 59, 66, 67, 504-505 Bush Administration response to, 2-3, 6-8, 507 death count from, 4, 55, 214 
first anniversary of, 298 hijacker nationalities, 93 implications of, 20, 50, 59, 69, 95, 183, 214 
as prelude to further attacks, 10, 506 Saddam Hussein/Iraq and, 14, 48-49, 262', 346, 504 
worldwide response to, 89 Sessions, William, 216n Shaalan, Hazem,494 al-Shahristani, Hussein, 486-487, 494 Sharansky, Anatoly, 27 
Sharansky, Natan, 452 
Sharp, Lieutenant General Walter (Skip), 460, 512 Shaways, Rowsch, 494 
Shelton, Christina, 264-269, 271, 323 Shelton, General Hugh: 
as Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff, 53 in coalition building process, 90 
9/11 response and, 13,14-15,17,49 in war planning, 55, 77, 81 
Arbaeen pilgrimage of, 400, 400n Baathlsts and, 430, 431 
Fallujah Brigade and, 485 in Iran, 506 
in Iraq, 184, 186, 186n, 190, 202, 223, 331, 346 in Iraq military, 367-368, 431, 432 
Iraq war and, 395, 396-397 
 political power of, 200-201, 240, 372, 466.

                                                                 Public Diplomacy office, 171, 177 structure, under Powell, 61 terrorism sponsors cited by, 8 
in war on terror, 510, 511, 513 
weapons inspections and, 300, 303, 368 State of Denial (Woodward), 318 Sterling, Claire, 7 
Stevenson, Adlai, 24, 352 
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT), 27, 29, 30,37 
strategic communications: 
on Iraq war plans, 317, 319-322, 521-522 on 9/11 response, 4-6, I I 
on war on terror ideology, 139-140, 169 Strategic Guidance for the Campaign Against Terrorism, 84-87, 283 
Strategy and Plans Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (J 5), 5, 84, 276, 292 
Straub, Chris, 397, 398, 399, 417 Straw, Jack, 353 
Stuetzle, Walter, 306 Sudan, 8, 8n, l6, 146, 258n Suellentrop, Chris, 41n suicide bombings, 169, 187, 203, 207, 511 Sultan (Prince, Saudi Arabia), 93 Sunnis: 
Baathists as, 200, 202, 430 Hezbollah and, 506 Husseins as, 183 
IIA and, 412, 437 in INA, 240 
Iraqi externals and, 372 
in Iraq military, 367-368, 431 
vs. Shiites, 50, 190, 201, 450, 450n, 479-484, 498 
terrorist networks of, 7, 9 Sunni Triangle, 395-396 Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI): 
at Baghdad political conference, 4211422 Iran and, 201, 240 
Iraqi Leadership Council and, 411n Iraq interim government and, 494 in Iraqi opposition, 241, 243, 379n killing of leader of, 449, 480 
in Iraq insurgency, 490 Lebanon and, 82, 508 policy change in, 508, 515 as Soviet ally, 25n 
as terrorism supporter, 8, Sn, 52, 146, 230, 258n WMD and, 20, 330n 
Taiwan, 127 
Tajikistan, 89n, 126, 127 
Talabani, Jalal, 240, 241, 261, 281, 409, 411 n, 444, 454, 495, 497n 
as Afghan ruling power, 76 detainees from, 159-165 ethnicity of, 65, 78 
fall of, 133-135, 396, 458 humanitarian aid and, 107 Pakistan and, 127-128, 135 post-9/11, 13-14, 15, 16 
al Qaida support from, 44, 68, 76, 324 U.S. bombing and, 96 
in U.S. war strategy, 48, 51, 56, 77-82, 84, 100-105,122,123 
Tanzania, 16, 17, 18 Tenet, George: Afghanistan war and, 102, 105 Chalabi and, 254 
IIA and, 407-408, 412-413 
Iraq-al Qaida relationship and, 322-324 Iraqi military and, 383, 385, 398, 400, 433 Iraqi WMD and, 314 
Tenet, George (Continued): Iraq Survey Group and, 471 Karzai government and, 143, 146 9/11 response and, 14, 16, 17, 47 as NSC adviser, 53 
at Powell's UN presentation, 353 Shelton's CIA critique and, 266, 267 as war dissenter, 245 
 working relationships of, 77-78 terrorism.

They believe that the only way of economic, political, and social salvation for the Muslim 
or Islamic nation at large, is to return to the purest form of obedience to the teachings 
 of Muhammad as expressed through the Qur'an and the hadiths.

In less than a year since coming to power, Taraki had already executed three thousand political prisoners, had another seventy thousand rotting in Afghan jails, and had allowed internecine warfare to leave nearly a hundred thousand civilians dead.'

According to the study: 
 • 49 percent of political Radicals are between the ages of eighteen and twenty-nine.

Rather, he spent much of his first fifteen years as Supreme Leader building the domestic political base that he sorely lacked when he came to power, and he built critical new international alliances-notably with nuclear powers Russia, China, and North Korea-that he believed would eventually help Iran accomplish its national objectives.

'Today is the beginning of a new political era,' Ahmadinejad declared upon learning of his astounding victory.

 In this context, it is important to note that while Ahmadinejad may increasingly be in political trouble, he is not the only leader in Iran who could soon pass from the political scene.

This has fueled ever more political instability, and the situation could get much, much worse.

But they are primarily secular in their approach to political and social change.

                                                                                                                                                  Among these principles: 
'Equal and exact justice to all men, of whatever state or persuasion, religious or political' 
'Peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangl
ing alliances with none' 
'A jealous care of the right of election by the people' 'Absolute acquiescence in the decisions of the majority' 'The supremacy of the civil over the military authority' 
'The diffusion of information and arraignment of all abuses at the bar of the public reason' 
'Freedom of religion' 'Freedom of the press' 
'Freedom of person under the protection of the habeas corpus, and trial by juries impartially selected'' 
'These principles,' Jefferson noted, 'form the bright constellation which has gone before us and guided our steps through an age of revolu
 tion and reformation.

They should be the creed of our political faith, the text of civic instruction, the,touchstone by which to try the services of those we trust; and should we wander from them in moments of error or of alarm, let us hasten to retrace our steps and to regain the road which alone leads to peace, liberty, and safety.'

And now the grandson of the ayatollah was publicly describing a trip he had taken halfway around the world to meet the son of the shah, 
THE Off ECTOR 11 248 
 praising the common cause that had brought the two men together despite their histories and political differences.

Today, there are at least eighty thousand Iranian blogs on the World Wide Web, electronic personal journals in which people write daily, and sometimes hourly, entries about their thoughts, feelings, political views, and the issues of the day.

But by September of 2007, after three years of highly publicized and at times spectacular al Qaeda violence against Muslims in Iraq, Afghanistan, and elsewhere, bin Laden's approval rating in Pakistan was down to 46 percent z' 
TOE OEfECTOO 11 251 
 Who was the most popular political leader in Pakistan at the time? Not bin Laden.

                                                   To the contrary, 
he was a political moderate and a constitutional monarchist who was 
 F   personally close to the king, who was then still in power.

the political leaders of our country [living] outside of Afghanistan.

confirmed that the Iraqi Government's failures have reinforced the widely held view that the Maliki government is nonfunctional and cannot produce a political settlement, because it is too beholden to religious and sectarian leaders,' Senator Clinton said in a statement her office issued on August 22, 2007.

Indeed, by the following summer, both were calling on the Iraqi parliament to dump Maliki in favor of someone more favorable to their political views and style.

 Hillary Clinton and Carl Levin have not experienced in their political s,   lives the kind of differences we have in Iraq' and 'when they give their judgment they have no knowledge of what reconciliation means.''

He broke with the KDP and formed his own political party, the Patri
 otic Union of Kurdistan, or PUK.

He provided political advice to CIA operatives trying to identify tribal leaders throughout Iraq who would be willing to help overthrow Saddam, neutralize the Iraqi military, and then govern the country in a post-Saddam world.

                                       A growing number of U.S. and for
eign political leaders were urging President Bush to withdraw American 
 forces and let the Iraqis fight on their own.

Civics 101 should have alerted you that the region wasn't ready and that we first needed viable government structures, functioning political parties that every
 one understood, and an educated electorate.''

We need to create institutions of government, with checks and balances within the political system that can protect people's civil liberties.

There were violent battles between various Kurdish political groups, including the one headed up by yourfather and another headed by the Barzani family.

After the 2003 bombings, the king ordered the Ministry of Islamic Affairs to launch a theological training program for new imams to teach them how to promote moderation within Islam, to educate them about Western history and the importance of Christianity and Judaism to Western social and political development, and to help them identify 

He legalized political parties.

We have to keep in mind that in his very first address to the nation, the new king said that the country could not move forward on only one leg, since women did not have their whole rights, political and also civil rights.

In addition to providing political stability and taking strong measures to prevent terrorists from driving away tourists and investment, he has also privatized state-owned businesses, reduced taxes, and encouraged diversification from an agriculture-based economy to more manufactur
 ing and technology-related industries.

                              THE SIB, UNTOLD STORY-PART TWO 11 401 
Ministry leaders in Afghanistan say the spiritual liberation of the 
 country began as soon as the political liberation did.

           At the same time, many 
 Muslim leaders in the region are also interested in biblical eschatology, if for no other reason than that they want to compare it with what the mullahs and political leaders in Iran are teaching and what millions of Muslims are discussing in the streets and in their homes.

After Obama won, Dick Morris, the political commenta
tor who used to work for 
Clinton, told me, 'In 2004 the 
 mainstream media did a bad job of being impartial.

But the fact is, despite his time spent on Capitol Hill, Chris Matthews has a way of coming off as the shal
 lowest political analyst on all of television-a medium where shallow usually is good enough to get by.

   But sometimes you just can't avoid political conversa
tions-which brings us to Tuesday, October 21, two weeks 

 before Election Day.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       'This is as 

openly radical a background as any significant American political figure has ever emerged from,' the magazine reported, 'as much Malcolm X as Martin Luther King Jr. Wright is not an incidental figure in Obama's life, or his pol

'An official at Local 50 of the plumber's union, based in Toledo, said Mr. Wurzelbacher does not hold a license,' Lang Rohter and Liz Robbins wrote for one of the 

political blogs on the 

                     96   A SLOBBERING LOVE AFFAIR 

Jason Linkins, a political reporter for the 
Hufngton Post, 
alleged that Hannity had 'spoon fed' the Ayers ques
 tion to Stephanopoulos.

Name two or three conservative ideas you find use
 ful and would be central to your 'post-partisan' political philosophy.


 I ran into Pat at a political conference in Florida nine days after the 2008 election.

This oligarchical power struc
 ture gave the bond market a firm political foundation.

It was a financial divergence that would prove to have profound political consequences.

      Following the 
 success of Rothschild bond issues for Austria, Prussia and Russia, Nathan was caricatured as the insurance broker to the `Hollow Alliance', helping to protect Europe against liberal political fires.'

But it was the social and political consequences of the German hyperinflation that were the most grievous.

                     million in political contri
butions went to the Republican Party, including 
 from Lay and his wife in the zooo election.

Estates were passed down from father to son, along with honorific titles and political privileges.

But while encouraging home ownership may help build a political 
 constituency for capitalism, it also distorts the capital market by forcing people to bet the house on, well, the house.

And British foreign investment was disproportionately focused on assets that increased London's political leverage: not only government bonds but also the securi
 ties issued to finance the construction of railways, port facilities and mines.

Each of these political upheavals hit foreign investors where it hurts them the most: in their wallets.

                                                                                                                                                     Then, on Monday 
that was followed by a giant asteroid - not from outer space, but from one of earth's flakiest emerging markets as, weakened by political upheaval, declining oil rev
 enues and a botched privatization, the ailing Russian financial system collapsed.

But there is also a serious political tension now detectable at the very heart of Chimerica.

And, from the twentieth, households were encouraged, for political reasons, to increase leverage and skew their portfolios in favour of real estate.

                                                                                                                                                                       see also anti
Semitism; ethnic minorities Rachman, Peter 252 railways zz6, 292 Rand Corporation 323 random drift 350, 351 randomness 342 `random walk' 320 Ranieri, Lewis 259 rating agencies 268 
raw materials see resources RCA 16o 
Reagan, Ronald z5z, 254 and capital account liberalization 312 
Regulation Q 149, z54 regulation/regulators 54, 249, 2-54,259,356
and change 356-7 deregulation 170, 171 Reichsmark, collapse of 
religious minorities z Renaissance 3 
Renaissance (company) 330 Renda, Mario 255 renminbi 333, 338 
rented accommodation: 
private 230, 141, 152, 177 public 
council housing; landlords; public housing 
73-4, 76, 99-loo, 1o6, 1x5, 141 
Germany reporting, pressures of 354 representative governments z6 repression (political) 214 Republican Party 170 
 reserve ratio 48-9 residential mortgage-backed collateralized debt obligations (RMBS CDOs) 172 residential mortgage-backed securities (RMBS) z6on.,

                                                                           in the Event of My Untimely Demise 
Shoulder Shruggers are the least worrisome of the enemy class-the political equivalent of a congressional page
 they come and go, but you barely notice, and their effect on your life is nil.

                                                                                                            I mean a clash between at least two peo
ple (or regions, political parties, candidates, or economic interests) over facts and ideas in the search for answers-in this case, answers to ques
 tions about the future and fate of America.

                                                                  A gen
eration ago, as the Cold War began, a venerable Republican senator de- 
 Glared that, at such times, political debates should stop 'at the water's edge.'

                                                                                                                                   The lesson of look
ing at the Thirteen Arguments and their history is sobering, to be sure: They have a sense of inescapability that can be unnerving, like a political 
version of Bill Murray's living nightmare in 
 Groundhog Day.

Springfield, capital of Illinois, was where he wanted to be-needed to be-on that frigid February 
11, 2007- 
 It was there, he knew, that he had begun his political career as a state legislator only a decade earlier.

In a personal sense, Obama's trip to Springfield was a political home

He settled down to build the foundation of a political career as a community orga
 nizer, civil rights lawyer, and law professor.

Academics furiously debate the political intent of this deal.

In pioneer days they were a liberating political force, opposed to hierarchical authority, especially an 'established' church, of any kind.

Luckily for Frist (at least it seemed lucky at the time) the Baptists' leading political figure in the early 199os was Dr. Richard Land, who had close ties to Karl 

He could educate Frist in the political ways of the Word.

Dr. Land had a simpler political reaction, but equally to the point.

He had said from the beginning of his political adventure that he would serve only two terms in the Senate, and as his second term drew 
 to a close in the fall of 2oo6, the only remaining question was whether he would run for the GOP presidential nomination.

 The rallies were a powerful mix of rock concert, revival meeting, and political rally..At

President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized FBI director J. Edgar Hoover to wiretap at will anyone he deemed to be a pro-Nazi sympathizer-not to mention other, 
 more routine political enemies.

                                                                                                                                      They also re
sponded to the message of economist Friedman, who taught that the mo
tive power of markets, and the 'freedom to choose' that they provided, was the sole guarantor of political liberty and the best hope of social jus

                 Constitution to deal 
 with political conflict that the other branches of government could not handle.

Marshall saw an urgent need to broker a peace between nascent political parties at a time when warfare was threatening to rip the young republic apart.

'It wasn't ideological but it 
 political,' said Ross.

son, a medical doctor and evangelical Christian, had turned a family
 counseling practice into a media empire of religious outreach and political influence.

like a political campaign-but it was.

No one in the inner circle of political, diplomatic, military, or legal advisers acted as a brake on Bush's (and Dick Cheney's) commander/caudillo instincts.

                                                                                                                                                                      184   THE THIRTEEN AMERICAN ARGUMENTS 
From the seventeenth century onward, America's role in the world of commerce was defined by the tug-of-war between restrictive rules and raucous freedom-the former more the result of political than profit
 making calculations.

The audience was an appropriate one, one that Trippi knew 
 well from his Dean days: an annual convention of 'progressive' political bloggers.

We have en
 dured bouts of political xenophobia and fear, from the anti-French riots of the Federalist days to the Palmer Raids to the paralyzing, accusatory reign of Senator Joe McCarthy's Red Scare.

Existing political parties have broken down, ceasing to dig down into the bedrock of the Thirteen American Arguments.

Legitimacy and Force: Political and Moral 

                                                                                                                                                                                           See also presidential power 
Exxon, 119,224 
fair trade, 185 
fairness, 93-94, 99, 
as American Argument, 7, 56-74 
and foreign relations, 198, 201-4, 207-8, 210-11 
in future, 
and importance of argument, zg loss of, 242-43 
optimism as national, 242 See also churches; religion Falwell, Jerry, 62, 70-71, 72, 73 Farrakhan, Louis, 61 
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation), 69, 85, 87, 153, 158 
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), 142 
Federal Reserve System, 
34 34,
and characteristics of political parties, 14 and 'checks and balances,' 146 
and Civil War, 144,148 
and Constitution, 144, 147, 157 and Founders, 144, 146-48, 155 and Hurricane Katrina, 141-43 and importance of argument, 6, 7 local authority versus, 141-58 and presidential power, 165, 166 and states' rights, 144, 
55 See also Federalists 
80, 112-13, 146, 232 Federalists, 80, 82, 83, 84, 85, 116, 146, 147, 
Feingold, Russ, 230 

                                                                               See also Democrats; Republicans 
political refugees, 48 
political system, debate about, 243 politics 
'cultural,' 68-69 
and economic issues, 128 and free speech, 79 'frontier,' 6 
and legal system, 
112, 115-16, 117-18 
and religion, 65-74 
Poor People's March, 35, 36 'popular sovereignty,' 29 populism, 6, 235-36 pornography, 68, 69 Posner, Richard, 
Powder River Basin (Wyoming), 213 Powell, Colin, 197 

                                                                                    See clergy; speck person presidential power 
as American Argument, 7, 159-77 and commander in chief role, 34, 88, 89, 163, 165, 166, 16g-7o, 174, 175, 176,177 
and commerce, 166 
and Congress, 159-60, 162, 163, 166, 167, 168, 169, 17o, 173-74, 
and Constitution, 162, 163, 165, 166, 168, 176,177 
and federalism, 165 
and foreign relations, 165, 166-67, 16q, 170,175 
and Founders, 163, 165-66, 167, 170 and habeas corpus, 167-68, 176 historians' views about, 167, 168 and Hurricane Katrina, 143 
and impeachment, 170, 174 
limits on, 170 
and local vs. federal authority, 143, 
54 and national security, 170, 171 
and Supreme Court decisions, 162, 167, t68,170,176 
and Supreme Court nominations, coq, 
and territorial expansion, 166, 168-69 and trust, 162, 171 
and 'unitary executive,' 176-77 and veto, 165 
and war, 163-64, 166, 167-68, 16q, 170, ,74,,75,176,,77 See also executive powers; 
books about, 171 characteristics of great, 244-45 historians views about, 167, 168, 171 and judicial system, 113 
and media, 171-73 
as national obsession, 171 secrecy of, 18 
selection of, 16   - 
See also presidential power; speck 
press, freedom of the, 75-77, 85, 86 primaries, election, 16 
and who is a person, 30 See also individual privacy pro-life movement, 15, 31, 32, 33 Progressive Movement, 
149 protectionism, r81, 182, 185 Protestants, 46, 62, 65, 66, 2o2 Puritans, 12, 45, 65, 145 
Putin, Vladimir, 243 Putnam, Robert, 99 
Quakers, 45 
Rabin, Yitzhak, 195 race 
and creation of a 'more perfect union,' 238,239 
and immigration, 38-41, 43, 44, 45, 4
, 47, 50, 52 
and importance of Thirteen American Arguments, 4 
and local vs. federal authority, 147, 149 and optimism about future, 245 
and political reform, 239 
Supreme Court decisions about, 116 and Trippi, 238,239 
and who is a person, 21-23, 27, 28 See also speck race 
radio, 14, 235-36 railroads, 99, 234-35 Rand, Ayn, 
102, 103, 126, 219 Rawls, John, 93-94, 107 
Reagan, Nancy, 59 Reagan, Ronald 
and abortion, 3
33, 7
 antilabor policies of, 35 appeal of, r88 
and creation of 'more perfect union,' 236 
Duberstein as chief of staff for, 117 and economic issues, 134 
and elections of 1976, 71 
and elections of 1980, 71-72, 161-62 and elections of 1984, 24 
and environment, 219 
and faith-based politics, 67, 71-72 as governor, 71 
as great president, 245 and immigration, 49 and individualism, 102, 107 and O'Neill, 172, 173 
Schultz as secretary of state for, 196 Southern strategy of, 15o 
and Soviet Union, 32, 72, 134, 2o6 Supreme Court nominations of, 117 and taxes, 245 
and who is a person, 32-33 recession, 126, 134, 243 Reciprocal Tariff Act (1934), 181 Reed, Bruce, 1o6 
and creation of 'more perfect union,' 227-41 
as Edwards' theme, 240-41 Regan, Donald, 135 Rehnquist, William, tog religion 
and abortion, 67, 68, 70, 72 authority in, 8 
and colonial America, 62-63 
and Constitution, 61, 62, 63-64, 74 and evolution, 56, 58, 6o, 62, 68, 73-74 
and founding of America, 62-64,74 and immigration, 45 
and local vs. federal authority, 146 and politics, 65-74 
and reason, 62 
and school prayer, 67-68, 69, 70, 71, 72 and science, 56-6t, 66, 70, 72, 73 
and social welfare, 65, 73 state-supported, 63-65, 73 Supreme Court decisions about, 58, 6o, 67,68 
and who is a person, 27 
See also churches; evangelicalism; speck denomination 
 Religious Right, 67, 68, 245 reproductive rights, 30-32.

                                                                                Democratic control of, 61, 109, 117 and election of senators, 235 
and elections of 2000, log 
and foreign relations, 200, 203 and health care, 96 
and judicial appointments, 
11o, I I 
t and presidential power, 165 Republican control of, 59, 109, 134 See also speck senator or committee 'separate but equal,' I16 September I1,2001 
and Bush,21o 
and economic issues, 139 
and foreign relations, 208, 210 and free speech, 87, 90 
and freedom of the press, 76 and Frist as doctor, 57 
and immigration, 44,45 
and importance of argument, to and local vs. federal authority, 143, 144,
and presidential power, 167 
and U.S. role in global leadership, 242 Sharon, Ariel, 195-96 
Shays' (Daniel) Rebellion, 165 Shipley, George, 120 
Shirley, Craig, 174 Shorto, Russell, 145 Shower Incident, 143 Shultz,George, 194, 196 Sidarth, S. R., 39
, 4
Biblical justification for, 66 British policy about, 28 'Chattel,' 27, 28,66 
and immigration, 39 
and importance of argument, 
15 and Lincoln, 22,33 
and local vs. federal authority, 147, 148, 156 
Supreme Court decisions about, 116, 121 and who is a person, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30,31 
Sloan, Rick, 182 Smith, Adam, 181 Smith, Al, 66 
Smith, Albert Lee, 72 Smith, William French, 1o9 Smoot-Hawley bill (1930), 192 Social Security, 15, 
102, 136, 154, 
social welfare, r3, 65, 73, 103, 1o6, 126, 188 socialism, 85, 103 
Soil Conservation Service, 213 South 
black churches in, 65 
and characteristics of political parties, 14 and Democrats, 69-70 
elections of 1976 in, 69-70 elections of 198o in, 72 elections of 1988 in, 150-52 and local vs. federal authority, 147-49, 150-52 
religion in, 65-66, 69-70 
and Republicans, 69-7o, 150, 151 and trade, 185 
and who is a person, 28, 29 See also speck state 
South Africa, apartheid in, 238 South Carolina, 135-36,148,235 South Dakota, Daschle-Fineman trip in, 53
Southern Baptists, 56, 57-59, 67, 74- See also Baptists 
 Soviet Union, 18, 19, 32, 72, 134, 194, 203 2o6, 207, 243.

                                                                                             70,73 Wal-Mart, 181, 182,226 
Wall Street Journal, 75,76 Wallace, George, 103, 188 War of 1812, 204 
as American Argument, 7, 194-211 
and characteristics of political parties, 14 and debt, 243 
and foreign relations, 201, 204, 2o6 
free speech during, 82-86, 89-91 freedom of the press during, 85, 86 and impediments to argument, 16 'preemptive, 15, 175 
and presidential power, 163-64, 166, 167-68, 169, 170, 174, 
77 and secrecy, 18 
and sense of perspective, r8 See also specific war 
War Department, U.S., 42 War Powers Act, 159 
War Powers Resolution (1973), 170 war on terror, 40, 164, 174, 175 War of the Trial Lawyers, 118-20 Warsaw Pact, 2o6 
Washington, D.C. Coxey's army in, 133 
and Jeffersonian-Federalist compromise, 131 Washington, George 
 and American Revolution, 81 and British-U.S.

      We have a history of rising to the occasion, but the theory of this book is that history eventually stops repeating itself, and what better time for that to happen than after a massive, 
nationally televised attack that most of an entire country appar
ently missed the point of? When a people can no longer agree even on the basic objective facts of their political existence, the equation changes; real decisions, even in the approximate direc
 tion of righteousness, eventually become impossible.

There was no commonly accepted set of facts, except in the imagination of a hopelessly daft political and media elite that had long ago lost touch with the general public.

they're in charge, masters of their domain, but back then, the four Democratic members of the Rules Com
mittee were some of the very saddest politicians in Wash
 ington, victims of some of the most severe ritualistic political abuse Congress has seen in quite some time.

Instead, for the biggest issue of the election season, for a national vote that for most people is their only political decision in years, the Democrats avoided taking any stance at all, essentially saying, 'We'll wait to see the conclusions of a random independent group of academics, and then we'll make our own decision.'

                                              In order to advance his agenda, Hagee hired a long-standing D.C. political opera
tive named David Brog to lobby his cause on the Hill; Brog is a former chief of staff for Pennsylvania senator Arlen Specter, 
former Republican chairman of the Senate Judiciary Commit

 This was a sort of Church of America, where the religious and political orthodoxies were inextricable.

So instead of having a political awaken
 ing, they just went further down the rabbit hole of geeked-up patriotic paranoia, into a place where the other side isn't merely wrong, but made up actually of conspirator-killers or terrorists or agents of Satan, not even really human beings.

But not many people are buying this bullshit anymore, and 
 that may mark the beginning of something genuinely new in the American political system.

                                                                                                    The Derangement that I de
scribe in this book kicked off when Americans finally figured out that they'd been betrayed by their mainstream political sys
 tem, but still failed to abandon that old paradigm completely.

In return for unchallenged control of the education of Catholic children in Germany, the dropping of Nazi propaganda against the abuses in
 flicted in Catholic schools and orphanages, and the concession of other privileges to the church, the Holy See instructed the Catholic Center Party to disband, and brusquely ordered Catholics to abstain from any political activity on any subject that the regime chose to define as off-limits.

The twenty-three million Catholics living in the Third Reich, many of whom had shown great individual cour
 age in resisting the rise of Nazism, had been gutted and gelded as a political force.

                                                             Pay to Play 

How Rod Blagojevich Turned Political Corruption into a National Sideshow 

Elizabeth Brackett 

IVAN R. DEE Chicago 
 PAY TO PLAY Copyright C 2oo9 by Elizabeth Brackett.

dc22 [B] 
For Peter with love and appreciation for your patience and support 
The Call
A Tradition of Corruption
A Typical American Kid
Political Stepping-Stones
Get Me a Candidate

Barack Obama was able to navigate his way through the long history of political corruption in Illinois while Rod Blagojevich was caught up in corrupt schemes seem
 ingly far worse than his predecessors had ever attempted.

 Blagojevich was building his political power at the same time another young Illinois Democrat was rising through the ranks and making his name known on the national scene.

political organization was based.

Both boys remember spirited din
 ner-table discussions highlighted by their parents' clashing political views.

The sons mirrored their parents' conflict
 ing preferences: Robert became a rock-ribbed Republican while Rod began his political career as a Democrat.

He loved the combative nature of the poem, the description of what it took to be a man, and today he often refers to it when asked to describe his political philosophy.



Political Stepping-Stones 

tar 198 o, 
the summer after he graduated from North
 western, Rod Blagojevich and his friend Mike Ascaridis decided to treat themselves to New York City.

At that raucus City Council meeting Mell helped orchestrate a political move that returned the anti-Washington forces to power.

Pay-to-Play on Steroids 

 swept into office promising to clean out the stain of political corruption that had dogged the State of Illinois for decades.

He was sought out as an astute political strategist and was even tapped by Har
 vard University m2002 to teach a course on the financial aspects of presidential campaigns.

           Pay to Play 
New Man in Springfield 
 While the new Blagojevich administration had made promises to reform the state's hiring and firing practices, to many in Springfield its actions looked a lot like old-line political patronage politics-but at a higher price.

                                                               Those around Mell say he wasn't interested in ben
efiting personally from Blagojevich's position as governor, as Rezko and Levine were, but he had hoped for some 
Pay to Play 
Flesh and Blood 
 state jobs for the political workers in his ward.

Pay to Play 
the main attraction; he rarely attended governor's confer
 ences or other large political events.

Political corruption was scarcely a new phenomenon in Illinois, but 'selling a Senate seat' or 'shaking down a children's hospital'-that was simply beyond the bounds of what most citizens or even shady politicians could tol


Fallout: A New Senator 
 leveled against Governor Rod Blagojevich in Patrick Fitzgerald's criminal complaint stunned the political world, not just in Illinois but across the nation.

                   To make sure those U.S. senators who 
had vowed not to seat anyone appointed by Blagojevich un
 derstood just how high the race-based political stakes were, Rush issued this warning: 'I don't think that any U.S. senator that's sitting in the Senate right now wants to go on record to deny one African American from being seated in the U.S. Senate.'

criminal, 26; political patronage, as illegal, 19 Shakman, Michael, 19 Sillitoe, Alan, 215 Simpson, John H., 137 Singer, Bill, 18 Slattery, Patrick, 2,6 
Small, Lennington, 15 Smith, Theophilus, 191 Sneed, Michael, 175 Sorich, Robert, 2,6-27 Sorosky, Sheldon, 5, 51, 193, 2,2,2,-zz3 
Spielman, Fran, 132 
Squier, Knapp and Dunn, 164 State Board of Elections, 156 State campaign finance laws, 156 State ethics law, 186 
Stone, Bernard, 2,6 

HealthPoint Capital, m6, 1o8, No 
Hendon, Rickey, 228-230 Hines, Dan, 123 
Hoffman, Jay, 66-68, 81, 84, 93-94, 2
Horse-racing industry: and casino gambling, 185; and corruption, 22 
Hurtgen, Nicholas, 99-too, 161 Hyde Park, 17 
'If' (Kipling), 40 
Illinois: corruption in, roots of, 16; Democrats in, internal squabble among, 117; and flu vaccine, 141-142; health
care coverage in, 139-40, 145-146; hone racing in, 22; low-cost prescription drugs, availability of in, 142-144; and patronage system, 15-16; pay-to-play politics in, 113
I14; weak campaign finance laws in, 156 
Illinois Campaign for Political Reform, 87 
Illinois Covered, 146-147, 149-151 
Illinois Department of Health and Human Services, 151-152 
Illinois Finance Authority (IFA), 94
182,207,213 Illinois Health Facilities Planning Board, 97-103, 113, 154-155, 213 
Illinois State Board of Investments (ISBI), 11o Impeachment trials: as rare, 
Independent Precinct Organization, 14 
Iraq War, 41 
I-Save-Rx program, 144, 210 
Jackson, Jesse, 82 
Jackson, Rev. Jesse: and Serbian trip, 74
Jackson, Jesse, Jr., 75, 82, 168, 172, 2o1; and Obama Senate seat, 177-179; and Peotone airport, 177-178 
Jagger, Mick, 40 
Jarrett, Valerie, 24, 209-210, 221; and Obama Senate seat, 171-177 
J. E. Roberts, 110-112 
Jesse White Tumbling Team, 122 
Johnston, Johnny, 185-186 Joint Committee on Administrative Rules UCAR), 151-153, 210 Jones, Emil, Jr., 147, 155, 201, 219, 229; as old school, 146 Jones, Emil III, 219 
Kansas, 141, 143 Kaszak, Nancy, 69, 71 Keane, Thomas, 18, 37 Kelly, Christopher, 86-87, 92
93,96, 1o8-1 to, 112, 129-131, 133, 138; indictment of, 114; as 
Individual B, 155; Dick Mell, accusations of toward, 134 Kelly, Ed, 65 
Kelly, R., 194, 224 
Kenna, Michael 'Hinky Dink,' 13
Kennelly, Martin J., 1G Kenney, Crane, 182 Kemer, Otto, 22, 83 Kerrey, Bob, too Kerry, John, 1o6 Kiferbaum,Jacob, loo-1o2; 
indictment of, 113 Kipling, Rudyard, 40, 195 Knapp, Bill, 83, 164-165 Kosovo: ethnic cleansing in, 74 
Lang, Lou, 205, 212 Larsen, Nils, 182-183 Lassar, Scott, 28 Letterman, David, x, 226 Levine, Stuart, 96, 99, 104, 1o6, 1o8-11o, 114, 121, 129; drug addiction of, 97; and FBI, 111-112; guilty plea of, 155; indictment of, 113, 154; and kickback money, 98; and Mercy Hospital kickback scheme, 102-103 
Libby, Lewis 'Scooter,' 12 Lincoln, Abraham, 39 Lipinski, William, 105 
Madigan, Lisa, 116, 123, 134, 150, 172, 175; Rod Blagojevich, political disability of, charge of, 192 
Madigan, Mike, 125, 131, 146, 155, 181, 191, 205, 209, 213, 229; as arrogant, accusations of, 117; background of, 116; Rod Blagojevich, relationship with, as dysfunctional, 115, 117-118, 148-150; criticism of, 119; as master legislator, 119 
Magoon, Patrick, 183-184 Matteson, Joel Aldrich, 14 The Maverick and the Machine 
(Walker), 23 McCall, Carl, 11o-111 McCarthy, Timothy, 26 Marin, Carol, 198 Matthews, Chris, 202 Mecham, Evan, 219 
 Mell, Deborah, 6o, 66, 218 Mell, Margaret, 131; Rod Blagojevich, trustworthiness, concern over, 135; death of, 136; illness of, 134-135.

                                                                                                                                                                                                            See also Patronage system; Pay
to-play politics 
Plame, Valerie, 11-12 Podesta, John, 75 Polales, Dean, 1o Powell, Paul: and patronage system, 15-16 
Presley, Elvis, 40-41, 44 Provena Health, 168 
Quinn, Pat, 125, 190, 192-193, 
195, 236 
Reagan, Ronald, 38, 70 Reid, Harry, 193, 201, 203 Rezko, Antoin 'Tony,' 93-94, 95
97, 99, 104, 108-113, 121, 129, 136, 138, 155, 165; guilty verdict against, 114, 161; indictment of, 113, 154; and kickback money, 98; 
and Mercy Hospital kickback scheme, 102-103; and Barack Obama, 91-92; and Peotone airport, 178 
Robert Taylor Homes, 52 Romero, Ray, 69 Roosevelt, Franklin, 37 Roosevelt, Theodore, 42 Rosenberg, Thomas, 112-114 Rostenkowski, Dan, 19, 65-66, 68J7o; conviction of, 21; indictment of, 2o; as skillful politician, 20 
Rostenkowski, Joseph, 19 Royko, Mike, 18 
Rush, Bobby, 199
zoc Ryan, George, 8, 2,1, 31, 83, 97, 1o6, 114-115, 124, 147, 157, 159, 16o; clout of, 2,8; conviction of, 3o; death penalty, moratorium on, 28-29; Nobel Peace Prize, nominations for, 29; and political corruption, 28-30, 85-86, 9o-J1 
Ryan, Jim, 85-86, 88, 93, 96, 106-107 
Ryan, Lura Lynn, 30 
Saturday Night Live 
(television show), 225-226 Schakowsky,Jan, 105,168 Schmidt, Frankie, 131-132 Scofield, Doug, 172-174 Scott, Zaldwaynaka, izo-lzl Selig, Glenn, zz3-224 Serbia: bombing campaign against, 74; prisoners of war in, 74, 78 
Service Employees International Union, 122 
 Shakman Decrees, 2,5; challenging of, 2,4; civil v.

                                                                                                                                        See also 
Bamani Obadele 
Tito, Marshal, 37 
Topinka, Judy Baar, 123, 126, 158, 161; background of, 159; political ads against, 16o Tribune Company, 180-181 Tusk, Bradley, 108, 127, 161-163 
Vallas, Paul, 2,4, 81, 84-85 Vermont, 143 
Vietnam War, 41 
Vrdolyak, Edward R., 47, 49, 64; and coffee rebellion, 
46; and cormpton charges, 50-51; and Harold Washington, 5o 
Walker, Dan, 2,3-2,4, 83 Walters, Barbara, 225 Washington, Harold, 49, 63-64; 
and Edward Vrdolyak, 50 Watergate hearings, 45 Weinstein, Robert, 161 Wheeler, Charles, 119, 125, 226 
White, Jesse, 121-124, zoo, 202 Wight, Mark, 137 
Wigoda, Paul, 18 
Wilhelm, David, 1o7-7o8 Williams, Ann, 2,4 
Willis, Scott and Janet, 29 Wilson, Joseph, 
Wisconsin, 143 
World's Columbian Exposition, 17 
Wrigley Field, 180-181, 183 Wyma, John, 77, 108, 129, 137, 168-169,183 
Yang, Fred, 83 Yugoslavia, 37, 76 
Zell, Sam, 180-182 
Elizabeth Brackett is a correspondent for PBS's 
The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, 
 reporting on national politics, finance, the environment, science, and sports.

She has won a Peabody Award for her political reporting as well as a National Emmy.

Moscow's surrogate local regimes lack political credibility-locals view them as Russia's lackeys and hired guns-and their personnel are being killed in steadily rising numbers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Still, even accepting that our national self-esteem and our politi
cal leaders' political fortunes are most easily protected by maintaining the foreign-policy status quo, this did not seem a satisfactory excuse for what my research suggested was a deepening reluctance to make the protection of U.S. interests and citizens the federal government's top priority, and an almost blase acceptance of war for purposes unconnected to America's 
 national interests.

The Hezbollah camps were internationally known; they were condemned and threatened from every political rostrum in the United States and Western Europe; and they were left absolutely undisturbed.

 Washington's resolute, bipartisan maintenance of these alliances, with countries renowned for political intolerance, religious bigotry, and stud
ied duplicity, has done more than anything else to undercut the Muslim world's perception of America as a model for Fair-minded and tolerant self

                                                                                    Again, I claim no Kissinger- or Richard Pipes-like experience or 
expertise on either Cold War history or the USSR as a political entity, but I can at least claim to be an informed observer of both, and a bit-better
 than-average student of America's steadily worsening confrontation with the Islamic world.

As a sign of the influence the Saudi regime wields within the U.S. government our continued requests to the Saudis were ultimately not sup
 ported by senior U.S. political and diplomatic officials in the Clinton administration.

Half a millennium ago the Italian political philoso
 pher Niccola Machiavelli reminded his readers that a nation cannot use patience and goodness to subdue enemies; it must exact vengeance through punitive actions that annihilate present enemies and make their successors think twice before pursuing attacks that risk the same response' Perhaps more pertinent words for Americans, though harsher sounding, are those of the Civil War era's General Philip H. Sheridan.

Without exception, U.S. political leaders, Republican and Democratic, approached the wars with Cold War assumptions,.

This last comment, however, often leads to acrimony, as some questioners assume I am either a Clinton-basher or a Bush-detractor (I am both on their failure to defend America) and that such partisanship makes me a shill for 
 one or the other party, or an intelligence officer trying to find political scapegoats to blame for the CIA's failure to collect intelligence good enough to allow bin Laden to be eliminated.'

Currently, for example, Afghan jihad veterans lead several antigovernment political
military groups in Thailand, and in Bangladesh five or more Afghan veter
 ans will run as candidates when the next parliamentary election occurs.'

                                                                                                                                                                                           Oddly, a good deal of schol
arship suggests that the educated, under-thirty generation increasingly belongs to bin Laden and the Islamists,' And again Zakaria, this time telling Americans not to worry but be happy because U.S. foreign policy 
 and its actions in Iraq have not motivated Muslims to wage war against America; rather Muslims are just so dumb and gullible that 'militant, political Islam has brainwashed young Muslims around the world who believe it is their duty to fight against' the modem world.'

Our faith is a barely tolerated, once-a-week duty; an as-needed and often cynical fillip to political rhetoric; and noth
 ing worth fighting for.

With bin Ladin, Islam has become an individual project beyond the restrictions of the jurisprudence scholars or of political author
 ity; a project that this individual could carry with him to the port of Aden or Mombassa, or to the noise of Bangkok or New York.

Together these factors will increase the political power of Russian Muslims at a time when the country's population is rap
 idly declining-148 million in 1982 to an expected 130 million in 2015.

Alas, America's bin Laden has yet to emerge from its political-leadership desert.

In determining whether these attacks can be accurately described as complements to al-Qaeda political-warfare strat
 egy, it is worth noting that the attacks were carefully modulated in their destructiveness.

In their aftermath European populations, in particular, tended to blame their political leaders for stimulating the attacks by main
 taining pro-U.S.

Every American, of course, is and must remain free to think and speak 
 as they will, but Americans would do well to review their own history for lessons about how such consistently denigrating language can greatly worsen deep divisions over substantive political issues.

Complicating any chance of ameliorating this substantive confrontation, moreover, was a northern view of the South that, over the course of the antebellum years, took on the character of a wholesale den
 igration not only of the institution of slavery and southern political views but of the character, faith, lifestyle, and culture of southerners.

'Me want of national spirit, the rejection of political democracy, and the preference for slave labor were only a few of the many signs of social decadence:' Most of all northerners believed their southern countrymen were antimodern and determined to oppose and block societal progress.

On that day U.S. political leaders would be as bankrupt in terms of domestic support and empathy as they are today in terms of intellectual capacity and commonsense.

                                                     Foreign policy must 
be changed to focus only on genuine national-security interests; nonessen
 tial political, diplomatic, and military intervention abroad.

And finally, a beginning must be made to return the American political system to the framework of respon
sible republican government crafted 
 the Founders.

For Amer
 icans generally, the unavoidable conclusion is that their political leaders have bitten off overseas far more than the country can ever reasonably hope to chew.

 many cases it is foreigners who will decide when the United States goes to war, and to add insult to injury, today's political environment tends to label Americans who object to this reality as less than loyal.

                                                                                                                                                  This point is often very hard for Americans to see because U.S. pol
icy does help to maintain a superficially stable and orderly, if brutally authoritarian, political environment in much of the Muslim world, and because U.S. leaders never deign to tell them how much danger Washing
 ton's life-support program for Arab tyrannies has caused for U.S. security, and how much more pain for Americans is stored up for the future.

In 1936 Winston Churchill posed a question about whether the political and cultural inheritance of Britons was being protected; the same question can serve as an appropriate and hopefully haunting query for U.S. leaders who seem bent on squandering the heritage of Americans.

Afghan president Karzai and Iraqi prime 
 minister al-Maliki have both been forced by domestic political pressures to release large numbers of men captured on the battlefield.

                                                                                                        U.S.'s historical ignorance and, 118-20,128-30 
war on terror and, 2402 
WMD issue and, 121-22, 240-42 Zarqawi targeting episode and, 125-27 
see also 
Gulf War 
Islam, xvi, 2, I1, 21, 52, 234, 251, 293n Afghan practice of, 105, 108-9 
bin Laden's version of, 161-65 and declining influence of clerics, 158-60 
diversity of, 152-54 excommunication process of, 322n growth of, 208-9   , individualization of, 162-65 reformation of, 162-65 
rising militancy of, xvii-xviii Western converts to, 209 Western denigration of, 208-12 
see also 
Muslim world 
Islamic Action Front, 151 Islamic Courts Union (ICU), 177 Islamic Jihad, 123 
Islamic Oika Jote (political party), 170 Islamic Union Party, Afghanistan, 112 Islamist Rohyngya, 171

Arab-Israeli conflict and, 19-20 bin Laden and unity of, 153-55 caliphate plan of, 148-49 
Cold War deterrence and, 45--06 and diversity of Muslim world, 152-54 
existential threat of, 1-2, 56 geographic dispersal of, 190-91 and hatred of Western civilization, 151-52 
Hussein and, 122 
motivation of, 1-3, 9-10, 204-8, 215-19,226,229,243,320n-21n political warfare strategy of, 198-203,322n-23n 
training camps of, 31-37, 55, 276n, 279n 
unheeded message of, 147-48 U.S. as perceived by, 155-57 U.S. foreign policy and, 149-57 U.S. indicted by, 149-51 
war declared by, xv-xvi 
WMDs sought by, 10, 17, 60, 73-74, 183,283n-84n 
world wide jihad of, 157-58 
also al-Qaeda;, Muslim world Islamofascism, 148-49,224, 321n islands in 
Stream (Hemingway), 86 isolationism, 264, 268 
Israel, xvi, 5, 10, 13, 19-20,33,43,53, 55-56,98,119,121,122,125, 149,151,154,156,158,167,168, 192, 199, 207, 218, 241, 250, 261, 276n 
incident and, 30 
right to exist doctrine and, 27-28 ' U.S. 's relationship with, 2,22-31, 51-52,217,219-22,232-33,235, 251-52,262 
Israeli Defense Force (IDF), 123, 150, 298n 
Italy, 93,199, 201, 202 
Jackson, T. J., 1 
Jamaat-e Islami (political party), 111, 112, 113, 170 
Jandal, Abu, 76, 288n 
Japan, 59,79,84,114,143,181,202, 228 
Jay, John, 43, 189, 213 
Jefferson, Thomas, 9, 18, 99, 101, 163, 164,204 
Jenkins,Philip, 320n Jerusalem, 118 
John, King of England, 145 
Joint Chiefs of Staff, 107, 122, 126, 289n 
Jordan, 125,129-30,132,133,138, 
' 151,158,163,205,241-42,305n Islamic community of, 167 
Jubeir, Adel al-, 232 Juliedan, Wael, 133 Justice Department, U.S., 16,47 Just-War theory, 72,74-77, 93-94, 140, 194, 195 
Kabardino-Balkaria, 168 Kalb, Marvin, 221 Kaplan, Robert D., 121 Kaman, Ken, 280n Karzai,Humid, 100,114,166,202, 203, 237, 269, 296n, 301n Kashmir, 32 
Kean,Thomas H.,12,13-15,37,61, 78,79 
Keegan,John, 101,110,295n Kerman, George, 269 Kenya, 76; 177 

                                                                                                                                                  Liberty; USS; 
Libya, 135,231,300n-301n Lieberman, Joe, 230, 233 Lilla, Mark, 179-80 
Lincoln, Abraham, 20, 55, 57, 117, 128, 147, 187, 189-90, 211, 214, 215, 218, 297n, 316n 
Lippmann, Walter, 264 
'Lobby, The' (Walt and Mearsheimer), 220 
London subway bombing, 201, 229, 235 
Longstreet, James, xiii 
Luft, Gal, 260 Luther, Martin, 163 
MacArthur, Douglas, 143 McCaffrey, Bany, 42 McCain, John, xiv, 65, 152, 184, 195, 214 
McClellan, George, 189-90,297n McConnell, John Michael, 237 McDougall, Walter A., 4,223 Machiavelli, Niccola, 7, 23-24, 49,64, 75,131,143,187,236,275n-76n, 289 
Madison, James, 146, 249, 250, 253 Madrid train bombing, 200, 201, 235 Magna Carta, 145

Maier, Charles S., 59, 70 
Makhtab al-Khidimat (Islamist NGO), Ill 
Malaysia, 175,214 
Maliki, Nouri al-, 202,301n Manila Pact (1954), 176 Maqdisis, Abu Muhammad al-, 133, 204 
Marines, U.S., 173, 238 Marshall Plan, 143-44 Marx, Karl; 120,204 Marxism-Leninism, 62, 94 Maryland, University of, 155 Masood, Ahmed Shah, 64, 112, 114, 130 
Mauritania, 134,135 Mayflower Compact, 280n-81n Mearsheimer, John, 154,220-21 media, 36, 66, 225, 230, 231, 232, 252, 264 
Afghan intervention and, 37-38 cartoons controversy and, 233-34 hearts-and-minds campaign and, 203-4 
Muslim, 151,154-55 
political decision-making and, 5-6 Meigs, Montgomery C., 189-90,316n 
Mein Kampf (Hitler), 321n Mexico, 63, 256-57 Meyers, Richard, 291n Milosevic, Slobodan, 81 Mindanao, 32, 33, 278n Minutemen, 63 
Mitchell, Joshua, 78 
Mohammed VI, King of Morocco, 135 Moore, Michael, 220 
Morocco, 63, 135-36,214 
Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), 173-74 Mubamk, Hosm, 71, 129, 133, 204, 230,231,261 
 Muhammad, Fazul Abdallab, 313n Muhammad, Khalid Shaykh, 317n Muhammad, Prophet, 41, 118, 152, 156,.158,161,165,211,225,

                                                    Geopolitical events 
Wars and terrorist threats, speeches by political leaders, natural disas
ters, national elections, international banking, economic crises, nation
alization of corporate assets, the death of a prime minister-all these 
 The Perversity of 'Mr.

Country indexes rise over long periods of history for one significant reason: the underlying economy is predicated on a free-enterprise system supported by a stable political sys
 tem, the rule of law, relative peace, low taxes, a stable currency, and limited government.

                   loss of nnrchasinv 
The Key to a Rising Stock Market: 
Free Enterprise and Stable Government 
 These threats are ameliorated when an economy enjoys political and economic stability.

                                                                                                                                          The widespread economic turmoil 
A Brief History of Bailouts   11 and political discontent forced the government to engage in a series of economic stimuli designed to generate jobs, income, and economic 

While some political historians have described this as a bailout, it was not directed toward any specific corporation or economic sector.

'The potential for political mischief really scared people,' one observer told Time magazine in a statement that sounded serious at the time but now seems quaint.

Industrial-Era Bailouts (1971-1995)   41 Let's use the Chrysler bailout as a hypothetical model of what might have happened in the event the government did not succumb to political pressure to bail out Chrysler.

 Oh, and this entire series of events took place at a time when the dominant political philosophy was that it was impossible for this to go wrong-the self-regulating markets, you understand, would see to that.

                        196 Pickard, Lee A., 144 Piggyback loam, 126 PIMCO, 187 
Pitt, Harvey, 240-241 Plain vanilla loans, 259 Plunge Protection Team (PPT), 57 
 Political philosophy, impact of, 61, 208.

Actually, many other people in New York, in its journalism and media community, in its political circles, are relieved too-the anemic Post is about to be rejuvenated.

Such as: He was once having sex with an (insert Norwegian heiress, 'Post cub reporter,' 'redheaded temptress,' 'political source' here) in a back alley on a cold winter's night when a snowplow ran over his foot and Dunleavy didn't notice.

These pages hew more closely to Murdoch's views than, perhaps, even those of any of his own publications (including the conservative political magazine the 
Weekly Standard, 
 which was launched with Murdoch funding in 1995, but is often more wonky than declarative).

Rolling Stone 
founder and editor Jann Wenner meets Murdoch in 1974 and compliments him on the newly launched 
National Star, 
telling him he's especially impressed by the 
 political column and is curious about its writer.

Koch is not just his political coup but a busi- 
270   1   
 ness and personal one as well.

It's useful to look at the brain trust that's supplying him with much of his political intelligence during the vital Reagan
 Thatcher years: Woodrow Wyatt and Irwin Stelzer, both Murdoch foot soldiers competing for his attention.

And then too, in a kind of double political rever
 sal, there's the situation in Britain.

As a consequence, Bush's policy initiatives are frequently underdeveloped, leading to both sub
 stantive and political mistakes that could have been avoided, hurting his policies and political fortunes at the same time.

He lacked both Hub
 bard's government experience and political skills, which had partially compensated for the CEA's institutional weakness.

They also noted that the head of FEMA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, was a political hack with no relevant expertise.

This was quite an extraordinary political achievement, but one that accom
 plished relatively little economically.

             He told 
Daniel Altman of the 
 'This just seems like a creature of political expediency or compromise.

It's not plausible to me that there's really an economic logic to the political policy that's being proposed.'

I recall being invited to a White House briefing where a political appointee from the Office of Management and Budget tried to sell this snow job to some conservative economists and being astonished at both 
 the idiocy of the effort and its brazenness.

In short, 'He was quite prepared to sacrifice liberal trade principles whenever it suited his domestic political purposes.'

I would estimate that a deficit reduction package on the order of 2 percent of GDP-about $250 billion per year-will be necessary to get the attention of markets and show political resolve.

But it will be Bush's fault even if someone else ends up paying the political price.

                                               CHAPTER I I 


the Republican Party from what I see as a coming political 
 debacle resulting from George W Bush's policies.

So the thinking was that if Social Security could be fixed successfully, then it might create some political capital that could be used to reform Medicare.

 Quarterly (spring): 81-102.

'Virginia Political Shocker: Republicans for High Taxes.'

Frenze, Christopher, 164 Friedman, Milton, 105, 146, 155, 160-61,165-66,167 Friedman, Stephen, 30, 31 Frum, David, 26-27 
Fund, John, 14,205 Furchtgott-Roth, Diana, 187 
Galbraith, John Kenneth, 46, 154, 181 
Galloway, Lowell, 164 Gasoline tax, 162 Gattuso, James, 109, 119 General Accounting Office (GAO), 101 
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 83 
General Electric, 94, 115, 162 General Motors, 78 
George, Henry, 190 George, Robert, 13 Gephardt, Richard, 178, 199 Gigot, Paul, 9, 50 Gingrich, Newt, 74,172 Gleckman, Howard, 74,77 Global Crossing, 109 Global warming, 38,106 Goldberg, Jonah, 195 
Gold standard, 146 Goldstein, Amy, 69, 76 Goode, Virgil, 65 Gore, Al, 8, 129 Government, role of Bush's 'big government conservatism,' 2, 8, 10-11, 14, 15, 17, 92, 132, 208 
Clinton Administration and, 129-30 
conservative view of, 1, 2 liberal view of, 1, 2 
Government Accountability Office, U.S., 167, 173 
Government Printing Office, 22 Graham, John D., 106, 107 Graham, Lindsey, 76 
Gramm, Phil, 113 Great Depression, 82 Greenberg, Hank, 115 Greenspan, Alan, 34, 36, 161, 165, 172 
Gridlock, government spending and, 127,134,140,196-99,200 Guatemala, trade with, 96 Gutierrez, Carlos, 39-40 
Haig-Simons definition of income, 176 
Hale, David, 37 Hall, Robert, 177 Hall-Rabushka flat tax proposal, 177 
Hamilton, Alexander, 86-87 Hart-Teeter poll, 197 Hassett, Kevin, 62, 138, 173 Hastert, Dennis, 95-96 Hastings, Doc, 64 
Health Savings Accounts, 201 Highway bill of 2005, 138, 139, 199,205 
Highway Revenue Act of 1982, 162 Hoekstra, Pete, 66 
Honduras, trade with, 96 Hook, Janet, 134 Hoover, Herbert, 82 Hostile corporate takeovers, 111 House, Christopher, 55 Howard, John, 97 
Howard, John L., Jr., 40 
'How Uncurbed Entitlements Will Force Large Tax Increases,' 170 
Hubbard, R. Glenn, 25, 31, 34-35, 61 
Hufbauer, Gary, 90, 98 
Human Events, 
5 Humphrey, Hubert, 193 
IBM, 56 
Ignatius, David, 115-16 Immigration policy, 9, 14, 15, 16, 107,205-7 
Income tax, comprehensive, 
Comprehensive income tax Indian gambling interests, 17 Inflation, 45, 47, 126, 162 indexing of Social Security benefits to, 149-50 duringjohnsonAdniinistration, 148 during Nixon Administration, 146, 147 
Inside Politics, 
Interest rates, 62, 102, 126 Internal Revenue Service, 33, 181 'tax gap' estimate, 184 International Monetary Fund, 33, 94, 184 
International Trade Commission, U.S. (ITC), 86, 88, 90, 101 Investment Tax Credit, 148, 149 Iraq, invasion and occupation of, 1, 2, 10, 17, 18, 142, 156, 205 conservative criticism of, 13, 207-8 interagency coordination and, 37 Lindsey's cost estimate for, 30 neoconservatives and, 10 supplemental appropriation requests for, 135 
WMDs, failure to find, 11, 207-8 Ireland, VAT in, 187 
Isakson, Johnny, 66 Israel, trade with, 96 
Issues andAnswers, 
73 Istook, Ernest, 65, 66 
Jacoby,Jeff 138 Jacoby, Neil, 158-59 Japan, VAT in, 187 Jenkins, Holman, 165, 199 Jepsen, Roger, 119 
John Birch Society, 154-55 John Deere, 78 
Johnson, Lyndon B., and Johnson Administration, 46, 84, 135, 148 Joint Committee on Taxation, 45, 63 
Jordan, trade with, 96 Junk bonds, 110-11 
Kadlec, Daniel, 198 
Kasten, Robert Walter, Jr., 178 Katrina, Hurricane, 38, 40, 80, 139, 204-5 
Keating, Dave, 199 Kemp, Jack, 160, 178 Kemp-Roth tax bill, 160, 162 Kennedy, Edward, 8, 74-75 Kennedy, John E, 144, 148, 160 tax cut of 1963, 45-46, 158-59 trade policy, 83-84 
Kennedy, Mark, 66 
Kerry, John, 13, 14, 36, 62, 77, 136, 137, 196 
Keynes, John Maynard, and Keynesian economics, 45, 46, 48, 51-52,58,148,155-56,177 King, Steve, 66 
Kline, John, 65 Kristol, Irving, 161 Krugman, Paul, 102 Kutmer, Bob, 81 Kyoto Treaty, 106, 107 
Laffer Curve, 160, 161, 203
McTague, Jim, 130
Modigliani, Franco, 53
Lame, Hugh, 124
Means, Gardiner, 110
Moffit, Robert, 70
Lay, Ken, 117
Medicare, 72, 189
Moore, Steve, 59, 133
Lazear, Edward P, 165
trustees, annual reports of, 70,
Morgenthau, Henry, 27
Leaks, 4-5
Morocco, trade with, 97
Leavitt, Michael, 79
unfunded liability for, 70-72,
Morris, Dick, 197, 202-3
Lesotho, trade with, 97
'Murder board,' 42
Lewinsky, Monica, 147, 168
'Medicare: A Ticking Time Bomb
Muris, Tim, 106
Liberal view of role of government,
for Tax Increases,' 170
Murphy, Kevin M., 165
Medicare Prescription Drug,
Murphy, Tim, 66
Lichtenberg, Frank, 73-74
Improvement, and
Murray, Alan, 37, 106, 120, 143, 170
Lichtman, Allan, 17
Modernization Act of 2003, 13,
Myrick, Sue, 66
Light, Paul, 39
Limbaugh, Rush, 142-43
200, 201, 202
NAFTA, 84, 85, 96
Lindsey, Larry, 24-25, 29-31, 35,
corporations, benefits for, 77-78
Namibia, trade with, 97
49, 50, 51
costs of, 17, 65, 67-72, 80
National Conference of State
Lockheed Corporation, bailout of, 154
future tax increases and, 
Legislatures, 120
Long, Michael, 11
increases, future
National debt, 50, 102
Los Angeles Times, 
House vote on, 64-66
interest on, 127-28
Lowry, Richard, 76
political backlash, 75-77, 80
National Economic Council (NEC),
Loyalty, Bush Administration
political rationale for, 73-74, 156
demands for, 3, 18, 30, 31, 39-40
unfunded liability for, 4, 11, 71,
under Rubin, 24, 31, 126
National Educational Association, 138
Macomber, Shawn, 58
Meese, Ed, 119
National Review, 11, 
'Mad cow' disease, 109
Melloan, George, 135, 138
National Security Council, 24
Maggs, John, 137-38
Mexico, trade with, 96
National Taxjournal, 
Mallaby, Sebastian, 52
Meyerson, Harold, 77
National Taxpayers Union, 138
Managers, corporate, 109-11
Milbank, Dana, 143
Neoconservatives, 10
Manchester Union Leader, 
7, 50
Milken, Michael, 111
Neugebauer, Randy, 65
Mandates on the states, unfunded
Mill, John Stuart, 87, 208
Newmark, Kathryn, 138
federal, 120
Miller, Jeff, 65
Mankiw, N. Gregory, 35-36, 95, 96
Milliken, Roger, 93
NewYork Post, 
Manzullo, Donald, 66, 89
Minimum tax, 149
New York Times, 
5, 40, 60, 74, 78, 93,
Mars, manned mission to, 136
Miniter, Brendan, 203
96, 98, 109, 124, 130, 132, 170
Marshall, Jim, 65
Miniter, Richard, 7
Nicaragua, trade with, 96
Marshall Plan, 83
Missile defense, 38
Martin, William McChesney, 145-46
Mitchell, Dan, 170
Niskanen, William, 166, 198
McCain, John, 80, 199
Modern Corporation and Private
Nixon, Richard M., and Nixon
McKinnon, Mark, 3
Property, The 
(Berle and Means),
Administration, 84, 121, 135,
McNealy, Scott, 114
balanced federal budget and, 159 Bush compared to, 1, 19, 141-44, 153,156,194 
federal spending under, 149-51 government regulation under, 151-54,155,156 
'industrial policy,' 154-55 presidential campaigns, 144-45, 147, 149, 155, 156, 194 Social Security spending and, 149-50,151,155,156 
tax policy, 148-49, 159, 189 
wage and price controls, 146, 147, 152,155 
Watergate scandal, 147, 193 Nock, Albert Jay, 11 Nofziger, Lyn, 12, 14 Noonan, Peggy, 15 
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 84, 85, 96 Novak, Robert, 3, 11, 16, 30, 40, 50,76-77,117,201 
Nunes, Devin, 66 
Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA), 151-52, t53,155,156 
Office of Faith-Based and Community Initiatives, 25 Office of Management and Budget (OMB), 24, 106, 107, 108 powers of, 21-22 
Office of Policy Development (OPD), 22, 23, 24 
Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of1987,163 
O'Neill, Paul, 27-29, 30, 53, 59, 61, 102 
Organisation for Economic Co
operation and Development, 83 
Otter, Butch, 65, 66
Powell, Cohn,132,193
Outsourcing, 90, 94-96, 115
Presidential elections
Overseas Private Investment
Corporation, 117
1968, 145, 194
Oxley, Michael, 113, 117
1972, 142, 147, 155, 193
1976, 12, 149, 159, 196
Panagariya, Arvind, 97
1980, 12, 195, 209
Panetta, Leon, 126, 181
Parker, Mike, 3
Payroll taxes, 128, 163, 183
Penn Central Railroad, bailout of,
2000, 8, 42, 51
Perot, Ross, 23, 49, 84, 122
137, 144, 194, 196, 206
Perotti, Roberto, 172
2008, 19, 140, 193, 194, 195, 196,
Personal income tax, 60-61
VAT to replace, 184-85
Press, Bush and the, 41-42, 143
Peru, trade with, 97
Price controls
Peterson, Pete, 167
on drugs, 78-79
'Philadelphia Plan,' 154
under Nixon, 146, 147, 152, 155
Pierce, Kenneth, 87
Price of Loyalty, The 
(Suskind), 28
Pinkerton, Jim, 142
Productivity, regulation and, 152-53
Pitts, Joe, 65
Progress and Poverty 
(George), 190
Podhoretz, John, 3, 11, 134, 200
Progressive tax rates, 177, 180
Policy development process, 20-43
Proposition 13 in California, 160-61
Bush Administration and, 18, 20,
Protectionism, 84, 156
agricultural subsidies, 19, 86, 91-92
historically, 20-23
antidumping statutes, 98-100, 101
National Economic Council and,
bilateral trade agreements and,
Politicization of policy analysis, 30,
Chinese textiles, restrictions on
imports of, 93-94
economic policy, 37
dangers of, 82-83, 100, 101
science policy, 38
history of U.S., 82-83, 86-87
Pollock, Ron, 75-76
for infant industries, 86-87
Pollution abatement and control,
Nixon and, 153-54, 156
expenditures for, 152-53
steel tariffs, 9, 11, 19, 35, 8591, 101
Ponnuru, Ramesh,42-43
Pork barrel spending, 11, 98,
Rabushka, Alvin, 177
Roach, Jonathan, 144, 198
205, 208, 213
Rawls, John, 181
Rayburn, Sam, 82-83 Reagan, Ronald, and Reagan Administration, 76, 120 discretionary spending under, 133, 135,138-39,161 
on foreign aid, 132-33 leaks, tolerance of, 4-5 Nixon's policies and, 19 outside advisors, 41 presidential election of 1980, 12, 195,209 
supply-side economics, 48, 157 tax policy, 23, 48, 60-61, 161-64, 173, 186, 214 
trade policy, 84 
Regulation, government, 103-9, 112-17,119 -20,129,151-54, 156 
Reich, Robert, 96, 118, 128 Reinhardt, Uwe, 52 Reston, James, 155 
Retail sales tax, 177, 181 Revenue sharing, 149, 155 Reynolds, Alan, 55, 62 Ribstein, Larry, 112-13 Rice, Condoleezza, 193 Richards, Ann, 117 Riedl, Brian, 169 
Right Man, The 
(Frum), 26-27 Roach, Stephen, 123 Rockefeller, Nelson, 193 Romano, Roberta, 113-14 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 27, 83, 193,205 
Rosen, Harvey, 36 Roth, Bill, 160 Rove, Karl, 15, 142, 143 Rubin, Robert 
National Economic Council headed by, 24, 31, 126 
as Secretary of the Treasury, 24, 28-29,31 
'Safe harbor leasing,' 162 Safire, William, 141-42 Sager, Ryan, 137 
Sales tax, retail, 177, 181 Samuelson, Robert, 123, 142 Santorum, Rick, 165 Sarbanes-OxleyAct (SOX), 113-17, 156, 199 
Sawicky, Max, 169-70 Scarborough, Joe, 136-37 Schatz, Tom, 167 Scheiber, Noam, 144 Schiavo, Terri, 1 Schlesinger, Arthur, 27 Schmitz, John, 155 Schultze, Charles, 136 Schwab, Charles, 59-60 Science policy, 38 
Scott, David, 65 Scowcroft, Brent, 41 Scully, Tom, 69, 70 Securities and Exchange 
Commission, 110, 114-15 September 11, 2001 conservatives' criticism of Bush and, 9, 14 
new regulations after, 107 subsidies to big business after, 118-20 
Shapiro, Matthew, 55 Shareholders, corporate, 110-11 Shapiro, Dan, 171 
Shlaes, Amity, 170 Simon, Bill, 105-6 Simons, Henry, 178 Singapore, trade with, 96 Slaughter, Matthew, 36 
Slovakia, VAT in, 187 
Small Business Administration, 108 Smith, Adam, 103-4, 110 
Smith, Brad, 66 Smith, Chris, 15 Smith, Howard K., 155 Smith, Nick, 66 Smith, Vernon L., 59 Smoot-Hawley Tariff, 82, 83 Snow, John, 31-34 Socialism, 154 
Social Security 
Clinton Administration efforts to save, 167-68 
indexing of benefits to inflation, 149-50 
1983 changes to,162-63,189 Nixon and, 149-50, 151, 155, 156 payroll taxes, 163, 183 
unfunded liability for, 71, 79, 169,202 
Social Security reform, 15, 16, 18, 79-80,200,202-3 
policy development for, 32, 200-201 
raising the wage cap, 172 Social Security trust fund, 32 Soros, George, 14 
Souder, Mark, 66 
South Africa, trade with, 97 Starve-the-beast theory of taxation, 157,159-61,164-67 
State Department, U.S., 24 Statement of Administration Policy (SAP), 22 
Steel tariffs, 9, 11, 19, 35, 85-91, 101 
Stein, Herb, 146, 152, 161 Steindel, Charles, 53 Stem cell research, 38 
Stevens, Ted, 167 Stigler, George, 105 Stiglitz, Joseph, 34, 128, 129-30 Stockfisch, J. A., 187 Stockman, David, 72-73 Strine, Leo, 113 
Stuttaford, Andrew, 7-8 Successor to George W Bush, 193-94 
Sullivan, Andrew, 137 Summers, Lawrence, 34 SuperfundAmendments of 1986, 163 
Supersonic jet aircraft, 154, 155 Supply-side economics, 48, 52, 59, 157 
Surrey, Stanley, 47 
Suskind, Ron, 26, 28, 40-41 Swaziland, trade with, 97 
Tampa Tribune, 13 Tancredo, Tom, 206 Tanenhaus, Sam, 10 Tariffs, see Protectionism Tax brackets, 180 
'bracket creep,' 47-48, 128, 173 changes in the, 49, 50, 53, 54-55, 56,126,178-79,188 progressive, 177, 178 
tax reform and, 178-79, 188 Tax credits, 57-58 
child credit, 57, 175, 179 Investment Tax Credit, 148, 149 Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 (TEFRA), 162 
Tax increases, future, 157,168-91 economists predicting, 169-70 inevitability of, 168-70, 189 Republican Party antipathy for, 170-71 
tax reform to achieve, 176-91 trigger for, 18, 171-72, 188, 192 Tax policy 
 Bush, Jr. See Tax policy, Bush Administration.

As the owners began fore
 dosing the mortgages that had gone into default, the political residents fought back A mock funeral cortege was organized down 48th Street behind a coffin filled with mortgage papers.

40 • CmningofAge 
 When their political efforts failed, my parents made a sudden turn that was typical of the politics they had embraced, and suggested how abstract it was.

The scent of inquisition hovered in their political air.

Yet, who am I to judge myself in this matter? By leaving me in an all-day nursery and then going out every night to political meetings (as they did), my parents sent sig
 nals that may still be registering.

In my developing political imagination, the schoolyard was full of mute, inglorious Miltons, deprived of their chances for achievement by a sys
 tem that neglected or stunted them because it was concerned about profit alone.

                   I had followed Beichman's long career as a stalwart of the 
66 • Coming ofAge 
anti-Communist right, and was curious to find out from him whether my fa
ther had used his teaching position to recruit students for his political agen

When political circumstances released them into the competitive arena of the prosperous Fifties, they were able to find far more lucrative and-in many cases-more fulfilling outlets for their abilities.

A campaign against America's decision to execute two Jews for their political beliefs-which was how the Party framed the case-would provide an opportunity for the Stalinists to neutralize this concern.

'Individualism' was, of course, the 
84 • Coming of Age 
 hated philosophy of their political adversaries.

                                                       106 - New worlds 
Hayden's inner angst was given political shape by the radicals he encoun
 tered at the beginning of the Sixties.

In his autobiography, Reunion, he records how he came to Berkeley, which he calls 'the Mecca of student activism,' to get a political education two years before Port Huron.

'The Bay Area was radiating with a utopian spirit,' he writes, as though the activists he met were innocent of Stalinism rather than having grown up in its political crucible.

But the ac
 tion belonged to us and was driven by our self-conscious political agendas.

Among the protesters, we had the superior political experience and were able to provide convincing analyses that ex
 plained the social mysteries to those who joined us on impulse.

In preparing for political actions, we identified the correct political 'line,' and united behind it in a force that was able to over
 come most opposition.

Merely announcing the tribunal would be a political coup.

Scheer's instinct proved prescient once again when this became the Left's political style in the next decade.

As Fitch and I exchanged information about the political scenes in London and Berkeley, he twirled his red mustache with a nervous energy so intense it caused his pupils to flutter Like many radi
 cals, he was a self-exiled son of the middle class.

But the political Zeitgeist had shifted so dramatically toward the Marxist myth that it made us think you had a kind of insight that was important.'

  Abbie Hoffman, the Movement's resi
dent anarchist, had written a tract 
called Steal 
This Book, 
which promoted this 
188 • Revolutions 
 'political' strategy.

They would harbor political fugitives, train activists in weapons and 'self-defense,' oppose 'occupying police,' and put 'all imperialist institutions (universities, draft boards, corporations) in or near the Territory ...

Together they constitute a social crisis so perva
 sive and profound as to lift the prospect of revolution from the realm of utopian speculation and raise it as a real political alternative.

We believe such a revolution to be necessary For this reason we have opened the pages of the magazine to the thoughts of one of the country's most serious revolutionaries and to a book which we feel is one of the most important literary and political events of our time.

Later, he went on to found the Revolutionary Communist Party, and to be
 come its chairman for life, meticulously reproducing the political style of his Maoist icons.

Political education for the communards consisted of readings from The Black Panther and Lin Piao's On People's War Commune discussions focused on such questions as whether underwear should be shared, and if it was a bourgeois hang-up to close the bathroom door when using the toilet.

Whether he actually believed this or was just playing the political role he had assigned himself as a spokesman for Hanoi, I didn't know and never found out.

For me, the overriding justification was one that weighed heavily on all the political decisions I made: It was important that 
200 • Revolutions 
 America should lose the war.

                                                         On the program, 
202 • Revolutions 
I was sandwiched between the political scientist Ronald Steel and the Rev
 erend Theodore Hesburgh, president of Notre Dame.

204 • Revolutions 
 Elissa had no liking for Hayden or any of the other political friends who, on occasion, came to our house.

For me, the political combats were bracing, tapping as they did emotional memories of the dinner
 table arguments with my father in Sunnyside.

          After Ellen's murder, he told me that she had invited political ac
tivists and ex-prisoners to the house who seemed to have a potential for vio

Charles Garry, the Patty lawyer, called a press confer
 ence to claim that 29th Street was a 'dormitory' for teachers at the Learning Center, and that the police had planted the weapons as part of their ongoing political repression of the Panthers.

Meanwhile, Elaine was appearing on college campuses with other leftists, making speeches about American fascism and denouncing the FBI's 'cointelpro' program to infiltrate and neutralize the Panthers solely because of their political beliefs.

He was praised as a returning hero by local political leaders, and invited to the state capital to receive an award for the work of the Learning Center.

Private Investigations 
Under the pressure of these realities, I began to develop a political dys

And many of his political connections remained.

After recounting to me his 
334 • Coming Home 
 life as a political terrorist and celebrity, Ayers summed up the arc of his career in an epigram: 'Guilty as hell, free as a bird-America is a great country.'

It was a response typical of the political activists I debated on the issue.

I was still in a state of withdrawal from the political arena, suspicious of my reactions and cautious not to let my politics become a mere reflex of personal bitterness or grief.

Becoming a leftist was 'like falling off a log,' he observed, 
358 • Coming Home 
 but the political forest was fraught with perils for conservatives.

But, for the Left, this was political warfare; professional norms did not apply.

                                           AFTER THE FALL 

 labeled 'conservatives' by our political adversaries.

398 • ComingHome 
 I attempted to sum up my political transformation in an 'open letter' to my old mentor, Ralph Miliband, with whom I had not had any contact for ten years.

                                                              Although there was no statistical evidence to prove it, I would estimate that many more aca
demic careers had been aborted for political reasons during these post-Sixties decades than during the entire Communist 'witch-hunt' of the McCarthy pe- 
406 • Coming Home 

This turned out to be a rally of leftists claiming that 'political correctness' was something invented by right-wing witch-hunters.

Such resources, of course, were not available to us, had we been willing to draw on them, or to anyone else on our side of the political and cultural argument.

410 • Coming Home 
 Scheer became a 'political adviser' to celebrities like Jane Fonda and Barbra Streisand, helping them with their speeches to Harvard students and other 'serious' audiences.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      See Horowitz, Moms 
Hackman, Gene, 333 Hadas, Moses, 304 Haile Selassie, 131 Hall, Gus, 117 
Hall, Stanley, 216 
Halllnan, Vincent, 103 Hampton Bays (New York), 50 Hamrell, Sven, 122, 127, 133 'Hand-Me-Down Marxism and the New 
Left' (Horowitz), 177 Hanoi Hilton (film), 428 Harmony (club), 77 Harper's magazine, 408 Harrington, Michael, 379 Harrington, Walt, 356 Harris, Leslie, 333 
Harvey Milk Gay Democratic Club, 341-42 
Hayden, Tom: as advocate of violent be
havior, 385, 386; affair with Anne Weills, 175; attack on Joan Baez by, 303; autobiography of, 106, 160-61, 381; and Chicago Conspiracy Trial, 189-90, 196, 269, 321; at Chicago Democratic Convention, 165-68; on demise of the Black Panthers, 298; as Democratic Party member, 409; DH's response to, 421; FBI's surveillance of, 160-61; as member of counterculture, 173; as member of Red Family, 195, 196; political and familial background of, 105-6, 176, 382; on 'rice roots' democracy, 200; support for North Vietnam, 196-98, 201, 303-4, 376; surrender to the 'Vietnam Metaphor,' 177-78 
Hayek, Friedrich, 388, 391, 406, 410 Haze, Robert, 125-26 
Healey, Dorothy, 116 Hearst, Patty, 236 Hebrew language, 42 Heller, Isaiah, 41 Hendon, Ezra,300,318 Henson, Larry, 264 Herf, Jeffrey, 377 Heritage Foundation, 396, 404 heroin addiction, 332, 353, 436 herpes virus, 338 
Hersh, Seymour, 189 Hertzberg, Rick, 383-84, 387 Hesburgh, Rev. Theodore, 202 
Heston, Chariton, 429 
407, 416-17, 421, 422, 427 Hicks, J. R., 135 
Hiestand, Fred, 294 
High School of Music and Art (New York), 77, 81 
Hilliard, David, 222, 234, 321 Hilliard, June, 234 
Hinckle, Warren, 159, 164, 168, 174, 179, 180, 187 
Hiroshima, bombing of, 75, 139 Hiss, Alger, 68, 406 
the Russian Revolution (Trotsky), 134 
Hitchens, Christopher, 378, 382, 383 Hitler, Adolf, 29, 63 
HIV virus, 345 
Ho Chi Minh, 152, 196, 334 Hochschild, Adam, 237-38 Hoffman, Abbie, 167, 187-88, 189, 269, 410 
Holt, Rinehart (publishers), 212, 213 Home 
the Brave (film), 59 Honeymooners, The (television show), 53 Hoover, J. Edgar, 299, 318, 319, 402 Horowitz, Anna (paternal grandmother), 8,9-10,15,17 
Horowitz, Anne (daughter): birth of, 172; education of, 286; effect of parental di
vorce on, 325, 352, 443-44; personal
Horowitz, Benjamin (son): birth 
145; at birth of Anne, 172; childhood of, 172; education of, 352, 370; marriage of, 411, 412; personality of, 205, 325 Horowitz, Blanche Brown (mother), 1-2; birth of, 13; courtship and marriage of, 12, 25, 27, 28, 29-30, 435; death of, 431-32, 440-41; education of, 27; employment of, 25, 27, 45, 69; health of, 8, 371-72, 430-31; move to Cali
fornia, 370-71; parenting by, 45-46, 47-48, 51; political affiliation and views of, 27, 36, 39-40, 42-44, 62-63, 75-86 passim, 207-6; reac
tion to Student, 116; retirement of, 69; 
trip to Thailand, 213-14; trip to USSR, 27 
Horowitz, David: adolescence of, 61-74 passim; affair with Abby Rockefeller, 281-83; attempted recruitment by So
viets, 141-42; attempted recruitment to Leninist SDS faction, 165; autobio
graphical writings by, 380-81, 422-23, 445; birth of, 32; childhood of, 35-36, 45-60 passim; as 'Christ
ian romantic,' 88-69, 92; collabora
tion with Peter Collier, 191, 198, 210-13,215-16,237-38,259,282, 283-85,315-18,325-26,329,333, 336,337,339,346,353,356-58, 366,402,403-4,419,422-23,443, 445; conversion to conservatism, 346, 348, 349, 351, 356-60, 361; early po
litical affiliation 
44, 86; early politi
cal projects of, 48; as editor of Ram
parts, 153, 158-65, 168-69, 179-80, 185-87,191,193,215,236-37,300; as editor of Root and Branch, 109, 112-13, 126-27; education of, 45-47, 49-50,77,81-83,86,89-91,93,94, 99-119 passim; employment of, 127-28,153,158,170,172-73, 185-87, 215; in Europe, 120-54 pas
sim; fear of reprisals by, 315, 321-22, 361, 386; fortieth birthday of, 324-25; health of, 53, 146, 366; idols of, 53-54; marriage to Elissa Krauthamer, 92-95,138-39,170-73,203-5,215, 216-17,281,282,283,286-87,289, 290-93; marriage to Sam Moorman, 355-56; marriage to Shay Marlowe, 412-18, 423-27; mental depression of, 286, 287, 289, 308, 324, 354; move to LA, 351-53; music lessons of, 72-73; parenting by, 118-19, 122, 123,137-38,145-46,171,204-7, 246, 287, 308, 325, 351-52; political education of, 49-50, 53-57, 59-60, 87-89, 253-80 passim, 304-7; reli
gious Qewish) education of, 41-42; re
ligious participation of, 413-15; 
456 - 
 Horowitz, David (cont.)

Erikson, Erik, 230 
Espionage Act of1918,198-201 Essays on Liberation (Marcuse), 189 ethnicity, 275 
Eyes on the Prize (television documen
tary), 402 
Berlin, The (film), 64 Fatten, Frantz, 385 Farley, Chris, 131 
Farmer, John Harrison, 113-14 Fast, Howard, 36, 53, 54 
Inde< - 
Fate of 
Midas and Other Essays, The (Horowitz), 135, 188 
Fay, 'Red,' 330 
Papers, 397 Feller, Itzhak, 73-74, 270 Feinberg Law, 70 
Feinberg Law (New York State), 65, 70 Feinstein, Dianne, 340 
Fellini, Federico, 112 Fellwock, Perry, 201 feminism, 171, 174 Fidel (film), 193 
Fifth International (proposed), 152 Finley, Tommy, 46-47 
First Frontier, The 
(Horowitz), 285, 286, 308   Freud, Sigmund, 45, 275, 279 
Fifth, Bob, 178; attempted recruitment of   Frey, John: murder of, 162, 164, 258-59 265, 309, 387, 401 
Friedman, Milton, 410 Friedman, Paul, 109 Fromm, Erich, 101, 127 Front, The (film), 70 Fruhaug, Trygve, 122 Frye, Hardy, 274, 277 Fumento, Michael, 343 
DH to Leninist SDS faction by, 165; as editor at Ramparts, 198, 200; Marxism of; 177; and CIA, 201; racial views 
158, 161, 164, 198 
Fitzgerald, E Scott, 410 
Five Easy Pieces (dm), 223, 231 Flacks, Richard, 106 
Fleming, D. F, 124 
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, 43, 53 
Fonda, Jane: attack on Joan Baez by, 303; at Bert Schneider's parties, 233; di
vorce from Tom Hayden, 409; mar
riage to Tom Hayden, 196; political advisor to, 410; support for North Vietnam, 201,376 
'Food Conspiracy,' 295 Forbes, Flores, 264, 296, 421 Ford, Cristina, 367-68 Ford, Henry, II, 367, 368 Ford, whitey, 81 
Ford Foundation, 211, 408 
An American Epic (Collier and Horowitz), 353, 355, 366-68 Forest Hills, New York, 36 
44th Street Cardinals, 57, 58-59, 61 Foster, Marcus, 235, 236 
Foster, William Z., 56 Foucault, Michel, 406 Fourth International, 76 
Fox night dub (Oakland), 241 France, Royal, 69 
Francis, Don, 338-39 Franco, Francisco, 361, 393 Frank, Andre Gunder, 133 Franqui, Carlos, 401 Fmppier, Jon, 194-95, 362 Freed, Donald, 297 freedom, 397 
Freedom Riders, 275 
Road (Fast), 54 free speech, 115-16, 428 Free World Colossus, The (Horowitz), 124-27,138,139-41,142,144-45, 216,305,350 
Gain, Charles, 243 Gaines, Kenny, 80 Galbmith,John Kenneth, 367 Garrow, David, 402 
Garry, Charles, 243, 268, 401 gay movement, 338 
Gellner, Emest, 135 
of Employment, Interest and Money (Keynes), 135 
Genet, Jean, 221-22 Gentleman's Agreement (film), 59 George Jackson Defense Committee, 311,312 
George Jackson Free CBnic, 225 Gerassi, John, 125 
Gere, Richard, 309 Geronfmo, 196 Gerson, Billy, 64 'Getting Away with Murder' (Collier and Horowitz), 325 
• 455 
Giachino, Mary, 317 Gingrich, Newt, 443 Ginsberg, Allen, 103,189 Gitlin, Todd: DH's response to, 421; at 'Marxism and Post-Marxism' seminar, 274; misinterpretation of the New Left by, 104, 221, 321, 381; on New Left's support for Black Panthers, 221, 297-98; at 'PC Frame-Up' confer
ence, 408; silences of, 104, 192, 278, 321, 378; as writer for Bertrand Rus
sell Centre for Social Research, 133; as writer for Ramparts, 189; as writer for Tihkun, 378 
Gitlow, Benjamin, 400 Glazer, Nathan, 377 Glubb, Faris, 131 Glubb, SirJohn, 131 Gold, Ted, 192 Goldblum, Jeff, 428 Goldwater, Barry, 443 Goodloe, Gwen, 244 Goodman, Andrew, 275 Goodwin, Doris Kearns, 329, 354 Goodwin, Richard, 329 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 398, 410 Garrrick, Vivian, 84 
Graham, Shirley, 36, 64 Gramsci, Antonio, 216, 305, 406 Grathewold, Larry, 160 
Gray, Crystal, 296 
Gray, Francine du Plessix, 189 Grazer, Brian, 355 
 Gregory, Dick, 255 Griffin, Susan, 102, 189 Gropper, William, 36 Guatemala, CIA-engineered coup in, 125 Guevara, Che, 109-10, 152-53, 165 Gulag Archipelago (Solzhenitsyn), 193 Gurevitch, Moishe.

biography by Isaac Deutscher, 153; brutality of, 273, 385; and extermination of opponents, 270, 360; as hero of progressive Left, 42, 44; influence on DH, 78, 104, 144; and Third International, 75-76, 112; tomb of, 20 
Leninism, 192 Lennon,John, 189 Leonard, John, 125 Lemer, Michael: marriages of, 175-76, 409; and New American Movement, 274; political background of, 175; on importance of guns, 178; writings by, 176,189,196,409 
Lester, Julius, 377 
Lev (from Novosti Press Agency), 139-41 Levin, Bernard, 149 
Lewis, John L., 63 libertarianism, 395, 408 Liebman, Marcel, 133 Limbaugh, Rush, 429 Lin Piao, 196 Lippmann, Walter, 124 Lipsett, Hal, 362 
 Index .

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Amiri Bamka), 161 Jordan, Pat, 131 
Judis, John, 393 
Judy (Ramparts receptionist), 222 
Kaldenbach, Bob, 180, 183, 184, 188, 225,229,244 
Kalecki, Michal, 135 Karenga,Ron,161,225 Keating, Edward, 159, 179 
Joan, 244-45, 247 Kempton, Murray, 230 Kennedy, David, 332, 353-54 Kennedy, Edward (Teddy), 329, 332-33, 354 
Kennedy, Jackie, 330 Kennedy,Joan,329 Kennedy,Joe,356 Kennedy, John E: affairs of, 331; assassi
nation of, 104; and Cuban Missile Cri
sis, 130; opposition of New Left to, 102-3, 108; political views of, 332, 349 
Kennedy, Michael, 297 Kennedy, Robert, 177, 331, 332 Kennedy, Robett,Jr,330-32,353 Kennedy, Rose, 354 
Kennedys, The 
(Collier and Horowitz), 329-33,353,354,392 
Kenner, Marry, 229-30, 231, 242, 401 Kenyatta,Jomo, 131 
Keynes,John Maynard,135 
458 - 
Khmer Rouge, 302-4 
Khmshchev, Nikfta, 83-84, 89, 112, 124,130 
Kimbro, Warren, 402 Kim 11 Sung, 195, 196 King, Martin Luther, Jr: assassination of, 165, 169, 177, 298; and FBI racism, 402; and March on Washington (1963), 207, 429; preference of blacks and New Left to Malcolm X over, 167, 233, 403; support for integration, 110, 161, 163, 233, 345, 403, 443 
King Lear (Shakespeare), 135 Kingsley Hall, 136 
Kirk, Russell, 406 Kissinger, Clark, 403 Kissinger, Henry, 197, 303 Kline, J. Anthony, 294 Klutznick, Philip, 158 
Knock on Wood (Bergen), 233 Koestler, Arthur, 400, 445 Kohl, Herbert, 232, 235 Kolakowski, Leszek, 271-72, 398 Kollwitz, Kathe, 36 
Kolodney, David, 181, 182, 183, 185, 237,238 
Kopechne, Mary Jo, 332 Kopkind, Andrew, 189 Korean War, 64 Komhauser, William, 274,278 Kosygin, Aleksei, 199 
Kozol, Jonathan, 189 Kmditor, Aileen, 400-401 Kramer, Hilton, 377 Kraus, Bill, 341-42, 345 Kmuthamer, Elissa: courtship of, 92-95; education of, 93, 99, 118-19, 246, 286; employment of, 286; in Europe, 120,122,123,127,128,136,142; marriage to DH, 138-39, 170-73, 203,204-5,283,286-87,290-93, 352; parenting by, 137-38, 172, 444; political views of, 204; pregnancies of, 117-18, 127, 145; return from Eu
rope, 154 
Kristol, Irving, 3, 377, 393 
Krivitsky, Walter, 400 Kundera, Milan, 360, 412 Kunsder, William, 269, 385 
Labor Youth League, 114 Labour Party Left, 133 Laing, R. D., 127, 135-36 Landau, Nina, 114 
Landau, Saul, 114, 193, 201, 404 Lange, Oskar, 135 
Lapham, Lewis, 381-82, 408 Lapin, Daniel, 414, 415 laughing gas, 233 
Lauuier, John, 71 Lawford, Chris, 332 Leary, Timothy, 173 Lee, Spike, 403 
for Reagan' ('Good-bye to All That') (Collier and Horowitz), 356-57 
 Lehmann-Haupt, Christopher, 354, 368 Lenin, V 1.:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                See also Rackley, Alex New Left: anti-anti-Communism of, 106; 
Index • 461 
antielitism o£, 187; in Berkeley, 120; demise 
196; formation of, 86; he
roes of, 109, 114, 134, 143, 361; influ
ence on DH, 125, 358-59; and John E Kennedy, 102-3, 104, 108, 349; mis
interpreted by Todd Gitlin, 104, 221, 321, 381; politics of, 104-7, 111, 115, 160; and Students for a Democratic So
ciety 177; support for Black Panthers, 111, 221, 269, 297-98, 386; support for Cuban Revolution, 102, 109-10, 114, 194-95; support for Malcolm X in, 162, 167, 233, 403; support for So
viet Union in, 113 
New Left Notes, 107 
New Left Review, 134, 135, 142, 150, 176 
New Reasoner, 
Republic, 380, 384-87, 409 New Right, 393 
Newsreel (radical collective), 186, 404 Newsweek magazine, 343 
New Times magazine, 296 
Newton, Huey P: as advocate of violence, 162, 169; on cover of Ramparts, 180; criminal activities of, 158, 161, 162-64,221,224,242-43,255, 257-59, 265, 266, 268-69, 387; in Cuba, 243, 295; DH's fear of reprisals from, 321-22, 361, 386; drug habit of, 235, 265, 296; education of, 322; as enemy of Eldridge Cleaver, 223, 230, 234, 237, 255; and expulsion of Bobby Seale, 242; flight to avoid pros
221; as hero of Red Family, 196; implicated in murder of Betty Van Patter, 323-24, 361, 362; influence on DH, 158, 223-25, 226, 228-29, 233-35; interview by Angela Davis of, 189; as leader of Black Panther Party, 111,161,162-64,233-35,241; mainstream acceptance of, 230-31; murder of, 401; power base of, 257-58, 264-65, 267; prosecution of, 295-96, 297, 322; release from jail, 223, 309; as speaker at George Jack
son's funeral, 207 
Newton, Melvin, 267 
New University Thought magazine, 111 New West magazine, 318, 319, 325 New York Dodgers, 58 
New Yorker magazine, 298 New York post, 207 
New York 
Review of 
Books, 385 
New York Teachers Union, 18, 56, 67 New York Times, 49, 59, 61, 82-83, 127, 201,260,302,420-21 
York Times Book Review, 285, 442 New York Times Sunday Magazine, 162 New York Yankees, 57, 58 Nicaragua: civil war in, 349-51, 357, 
358, 391; DH's trip to, 373-75 Niccamen, Julie, 194 
Nicholson, Jack, 223, 233 nihilism, 274, 336, 380, 385 Nixon, Richard M., 102, 166, 190, 195, 197, 198, 303 
'Nixon's Vietnam Strategy' (Horowitz), 198 
Nkmmah, Kwame, 129, 131 Noah's Ark (corporation), 188 Nobody Listened (film), 404 
No More Fun and Games (magazine), 213 Non Jewish Jew, The (Deutscher), 227 Norman, Pat, 340, 343 
North, Oliver, 395 
North American Congress on Latin America (NACLA), 194-95 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 55 
North Vietnam, 146, 147, 149, 160, 196-98,200,201,303-4,376 Ncwosti Press Agency, 139-40 Nunn, Wally, 394, 404, 410, 428 
Oakeshott, Michael, 406 
Oakland Community Learning Center: control of, 244, 245-46, 248, 296; DH's involvement at, 226, 248, 294; fundraising for, 229, 231-33, 239, 266-67, 294, 322; involvement of black professionals at, 232-33; secular church at, 240-41 
• Ind~ 
Oakland Economic Development Coun
cil, 294 
O'Brien, Pat, 59 O'Casey Sean, 440 Odinga, Oginga, 131 Oglesby, Carl, 160, 189 Oistrakh, David, 81 O'Keefe, Michael, 249 Olha, Miss (kindergarten teacher), 47 Olin Foundation, 404, 407 Olympic Games (1968), 277 
On People's War (Lin Piao), 196 Operation Abolition (film), 107-8, 114 Ordeal 
Civility, The (Cuddihy), 274-75 O'Reilly, Kenneth, 298 
Private Property, the Family and the State (Engels), 78 
O'Rourke, P J, 377 Orwell, George, 407 Ozzie fr 
(radio program), 53 
Pacem in Terris III (conference), 201-2 pacifism, 62 
paleoconservatism, 395 Pantheon, 421 
Parker, Richard, 237-38 Parkinson, Thomas, 114 Parks, Rosa, 108 Parliamentary Socialism (Miliband), 134 participatory democracy, 105, 106 'Passion of the Jews, The' (Horowitz), 276 
Pasternak, Boris, 100 
Pasternak, Carol, 81, 146, 259, 260-63, 380,381 
Pasternak, Morris, 81 Pastor, Robert, 350 Paths in Utopia (Buber), 113, 121 Patron Saint 
the Right Qudis), 393 Paul (saint), 19 
'PC Frame-Up, The' (conference, 1991), 408 
Peace and Freedom Party 178 Pearson, Hugh, 442 
Peck, Sid, 167 
Peck, Winslow, 198-201 Pell, Claiborne, 312 
Pell, Eve, 312-13, 318-21 Pentagon Papers, 200 People's Park (Berkeley), 182-83 Peretz, Marty, 377-78, 380 Perkins, Dacron, 245, 249, 264 Pedura (Russian hetman), 9 Phillips, William, 377 
Picasso, Pablo, 130 Pinell, Yogi, 314 Planned Parenthood, 69, 213-14 Plato, 171 
Platonic ideal, 87, 88 Playboy magazine, 410 Playhouse West (North Hollywood), 428-29 
His Company, The (Fay), 330 
of Allegiance, 47 
Podhoretz, Norman, 377, 379, 393, 395, 396 
of Order 
(film), 336 Poland, socialism in, 388-91 polio epidemic, 52-53 political correctness, 408 Political Messianism (Talmon), 272 Popular Front, 29, 55-56 
Porgy and Bess, 323 
Port Huron Statement, 105, 106, 124 Powers, Ann, 36 
Pravda, 143 
to a Contribution to the Critique 
Capital, 78 
Prensa, La, 375 
Prison Law Collective, 309, 312 Prison Law Project, 309, 311, 313 'Professor Griff' 402 Progressive Labor Party, 177 progressive Left: anti-Communism of, 63; heroes of, 42, 44; influence on DH and his parents, 43-44, 59-60, 67-68, 75, 87; and Marxism, 44; po
litical views of, 40, 88, 89,396-97, 400; support for Communist China, 36, 49; support for Soviet Union, 41 
• 463 
Progressive Patty, 56, 59, 103 Public Enemy, 403 
Public School 150 (Queens, New York), 49 
'Question About Meaning, The' (Horowitz), 112, 117, 119 
racial injustice, 54-55, 108 
Racial Matters: The FBI's Secret 
America (O'Reilly), 298 racial tolerance, 47 
racism, 278 
Rackley, Alex, 241, 377, 385, 387, 402, 403 
Radical Chic (Wolfe), 230 radical feminism, 408 radical prison movement, 309 'Radical's Disenchantment, A' ('Left Il
lusions') (Horowitz), 305-7 Radosh, Alice, 146 
Radosh, Laura, 146 
Radosh, Ron, 146, 301-2, 377, 388 Rafelson, Bob, 231, 308-9 Ramparts Books, 158, 188 
Ramparts magazine: Cleaver's articles in, 164, 168, 169; Collier as editor of, 164,173-74,181, 182, 183-84, 185-86, 187, 200, 215; criticism of, 194-95; demise of, 180, 183-84, 237-38; DH as editor at, 153, 158-65,168-69,179-80,185-87, 191, 193, 215, 236-37, 300; DH's ar
ticles in, 177, 193, 198, 276; forma
tion of, 102, 159; funding of, 159, 179,180-81,187-88,222-23,230, 244; My Lai massacre cover of, 189; Newton on cover 
180; proposed re
vival of, 405; Russell on cover o 
150; Scheer as editor of, 102, 154, 159, 164-65,168,169,173,174-75,179, 180,181-82,183,184-85,223;sup
port of Black Panther Party by, 161, 163-64, 223; violation of Espionage Act of 1918 by, 198-201 
Randolph, A. Philip, 63 Ransom, Harry Howe, 125, 126 Ray, Michelle, 174 
Reagan, Ronald: DH's support of, 351, 356, 357, 359, 411; as govemor of California, 182; as hero of Cold War
riors, 410-11; opposition to, 349; pol
icy on AIDS epidemic, 337, 346, 348; political views 
Red Family, 195-96 Redgrave, Vanessa, 174 Red Scare, 65-68 
Red Star Over China, 36 Refuse and Resist, 403 'Requiem for a Radical' (Collier and Horowitz), 317-18 
Reunion (Hayden), 106 Reuther, Walter, 63 Revolutionary Communist Party, 194 Revolutionary Suicide (Newton), 230 Revolutionary Youth Movement, 165 Rexroth, Kenneth, 115 
Ridgeway James, 189 Rieff, David, 382-83 Riles, Wilson, 322 Riverside Church (New York city), 194 
'Road to Nowhere, The' (Horowitz), 398-99 
Roberts, Holland, 29, 43, 125 Robeson,Paul, 53-54,55,64,65,72, 73-74 
Robinson, Jackie, 58 Robinson, Joan, 135 Robinson, Sugar Ray, 55 Robinson, Tyrone, 401 Robison, Lucy, 77, 85 Rockefeller, Abby: affair with DH, 281-83; as feminist, 213; interviews with, 238-39, 240, 281-83; support for Ramparts from, 211 
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 238 Rockefeller, Marion, 211, 212, 231 Rockefeller, Steven, 238, 299 Rockefeller Foundation, 211, 238, 408 
464 - 
Rockefellers, The (Collier and Horowitz), 211-12,238,246,259,281-83, 284-85,316,353,380 
Rogers, Deborah, 134, 147 Rolling Stone magazine, 269, 333 Rolling Stones, 189 
Roman Catholic Church, corruption of, 41 
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 38 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 55, 56 Root and Branch (journal), 102, 109-12, 126-27 
'Roots of Alienation, The' (Horowitz), 113,127 
Rorty, Richard, 405 Rosenberg,Ethel,58,77-80,271,300, 301-2 
Rosenberg, Julius, 58, 77-80, 271, 300, 301-2 
Rosenberg, Sophie, 78 
Rosenberg Defense Committee, 301 Rosenberg File, The (Radosh and Milton), 301 
Roth, Philip, 212 
Rubin, Jerry: appearance before House Un-American Activities Committee, 105; book excerpt published in Ram
parts, 189; and Chicago Conspiracy Trial, 166, 167, 269; as vice-presiden
tial candidate, 178 
Rudd, Mark, 334, 381 Rush, Bobby, 232 Russell, Bertrand: autobiography of~ 147; on cover of Ramparts, 150; influence of Schoenman on, 140-41, 153; moral
ism of, 129-30; as outliving himself, 149; Peace Foundation of, 127, 130-33,146-51;in proposed 'Fifth International,' 152; speeches by, 132; support of Huey Newton by, 163 
Russia in Transition (Demscher), 134 Russian Revolution, 20, 55, 143 Ryan, George S., 25 
Sacco, Nicola, 43 Safire, William, 395 
Said, Edward, 407, 408 
Saigon Students Association, 376 Sakharov, Andrei, 277 Sandped, Ira, 132 
San Francisco Chronicle, 310, 320 San Francisco Focus, 394 
'San Quentin Six,' 314 Santa Cruz murders, 386 Sartre, Jean-Paul: on biography, 144; on criminals as 'primitive rebels,' 221-22; as hero of the New Left, 135, 150, 385; interview in Ramparts, 189; support of Huey Newton by, 163; on War Crimes Tribunal, 148, 149 
Savio, Mario, 113, 115 Scaife Foundation, 404 Schechner, Bill, 245 Schechner, Danny, 158 Scheer, Bob: as editor of Ramparts, 102, 154,159,164-65,168,169,173, 174-75,179,180,181-82,183, 184-85, 223; influence on Huey New
ton, 161; as member of liberal estab
lishment, 409-10; as member of Red Family, 195-96; political and family background of, 103, 176; as writer for Ramparts, 151-52; as writer for Root and Branch, 111, 117,127 
Scheer, Christopher, 196 Scheer, Serena, 174 Schlamme, Martha, 53 Schneider, Bert: funding for Oakland Community Learning Center from, 231; funding of Ramparts by, 223-24; parties hosted by, 233-34; reaction to disappearance of Betty Van Patter, 248, 255-57; support of Huey Newton by, 225,243,265,297,322 
Schoenman, Ralph, 128-33, 140-41, 146-53,184-85 
Schweitzer, Albert, 131 Schwemer, Michael, 275 Scott, Peter Dale, 189 Scottsboro Boy, 49, 54 Seale, Bobby: at Black Panther rally in Berkeley, 158; and Chicago Conspir

 Index .

acy Trial, 166, 167; flight to avoid re
taliation from Black Panthers, 221, 245, 269-70, 296; Hilliard-Hayden ar
gument over, 321; and Huey Newton, 234, 242, 245, 259; as mayoral candi
date, 267; and New Haven Seven trial, 188, 377; as 'preacher' at Son of Man Temple, 240; as speaker at Malcolm X Day celebration, 241 
Seattle Liberation Front, 175, 409 Second International, 76 
'Second Thoughts' (radio show), 427 Second Thoughts Conference (Washing
ton, DC, 1987),376-79, 404 
See, Carolyn, 418 Seeger, Pete, 53, 64 self-determination, 115 Seward Park High School (New York), 25, 65 
sexually transmitted diseases, 338-39, 340,341,343,345 
sexual revolution, 173-75 Shabazz, Betty, 163 
the Panther, The (Pearson), 442 
Shakespeare: An Existential View (Horowitz), 135-36 Shakespeare, William, 91, 100, 101, 119,135 
Sharansky, Natan, 277 Sheen, Bishop Fulton J., 41 Sheinbaurn, Stanley, 159, 180, 237 Sherman,Ian, 364 Sherman,Robin, 364,440 
Shilts, Randy, 339-40, 341, 342, 345 Sholokhov, Mikhail, 36 
Shrum, Bob, 354 
'Siete de La Raza, Los,' 300 Silverman, Mervyn, 342-43 Singleton, John, 421 
Six Day War (1967), 227,275-76 Sixties: Years 
Hope, Days 
Rage (Gitlin), 104 
Smart magazine, 402 Smith, Gerald L. K, 67 Smith, Henriether, 54 
Smith, Kathleen, 243, 259, 265, 296, 297 
Smith, Page, 322 Smith, Steve, 330 Smith Act, indictments under, 64, 70-71,107,271,274 
social democrats (social democratic movement), 61 
Social Foundations of Knowledge, The (pro
posed) (Horowitz), 211, 215, 216, 285 
Socialist Register, The, 134-35, 398 Socony Mobil, 211 
Soledad Brother Uackson), 221, 309, 310, 313 
Solidarity, 391 
Solzhenitsyn, Alexander, 193, 210, 272 'Solzhenitsyn and the Radical Cause' (Horowitz), 193 
Somoza, A., 350 
Son of Man Temple (Oakland), 240,241 Sontag, Susan, 181-82, 194, 382-83 Soon To Be A Major Motion Picture (Hoff
man), 410 
Sorel, Edward, 189, 385 Soul On Ice (Cleaver), 168 
Souk of 
Black Folk (Du Bois), 64 Southern Dixiecmts, 56 
Soviet Union: collapse of, 391; expan
sionism of, 124; political freedom in, 398; progressive Left support for, 41 Sowell, Thomas, 406 Sayer, Moses, 37 Soyer, Raphael, 37 Spanish Civil War, 41, 49, 361 
Sparer, Ellen, 79-80, 146, 259-63, 275, 381 
Spellman, Cardinal Francis Joseph, 41 Sperber, Richie, 80 
Spinoza, Baruch, 227 Sraffa, Piero, 135 Stalin, Joseph: collectivization of Russia under, 22-23; control of Eastern Eu
rope by, 41, 56, 63, 124; criminal ac
tivity of, 83, 89, 91, 361; cult of the individual surrounding, 83-84, 113, 
 Stalin, Joseph (cont.)

                                 The U.S. Tax Code
IV The Perks and Privileges of the Political Class
V The Cancer of Progressivism

           The Real 
Opiate of the Masses
 III: The Political Weapon of Choice.

 stead we now see that things have only gotten worse and that the 'change' the political elite think we wanted was the transition to a system based on entitlements and handouts.

So-called experts cite the historical consequences of grotesque overspending but then go on to conclude that our own destiny will be different from those who previously went down this same 

he tax code that started in 
as fourteen pages now ex
 ceeds sixty-seven thousand.

The Fair Labor Standards Act of 
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 
The Rehabilitation Act of 
The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 
The Family and Medical Leave Act of 
The Federal Service Labor-Management Relations Statute Veterans' employment and reemployment rights at Chapter 
of Title 
of the U.S. Code 
The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act 
 Until we are ready to wipe the slate dean and bring in new leaders who are beholden to no one but us and to nothing but the Constitution, we must demand a political 'mutual-assured destruction' policy: every law imposed on the people must apply with equal force to those who passed it.

 take-all' approach was meant to compel candidates to move to the middle in order to pick up the most political support possible.

Instead of competing in the center, our political parties are competing on the fringe.

And you still wonder why it feels like elections offer us no real choice? These candidates may come from different political parties, but their philosophy of the government's role all came from the same corrupt well.


Introduction: Wilson, the Founding, and Historical Thinking
I Historicism and Wilson's Critique of the Social Compact
2 The Modern Democratic State and the New 
3 Beyond the Separation of Powers: The New Constitutionalism
and the Growth of the American National State
 4 Congress as Parliament?

Most important, a substantial intellectual debt is owed to my teacher and friend, Charles R. Kesler, who first showed me the impor
 tance of Wilson to the American political tradition, and whose articles on the topic have substantially influenced my own research.

                                   The historical view, in general, rejected the possibility of transcending the historical environment in order to grasp uni
versal political principles; instead, politics had to be guided by the spirit of the current historical age, and political change was to be grounded in evolu
 tion from one historical spirit to the next.

10   Introduction 
would read the heart of political 
letting political theory wait on that practice and carry weight only in proportion to its nearness to what has been ac
 tually accomplished.

He did not believe that Bagehot's evolutionary theory pro
 vided a sufficient model for political change.

                                                                                                                                                   Link contrasts Wilson to the more 
22   Introduction 
Wilson, the Founding, 
Historical Thinking   23 
aggressive elements of the progressive movement, characterizing the early years of the Wilson presidency as an attempt to defend the New Freedom against these more liberal elements9
 However, the more Link wrote on Wil
 son the more he saw him as a progressive, and the first-time publication of many of Wilson's political writings in Link's sixty-nine-volume collection of Wilson's papers seems to indicate this shift.

                                                                                                                                                        As Wil
son said in an explication that is worth quoting at length, men in politics are confined to adaptation, working within the confines of their particular histor
ical environment, unable to transcend it: 
From the dim morning hours 
history when the father was king and priest down to this modern time 
history's high noon when nations stand forth full
grown and self-governed, the law 
coherence and continuity in political de
 velopment has suffered no serious breach.

'zs Problems in American government, consequently, result from a reticence to adjust our political principles to the new spirit that history is bringing forth.

In the political realm, this led him to attack individualistic conceptions of fights
 or any concept like the social compact that emphasized a distinction between the sphere of the state and the sphere of the individual.

                                              Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science 

 The previous chapter detailed Wilson's criticism of the social compact and the abstract theory of rights upon which it is based' In making his critique, Wilson seems to sound certain themes of classical democratic theory.

Human thought and action are conditioned by their historical environment, and the ancient notion of states
manship makes the mistake of assuming that great individuals can transcend 
68   Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   69 
 that environment.

Wilson was also critical of the Aristotelian cycle of regimes, and he wished 'to contrast the later facts of political development with this ancient exposi

In early essays such as 'The Art of Governing,' Wilson commented that history points to the development of a single kind of 
70   Chapter Two 
The Modem Democratic State and the New Political Science   71 

                                                            Wilson's essay 'De
mocracy' explicates the distinction between rule by majority opinion and rule 
72   Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   73 
 by the implicit, objective will of society.

The best government, after all, is simply the one that reflects the 
74   Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   75 
 historically conditioned will of a particular society.

son made this point by characterizing government as the mere instrument of 
Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   77 
 society's common will.

                                                                                                                                         78   Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   79 
Even political liberties and privileges, Wilson asserted, are not immune from the exercise of state power if the will of the people in a particular age en
 dorses state action.

The first is that Wilson saw his progressivism as the only viable 
Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   81 
 alternative to socialism.

Both socialism and Wilson's progressivism found the traditional American political order outdated and unable to handle the new social and economic problems of contemporary times.

                                                   The inference is strengthened in the essay by the character the 'democrat,' who says to the 'socialist': 
82   Chapter Two 
The Modem Democratic State and the New Political Science   83 
You know it is my principle, no less than yours, that every man shall have an equal chance with every other man: if 1 saw my way to it as a practical politi
 cian, 1 should be willing to go farther and superintend every man's use of his chance.

                                                                                                                                                To society 
84   Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   85 
alone can the power of dominating by combination belong: and society cannot suffer any of its members to enjoy such a power for their own private gain inde
its own strict regulation and oversight et 
 Private development, then, must be under the control of the state.'

                           It is this assertion, for instance, 
Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   87 
 that underlies Wilson's numerous writings on administration, where he argues that we can borrow administrative models from nations like Prussia in spite of the obvious constitutional differences.

Easton's account of liberal realism makes clear that Bagehot rejected this 
Chapter Two 
The Modern Dentocratic State and the New Political Science   89 
 kind of thinking.

Wilson's historical thinking, therefore, while certainly em
 bracing a realist methodology in political science, also owes much to German thinkers like Hegel and their study of the state.'

                                              90   Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   91 
 The development of specialized disciplines within the social sciences took place during a time when German influence on American institutions of higher learning was at its height.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Crick notes that 
92   Chapter 7Wo 
The Modem Democratic State and the New Political Science   93 
Wilson's more value-laden, even religiously oriented, empiricism is bypassed by the more strictly scientific and amoral pragmatism of William James, John Dewey, and others-' As we will see in chapter 7, Wilson's science of admin
istration also comes under heavy criticism by subsequent theorists, who con
 sider it insufficiently value free.

Beginning in the late 1860s, the traditional view was challenged by reformers who wanted 
Chapter Two 
The Modem Democratic State and the New Political Science   95 
 a more practical or vocational orientation.

They opposed elective cur
 ricula, and were very much concerned with connecting the university with service to the political world.

Portions of my presentation of Wilson's state theory are drawn from my chapter 'Woodrow Wilson, the Organic State, and American Republicanism,' in History ofAmer
 ican Political Thought, ed.

Chapter Two 
The Modern Democratic State and the New Political Science   97 

This new condition also laid the groundwork for significant transformation of American political institutions.

                                                                                                                                                                 In his 
New Freedom 
campaign, Wilson asked rhetorically what the attitude of progressives ought to be toward the symbols of the founding political order-especially toward the Constitution 
Chapter Three 
Beyond the Separation of Powers   105 
 and the individualistic understanding of it that dominated the founding era.

It steadily retained the same organization, the same opinions, and the same political principles throughout all the period of seventy-two years that stretched from the establishment of the federal government to the opening of the war for its preservation.'

                                     Wilson's argument that the country 
112   Chapter Three 
Beyond the Separation of Powers   113 
had progressed into a nation as a consequence of the Civil War and Recon
 struction laid the groundwork for his political writings.

The framers committed the great sin of taking Montesquieu's political ideas out of historical context.

Congress is supreme in the American political order, yet, Wilson lamented, there is no real leadership in Congress; there is, therefore, no real leadership for 
Chapter Four 
Congress as Parliament?   141 
 the nation itself.

164   Chapter Five 
 This realization led to a second and somewhat different form of institutional political science, one that turned to the popular leadership of the president, with the assistance of a reconstituted party system and judiciary.

                                                                                                                                       As Wilson elaborated: 
There is another course which the President may follow, and which one or two Presidents of unusual political sagacity have followed, with the satisfactory re
 sults that were to have been expected.

                                                                                                                                                          Wilson contrasted the president's duties as 'legal exec
utive' to his 'political powers,' advocating an emphasis on the latter as a means of using popular opinion to transcend the rigid separation-of-powers structure of the old 'Newtonian' constitutional framework'
  As opposed to remaining confined to the constitutionally defined powers and duties of his own branch, the president's role as popular leader means that he must, as the embodiment of the national will, coordinate and move Congress and the other parts of government.

      Wilson's practice of executive governance, in other words, largely corre
sponded to the doctrine he had developed in his writings, that the political 
arm of government needed strong leadership and that the president, as the em
bodiment of the historically conditioned will of the people, should use his po
 sition to direct a wide range of national political action.

He suggests that we must have one or the other, that we cannot have both, and that Wilson devel
 ops the former at the expense of the latter~z To the extent that the president's executive powers are defined in such narrow terms, it is no doubt the case that they are weakened by Wilson's emphasis on the president's political powers.

That exterior organization is the political party.'

     Wilson easily conceded that his ac
count gave the judiciary an explicitly 
character-it must be so in or
 der to read from the current spirit the needs of the nation.

'It is true,' Wilson admitted of the courts, 'that their power is political; that if they had interpreted the Constitution in its strict letter, as some proposed, and not in its spirit ...

                                                            Chapter Six 
Who Governs? Wilson's Leadership Doctrine and the Question of Democracy 

 The preceding chapters have discussed Wilson's plan for the rearrangement of American political institutions.

So who is it that governs? Is it the people, whom a strong president dependent upon their will would seem to empower, or is it the bureaucratic experts, who are shielded from the meddling of politics and public opinion as they carry out the business of ad
ministration? The answer seems to lie in an important characteristic of Wil
 son's thought and in much of progressivism: the rhetoric is intensely popular and democratic, yet the reality of the argument is to put political power in the hands of governing elites who possess advanced knowledge of the spirit of the age and the course of history.

these sides will be treated in the next two chapters: chapter 7 will address the extent to which the influence of public opinion is weakened by the ceding 
significant gov
erning authority to an unelected bureaucracy; the current chapter will address the politics side 
 the divide, posing the question of how democratic Wilson's political vision actually is.

The president, who is to lead the political arm of government, is a force that will see to it that the government adapts to the spirit of the times and the interests of the current age.

It was the job 
 of political leadership to discern it, and to educate, form, and guide public opinion in accord with the leadership's own vision of the public's true will.

This is a central irony in Wilson's political thinking: while his rhetoric pushed for a popularization of the American system of governance, Wilson did not maintain a terribly high opinion of the people themselves.

Hence, his calls for popularizing the 'politics' half of the politics-administration dichotomy rely heavily on the ability of leadership to educate and move the public through political rhetoric.

He had always sympathized with the ability of parliamentary systems to change political leadership at the point when the leadership had lost the support of public opinion.

                                                                                                                                                                                               While it is the case that Wilson 
222   Chapter Seven 
Wilson's Science of Administration 
changed his mind on the question of which institution-Congress or the presidency-was to serve as the focus of national political leadership, Wilson consistently maintained that Congress had to abandon its traditional legisla
 tive functions.

This shift in responsibility for policymaking from a political institu
 tion to an administrative one is fundamental to Wilson's writings on the science of administration.

Our energies must, there
 fore, be directed to the particular administrative means necessary to achieve the political ends that have now been settled by history.

Wilson remained, instead, consistent in his contention that administrators must be insulated from political influence in order to make decisions that reflect the general interest.

Storing, 'Political Parties and the Bureaucracy,' 308-9.

See also Turner, 'Wilson as Administrator,' 251; Louis Brownlow, 'Woodrow Wilson and Public Administration,' 
Public Administration Review 
16 (1956): 81; Wallace S. Sayre, 'Premises of Public Administration: Past and Emerging,' 
Public Administration Review 
18:2 (1958): 102; Raymond Seidelmann and Edward J. Harpham, 
Disenchanted Realists: Political Science and the American Crisis, 
 1884-1984 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1985), 55.

But given Wilson's lifelong embrace of progressive principles, it seems more accurate to 
understand the 1912 New Freedom campaign as an anomaly~z Wilson did in
 deed act in the face of political expediency, but the political expediency was the need, in 1912, to downplay the progressivism to which he had long subscribed.

For Wilson, any reference to abstract political ideas was fundamentally dangerous and revolutionary.

So for Wilson, conservatism meant embracing continuous change in the political order-but it was to be gradual, evolutionary change' 
 It is ironic that today many conservatives, like Wilson, look to Burke as a guiding figure in their political thinking.

    The autocracy that crowned the summit of her political structure, long as it had stood and terrible as was the reality of its power, was not in fact Russian in origin, character, or purpose 5
As was the case with his 1901 remarks on the history of colonial America, Wilson here endorsed democratic 'revolution' as the arrival of something for which the time was ripe-as history matching 
 democratic government with the right set of conditions.

is associate professor of politics at the University of Dallas, where he teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in political philosophy, American politics, and American political thought.

He is also a research fellow of the Claremont Institute for the Study of Statesmanship and Political Philosophy.

His previous books include 
 Founding the Criminal Law: Punishment and Political Thought in the Origins of America.

Her maternal grandfather, Robert Rochon Taylor, was the first black man to head the Chicago Housing Authority, and his father was the first black graduate of M.I.T., who went on to hold a top position at the Tuskegee Institute?s Educated at Stanford and University of Michi
gan Law School, Jarrett eschewed corporate law after a stint in the 1980s and instead became immersed in the Chicago political 

           then an Illinois state senator, gave a 'glowing' ref
erence for Whitaker to Tony Rezko, the now-convicted political 
'Outstanding?' Well, his ability to escape scrutiny and account
 ability for his sleazy ties to Rezko certainly is outstanding.

                                                   The Senator's wife provides political cover for the university with the com
munity, in return for which the university provides a previously non-existent and prestigious position to the Senator's wife, 
 It was during her first year overseeing the program that Mrs. Obama arranged an eyebrow-raising panel on juvenile justice.

 Like Mrs. Obama's father, Ayers's father was a cog in the Daley political machine.

He also has signed off on quarterly statements as treasurer for 26 political action committees, according to FEC records.'

The Democrat head of the Senate Finance Committee rushed to support her: 'There is absolutely no doubt in my mind that Governor Sebelius has the political expe
 rience, determination, and bipartisan work ethic to get the job done with Congress this year,' Senator Max Baucus wrote.

If your dream is for an America where cronies can come in all colors and climb the political ladder with the patronage of Big Labor, indeed, Hilda Solis certainly fits the bill.

He was drummed out of academia in a ridiculous hissy fit of political correctness.

                                                               Announcing Geithner's nomination as Treasury Secretary on November 
24, 2009, 
President Obama hailed the genius civil ser
vant as uniquely qualified: 'With stellar performances and out
standing results at every stage of his career, Tim has earned the confidence and respect of business, financial and community lead
ers; members of Congress; and political leaders around the world-and I know he will do so once again as America's next 
Treasury Secretary, the chief economic spokesman for my Admin

enforcers have set aside another $10 million to spend on un-elect
 ing any of its political beneficiaries who abandon their pledges to do the union's legislative bidding.

An unnamed SEW official agreed to float their plan and 'see where it goes': 

for ROD BLAGOJEVICH's financial security as well as main
 tain his political viability.

'All of this just seems like an awful lot of money and time spent on political campaigning for an organization that purports to exist to help low-income con
sumers,' Jim Terry, chief public advocate for the Washington, D.C.-based Consumers Rights League, told the 
Pittsburgh Trib

In the first three months of 2009, the Associated Press reported, more than $100,000 of the $1 million Dodd raised came from political action committees for the financial, insurance, and real 
 estate industries, according to his latest fundraising report.

                                                                                                                         See also 
interest in underage drinking by, and effect of tax increases on, 146-147 
lobbying and, 159-160 
political action committees, 144, 145,147 
political partnership between tobacco industry and, 158-160 
radio markets and advertising by, 149 
deaths from annually, in America, 19 naltrexone and injectable Vivitrol and, 78 
portrayal of, in Hollywood films, 18 Alcohol manufacturers accountability and, 169 
spending on lobbyists by, 144 Alcohol poisoning, college students and deaths from, 51 Alcohol prohibition, illegal drugs vs., 129 
Alcopops, 57, 58, 159 Allen, Tim, 4 
All the King's Men (movie), 180 Alzheimer's disease, 120 medical marijuana research and, 119 
American Cancer Society, 182 American Heart and Lung Association, 152, 169 American Journal 
Public Health, 44,155 
American Legacy Foundation, 53 truth campaign, 156, 158 American Legislative Exchange Council, 88 
American Medical Association, 3, 48,58 
calls for increased alcohol taxes by, 147, 148 
 American Psychiatric Association, 51, 177 17.3

also Boys; Girls; Parents 
alcohol abuse among, 59 alcohol-related advertising and influence on, 5640 antipsychotic drugs taken by, 2 cigarette smoking by, 8, 14 
of divorced parents, 106 homeless, 115 
as innocent victims of parental substance abuse, 67-68 
Joe Camel advertising campaign and, 15 
in juvenile justice systems, 87 multidrug episodes and social elements among, 35 
needed international arrangements to curb alcohol abuse by, 170 parents and prevention 
substance abuse in,176-177 
Political partnership between alcohol and tobacco industry and, 158-160 
polydmg abuse and, 32 prevention focused on, 174-175 smoking and drinking in animated films and, 53 
steroids taken by, 5, 26 substance abuse and crushing consequences for, 107-111 synthetic drugs and pharmaceutical drugs taken by, 26-27 
tobacco industry, public education programs and, 155-158 
tobacco industry advertising tactics and, 60-62 
on welfare, substance abuse and, 112 
whiskey given to, in colonial America, 16 
wide use of marijuana by, 119 
Child welfare system, 177 divorce and, 106 
substance abuse and, 107-110 Chiles, Lawton, 155 
Cholera, 11 Cigarette advertising to black community, 14-15 broadcast networks and, 148 to children, during post-Civil War years, 11 
to children and teens, 15 to Hispanic community, 15 promotions, 151 
 Cigarette Interdiction Group (New York City), 175 Cigarette manufacturers accountability and, 169 advertising by, and influence on teens and children, 60-62 Cigarettes, 5.

See Political action committees Painkilling pharmaceuticals, America's consumption of, 9 
Pain medications, 1 
sales of, in schools, 42 Paley, William S., 12 

                                                                                                                 See PCP 
Philip Morris Incorporated, 14, 62, 143, 144, 150, 156, 157, 158 Physical abuse 
drug and alcohol abuse by students and, 44 
problem drinking among girls and women with history of, 13 
Physicians, 168   Presley, Elvis, 4, 22 
Camel cigarettes touted by, 12   Prevention, focus of, on children and 
prevention of substance abuse   teens, 174-175 
and, 174   Price of drugs, legalization and, 
substance abuse in patients and,   126-127 
73-76   Princeton University, 7 
Papers, The (Dickens), 92   Principals, drug sales in schools and 
Pilgrims, beer supply of, and landing at   attitudes of, 42, 43 
'   Plymouth Rock, 16   Prison companies, 88 
Pipe smoking, on American frontier, 10   measuring success of, 97 Piton, Margaret Susan, 49 
Pittsonberger, Dana, 48 Plumeri, Joe, 185 
Political action committees alcohol industry, 144 tobacco industry, 143-144 Political leadership, importance of, 162-163 
alcohol and drug abuse and, 4, 104 myths about prison inmates and role of, 87-89 
Polydrug abuse, 31, 32 
limited knowledge about, 23 Polydrug abusers, addicts as, 35 Poor, the, substance abuse and 
 addiction and, 6 Population attributable risk, 187n Pot, 7.

                        See also Alcohol abuse; Cocaine; Heroin; Marijuana; Methamphetamine; Prescription drug abuse; Smoking; Tobacco back-of-the-bus research status on, 76-80 
as chronic disease, 165-166 collateral wreckage from, 7, 103-117 on college campuses, 51 conservatives, liberals, and 
ideological myopia about, 163-164 
crime and, 85-101 cycles within, 70 diseases/conditions attributable to, 187-189 (table) 
as enemy from within, 178 
faith community and countering of, 173-174 
financial and health costs related to, 6 
fractured families and, 105-107 health care spending and, 80-84 HIV epidemic and, 83 
homeless population and, 115-116 human misery related to, 5 mortality and morbidity toll from, 65-67 
parental conduct and teen's attitude toward, 45-49 
physicians and, 73-76 
the poor and minorities and, 6 professionalizing providers and, 167-169 
protecting our children from, 36, 178 
as Public Health Enemy Number One, 5 
public housing and, 113-114 'rewired' brains of addicts and, 35 in schools, 40-45 
shoveling-up practices in America and, 16-117 
stigmatization of, 164-167 treatment programs and, 68-73 unisex legacy and, 135-142 welfare and, 111-113 Substance-free dormitories, 51 Sudden infant death syndrome, 68 Suicide 
alcohol abuse among teens and, 39 binge drinking and, 59 
teens, addiction and, 5 Sullivan, Lou, 185 
Super Bowl, 57 
Surgeon General's Reports on Smoking and Health, 13,14 
Sweden, restrictive drug policy in, 131 Sweeney,John, 185 
Switzerland, drug decriminalization in, 130 
Szelog, Samantha, 42 
Tailgate parties, binge drinking and, 50 Taliban, 172 
Taverns, as political birthing centers in colonial America, 16 
Taxes, 171 
alcohol, 18n, 127, 130 cigarette, 127, 130,175 political money and freedom from increases in, 146 
prison funding and, 91 
on tobacco, Revolutionary War debt and, 10 
tobacco industry and impact of, on sales, 149-153 
Taxin, Christine, 47 Taxin, Paul, 47 Taylor, Elizabeth, 4 
Taylor, Lawrence, 4 
Teachers, drug sales in schools and attitudes of, 42, 43 
Teen drinking, as precedent for adult alcoholism, 38, 59 
Teen pregnancies alcohol abuse and, 39 women on welfare and, 112 Teens 
alcohol abuse by, 126 alcohol-related advertising and influence on, 56-60 alcohol-related car crashes and, 18 beer drinking by, 19 
cigarette advertising directed to, 15 cigarette smoking by, 8, 14, 126 co-occurrence of mental disorders 
with substance abuse in, 78 in emergency rooms, 75 
faith communities and countering substance abuse in, 173 
in juvenile justice systems, 87 marijuana use and developing brains of, 123-124 marijuana used by, 119, 122 multidrug episodes and social elements among, 35 
parents and prevention of substance abuse in, 176-177 
political partnership between alcohol and tobacco industry and,158-160 
polydrug abuse and, 32 prescription drug abuse by, 5 prevention focused on, 174-175 tobacco industry, public education programs and, 155-158 
tobacco industry advertising tactics and, 60-62 
Teen smokers, Clinton administration and decline in, 162 
Teen suicide, addiction and, 5 Television, alcohol and drug abuse portrayed on, 54 
Television advertising 
alcohol manufacturers and, 56 ban on cigarette advertising and, 14 
Television stars, drug and alcohol abuse and, 2 
 Temperance movement, 16-17 Terrorism, 172 Tetrahydrocannabinol.

                                                                See also Alcohol industry Canadian cigarette taxes, smuggling and, 152 
Clinton administration and, 162 damage control and offsetting tax-caused price increases, 151 impact of taxation on sales and, 149-153 
lobbying by, 144, 159-160 
Master Settlement Agreement and, 157-158 
Political action committees, 143-144 
political partnership between alcohol industry and, 158-160 replacement smoker strategy and, 151,152 
smoke-free environments and, 153-155 
 Tobacco Institute, 153 Tobacco use.

the person who writes on a Web 
 post that 'everyone I know agrees with me' or starts off every political argument with the words 'Americans don't think that...'

There's a reason why polling dominated much of the 
 political focus and why more media outlets do more political and cultural polling than ever before-it sells.

There were more than one million job seekers for the nearly eight thousand-'plum'-White House political appointee positions as listed in the 'United States Government Policy and Supporting Positions' manual-otherwise known as 'the Plum Book.'

less of what ideological side you're on, Americans expect the conversa
 tion to revolve around certain fundamental principles, necessities, and expectations-and they will judge the political debaters and the health care providers not by the legalistic and bureaucratic changes they offer but by whether they have individualized, personalized, and humanized health care for themselves and their families.

I told AARP's leadership that it was their mission to take that anger and frustration and channel it into constructive political action in zoo8.

Freedom to Own a Gun
Freedom from Having to Incriminate Yourself
Freedom of the Press
Freedom from Cruel and Unusual Punishment
Freedom to Peaceably Assemble
Freedom to Petition the Government
Freedom to Have a Quick and Speedy Trial by a Jury of Your Peers
Freedom from Unreasonable Search and Seizure
Pursuit of Happiness
Freedom of Religion
Freedom of Speech
66°%   Freedom of Speech 
40°%   Freedom of Religion 
20%   Freedom to Own a Gun 
18°%   Freedom from Unreasonable Search and Seizure 
16%   Freedom to Petition the Government 
12%   Freedom of the Press 
12%   Freedom from Cruel and Unusual Punishment 
9%   Freedom to Peaceably Assemble 
5%   Freedom to Have a Quick and Speedy Trial by a Jury of Your Peers 
z%   Freedom from Having to Incriminate Yourself 
52%   The Bill of Rights 
48%   The Ten Commandments 
65% Morals 35% Values 
64% Greed 8% Gluttony 7% Envy 7% Sloth 6% Vanity 5% Rage 4% Lust 
91°%   The Opportunity to Succeed 
9%   Protection from Failure 
84%   A Lot Less Money at a job You Love 
16%   A Lot More Money at a job You Hate 
18%   Less Than a Year 
12%   1 Year 
14%   2 Years 
16%   3 or 4 Years 
15%   5 to 9 Years 
26%   ro Years or More 
3% 14% 9% 4°% 9% 
I Have No Savings A 
Month or Less Two-Three Months Six-Nine Months 
A Year 
Two Years 
More Than Two Years 
43%   Spend Time with Your Family 
32%   Day Trip Somewhere 
25%   Spend Time with Friends 
15%   Reading Books/Magazine 
15%   Clean up the Home 
13%   Catch up on a Hobby 
12%   Do Nothing at All 
10%   Use the Computer 
1o°%   Take a Long Nap 8% Exercise 
6%   Go Shopping 
6%   Go Play Sports 
5°%   Watch Television 
24% 66% 9% 2% 
51% 35
% 4% 
43%   A Little More Money 
30%   Fewer Day-to-Day Hassles 
17%   A Little More Free Time 
io%   More Choices of the Things You Want 
46% Rich 
27%   Physically Strong 18% Powerful G% Sexy 
4% Famous 
A Lot More Intelligent A Little More Intelligent A Little Less Intelligent A Lot Less Intelligent 
A Lot More Attractive A Little More Attractive A Little Less Attractive A Lot Less Attractive 
79%   Being Put on Hold by a Customer Service Representative 
31%   Waiting to Go Through Security at the Airport 
29%   Waiting at the Supermarket Checkout Line 
29%   Waiting at a Department Store to Pay for Your Items 
25%   Waiting to Make a Left Turn at a Busy Intersection 
5%   Waiting to Check in at a Hotel 
TOTAL 43% 37% 34% 22% 
The Opportunity to Succeed The Good Life 
The Pursuit of Happiness The American Dream 17%   A Fair Shake 
13%   To Be Left Alone 
9%   A Fresh Start 
9%   Everything I Can Get 
8%   A Fighting Chance 
8%   A New Beginning 
31%   Restoring National Economic Stability 
Restoring Values and Morality to Society 
29%   Preventing Terrorism 
29%   Improving Schools and Education 
Ending American Dependence on Foreign Oil 
Restoring Political Accountability 
Curing Cancer 
Lowering the Tax Burden on Working Americans 
Ending World Poverty 
Closing the Widening Gap Between Rich and Poor 
Global Warming 
Restoring Personal Financial Security 
ro%   Strengthening Social Security and Medicare 
8%   Ending Race and Gender Inequality 
Restoring Respect for America Around the World 
5%   Ending Racial Inequality 
5%   Fighting Crime and Illegal Drug Use 
Rebuilding Our Roads, Bridges, and Highways 
f a 
number of signifcan 
 :he United States today.

It has traditionally 
 focused on these with little attention to history, political economy, culture, critique, or cross cultural understanding of the purposes of these institutions.

Miller (2001, 246) defines globalization as 'the process by which national political boundaries are eroded in such a way that people's life chances everywhere increasingly depend on the workings of a global market over which states have little control.'

                                                                                          falsity of neoconservative claims of progress through globaliza
tion is apparent for the majority who have lost ground economically, but less apparent to the minority at the top of the economic structure who have prof
 ited greatly and retained political power.

As the United States increases its prison population (in 2005 it was over two million), it isolates especially young minor
 ity men from political engagement and social interaction.

A political argument for or against population growth necessi
 tates a philosophical base informed with data to support the argument.

Faced with the compelling issue of what constitutes bona fide social change and the need for establishing some political programs and agendas for change (universalities), this position argues for the contingent nature of political agen
das; that is, given historical conditions and diverse peoples, at best, we can only establish tentative platforms that can be the bases of focused attempts at 
Struggles and Social Justice 
 social change.

However, as the civil rights era clearly shows, no mainstream political official was pushing for the sorts of changes demanded by these movements.

'There are undoubtedly times when countries may have to sacrifice legal principles in the name of political prag
 matism, in order to end war or achieve peace' (Newman 2005, 309).

The success of this defense and the ongoing political development inVenezuela has allowed for continued organizing around 
 progressive justice demands.

As Zapatista Subcomandant Marcos says, 'the result will not be the triumph of a party, organization, or alliance of organizations with their particular social programs, but rather the creation of a democratic space for resolving the confrontations between different political proposals' (Burbach 2001, 135).

                     Ourfaculty have advanced degrees in American studies, crimi
nology, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, science, sociol
 ogy and technology.

New Political Science 15:7-17.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       G_ 110 
Poland: and communism, 191; and EU (European Union), 192; shipyard workers, 190; and struggles, 190-192; Solidarity and two waves, 190-191 political economy, 36-41 
positive law, 14; positive jurisprudence, 125 
Posner, Richard, 145 postcolonial theory, 119-124 Poster, Mark, 138 
postmodern forms ofjustice, conceptions ofjustice, 26-28, 125-139, 214; antifoundational, 125, 130; against founding principles, 128; apposing grand narratives, 126; apposing positive jurisprudence, 125; constitutions enacted by force/violence, 128; contingency, 130;contingent frameworks ofjustice, 126; desire based 
 justice, 132, 135; difference between law and justice, 129-130; The Dierend, 127, 136; duty owed to the other, 130; Enlightenment period and postmodernists critique, 125, 130, 132; evaluative criteria, 126; experimental tinkering, 130; fostering otherness, 128; good prophets, 131;andindigenous authorship, 116; internal v.

 Economic decisions and political decisions are made in different ways, even when the same person makes both kinds of decisions, for example as a consumer and as a voter.

The voter's political decisions involve having a minute influence on policies which 
 many other people, while economic decision-making is about having a major effect on one's own personal well-being.

Political thinking tends to conceive of policies, institutions, or programs 
terms of their 
for results- 'drug prevention' programs, 'gun control' laws, 'environmental 
Applied Economics 

 see economic issues.

Yet such choices were verfectlv rational from 
Applied Economics 

 the standpoint of the self-interest of elected officials, given the political incentives and constraints in stage one.

A more fundamental question is whether political goals shall be judged by how attractive they sound or by how much must be sacrificed to achieve them.

However, it may be if political risk is the criterion.

Here, as elsewhere, the incentives facing political decision-makers are very different from the incentives facing economic decision-makers.

Private insurance companies must either charge enough to cover the cost of dangerous situations or impose requirements to reduce those dangers, while political decision-makers can base their decisions on what will make them look compassionate- and hence more re-electable-while leaving the costs 
Applied Economics 

 crusader than denouncing the company that produced an 'unsafe' vaccine or medicine, without telling the television viewers that there are no other kinds of vaccines or medications- or anything else.

Obvious as such considerations may seem, or even be demonstrable in hard data collected by statisticians, 
Applied Economics 

 most people are not statisticians and their sense of what is fair or unfair, whether logical or not, carries political weight in government agencies regulating insurance companies.

Applied Economics 

 number of fatalities, political outcries for more subway safety may well cause the authorities to order the trains slowed down, fewer cars to be attached to each train, and greater distances maintained between trains.

Whatever the political reasons for these restrictions, the economic consequence has been to make banking more risky.

                                   Such views- and the condescending and peremptory tone in which they were expressed

Applied Economics 

have become fairly typical of elite opinion across the political spectrum, from liberal or radical publications like 
The Nation 
magazine to conservative publications like the 
 Wall StreetJournal.

These include situations where the more fortunate group is a minority with no institutional or political power over the majority.

The charge that the government of India was reluctant to accept international help in response to the cyclone which struck the country in 1999, for political reasons, was made in India's own media and was reported on page 46 of 
Liberty andIlard Cases 
 edited by Tibor R. Machan.

The Russian government's similar reluctance, for political reasons, to accept international help in rescuing men trapped in one of its submarines- and its later acceptance of such aid with a second submarine in the wake of outcries from the Russian public over the deaths of the men in the first submarine- was reported in a story beginning on the front page of the 
New York Times 
 of August 7, 2005 under the headline: 'All 7 Men Alive as Russian Submarine Is Raised.'

A Z 
Advertising, 78-80 
Affirmative Action, 230, 234, 235 
Africa and Africans, 37,41,47-48,51,87,172,173,175,178,179,180,183, 186-187, 188, 200, 214, 218, 221, 222, 239, 243, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251,252,254,255,259,260,265,266-267,268,270,271,273 
Age, 22-23, 67,141-142, 192, 197 Agriculture, 101, 102-103, 205, 253, 257-258 AIDS, 76,140 
Argentina, 152, 174, 178, 180, 181, 182, 190, 193, 240, 241, 256, 264, 265, 269 
Asia, 47, 127, 174, 175, 178, 179, 188, 190, 191, 194, 208, 241, 248, 252, 255, 259, 265, 267, 270, 272 
Asian Americans, 229 Aspirin, 79-88 Atlanta, 31,106, 206 Atlantic Ocean, 44, 47, 124, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 191, 247, 250, 255, 259, 260, 268 
Australia, 31, 58, 69,113,152,172,175,179,180,182,188-189,190,191, 194, 196, 256,257 
Automobiles, 134, 135, 140, 141-142, 143, 145-149, 151 insurance: 134,135,151, 158 
safety: 134, 135, 143, 146-149,151 

Balkans, 47, 189, 209, 250, 251, 253, 255 Banco Popular, 137 
Banks, 165-167, 245 Barbary Coast, 37, 41,173 Baseball, 219-220 
Basic Economics, 
5n Becker, Gary, 89, 90 Bias, 211, 212-214, 215, 236 Black Markets, 62, 87, 113, 114 Blacks, 23-24, 93, 125, 126, 129-130 
Applied Economics 

Boston, 110, 128,177 
Brazil, 48, 50, 127, 174, 178, 181, 182, 190 
Britain, 31, 32, 33, 46, 49, 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 68, 93, 160, 172, 174, 183, 187,191, 196, 197, 201, 202, 238, 242, 243, 250, 263, 264, 269 
crime: 29, 31, 32-34 
immigration: 172, 174, 183, 186-187, 191, 196, 197, 201, 202 medical care: 56-59, 60-61, 63-64, 68, 85, 92 
Broadway, 207,219 Brooklyn Dodgers, 219-220 Burglars, 31 

Caesarean-section Births, 69, 70 
California, 3, 29, 60, 68, 71, 88, 96, 97-99, 100, 101, 103, 105, 107, 109, 111-112,116,117,118-120,130,131,136,203,235,238,261 Canary Islands, 243, 248 
Caribbean, 44, 47, 178, 202 Check-cashing Agencies, 136-138 Chicago, 16, 99, 110, 224, 249 China, 44-45, 53, 60, 62, 88, 152, 153, 171, 174, 178, 183, 184, 193, 238, 241-242,243,247,248,253,258,265,267 
Chinese, 37, 44-45, 62, 127, 175, 178, 180, 181, 202, 208, 213, 228, 236, 264-265 
Civil War, 50, 52, 126, 164, 200 Climate, 178, 239, 251, 253, 255-260 Coastal Plains, 252, 255 
Constraints (see Incentives and Constraints) Corvair, 146-149 
Costa, Elizabeth, viii 
Crime and Violence, 29-36, 197, 200-201, 203,208 burglary: 31 
guns: 32-34 
organized crime: 30, 34-36 punishment: 31-32, 33 

rationality: 30-33 
Culture, 33,128,171,174-175,179-184,185,188,189,190,195,196-197, 198, 199, 201-203, 204, 213, 231-232, 236-237, 240, 241, 247-248, 251,252-253,254,255,259,268-269,272-273 

Decisions, categorical: 3 incremental: 3, 74 
surrogate decision-makers: 67-68, 77, 89, 163-164 turnover among decision-makers: 219 Discrimination, 207-237,265 
affirmative action: 215, 220, 228, 230, 231, 234, 235 anti-discrimination laws: 207, 230-235 
antipathy: 212, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 223, 224, 257, 265 bias: 211, 212-214, 215, 229-230, 236 
comparability: 210, 225-230 competition: 219-222, 223-224 costs to discriminators: 207, 215-224, 230, 232 
employment discrimination: 207, 209-210, 221, 223-224, 226-227, 231,232-234,236-237 
genetic discrimination: 160-161 labor unions: 217-218, 224 lending discrimination: 229 life chances: 224-225, 226 'perceptions': 208-209 
prejudice: 208-212,215, 229-230, 257 
racial and ethnic discrimination: 207, 209-210, 215 sex discrimination: 210-211, 215, 226 
sorting devices: 211-212 
statistical disparities: 210, 211, 212, 213, 215, 218, 224-225, 227-228, 229-230,232 
Doctors (see Medical Care) Dogs, 156-157 
Du Bois, W.E.B., 209-210 

Economic Development, 189,238-273 agriculture: 239-240 
animals: 254, 258 
cities: 239, 240, 243, 248, 249-250, 251, 252, 253n, 269 climate: 178, 239, 251, 253, 255-260 
cultural universe: 243, 247-248, 251, 252-253, 254, 255, 258-259, 268-269 
'developing countries': 238 
differences in development: 238, 241-247, 248,270-272, 273 food: 239,245,261-262 
foreign aid: 246, 266-267 
foreign investment: 244, 263-267, 270 geographic factors: 241, 247-260, 272 government: 243-244 
national differences: 238 
natural resources: 189, 240, 241, 247, 255, 261, 267-268, 271, 272 navigable waterways: 247, 248-255, 256 
population: 238, 260-263, 267 property rights: 244-247 
rates of development: 207, 238-239, 240-241 retrogression: 238-239, 243 
sub-Saharan Africa: 249, 250, 251-252, 254, 260, 267, 268 technology: 239, 241, 250, 263, 268, 273 
underground economy: 244, 245 Economics, 12,130-131,203 
The Economist, 11, 
56, 69, 87, 88, 89,110, 110,153, 160, 172, 176, 190, 196,197, 200, 201, 202, 245, 268 
Education, 63, 127-128, 129, 181, 228, 230, 234-235 Egypt, 162, 238, 244, 247, 251 
Elmira, New York, 96, 97 Employment, 13-14, 17, 200, 218 
Applied Economics 

'menial' jobs: 26 outsourcing: 16-17 Eurasian Landmass, 185, 248, 258 
Europe and the Europeans, 37, 41, 47, 51, 78, 83, 85, 114, 124, 125, 127, 
176-178, 179, 181, 182,
199, 201, 202-203, 207,
250-251, 252, 254-256,
259, 260,
262,263-264,265,268,269,270,271 European Union, 84, 167, 168, 170 

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 138, 166, 167 Federal Reserve System, 13, 115, 118 
First World War, 23, 154, 182, 261, 262, 264 
Food and Drug Administration, 72, 75, 77, 79, 81, 83 Forced Labor, 20, 37, 39-41 
Foreign Aid (see Economic Development) 
France, 18, 56, 59, 157, 172, 183-184, 191, 192, 193, 199, 200-201, 240, 250,255 
Friedman, Milton, 1, 9 

Genetic Risks, 160-161 Geography, 
climate: 178, 239, 251, 253, 255-260 coastal plains: 252, 255 
flora and fauna: 258-259 Gulf Stream: 255 
navigable waterways: 247, 248-255, 256 rainfall: 258 
Germans and Germany, 56, 119, 174, 180, 181, 182, 190, 193, 197, 199, 201, 209, 214, 238, 240, 250, 255, 257, 261, 263, 269, 271, 272 
Applied Economics 

Government (see also Politics), 10-11,12,13, 53-54, 55, 56, 60, 64, 81-84, 92, 99-109, 123-126, 129, 139-143, 154-161, 166-171, 216-217, 218-219,220,221,243,244,266 
bureaucracy: 244 discrimination: 216-218, 220 'do something' policies: 7-14 property rights: 245 
regulation: 150,154-161, 165-167, 218-219, 220-221 Great Depression of the 1930s, 10-11, 12, 23, 166, 167 Gulags, 37,39-40 

Harlem, 109,127-128 Harvard, 6, 12, 235 Health Care (see Medical Care) Hispanics, 189, 225, 226, 228 Hoover, Herbert, 10-11 Housing, 59, 95-132 affordability: 95, 98 106,107-109,110-111, 115,124 apartments: 98, 114, 120-124 
circulation: 105, 108-109 commuting: 111, 131-132 condominiums: 122-123 developers: 103-104,106 financing: 115-120 
height restrictions: 130-131 home ownership: 98 housing quality: 95-98, 99 land: 98-106, 107 mortgages: 115-120 
price disparities: 96-98 prices: 95-123 property rights: 102, 103, 104 rent control: 5, 112-115, 223 

restrictions: 97, 99-104 
segregation: 125-130, 221, 222-223 slums: 123, 124 
urban renewal: 123 zoning: 107 Houston, 96, 106 Hudson River, the, 249, 251 Huguenots, 192-193, 263 Human Capital, 22-27, 47, 254, 265, 266, 272 

Immigration, 171-206,254-255 
admissions criteria: 190-191, 194, 195, 201 
assimilation: 174, 179-181,182, 183, 201, 202-203, 204, 257 benefits: 188, 191,192-197, 198, 263-264 
causes of migration: 172-173 chain migration: 174-176 citizenship: 201 
costs: 171-172,175,176-178,185-187,191,192,197-203,204,205 crime and violence: 183-184, 196 
cultures: 171,179-184, 185, 195, 197, 199-200, 202, 203, 204 diseases: 185-187, 203 
education: 172, 180, 188, 194-195, 201, 256-257 elite opinion: 195-197 
expellees: 171 
'guest workers': 195, 197, 199-200, 203 history: 172-187 
income: 171-172, 177, 191-192, 195, 197-198, 256, 257 
language: 171,172,174-175,182,183,188,189,190,202,203,257 numbers of migrants: 171, 173-174, 178-179, 184-185, 194 origins and destinations: 171, 173-179, 180, 186, 194, 203 
past and present: 189-190, 192, 204 political loyalty: 182-184 recruitment: 209 
Applied Economics 

refugees: 171,185,186,192-193 remittances: 124, 176, 266 return migration: 184-185, 190 second generation: 183-184,199-200, 201, 204, 205 skills: 172, 189, 194, 256,257,263-264 
sojourners: 171, 178, 180 
transportation technology: 171, 176-179 Incentives and Constraints, 89, 226, 232 economic: 13-14, 17-19, 32, 38-39, 48-49, 66, 67, 71, 76, 80, 108, 150-151,154,155,207,215-224,226-227,232 
political: 57-58, 71, 75, 76, 82-83, 112, 140-142, 145, 150-151, 153-154,155,156-157,158,160,161,162-164,217,221,222-223 Income, 27-29,115,229 
age: 21, 22 
changes over time: 28-29 earnings: 26,28-29 family income: 23 versus wealth: 27-28 Incremental Decisions, 3, 74 Indentured Labor, 44-45 India, 21,44,45,143,153,164,165,171,178,184-185,193,208,213,227, 228, 238, 241, 242, 243, 247, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 269 Insurance, 53, 64-65, 67, 68-71, 150-161 
adverse selection: 154-155, 160 annuities: 157 
automobile insurance: 134, 135, 151, 158 coverage: 156-158 
economic consequences: 151-153 fairness vs. risk: 155-157,158, 159, 161 genetics: 160-161 
government-provided insurance: 150,167 government regulation: 150,154-161 moral hazard: 135, 139-140,154-155 re-insurance: 152-153, 154 

risk: 133, 134, 138-162 social insurance': 167,170 the uninsured: 157, 160 Ireland and the Irish, 37-38, 124, 128-129, 171, 174, 175, 177, 185, 186, 191-192,202 
Italy and the Italians, 125, 171, 173, 174, 178, 181, 184, 185, 192, 197, 254, 256, 257, 272 

Japan and the Japanese, 37, 55, 62, 153, 163, 170, 178, 182-183, 190, 193, 205, 214, 233, 238, 242, 249, 260, 264, 265, 268, 270, 271 
Jews, 124-125, 127, 128, 171, 174, 175, 178, 183, 185, 193, 202, 209, 216-217,218,222-223,224,228,263,26S 
Juries, 36-37, 38-39 

Killing the Goose that Lays the Golden Egg, 16, 75, 76, 78 

child labor: 21 
forced labor: 20, 37, 39-41 free labor: 20,'21-27 human capital: 22-27 indentured labor: 44-45 labor unions: 21 
'menial' labor: 26 
minimum wage laws: 2, 26, 30, 224 productivity: 37-41, 42-43 
unfree labor: 20, 21, 36-52 unions: 217-218 
unpaid labor: 23-26 Las Vegas, 70, 106 
Latin America, 179, 190, 191, 194, 265, 267, 268, 279 
Applied Economics 

Lebanon and the Lebanese, 174, 175, 179, 180, 193, 202, 243, 265 Liu, Na, viii 
London, 29, 33, 57, 153, 160, 190, 193, 249, 254, 255, 264 Los Angeles, 16, 24,106, 112, 141, 184, 250 
Loudoun County, Virginia, 103-104,187 

Malaysia and the Malays, 180, 181, 213, 228, 230, 247, 264, 265 Manhattan, 99, 105, 124,127 
Mantle, Mickey, 89 Marx, Karl, 12 McDonald's, 26,245 Medical Care, 53-94,172,203 
costs: 53-54,56,60,61-63,64,66-67,68-69,70-71,72,73,74,77
78, 80,86-88,89-90,9t-92,93-94 
defensive medicine: 69, 70 
doctors: 54, 55-56, 60, 61-62, 63-64, 66, 80, 92, 216-217 health care vs. medical care: 58, 92-93 
hospitals: 56-57, 75, 92 
insurance: 53, 64-65, 67, 68-71, 88, 90 
international comparisons: 58-59, 60-62, 73-74, 76-77, 93 lawsuits: 69-70, 84 
medical malpractice: 68-71 medical technology: 59, 92 mortality rates: 93 
organ transplants: vii, 68, 84-91 pharmaceutical drugs: 71-84, 92, 149-150 price control: 54-64, 65-66, 76, 84-85, 90, 92, 94 quality: 54-59, 61 
vaccines: 149-150 
waiting times: 55, 58-59, 60-61, 68 Mexican Americans, 93, 184 
Mexico, 184, 188, 190, 194, 203, 209, 238,255 Middle East, 50, 51, 242, 247, 248, 270 

Mill, John Stuart, 260 
Minimum Wage Laws, 25, 26, 30, 224 Mohawk Indians, 209 
Muslims, 184, 201, 202 Mutual Aid Societies, 133, 144 

Nader, Ralph, 146, 147, 148, 149 Natural Disasters, 164-165 Natural Resources, 189, 240, 247, 255, 261, 267-268, 271, 272 
New York City, 5, 16, 17, 25, 33, 35, 99, 110, 113, 114, 115, 123, 125, 128, 177, 209, 249, 250, 255 
New York State, 24, 33, 96 
New York 
Times, 7, 12, 35, 63, 91, 110, 117, 118, 119, 161, 184, 233 New Zealand, 32, 58, 69, 182 
Nigeria, 21, 127, 213, 230, 243, 265 Nixon, Richard M., 1, 6, 8-9 

Oakland, 110, 136 
One-Stage Thinking, iii, vii, 6-7,18-19, 69, 70, 71, 74, 78-79, 92, 99,112, 121-122, 131-132, 151, 157, 158, 160, 164, 201, 202, 203, 205-206, 223,227,230,231,232,237,239,245-246 
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 58, 59 Ottoman Empire, 41, 47, 193, 249, 265 

Pakistan, 85, 165, 193 
Palo Alto, California, 96-97,98,107-108, 110 Pennsylvania, 69, 70, 81, 89, 250 
Peru and the Peruvians, 44, 45, 244, 246 Pharmaceutial Drugs, 71-84 advertising: 78-81 
development: 72-74, 75-77 
Applied Economics 

Food and Drug Administration: 72, 75, 77, 79-80, 81-83 generic equivalents: 73, 74-75, 78, 81 
prices: 71-72, 73, 76 
Poland and the Poles, 190, 215, 217, 218, 224 Police, 107,110 
Politics, 1-19, 75, 130, 136, 195, 264, 273 'art of the possible': 3 
categorical decisions: 3 demonization: 9, 73 
'do something' policies: 7-14 experimental policies: 10-12 hoped-for results: 4-5, 101 killing the goose that lays the golden egg: 16, 75, 76, 78 package deal decisions: 2-3 
politicians: vii, 4-6,141-142,158, 159, 159,203 time horizon: 4 
versus economics: 1-6, 7, 8-9,159,163-167, 205 voters: 2-4, 99 
Ponzi, Charles, 168-169 Population, 260-263, 267 Posterity, 102-103, 105-106 Prejudice, 208-212, 215, 229-230, 257 Price Control, 7, 8-9, 112-113 Productivity, 37-41, 42-43 
Property Rights, 102, 103, 104 

Rationality (see also Incentives and Constraints), 30-33, 57, 158, 211-212, 227 
Reagan, Ronald, 9 Rent Control, 5 Risk, 70, 86, 87, 91, 133-170, 239 adverse selection: 154-155, 160 age: 140-142 

banking: 137-138,165-167 
comparisons of risks: 142-144, 145, 146, 148-150 economics of risk: 161-167 
financial risks: 137-139, 142, 150-151, 165-167 genetic risks: 160-161 
government: 139-143,154-161,162-163 insurance: 133, 138, 139, 150-161 
moral hazard: 135,139-140,154-155 risk assessment: 133, 134, 151, 170 risk-reduction: 133-134, 139-162 risk transfer: 133, 138-139, 151-153 risk versus fairness: 155-157, 158, 159, 161 safety movements: 144-150 
'social insurance': 167-170, 197 trade-offs: 81-84, 149, 161-167 wealth: 164-165 
Robinson, Jackie, 219 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 10, 11 Roosevelt, Theodore, 105 Russia, 40, 180, 181, 185, 193, 209, 230, 238, 254, 257 'Rust Belt,' 17 

Safety, 79, 82, 144-150, 151 Safety Movements, 144-150 Samarkand, 249 Samuelson, Paul, 169 
San Francisco, 5, 97, 99, 101-102, 110, 111-112, 113, 115, 118, 119, 120, 121-122,154,248 
San Jose, 96, 98, 106, 121, 122 
San Mateo County, California, 97, 100, 101, 102, 107, 110, 112, 116, 119, 121 
Schultz, Dutch, 35 
Scots and Scotland, 181, 182, 188-189, 193, 256 
Applied Economics 
Second World War, 31, 33, 37, 65, 113, 131, 154, 163, 169, 182, 183, 190, 216, 220, 257, 262, 271 
Singapore, 249, 260, 270 
Slavery, 20, 21, 36, 37-38, 41-43, 46-52, 126,173 efficiency: 42-43 
ending: 46 occupations: 41-42 origins: 20 
race: 41 
treatment of slaves: 41-42 Smith, Adam, 18 
Smithies, Arthur, iii, 6 'Social Insurance,' 167-170 Social Security, 168, 169, 170,197 South Africa, 87, 172, 214, 218, 221, 222, 247, 268 South Korea, 266, 267 
Spain and the Spaniards, 176, 181, 209, 243, 256, 269, 270,271 Sri Lanka, 113, 228 
Stage-One Thinking, iii, viii, 4,6-7, 70,72-73,101,137,164,203 Stalin, Josef, 43, 53, 262 
Stanford University, 81, 96, 235 Stein, Herbert, 6, 8, 9 
Stock Market, 11 Subways, 162, 163-164 Swiss Re-insurance Company, 152-153, 154 Switzerland, 152, 193, 268, 271 
Taxes, 14-16 Taxi Drivers, 209 Telephone Industry, 218-219, 220, 268 
Third Parties, 26, 53, 65, 66-67, 87, 89, 91, 102, 123-124, 145, 149, 160, 163 
Third World, 16, 64, 75, 92, 142, 164, 192, 197, 242, 244-245, 246, 262-263,266,267,271 
Time, 154, 219, 232, 239 delay: 100, 108,153-154 posterity: 102-103, 105-106 promptness: 154 
Transportation, 189, 245, 248-249, 250 
Unsafe atAny Speed, 
Vaccines, 149-150 Vioxx, 84 
Volga River, 253 
Wall Street,Journal, 
36, 72, 84, 96, 119, 122, 123, 138, 150, 156, 196 War, 240-241, 260 
First World War: 23, 154, 182, 261, 262, 264 
Second World War: 31, 33, 37, 65, 113, 131, 154, 163, 169, 182, 183, 190, 216, 220, 257, 262, 271 
Washington, 110, 118,215 
Washington Post, 11, 
103, 184, 201 Wealth, 27-28,47,50,95,108,114,164-165,168-169,170,173,174,240, 242,244,245-246,256,266,268,270-271,272 
Williams, Paul, 23-24,26 Williams, Walter E., 221 Woolworth, Frank Winfield, 24-26 
Yangtze River, 152, 215 Yemen, 197,271 
Applied Economics 
Zaire River, 251 Zimbabwe, 7 

It was the entire 
 political establishment.

We borrowed and spent our way into this crisis, and our political class expects to bor
 row and spend its way out.

      Woods edited and wrote the introduction to four additional books: 
The Political Writings of Rufus Choate, 
Murray N. Rothbard's 
The Be- 
the American Right, We Who Dared to Say No to War: Amer
ican Antiwar Writing from 1812 to Now (with Murray Polner), and Orestes 
 1875 classic The American Republic.

The 250-Year Revolutionary Cycle 
Within these 500-year Mega Innovation Cycles we tend to get two 250
year Revolutionary Cycles to create the environment for technologies to continue to advance human progress through more advantageous or
 ganizations at the broader political and business levels.

The countries of Western Europe and North America and the country of Japan, as well as Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, and South Korea, have been in the lead and 
 nancial systems, political systems, education, and individual rights; etc.

The challenge in this unprecedented global demographic shift for maturing countries will be 'How do we continue to innovate in tech
nologies, lifestyles, and political/business organizational structures to ad

vance our standard of living in aging and even declining populations?' For the emerging countries the challenges will be 'How do we rapidly put into place the political, legal, and financial institutions and basic infra
structures necessary to leverage the economic potential of our people as they age from their young to peak productivity years?' and 'How do we attract foreign investment from the aging, affluent nations in order to catch up to the developed countries before the whole world slows down and we miss the opportunity?' 

                                                                                                                   The Political and Social Impacts of the Next Great Depression 
The Coming Revolution and 'New Deal' in the United States and Globally 

DESPITE THE OBVIOUS broad benefits of this unprecedented U.S. and global boom, which began in 1983, great economic, social, and political issues have been building for decades: 

The 250-Year Revolutionary Cycle 
 The information revolution and especially the Internet dictate that the world must and will become more intertwined and connected.

also specific program personal/family life, and strategies for Next Great Depression, 298-309 phase transitions, 257-58 Philippines, 220, 223-24,225 Poland, 184,203-4 
 political system.

Where it becomes neces
 sary in performing this function of a university, to consider political, social, or sectarian movements, they are dissected and examined, not taught, and the conclusion left, with no tipping of the scales, to the logic of the facts....

I was particularly troubled by the increasingly intol
 erant atmosphere of the schools I visited and by the relentless intrusion of political agendas into an academic environment where they did not belong.

Unlike previous attempts to interfere with disinterested inquiry, the new political assault comes from faculty insiders who regard their scholarship as a partisan activity and the university as a platform from which they hope to change the world.

For academic radicals who hope to 'change the world,' teaching is not a dis
 interested intellectual inquiry but a form of political combat.

                           Thus an administrative attempt to 
politics from the curriculum would be opposed by faculty radi
cals as itself a political intervention 
 the curriculum.

                                                                                                              Academic Freedom   
could be framed as 'political:' As their campaign against the Aca
demic Bill of Rights showed, leftists were adept at doing just that when their own agendas-which, of course, were intensely polit
 ical-were blocked.

In fact, far from being secret, my meeting with the governor took place in his office, while my breakfast with the legislators was held at the Brown Palace Hotel, perhaps the most famous venue and favorite 
 meeting place for Denver's political elites.

                                               Academic Freedom   
critical distinction between academic discourse and political pros
 elytizing with particular clarity: 'Any idea can be brought into the classroom if the point is to inquire into its structure, history, influence and so forth.

What educational value was served by protesting a speech on academic freedom before it was delivered? Why not listen to the speaker and then respond? Why not organize a debate? The Democrats' protest was just one more indication of how the pub
lic forums at universities like Penn State had become more akin to political battlegrounds than to neutral and intellectually invit
ing settings where ideas are examined and evaluated in an aca
 demic manner.

he did not allow his political views to intrude into his lessons.

The term 'smear' or 'smear campaign' does appear in my book-four times-but every one of these references is to a 
 smear campaign against Republicans-never in a sentence advising Republicans to adopt a smear strategy towards Democrats, and never as a tactic advocated by me as a weapon of political war.

                                                                                                         The kind of tactical advice I give in 
The Art of Political War 
relates almost exclusively to electoral contests, which rely heav
ily on thirty-second TV commercials: 
My point here (and elsewhere in this pamphlet) is simple: If you don't recognize the nature of the battlefield you are on, then your opponents 
who already view politics as war 
 are going to bury you, even as you are trying to make your intellectual case.

Apparently he regarded our academic discussion as political war, which I did not.

Nor was her father's case about 'an arbitrary exercise of political power,' as Professor Scott writes.

But these are not the issues that Professor Scott, deliberately confusing her father's Stalinist commitments with 'Jeffersonian' political principles, wants to address.

 intended to protect their valued expertise, not their inexpert opinions on controversial political and social matters.

Entire departments at Kansas State and the University o£ Kansas are explicitly devoted to agen
 das that are ideological and political in nature, and not academic.

Its syllabus for students describes 'Social Work's Core Values' and lists 'social justice' as the sec
ond of these values: 
 Once again, this is the program of a political party or of a training school for political party activists.

As the online syllabus makes clear, Social Work Sio is virtually a chapter-by
 chapter, class-by-class reading of Zinn's political tract, A People's History of the United States.

That is why academic freedom 
 policies protecting students from political indoctrination have to be stated and codified, and ultimately enforced as student rights.

draw the collective portrait of a professorial type-academics who were political activists rather than scholars, and whom I esti
 mated to be representative of far greater numbers than I was able to include.

                                                                                                                                                                                                     How can someone whose expertise is cinema be academi
cally qualified to direct courses in a theory that purports to explain the most complex economic, social and political developments 
of human societies? How can literary scholars evaluate a theory that led to the creation of the most oppressive political regimes in human history? The Marxism and Society Program is not an academic program seeking to conduct a dispassionate examina
 tion of Marxism and its consequences.

It is disgrace
 ful that with few exceptions-Christopher Hitchens and Paul Berman are two that are notable-the political left has turned its back on this struggle.

captured the attention of the media, political leaders and those in the academy.

                                                                             This is not the first time in the nation's history that these issues have become public controversies, but the cur
rent interest in intellectual discourse on campus suggests that the meaning of these terms, and the rights and responsibilities of indi
vidual members of the campus community, should be reiterated * '' The statement also declared that there should be no political harassment of students and professors and that grievance machin
 ery should be created at every school to resolve problems.

Apparently it was fine to bring in a political rad
 ical to tell them that American soldiers were risking their lives for oil companies and the Jews, and that the reason they were in Iraq was to kill innocent Iraqis and spread terrorism.

The new procedures would specifically address the student's right to learn, free from political harassment and indoctrination.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          APPENDIX II 

Academic Freedom Code for 

A Code of Ethics and Professional Responsibility for Educators in K-12 Public Schools 
Whereas the purpose of public education in America is to produce knowledgeable and competent adults able to participate as informed citizens in the democratic process; 
Whereas this purpose is best served by offering students a curriculum that is non-partisan and non-sectarian; 
Whereas it has been established through testimony at leg
islative hearings that many teachers in K-ta classrooms are abus
ing taxpayer resources and abusing their ability to speak to captive audiences of students in an attempt to indoctrinate or influence children to adopt specific political and ideological positions on issues of social and political controversy; 
Whereas public school teachers are public employees who have been hired for the purpose of teaching their subjects and not for the purpose of using their classrooms as a platform for political, religious, anti-religious, or ideological advocacy; 
Whereas it has been established that some teacher training institutions, teacher licensing agencies, state education depart
ments and professional teacher organizations have condoned this behavior under the guise of 'teaching for social justice' and other sectarian political doctrines; 
Whereas time spent on political or ideological indoctrina
tion takes time away from instruction in the academic subjects 
134   Indoctrination U. 

The idea of the personal as political is something I became acutely aware of as a women's studies 
 8 open: love, sex, .,,,,/

I could talk at length about the trip and what I learned about the religious, political, and social landscape of this great nation, but there is one story from those days that is of particular relevance to this book and this chapter.

A soldier, a ballerina, a major league baseball player, and a political campaigner: these are the people I've been meeting.

ISBN 978-1-4165-9222-8 ISBN 978-1-4165-9237-2 (pbk) ISBN 978-1-4165-9631-8 (ebook) 
Ron Robinson and Larry Reed, two friends indeed 
 The New Deal is the landmark event in the political history of the last century.

                                                                                          February 29, 2008 
Introduction xiii 
Chapter 1   The Making of the Myth: FDR and the New Deal 1 
Chapter 2   FDRs Rise to Power: Political Skill, Ambition, and Deception 16 
Chapter 3   What Caused the Great Depression? 30 
Chapter 4   The NRA: Why Price-Fixing Damaged American Business 43 
Chapter 5   The AAA: How It Hurt Farming 60 
Chapter 6   Relief and the WPA: Did They Really Help the Unemployed? 76 
Chapter 7   More Public Programs That Fell Short: The Air Mail Act, FERA Camps, and TVA 93 
Chapter 8   Financial Interference: Manipulation of Gold and Silver Markets, Tariffs, Stocks, and Banks 103 
Chapter 9   Safety Net or Quagmire? Minimum Wage, Social Security, and Labor Relations 112 
Chapter 10   No Free Ride: The Burden of Excise, Income, and Corporate Taxes 122 
Chapter 11   
The IRS: FDR's Personal Weapon 
Chapter 12 
Patronage Transformed: 
The Elections 
of 1934 
1936 168 
Chapter 13   
FDR Stumbles: Court Packing, the Purge, and the Issue of Race 
Chapter 14 How 
FDRs Deception Tarnished the Presidency Forever 
Chapter 15 
 What FDR Should Have Done: Cut Spending.

         FOR'S R 
 For many people today, Franklin D. Roosevelt is still an American icon.

He was at
 tractive, a good speaker, a clever politician, and well connected-all of which he used to launch his political career.

                                                                                                                          But he contin
ued his political career from his wheelchair and thereafter he won six elections, two as governor of New York and four as president of 
FDR's Rise to Power   17 
 the United States.

But only Roosevelt was winning tough political races and consulting with the president.'

                              He peppered his speeches with at
tacks on businessmen: '5,000 men in effect control American in
 dustry,' Roosevelt told a Boston audience, and'some of these 5,000 men who control industry are today invading the sacred political rights of those over whom they have economic power.'

Gore would never again win election to political office in Okla

He said that he wanted this for judicial and political reasons.


 'My father,' Elliott Roosevelt observed of his famous parent, 'may have been the originator of the concept of employing the IRS as a weapon of political retribution.'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              During the 
FDR began experi
menting with the Bureau of Internal Revenue (later renamed the Internal Revenue Service, or IRS), which had earlier been placed under the Treasury Department, as a means of attacking political enemies and generating more revenue for his New Deal pro

That response spoke vol
 umes about where the political influence in Missouri was located and which party held it.

His wealth alone made him a tempting candidate for 
 an IRS audit, but his political actions during the 19201 made him an irresistible target.

                    The goal was removing Moses from the scene so that he could cause no further political trouble,' With Annenberg going to jail in 1940, the 
Pbiladelphia Inquirer 
became less strident; Roosevelt had an easier time carrying Pennsylvania to win reelection; and the treasury had $8 million more to spend on New Deal programs 
 Auditing Mellon and sending Annenberg to prison fulfilled Roosevelt's larger goal of scaring rich Americans into sending the government more of their money.

                                       Also, much of Roosevelts 
Patronage Transformed   169 
optimism and presidential energy were dedicated to clearly unpop
 ular causes: jailing those who disobeyed the NRA, hiking income and excise taxes, packing the Supreme Court, and purging those Democrats who tried to oppose his centralization of political power.

of 53 and 90 seats the two previous elections-and that the coun
 try still had 22 percent unemployment showed that America was in a new political universe, and that patronage politics would be a major part of this new political world.'

Even with Roosevelt's masterful use of patronage, he still faced political problems because his programs were expensive and unem
 ployment was still high.

In 1935, there were a few political contests, a couple of House vacancies for example, and Roosevelt began to suffer some defeats.'

For example, Landon thundered 
 gainst 'public money for political purposes' before a cheering crowd at Madison Square Garden.

Through patronage and political success, Roosevelt al
 ready was exerting unprecedented leverage over Congress.

 February 5, 1937, started as a normal day in American political life.

The WPA, one New Deal agency at least, would, starting in 1939, have to sit on the political sidelines.

Beard, however, is referring to trained historians and political scientists with Ph.D.s.

These scholars tend strongly to support the legend of the New Deal, that it was a very constructive political and economic program for the United States.

            Elmer Irey, 
Tax Dodgers: The Inside 
the T-Men's 
with America's 
294 Notes 
 Political and Underworld Hoodlums (New York: Greenberg, 1948), 93-94, 97.

                                 Greenwood, 1975 [1960]), 72; Catledge, 
My Life 
and The 
304 Notes 
Times, 82-83; Walter Trohan, Political Animals (Garden City, N.Y: Double
 day, 1975), 59-60.

Lochner is 
among the worst decisions the Supreme Court ever made was the received and unquestioned wisdom then, and 
• Preface 
Preface • xi 
 largely remains so to this day on both the left and right of the political spectrum.

The idea that government officials are the agents or servants and the people are the principals or masters, how
 ever quaint it may seem to political sophisticates today, was widely held.

  Political Sermons of 
the Amen- 
82   •   Chapter Three 
 Notice that Goodrich was not analogizing the 'principles of society' to the natural laws one finds in the hard sciences like physics or chemistry.

In the early years of the United States, the virtues of putting political guaranties in writing were widely understood.

                                                                                                                                                                      172 • Chapter Seven 
Madison then both acknowledged the supposedly modern insight that the national economy is interconnected and rejected this as a basis for a latitudinarian interpretation of 'necessary': 
In the great system of political economy, having for its general object the na
tional welfare, 
everything is related immediately or remotely to every other thing; 
 and, consequently, a power over any one thing, if not limited by some obvious and precise affinity, may amount to a power over every other thing.

                                                   204   • Chapter Eight 
The last decades of the nineteenth century witnessed the growth of social
 ist, 'progressive,' and 'populist' political movements throughout the United States and Europe.

The roots of this political sea change are com
 plex and I shall not offer a definitive account of them here.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       230 • Chapter Nine 
Thus, in Footnote Four we have enunciated the modern theory of consti
tutional rights that, by 1941, was to apply to both state and federal restric
tions on liberty: Adopt a loose conception of necessity and presume all acts of legislatures to be valid, except when an enumerated right listed in the Bill of Rights is infringed (or when legislation affects the political process or discrete and insular minorities 
 in which event the Court will employ a strict conception of necessity and put the burden on legislatures to show that their actions were both necessary and proper.

                                                                                                        Doubtless it will take tremendous 
political will, better designs, enlightened building techniques, more responsive planning, and progressive legislation to enact a new para
 digm over the next several years.

Its support was entirely predictable, since the NWSA is itself a political organization whose formal constitution lays out its agendas in blunt fashion: 
Women's Studies owes its existence to the movement for the lib
 eration of women; the feminist movement exists because women are oppressed.

                                                                                                          Because the university trained jour
nalists and editors, lawyers and judges, future political candidates and operatives, it provided a path to cultural 'hegemony' and an opportu
 nity to promote a radical transformation of the society at large.

An Academic Tragedy   7 
 university as a platform from which to advance their political mission.

                            The cultural upheavals of that era saw the ac
cession to academic tenure of a generation of activists who regarded the 
statement, Sproul defined the mission of the university as incompati
 ble with the agendas of sectarian political movements: 'The function of the university is to seek and to transmit knowledge and to train students in the processes whereby truth is to be made known.

Where it becomes necessary in performing this function of a university, to consider political, social, or sectarian movements, they are dissected and examined, not taught, and the conclusion left, with no tipping of the scales, to the logic of the facts.'

Poverty, Inequality, and Health   SOCIOL 299S' 
Sherman A. James, Professor of Public Policy Studies and Professor of Center for Health Policy 
Presented as a course in public policy, the class is in fact a political at
tack on globalization-the spread of free-market economies and lib
 eralized trade-and on America's largely private health-care policies.

On the subject of U.S. foreign policy, the course assigns feminist philosopher Judith Butler rather than a political scientist or an academic trained in international relations; Butler's essay claims 
that the 1991 Gulf War to repel Iraq's invasion of Kuwait was actu
 ally an imperialist and racist attack on the Arab 'other.

The knowledge of 'women's activism and resistance to oppression' is the statement of a political agenda, not an academic program.

                                                                                                                                                       Throughout the semester, we will survey a num
ber of different types of queer writing-including history, theory, coming out stories, journalism, political activism, and academic research-and will use this writing to generate thoughtful discus
 sion and analysis of queer rhetorical contexts and to help us develop our own voices as writers.'

 Plainly, the authors believe that 
 it is this 'political and ideological' purpose that science education should serve.

Citing the influence of Maxine Green, who argues that political activism is a proper role for an educator, the center states that 'folne of its primary purposes' is 'to capacitate learners 
 to take action in the larger society.'

In plain English, the center is more concerned with turning out committed political agitators than with producing able teachers.

The authors do not address the fact that some conflicts do not lend themselves to peaceful solutions, and that the goal of education 
 is not to promote their own distinctive political ideologies.

The fact that he is nonetheless free to engage in scarcely camouflaged political advocacy 
 is another indication of the extent of the intellectual corruption in this particular department.

                                                                                               To ensure that they will arrive at pre
determined political conclusions, students are asked to consider a se
ries of leading questions, such as: 
A proper academic course would pursue the question of 
there exists 'structural racism' in a society whose laws and Consti
tution prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, but Marable 's class takes 'structural racism' as an unquestioned point of depar

That the course promotes one-sided political views and racist attitudes is objectionable enough; even worse, the students' grades depend on the extent to which they embrace its party line, which is a violation of their academic freedom.

Topics in the Black Experience Seminar: Lyrics on Lockdown-Hip Hop and Spoken Word vs. the Prison industrial Complex   AFAS 64080/004
INSTRUCTOR: Bryonn Baine, a 'spoken-word poet' and activist 
 To assume that there is a 'prison industrial complex' in America is already a political rather than a scholarly statement.

The Afticana Criminal justice Project ignores the basic data on black crime and incarceration and the complex issues that the data suggest, instead promoting the political view that white racism is the source of the problems the black community faces.

Amplifying the theme of the course, hooks describes the United States as a 'political.

Even more stridently political is the tone of another assigned text, 
Feminist Theory from Margin to Center, 
 by the radical bell hooks (the lower case is hooks's whimsy).

                                                      Still, given 
Columbia's weak response even when its faculty's radicalism has gen
 erated national controversy, the school seems destined to be plagued by professors who recklessly pursue political agendas in the classroom.

This is an appropriate invitation to join a political party, not an intellectual discussion.

But Women's Studies 003 shows that even a subject 
 with no obvious connection to politics can become a canvas for the political agendas of activists posing as academics.

As noted, 'social justice' is not an academic concept but a politically loaded code; there is in fact no societal consensus about how justice is best achieved, and the term itself is historically associated with only one set of beliefs-those of the political Left.


Feminist Theory and Rhetorical Criticism   CMS390
INSTRUCTOR: Dana Cloud, Associate Professor of Communications 
The purpose of this course, according to its description, is 'to in
troduce students to a range of feminist political and critical theories and to explore the ways those theories can be combined with rhetor
 ical critical methods to understand the gendering of public and cultural texts.'

                     A typical article is 'A Propaganda Model,' 
which is taken from the book 
Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, 
 by Noam Chomsky and his coauthor, Edward Herman.

Gender Oppression: The Political Science Department 
V. Spike Peterson has an impressive academic resume: a full professor of Political Science, she has been awarded a Fulbright scholarship, a writing and research grant by the MacArthur Foundation, and a fel
 lowship from the Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy.

But on digging deeper into her record, one finds that her teaching doubles as indoctrination in the extreme political viewpoints she endorses.

A troika of courses she teaches through Arizona's Political Science De
 partment reveals her radical ambitions.

                                                          It notes that her teaching interests are 'Race, Gender and Social 
Protests, Race, Gender & Justice, Theories of Development, Com
munity Research, Feminist Methodology, and Radical Political Thought,' while her research interests include 'Black Conscious
 ness, Race, Gender & Global Cities, Black capitalism, and Women of Color & Feminist Epistemology.'

                                                                                                                                                    Her course description reads as follows: 
In this course, we will investigate concepts, theories, and cases that sought to illuminate protest as a social and historical phenomenon, and which sprung countless policy changes, social 
 reforms, and even economic and political revolutions.

But as a list of topics discussed in the course demonstrates, it is actually a radi
 cal critique of capitalism and globalization, and its methodology is primarily political.

School o/Inverted Values 
Sympathy for 'The Other': The Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences 
Im/Migration & Culture   
ASB 340; SOC 331; SBS 450
INSTRUCTOR: Kristin Koptiuch 
 An equally blunt example of political activism is provided by the course 'Im/Migration & Culture' in Arizona State's Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences.

This course purports to draw on 'empirical research' in order to provide an expansive survey of the social, economic, and political aspects of immigration.

As the Political Science Depart
 ment chairman explains, 'One of the main problems in studying Karl Marx is that most contemporary theorists interpret Marx in their way-the point is to interpret Marx in his way.'

It concentrated on 'Nietzsche's political thinking, his views on religion, his relation to feminism and the critique of gender, his growing impact on race and postcolonial studies, and his ongoing contributions to French post-structural thought.'

At no point has the institute included aca
 demics whose views on racial, social, or political issues do not accord with those of Professor Gordon.

Another 'discussion paper' coauthored by Dutton is devoted en
 tirely to the idea of political activism.

                                                                                                                                                                                       Titled 'The Futures of Com
munity Organizing: The Need for a New Political Imaginary,' the piece states, 'Political analysis and practice are always linked, and a limited analysis will limit possibilities for action, but also for politi
 cal imagination as well.'

The program thus ignores the dominant schools of thought in political science and international relations studies, in which scholars emphasize that conflicts are caused not by 'social injustice' but by the actions of states within a harsh environ
 ment of international anarchy.

He argues that 'the frenetic pace of global capitalism, as promoted by economic and political elites in the United States and like nations, is tantamount to war against the earth and the vast majority of its inhabitants.'

                                                                Institutional Inequality in American Political and Social Policy   Social 
Work 200
INSTRUCTOR: Marcia R. Wilson, Adjunct Associate Professor in the School of Social Work 
This is a crude-but not exceptional-attempt to pass off a left-wing political agenda as an academic course of study, and to offer it as a 
 course in Social Work at that.

                                                                                                                               That the 
course nonetheless advances the theory as conventional wisdom is an example of the kind of political curriculum that the School of Inter
 national Relations regards as appropriate.

 According to her, they are derived from 'the diverse intellectual, social and political currents of radical progressivism, romanticism, feminism, liberalism, and socialism,' as though variations of left-wing politics were a fair representation of the political spectrum.

Overcoming Prejudice   SWMS 384
INSTRUCTOR: Joseph Hawkins, Lecturer in the Department of Anthropology 
 As its catalogue description makes abundantly clear, this is a course in political activism.

The Standing Orders of the Regents, passed in September 2005, make unmistakably clear that political indoctrination and partisan interest have no place in the university curriculum and that the regents are obligated to maintain its standards: 
 [The Regents) are responsible to see that the University remain aloof from politics and never function as an instrument for the advance of partisan interest.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Misuse of the classroom by, for ex
ample, allowing it to be used for political indoctrination, for purposes other than those for which the course was constituted, or for providing grades without commensurate and appropriate student achievement, constitutes misuse of the University as an institutions 
In the liberal arts programs of the University of Santa Cruz, how
ever, the violation of this policy and the consequent abuse of the in
 stitution and its students is a routine fact of academic life.

There is nothing scholarly in this blithe dismissal of critics; it is a political stump speech that reflects the tenor of this course.

Thinking Green: Politics, Ethics, Political Economy 
Politics 214
INSTRUCTOR: Ronnie Lipschutz, Professor of Politics 
 Described as a survey of the 'political thought and practice' of the environmentalist movement, this is a course in how to think like an environmental leftist.

The stated intent of the program is to have students see the United States through a theoretical framework of 'racial, ethnic, gender, sexual, class, and re
gional dynamics'-that is, through an ideological prism con
 structed by the political Left.

                         Courses offered are rooted largely in instructions in identity politics and political activism, expose stu
dents to polemical indictments of American society, and introduce them to radical organizations they might join to advance the agen
 das of the Left.

In the new dispensation, political control of a discipline is the sole basis for es
 tablishing 'truth,' which closes off critical debate.

                                                                             At the University of California Santa Cruz, the Women's Studies De
partment has dropped all pretense of being a scholarly discipline and has renamed itself the Department of Feminist Studies to signify that it 
 is a political training facility.

As the case studies in this book show, literally thousands of university courses have be
 come forums for professors to advance their own extremist political agendas.

                                                                                                                     (Davis), 262, 273 Arizona, University of, 130, 131116 African-American Studies Department at, 136 
American Indian Studies at, 136-37 Individuals-and-Societies requirement at, 142-44 
political science department at, 132-35 Sociology Department at, 141-42 Women's Studies Department at, 137110 
Arizona Daily Wildcats, 146 Arizona State, 146, 147-66 African and African-American Studies Department at, 162-65 
American Indian Studies Program at, 157-58 
Chicana and Chicano Studies Department at, 158-59 School of Justice and Social Inquiry at, 148-55 
Social and Behavioral Sciences Department at, 160-62 Women's Studies Department at, 155-57 
Arluke, Arnold, 220 
Asante, Molefi, 175-76, 200 
Asian America Through the Inns (Xing), 270-71 
Astor, Ron Avi, 235 
Austen, Jane, 103 Ayers, William, 65 Ayvazian, Andrea, 185 
Bi, Maria na, 227 Bain, Bryonn, 79 Baker, Houston, 16, 18, 20-23 Ballenger, Barbara, 107 Baraka, Amiri, 230 
Barash, David, 107 Bateman, Geoffrey, 55-56 Bauchspies, Wencia, 107 Baker, Bruce, 56 
Bratty, Paul, 29-30 Becker, Douglas, 243114 Belknap, Joanne, 41 Benveni ti, Meson, 240 Bernstein, Richard, 277 Berube, Michael, 286 
World Handbook, 
(Johnson), 44 
Bin Wahad, Dhoruba, 80 
Ice (Gary), 173 
Black Looks: 
Race and 
(hooks), 228 
Black Movements in 
America (Robinson), 55 
Blaine, Diana York, 244155 
Slate, The (Pinker), 135 Bloom, Allan, 277 
Boade, Erin, 123 Boggs, Grace Lee, 151 Boggs, James, 151 Bollinger, Lee, 62-63, 86 Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo, 30-31 Bornstein, Kate (Albert), 127 Brwen, Roger, 11 
Boykin, Keith, 228 Boykoff, Max, 257-58 Brand, Laurie, 239-40 Brawley, Tawana, 19 Brewster Center, 141 Bridges, Bobby, 117 Briggs, Laura, 138-40, 146 'Bringing Feminism a la Casa' 
(Hernandez), 103 Brittain, Victoria, 125 
Brodhead, Richard, 14 Brown, Cynthia Stokes, 66 Brown, Michael, 137 Brunsma, David L., 228-29 'Building Coalitions Among Communities of Color' (Marable), 185 
Bullington, Sam, 213-14 Burgos-Debmy, Elisabeth, 300 Bush, George W., 136, 154, 202, 266 Butler, Judith, 39-40, 292 
Cai, Yihuai, 94-96 
'Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex' (Hartman), 82 Capitalist Patriarchy and 
Case for Socialist 
133 Carmichael, Stokely, 74, 163 
Carroll, Karanja Keita, 177-79 Cary, Lorene, 173 
Castro, Fidel, 46, 187, 235 Caucasia (Senna), 171-72 Caughie, Pamela, 8-9, 285, 287 Cesaire, Aime, 265 
Chafe, William, 15, 17-18 Challenging 
269 'Chanting Down the Walls,' 80 Chavez, C€sat, 255 
Chavez, Hugo, 99 Cheney, Dick, 23, 266 Chiapas, Mexico, 137 Chomsky, Noam, 32, 130, 145 Churchill, Ward, 35-37, 58 Cincinnati, Ohio, 200, 201, 203-4 Clinton, Bill, 106 
the American 
Mind, The 
(Bloom), 277 
Cloud, Dana, 116,125,126-27,130 Cloward, Richard, 152 
Coalition of University Employees, 254 Coates, Rodney, 200-201 
Codes of 
Conduct (Holloway), 18-19 Cole, David, 187 
Colonial DiscourselPostcolonial 
223 Colorado, University of, 34, 35-59 Black Studies program at, 53-55 Ethnic Studies at, 58 
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Tmnsgender Studies Program at, 55-57 Peace and Conflict Studies Program at, 50-51 
Sociology Department at, 37-49 Women's Studies at, 49-50, 93 Columbia University, 61-88 African-American Studies at, 74-76 Ahmadinejad's speech at, 62-63, 87 Anthropology Department at, 72-73 Business School at, 61 
Code of Academic Freedom and Tenure at, 63 
Law School at, 85 
Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures Department at, 62, 82-87 
Office of the University Chaplain at, 85 
School of International and Public Affairs at, 85 
 School of Journalism at, 61, 70-71 Statement on Professional Ethics and Faculty Obligations and Guidelines for Review of Professional Misconduct at, 63.

                                                                                                     Working Class, A (Le Blacc), 93 
Sick, Gary, 63 Sidhwa, Bapsi, 222 Sie4 Marc, 169 Simmons, Solon, 6, 279 Sister 
(Lorde), 30, 156 
Slovo, Gillian, 125 
Small Place, A (Kincaid), 222 Small 
(Kingsolver), 46 Smith, Page, 262 
Snow, Nancy, 154-55 
'Social Forces and Political Change' (Urban), 268-69 
'Socialist Feminist Manifesto for Cyborgs, A' (Haraway), 138 Soledad Brother (Jackson), 272 'Somebody Blew Up America' (Baraka), 230 
Sommers, Christina Hof, 81, 100 
Songs in the Key of 
Black Life (Neal), 26 Soros, George, 79 
Sorrows of 
(Johnson), 267 Soul 
(Neal), 26 
Souljah, Sister, 227 
Southern California, University of, 230, 231147 
English Department at, 232-34 gender studies program at, 244147 School of International Relations at, 239144 
School of Social Work at, 231 
English Department at, 125 
'Rules and Regulations of the Board of Regents,' 115-16 
'Theories of Gender and Sexuality' (Kearney),120-21 
'Theory and Practice of Economic Justice' (University of Santa Cruz), 253-54 
'Theory as Liberatory Practice' (hooks), 100 
Thernstrom, Abigail, 45 Thernstrom, Stephen, 45 Things 
(O'Brien), 195 Thomas, Darryl C., 105-6 
Thomas, Hugh, 73 Thomas, Timothy, 203 Tickneq Ann, 241-42 Till, Emmett, 15, 18 Tragedy 
American Diplomacy, 
(Williams), 267-68 'Transnational Feminism in the New Age Globalization,' 101 
with Normal, 
(Warner), 56-57 
Trumbo, Dalton, 219 
Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt, 139-40 
Werld, The (Schell), 122-23 
Urban, Michael, 268-69 
Vagina Monologues, The (Ensler), 256 Vavrus, Fran, 66-67 
Veterans Against the Iraq War, 188 Village Voice, 
 Villarreal, Anthony J., 273-74 Voice.-

Central to the functioning of that republic was a set of checks and balances 
 designed to limit the concentration of political power.

                                                                           The ironic political question has always been: how much societal con
trol is necessary for freedom to thrive, and at what point does control by 
government destroy freedom? If this were the primary point of contention in political debates, all governments would be moving to find the opti
 mum balance between freedom and control.

         Freedom's meaning has been cheapened by political rhetoric that sug
gests moral license, entitlement, equality of outcomes, and a lack of respon
 sibility and discipline.

           The federal government is increasingly dysfunctional because con
gressmen and senators are focusing on their own priorities and the special 
 interests of major political groups rather than the good of the nation.

The more lobbyists are hired, the more politics will be dominated by the political contributions of the lobbyists and their employers.

His prolific writings coincided with the development of Gutenberg's printing press, and by 1523--only two years after he stood before Charles V-a million 
VII lI, If 
 copies of Luther's religious and political treatises were circulating throughout Germany.

Pastors, who from colonial days played an important role in guiding America's political process, have been muzzled by legislation that threatens to take away the tax-exempt status of churches.

These same socialist-leaning ideas and plans have been adopted by many of America's political and academic elites.

Therefore this plan, to the greatest extent possible, builds on the initiative of individual Americans, exercised responsibly in a free economy and a democratic political system.

There are many other important policy improvement ideas, but it is important that freedom fighters focus on a few bold, feasible ideas in the current political environment.

The Founders' Second Amendment 
 THE INDEPENDENT INSTITUTE is a non-profit, non-partisan, scholarly research and educational organization that sponsors comprehensive studies oftbe political economy of critical social and economic issues.

These immortal words of the Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson and signed by the members of the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, expressed a political philosophy based on the right of the people to assert and reclaim their own sovereignty over an oppressive government.'

Underlying this political theory was the notion that individuals had a right to keep and bear arms, and 
 that these arms could rightly be used to throw off despotism when the decision to do so attained widespread recognition as legitimate.

is the foundation on which the whole political fabric is reared.''

                                                                                                                                             Indeed, unable to antici
pate developments in later epochs, Hamilton wrote that the federal Constitu
tion 'is merely intended to regulate the general political interests of the nation, than to a constitution which has the regulation of every species of personal and 
 private concerns.'

                  The following 
 provision included a declaration about the political benefit of a right, similar to the above militia clause following the right-to-bear-arms clause: 'That the trial by jury ...

The above referred to Nathaniel Bacon's compilation of works by John Selden, An 
Historical and Political Discourse of the Laws and Government of England, 
 which the Crown would ban.

With those experiences as a backdrop, the focus of this conclusion is: What does the Second Amendment's text actually say? 

 The Second Amendment begins with a clause declaring a political principle about the militia, followed by a clause declaring a substantive right.

Thus when we say, the state has made provision for the paupers, the word has reference to the government, or 
 Thus, 'the States of America' refers to the political units known as states.

                                                                                                                                       (pseudonym), 9, 13, 15 
'An Act more effectively to punish adherence to the King' (New York), 120-21 Adams, Abigail, 40-41, 79, 97 
Adams, John 
and Abb£ de Mably, 160 
armed populace supported by, 188, 315-16 
as arms rights proponent, 5, 157, 160, 188-89 
on colonial preparedness, 51-53 on colonists' shooting skills, 97 and Cost, 36 
death of, 319 
as defense attorney, 22, 24-25 and the First Amendment, 205-6 and the Founders' generation, vii and the Fourth Amendment, 205-6 and gunpowder seizures, 40-41 
on Alexander Hamilton, 314 vs. Jefferson on rebellion, 189 -- journalist, 9, 17 
and Maryland Whigs, 143 and militias, 53, 315-16 monarchist tendencies alleged, 315 Novanglus, 52 
on the Pennsylvania Declaration of Rights, 135 
on Political 
67 and rebellion, 189 
on right to keep and bear arms, 160, 189 on rumors of bloodshed, 40 
on self-defense, 157-58 and Sergeant, 133 
on standing armies, 315-16 and Sumner, 315-16 
on voting rights in Switzerland, 188 at Joseph Warren's sermon, 55 Adams, John Quincy, 79, 314-15 Adams, Samuel 
amendments withdrawn by, 206-7 and arms possession by criminals, 273 as arms rights proponent, 4, 17-18, 20, 157 
and arms seizures, 44-45 Belknap on, 207-9 
and bill of rights, 205-10 
and the Bill of Rights, 259-60 
and Boston meeting of December 30, 67 and Boston meeting of September 12-13, 10 
and the Boston powder house, 36-37 and Candidus 1, 202 
and conditional amendments, 204 criticism of, 207-9 
as E. A., 20 on Gage, 56 and Hutchinson, 24-25 as journalist, 9, 17-18 and Madison, 209-10 Massachusetts Constitution and 
Declaration of Rights drafted by, 157 Mohawks addressed by, 92-93 
pardon not offered to, 94 
on the right of freedom of the press, 205-7, 210, 260, 263 
on the rights of conscience, 205-7, 210, 260,263 
on the right to keep and bear arms, 4, 20, 205-7, 210, 260 
on the right to petition, 205-7, 210, 263 on unreasonable search and seizure, 205-7, 210, 263 
atJoseph Warrens sermon, 55 Addison, Alexander, 292 
 African Americans, 76, 80, 133, 151, 309, 367..141

                                                                                                                                             Seethe Crown British navy, 134 
See also Royal navy British troops 
and the Allen family, 155 arms seized by, 32 
arms training by, 16 
clashes with colonists, 23-35, 75-81 
and the Declaration of Independence, 112 defended by colonial lawyers, 24-25 
in Georgia, 150 justification for, 15-16, 18 at Lexington/Concord, 75-77, 329 
and militias, 50-51, 68, 80-81, 122-23 New York City occupied by, 151 patriot battle skills acknowledged by, 80-81 
pillaging by, 80 
and the Quakers, 136 and rebellion, 21 removal from State House demanded, 23 and taxation, 224 
towns destroyed by, 107 uniforms of, 329 
violent acts against colonists, 16, 22-23 Worcester colonists' threats toward, 34 See also Boston, British troops; Boston Massacre 
Broadhelp, Benjamin, 59-60 Brown, Jacob J., 318 
Brown, Mr. (prisoner of war), 88 Brown Bess muskets, 96 Brutus(pseudonym),234-35 Bryan, George, 135-36, 141, 196 Bryan, Samuel, 178, 195-96, 273 Bunker Hill, 97-98, 178-79 
See alto Boston, British troops' violent acts in; British troops, violent acts against colonists; Concord; Lexington 
Burgh, James: Political 
67 Burgoyne, John, 93-95, 122-23, 178-79 Burke, Acdanus, 268 
Burke, Alexander, 300 Burke, Edmund, 65 Burnley, Hardin, 280-81 Burr, Aaron, 314 
Butler, Pierce, 274-75 
Caldwell, David, 241 
Cambridge (Massachusetts), 23, 37-38, 43, 67,77 
 Candidus I (pseudonym), 202 Cannon, James, 135 cannons.

              317 and Lamb, 220-21 'liberty or death' oration, 68-69 and militias, 105, 222, 225 
and New York State antifedemlists, 231 on Parliament oppression, 40 
and the right of freedom of the press, 220 and the right of trial by jury, 220 
on the right to keep and bear arms, 225 and the Second Amendment, 219 
on taxation, 229, 272 
and St. George Tucker, 310 Henshaw, Joshua, 19 Hessians, 116 
Hewes, Joseph, 105-7, 145 Higgenbotham, Don, 122 Hill, Alex, 82 
Hillsborough, Lord, 14-15, 24 
An Historical and Political Discourse of the Laws and Government ofEngland (Selden), 294 History 
Revolution (Ramsay), 85-86,96,280 
 Holland, 2, 59-61, 64, 73, 348-49n.16

THE ACADEMY IN CRISIS: The Political Economy of 
Higher Educatio

                                                                      In many circles, especially among the learned elites of our universi
ties and law schools-those who teach the next generation, shape our popular culture, and set the terms of our political discourse-the self
 evident truths upon which America depends have been supplanted by the passionately held belief that no such truths exist, certainly no truths applicable to all time.

On both the Left and the Right, our political leaders are increas
 ingly unsure of their way, speaking in inspiring generalities, all the while mired in small-minded politics and petty debates.

'Boys are constantly repeating the declamations of Demosthenes and Cicero, or debates upon some political question in the British Parliament.'

                                                                      'The Relative Influence of European Writers on Late Eigh
teenth-Century American Political Thought' by Donald Lutz and Charles Hyneman, can be found in the American Political Science 

 we must proceed in a way that gives everyone as much as possible an equal say in how political rule is formed and operates.

But it does create a practical solu
 tion-after thousands of years of failed attempts-at the level of politics and political morality.'

Which is to say that the Constitution is an inherently political document, not in 
the narrow partisan meaning of the word but in the larger sense of shap
 ing the conditions of political self-governance and our way of life.

Legal restrictions and political obligations are important but, in the end, political actors within the constitutional order must give complete loyalty to, and solemnly pledge to support, the Constitution of the United States.

At key moments, under unusual circumstances, the amendment process expands our constitutional discourse beyond the courts and our political institutions to engage the American people in national deliber

 ations about core principles and fundamental questions, and in so doing invokes their sovereign authority, through the extraordinary process of constitutional lawmaking, to settle the issue at hand.

The Founders understood self-government in the twofold sense of political self-government, in which we govern ourselves as a political community, and of moral self-government, according to which each indi

 vidual is responsible for governing himself.

The Founders were deeply concerned not only with the structures of limited constitutional government but also with the public virtues and civic hab
 its needed to maintain the capacity for political self-government.

Decentralized political life was necessary 'to multiply infinitely the occasions for citizens to act together and to make them feel every day that they depend on one another.'

Divisions on foreign policy were the catalyst that led to the establishment of the first political parties.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             While America had, 'or instance, an immediate interest at the time of the founding in pre
venting entanglement in Europe's wars, and has a permanent interest in not becoming embroiled in other nation's political quarrels, the country has always had a paramount interest in preventing (and a willingness o ally with other nations to prevent) a hostile power from dominating he European continent, since such a power would potentially threaten the freedom and very existence of the United States as an independent 
The Command of Our Fortunes   
nation-as when Nazi Germany was conquering Europe, or Soviet Rus
 sia threatened to do so.

It was, noted Hamilton in 
 6, 'time to awake from the deceitful dream of a golden age, and to adopt as a practical maxim for the direction of our political conduct that we, as well as the other inhabitants of the globe, are yet remote from the happy empire of perfect wisdom and perfect virtue.'

What resulted was a broad intellectual, social, and political movement that for the first time self-consciously aimed at fundamentally transforming the principles and practices of American constitutionalism.

'In speak
 ing of natural rights, therefore, it is essential to remember that these alleged rights have no political force whatsoever, unless recognized and enforced by the state,' wrote Charles Merriam.

                                                           Marvin Meyers's 
The Mind of the Founder: Sources of the Political Thought of James Madison 
 (Brandeis University Press, 1981) is a good collection of Madison's essays, letters, and speeches between 1774 and 1836, with a great explanatory essay on Madison, section introductions, and a brief note with each entry.

            A nice collection of Hamilton's most important letters, speeches, and essays from 
is Selected Writings and Speeches ofAlexan
der Hamilton 
(American Enterprise Institute, 
edited by Morton J. Frisch; an excellent overview of Hamilton's political thought is provided 
Bibliographic Essay 
 through introductions and commentary.

                                                                                                       Casey, 208 Pledge of Allegiance, 64 political sovereignty, 55-56 politics, 206 
and religion, 52-55 Polybius, 17 
Pope john Russell, 1 popular, 
economic knowledge, 229;govern
ments, 91, 118-19 
population in 1776 and 1790, 11 poverty, 74 
and scarcity, 78 powers, 
to declare war, 104; to the federal government, 123; of government, 30; granted to Congress, 103; of the national government, 113; of the presidency, 105-7; to tax, 31 preamble, 100 
presidency, the, 96-97,106-7,123; and the Constitution, 106; respon
sibility, 106, 107 
presidential elections, 107 Preston, Levi, 135 primogeniture, 68 procedural political rights, 1-2 Progressives, 
development, 191-92; anti-foun
dational principles, 192-96; view of government, 196-99; theory of rights, 200-3; national commu
nity, 204-8; 'living' constitution, 208-12; foreign policy, 212-13 'Promise of American Life, The,' 205 promise of American renewal, 221-22 property, 
advances democracy, 69; and the Founders, 67-80; property, protec
tion of, 71, 113; rights, 74; in the 
safety and liberty of their person, 71; is secure, 74-75; under the rule of law, 79-80 
prudence,165-67 public, 
affairs, 25; diplomacy, 237; moral
ity, 61; and private opinions, 61 Publicola, Publius Valerius, 17, 97 pure democracy, 118 
Puritans, 13 purpose, 
of the Bill of Rights, 113; of the Constitution, 113; of the Decla
ration of Independence, 164; of education, 149; of limiting govern
ment, 136 
pursuit of happiness, 43, 71-72 
Queen Elizabeth 1, 55 Queen Mary, 55 
Rabkin, Jeremy, 163 Rakove,Jack,243 Randolph, Edmund, 94-95 ratification, 
of the Bill of Rights, 112; of the Constitution, 96-97 
Reagan, Ronald, 219 reason, 
to protect property, 70; and revela
tion, 58-59 
redistribution of wealth, 77, 204 re-election, 107 
reform Protestantism, 15 regimes, 87 
 Reid,John Phillip, 83 Reign of Terror, 21 Reilly, Robert, 237 .

He has taught at George Mason University, the Catholic University of America, Claremont McKenna College, and Hillsdale College, and is the author or editor of several books, including 
A Sacred Union of Citi
zens: Washington's Farewell Address and the American Character, Patriot Sage: George Washington and the American Political Tradition 
(available from ISI Books), and 
The Founders' Almanac: A Practical Guide to the Notable Events, Greatest Leaders, and Most Eloquent Words of the Ameri
 can Founding.

Nothing could touch him: not claims that he had taken party political donations for business favors, not his grotesque mishandling of a serious Foot and Mouth outbreak, not the lamentable folly of the Millennium Dome, not the venality and incompetence of his ministers, not his chancellor Gordon Brown's growing taxes, not his baffling failure to achieve a single one of his targets on welfare reform, hospital waiting lists (yeah that's right: and you wonder why Britain comes so low in international cancer survival rate league tables?), or child literacy.

Obama will play the class card and target 'the wealthy'-an elastic cat
egory of anyone who makes more money than he decides makes 
 political sense.

Piereson, James, 115
also education
Pitt, Brad, 33
Schumer, Chuck, 13
Plath, Sylvia, 122
Schwarzeneggey Arnold, 67
Plato, 191
Scooby Doo, 168
Platoon, 197
Scotland, 58-59, 72, 82
'Polar bears,' 85-106
Seacole, Mary, 139-40
Political Animal Lobby, 82
Sebald, W. G., 180
Politically Incorrect Guide to Global
September 11, 2001 attack, 18, 115, 130,
Warming and the Environment, The, 99
Politically Incorrect 
to Science,
sex, 25-31, 48, 66, 98, 133
The, 99
Shakespeare, William, 4, 64, 122, 131
population, 101, 143,146
Sharpton, Al, 13
Powell, Colin, 159
Shipman, Harold, 38
Powell, Enoch, 135-36,148
Silent Spring, 7, 22
The, 167
Simpsons, The, 88,131
Prince Albert, 60
Skeptical Environmentalist, The, 96
Prince Llewellyn, 145
Smith, Adam, 199
Prince of Wales, 81
social justice, 52, 163, 195, 199, 202
Princess Diana, 177-80, 189
Socialism, 2-8, 26, 38, 47, 65, 73, 188,
Pullman, Philip, 12
Socialists, 2-8, 57-70, 82, 118, 173,
Queen Victoria, 59, 60
South Park, 132, 204
Quotations from Chairman Mao, 113
Spectator, The, 64, 133
Spencer, Diana, 177-80, 189
Spitz, Mark, 112
racism, 13, 31, 129-49, 163
Spooks, 167
racist, 5, 19, 93, 123,135-38,140,144,
Stairway to Heaven, 131
Stalin, Joseph, 92, 102, 176, 189
Real Change, 27
Stand and Deliver, 127
Stanley and Livingston, 141
Reaves, Keanu, 24
Star Wars, 41, 55, 68
Redford, Robert, 107
state schools, 109, 114-15, 140, 152, 165
Reid, Harry, 9
Stewart, John, 33
Rice, Condoleeza, 159
Steyn, Mark, 2, 102, 166, 204, 208
Riefenstahl, Leni, 90
Stupid White Men, 130
'Rivers of Blood' speech, 135-36
Sullivan, Andrew, 166
Roberts, Andrew, 11
Summers, Larry, 132
Rommel, Edwin, 119
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 173
Supreme Court, 100
Roosevelt, Teddy, 141
surnames, 61-62, 134, 144-45
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 27, 127
Svalbard, Norway, 87, 89
Bowling, J. K., 68
Swaggart, Jimmy, 180
Talbot, Marianne, 117 
taxes, 10-11, 18-19, 41-46, 50-52, 67, 72,95,166,195-99 
Team America, 29 Terminator, The, 99 terror, war on, 2, 17, 171-73 
terrorist attacks, 18, 115, 130, 153-55, 157, 162, 169 
terrorist threats, 2, 151-70, 174, 183, 186,192-93 
Thatcher, Margaret, 2, 5, 10, 38, 177, 190 'Third Way,' 10 
Three Mile Island, 93 
Three Musketeers, The, 132 Time Machine, The, 1 Titanic, 101 
Tonge, jenny, 154 Toynbee, Arnold, 115 tradition, 201-2 tree-huggers, 19, 79, 96 Triumph 
of the 
Will, 90 Tyler, Liv, 33, 108, 128 
Underworld, 15 
 universities, 3, 119, 160.

Between the Fed's credit creation and the mandates of political 
 regulators, a disaster was in the making.

Walker's answer at least helped to dispel the idea that leadership and direction can be expected from the political class.

Conversely, when gold and silver have been abandoned, serious economic and political consequences result.

Did educated and sophisticated German central bankers and monetary officials really not know what they were doing when they ran the printing presses day and night, or when they saw that shops had to close at lunchtime each day just to re-price their inventories? Did they think the destruction of the German middle class would be a good thing? That chaos and the alien
 ation of people throughout Germany would be without consequences? Were there some who believed the aftermath of the inflation would provide an environment for a desirable political and cultural change? That a big dose of national socialism was a prescription for a healthy and wholesome country? Perhaps some did.

When was the last time a Fed official lost his job, had to give back his salary, incurred huge personal loses, or paid penalties for being wrong? 

The By-products of Inflation 
If the sheer amount of wealth confiscated from Americans by the Fed
 eral Reserve isn't bad enough, the Fed's sins are compounded by the corruption of our political system, the illicit transfer of wealth it makes possible, and the wars that it enables.

And I pray that Congress will resist the temptation to hinder the Fed
eral Reserve's independence and instead allow us to imple
 ment policy unencumbered by political exigency.

Because Nixon was afraid of political reaction to 
 the creation of price inspectors crawling under the tables and peering from behind curtains at every American business transaction, he styled the mandatory price controls as 'voluntary.'

Ideologically it belongs in the same class with political constitutions and bills of rights.

                                                                                                                                                        See also Gold coinage 
rise in price (2002-2008), 5, 8, 13, 171 Gold as investment, 148-65 
broker, finding, 153-55 bullion bars, 151,152 coins, 150, 154, 164 commissions to seller, 152-53 digital gold currencies, 226-29 exchange-traded funds (ETFs), 157-60, 162-63 
gold/silver ratio, 171-73 gold stocks, 159-61 index-type fund, 160-61,165 percentage of portfolio, 150 premium, 152 
price forecasts, 148 pricing, 151-152 
rare coins, avoiding, 154-55,163-64 sale, IRS reporting requirements, 161-62 storage, physical, 162 
Gold coinage 
authentic, identifying, 164 
to buy, recommendations, 150, 154, 164 and development of civilizations, 46-50 rare coins, 154-55, 163-64 
U.S., historical view, 48-53,135 
Goldman Sachs, 20 GoldMoney, 227,229 Gold Reserve Act (1934), 50-52 Goldsmiths, as bankers, 62-63 Gold standard 
abandoned, United States, 50 
Bretton Woods agreement, 107, 114, 118, 180 
Grant, James, 108, 216, 233 Great Britain 
gold standard, 48 nationalization, 122 oil reserves of, 178, 187 Great Depression, 24, 84, 92,96 Greenbacks, 50 
Greenspan, Alan 
on dollars held abroad, 119 on housing bubble, 80, 97 interest rate cuts, 21-22, 76 on WIN program, 57 Gresham's law, 53,141 
Gross domestic product (GDP), federal debt in,31 
Gulf War, 66 
Hard Assets Producer (HAP) fund, 201-2, 207 
Hard currencies, 222-23 Hayek, F.A., 81,127-28,142 He Fan, 112 
Hickey, Fred, 234 Hitler, Adolf, 67 Housing crisis 
and Fed, 94 
and interest rate cuts, 21-24 jingle mail, 89 
Hunt, Bunker, 166, 169, 172 Hunt, Herbert, 169,172 al-Husseini, Sadad, 183 Hyperinflation, 100-106 
and 'crack-up boom,' 103-6,149 features of, 102-5 
Israel, 100 
past periods of, 
103 political implication of, 101-2 
Index-type fund, gold-based, 160-61,165 India, poverty, decline of, 199 
Indian rupee ETF (ICN), 225 
Infinite horizon discounted value, 34-35 Inflation, 56-75 
as alternative to taxation, 88 and coinage debasement, 61-62 core inflation rate, 199 
 and distortion of market, 83-84 double-digit.

 but it also has promised to redress global economic inequality, Third World political impotence, colonialism, and injustice.

The Koran is not a true constitution or any sort of political prescription.

Given the character of Sunni Islam-its lack of a clerical hierarchy and its lack of any real central authority, 
 either religious or political-this was destined to happen.

Shariati's political philosophy, 
 it should also be noted, is deeply rooted in Zoroastrian notions of good and evil.

Historians with virtual unanimity agree that the harshness toward 
 Germany of the Paris peace treaty helped create the economic hardship, nationalistic reaction, and political chaos that fostered the rise of Adolf Hitler.

 was initially supposed to be a straightforward story of the deadliest epidemic in human history, told from the perspectives of both scientists who tried to fight it and political leaders who tried to respond to it.

                If you 
enjoy peeling away the 
 layers of the political onion, you will linger over the maps and the table of exit polling, which slice and dice the votes of 131 million Americans.

Professor of Political Science, Alan Abramowitz of Emory University, offers the third interpretation of the general election results.

Director, Center for Politics University of Virginia r„*„„„„ 
Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
The Contemporary Significance of a Great American Institution 
 I was very fortunate to work with a superb team on this book.

While the pageantry, oratory, and spectacle might be less consequential than the 
Chapter 7 
Political Conventions in 2008 
 deliberative role conventions once performed, the parties and their nominees devote considerable attention (and money) to using their four days in the national spotlight to maximum advantage.

Roosevelt pored over the thousands of responses sent back from the political trenches with a 
Chapter t 
Political Conventions in 2008 
 view to establishing himself as a party leader and (almost certainly) with thoughts of laying the groundwork for his own run at the nomination.

                    Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
 The conflict had little to do with Mississippi: Regardless of how the Party dealt with the credentials challenge, President Johnson (who signed the Civil Rights Act just weeks before the '64 convention) was not likely to carry the Magnolia State in the general election.Z

                      Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
 In little more than a decade, the Democrats' reforms had fundamentally altered the way American parties nominate their presidents.

                                                                               In a primary, rivals for the same party's nomination must fight to differ
entiate themselves from one another, even if they have few meaningful poli
cy differences (as is usually the case) 3
 Intra-party squabbles tend to focus on matters of character and personality, and they encourage the public to per
ceive more conflict within the party than actually exists3
 It is not uncom
mon for three or more candidates to compete in a primary, and as the field becomes more crowded, the size of the plurality needed for victory gets small
er, permitting a winner to emerge with an ever narrower slice of the elec- 
Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 

Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
The GOP has adopted its own version of several Democratic reforms, including a prohibition on discrimination (although the GOP has not adopted the strict affirmative action requirements that are anathema to most conserva-   , 
rives) 4
  In 1976, supporters of incumbent President Gerald Ford secured a rules change providing that votes would be recorded automatically according to the results of primaries and caucuses, although that requirement was removed four years later.

Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
79', 3 %
Candidate who
At-large and bonus
wins more than
delegates selected
by district/
50% in a district
through local
wins all three
caucuses and county
convention (2)
delegates; other-
and state conven
wise, candidate
tions; delegates are
with most votes
generally not bound
gets two and
 to any candidate.

Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
 mid-February, Obama aides predicted that they would end the season with a pledged-delegate lead of about 100, less than 2.5

John McCain had secured the Republican nomination 
Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 21108 
 months before, and Democratic Party leaders felt that extending the fight would hurt the eventual nominee's chances in November.

Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
 The Democrats in Denver.

In order to depict Biden as someone who had been 'in Washington but not of Washington,' Americans were reminded several times 
Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
 that Biden rarely stays the night in the capital, opting instead to take the train home to Wilmington.

Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
The Patin Bombshell 
In picking his vice-presidential nominee, John McCain had to consider two con
flicting goals: He needed to reach beyond the shrinking GOP base while man
 aging to hold the allegiance of conservative Republicans.'

                                                        and Rick Perry (TX) via satellite 
Tuesday, September 
George W. Bush, President of the United States 
Joe Lieberman, Independent Democrat, Connecticut Fred Thompson, former Senator, Tennessee 
Norm Coleman, U.S. Senator, Minnesota John Boehner, House Minority Leader, Ohio 
Chapter 1 
Political Conventions in 2008 
Wednesday, September 3: Prosperity Rudy Giuliani, former Mayor of New York 
 Sarah Palin, Governor of Alaska and Nominee for Vice President Mike Huckabee, former Governor of Arkansas.

Chapter t 
Political Conventions in 2008 
 John McCain, on the other hand, tried to use the Republican Convention to reboot his campaign and fundamentally change its direction.

                                                                                                                                                                   The Political Map of the United States, 2008: Obama vs. McCain 
Source: Center for Politics 
So what does the 2008 political map add to our understanding of the pres
idential election? Just compare it to the 2004 Bush-Kerry map, which shows the close division of that election, with Republican and Democratic territory fairly even and regionally polarized-with Ohio as the standout, decisive 
Chapter 2 
The Election of Our Lifetime 

New political eras take several elections to validate.

Years later, Ayers had become a distinguished professor in the Department of Education at the University of Illinois campus in Chicago where he served on several local community boards, regularly con
 sulted with prominent political leaders, and came to know Barack Obama.

But most political observers never considered West Virginia to be a battleground state in 2008.

Political scientists have long known that challengers need not out-raise incumbents in order to defeat them, as long as they can amass sums sufficient to mount an effective campaign.

Moreover, from a political perspective, the 2008 election outcomes (com
 bined with the results in 2010) will play a critical role in determining which party gains the upper hand in the upcoming decennial redistricting process.

                                             In this way, the Internet facil
itates the making of political contributions separate and apart from public 
interest in presidential races, which may partially account for the record
 breaking amounts of money that presidential candidates have raised in recent years.

As political journalist John McQuaid observed, 'Because of tradition, inertia and command of the largest, most diverse audi
 ences, the mainstream media still drive the campaign bus with the same old road map' (2008: 44).

By touching the map, political correspondent John King could display statistics, move battleground states in and out of candidates' camps, and compare campaigns' movements across the country.

Sometimes, too, they ventured into academic territory and mulled whether the political process
 the combined rules, norms, strategies, and tactics of the game-was being altered for elections to come.

A New Platform for Presidentiality 
 Like the citizens of many nations, Americans form an emotional bond with their heads of state.

Seven candidates for the Democratic and Republican nominations (along with former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, political activist Ralph Nader, and Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi) agreed to answer questions from citi
 zens submitted in video form on CitizenTube.

He was, as one ad put it, the political equivalent of a Paris Hilton, a celebrity who could not, as another ad put it, be relied upon to do 
 the right thing in a crisis.

Who wouldn't want to attend one of these events? It also shows off Obama's concern and com
mon touch, attributes made explicit in the accompanying texts on the cam
 paign site: 'While a typical political dinner these days consists of officials being wined and dined by Washington lobbyists and bigwigs from special interest PACs, Barack will be sitting down with four regular people from across the country who will share their stories and discuss the issues that matter most to them.'

 Center, J.A. '1972 Democratic Convention Reforms and Party Democracy,' Political Science Quarterly 89, no. 2 (1974 ), pp. 325-350.

CCeaser, 2008 
 'Theories of parties in political science seem to suggest their inevitability.

Political scientists have tended to espouse this view.

'The political parties created democracy,' he wrote, 'and modem democracy is unthinkable save in terms of the parties' (Schattschneider, 1942).

There are few vigorous challenges to the official lies in Washington ex
 cept when some political party or strong political faction can profit from the challenge or the exposing.

Too much attention on political lies could end the mass docility which is pre
 requisite to government raising the people.

It is not just a question of acquiescence but of breeding a docile attitude toward political events and government actions.

Or, as in 2000, to choose which mil
 lionaire political family offspring would rule them.

Two of the biggest contemporary political delusions are the notions that democracies inevitably beget peace and that the spread of democracy around 
 the globe is inevitable.

Each of these beliefs will be examined, noting how they arose and how they have been exploited to sanctify political power and mili
 tary aggression.

Napoleon, aside from crushing the Venetian republic, destroyed freedom of the press, had political opponents in France assassinated, brutally sup
 pressed popular uprisings against French rule in Spain and elsewhere, and spawned wars that left millions of Europeans dead.

 People are urged to 'look beyond' or above banal political reality, and en
couraged to keep their eyes on the clouds so they don't see how many govern
 ment-made potholes endanger their path.

Clifford May, the president of the Founda
 tion for Defense of Democracies, commented in 2005: 'It is the job of think tanks to create political capital.

 ever, later political philosophers used Hobbes' doctrines as foundations for new systems to glorify government.

Liberty has been at the wrong end of the shooting gallery for decades, and the political assaults have intensified during the past two presidencies.

                                                                    92-93, 112 Nicaragua, 12, 58, 59-60, 79-80 Nicaraguan Contras, 12 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 201 
Niger, 92 
9/11 Commission, 3,17,39,84-86,88-89, 101, 121,158-63 
9/11 terrorist attacks, 17-18, 32, 43, 44, 48, 84-86,88-89,103,115,158-63,196,236, 247 
Nixon, Richard, 4, 10, 124, 164, 184, 218, 233, 247 
No Child Left Behind Act, 99 No Cost Killings, 215-219 No Knock raids, 234 
Noble, Ron, 154 Noriega, Manuel, 60 North Carolina, 237 Notari, Antonella, 128 Novak, Michael, 190 Nuclear war, 42, 44, Nudity (de-humanization), 123 
Nuremberg war crimes (exemption), 117-18 Nye, Joseph, 1566-57 
Obstruction of Self-Government, 102 
Sandra Day, 228-30 Office of Special Plans, 96 
Office of Strategic Influence, 99 Ohio, 172-75 
Oil for Food program, 215-17 Oklahoma City bombing, 154, 156, 211 Olson, Theodore, 163-64 Omniscience (political), 31 
Operation Founding Fathers, 66-70 Operation Just Cause, 60 Operation TIPS, 165 
Operation Uphold Democracy, 65 
Opportunity, 29 O'Reilly, Bill, 22 Orlando, Florida, 43 Orrcn, Gary, 156 Ortega, Calm, 62-663 Ortega, Daniel, 60 Orwell, George, 146, 198, 250 Owens, Major, 73 
Padill~ Jose, 144-45,179-180 Page, Clarence, 85 
Page, Walter Hines, 50 Pakistan, 72 Palestinians, 193 Palmer, Mitchell, 33 Panama, 57-58, 60, 193 Panetta, Leon, 154 Paraguay, 58 
Paranoia (government), 157-58 Paranoia (government-induced), 152-53 Paris 
Paternalism, 96-97 
Patriot Act, 27-28, 103, 237-38 Paul, Ron, 65-66, 262 
PBS, 21-22, 208 PBS 
142 Peace Corps, 73 Peace (democratically induced), 189-199 Peloponnesian War, 200 
Pelosi, Nancy, 69 Penn, William, 2 
Papers, 78-79, 218-19 Perclli, Carina, 67 
Perle, Richard, 96 Philippines, 50, 58 Phone book strikes (interrogation method), 139 Photocopying prohibition (Homeland Security), 40 Pledge of Allegiance, 41 
Plutarch, 199 Pohl, James, 131 Poindexter,John, 101 Poland, 58, 61, 78, 199 Polk, James, 77-78 
Polls, 2, 4, 12-31, 85, 88, 104, 121-22, 159, 169 Pompey, 199 
Pottman, Rob, 173 
Posse Comitatus Act, 176 Powell, Colin, 63 Pragmatism, 99-100 Prague, 88 
Preemptive strikes, 197-98 President's Daily Brief, 85-86 Presidential rhetoric, 15 Presdental Studies Quarterly, 28 
Price, Tom, 174 Price controls, 184 Prisons, 30, 243 Privacy, 27-28, 33 Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, 27-28 Prodemca, 59 
Progress for America, 43 Prohibition, 169, 232 Propaganda, 71, 77-79, 107 Property rights, 227-28 Prussia, 201-02 
Psychological harm (torturc), 115 Public education, 14, 
Public housing, 33 
Public Safety Program (torture), 54 Pudn, Vladimir, 191 
Putmm, Robert, 159 
Raciest, Marc, 112 
Radio and Television Correspondents dinner, 94 Radio and Television Ireland, 120 
Rahn, Wendy, 15 
Ramadi Madness, 134-35 Ramsay, Clay, 122 
 Rape (torture), 111 Reading habits, 14, Reagan, Ronald, 4, 55-57.

Major General Aharon Zeevi-Farkash (known as 
 Farkash), who headed the unit-Israel's parallel to the U.S. National Security Agency-recalled Rabin's disbelief.

But the memo backfired.

 'Send this to all staff members,' LBJ scribbled on the bottom of Valenti's memo.

'Most of the stuff I am now doing is trivia,' Goodwin wrote in a memo to Moyers.

Safire returned to find a memo from Nixon ('Top Secret/Sensi- 
 tive/Exclusive Eyes Only').'

                                                                                                                   In his memo, Nixon ex
plained that Kissinger's staff had produced a draft which was fine on substance, but had 'too much turgid prose and too much complex dis

                      WHITE HOUSE GHOSTS 
On July 12, Safire had sent Nixon a memo 
how to regain the ini

President,' he said in a memo written in Beijing, 'There is noth
 ing more certain in my own mind than that we are going to lose the 1976 election unless you make a dramatic breakthrough in the perception of your qualities of leadership and do so very soon.'

(When Hertzberg suggested in a memo that Carter's message should be that he was carry
 ing out Kennedy's legacy, the president wrote in the margin, 'Rather, He & I both carry out legacy of America.

liott passed the memo on m 
aides with a note written in the cot- 
 Her saying that the authors of the redraft deserved Svahn's 'kudos.

The CIA memo also pointed to instances where the speech needed to be toned down.

Regarding the uranium assertion, the memo said: 'Remove the sentence because the amount is in dispute and it is debatable whether it can be acquired from the source.

 250 'We've got a morale problem': Paul Theis memo to Robert T Hartmann, September 18, 1975, 'Sept.

 Charles McCall memo to Robert Hartmann, August 9,1976, '8.19.76

He made his economic point with a memo
 rable aphorism: Money is a coward.

Rumsfeld reinforced that point in this memo.

One of the ideas outlined in our September 20 memo had been a no-strike option, which would have involved 'building up our forces massively, deliberately and omi
 nously in the Middle East-and not just in the Persian Gulf but in the Eastern Mediterranean as well.'

Paul Wolfowitz made an important contribution by proposing a con
 cept of operations that could serve U.S. strategic purposes in Afghanistan and beyond: U.S. forces should concentrate on supporting Afghanistan's indigenous anti-Taliban militias (an idea Wolfowitz had contributed to Rumsfeld's September 20 memo, which I drafted).

After finishing our memo on the Deputies meeting, I gave Rumsfeld our comments on his draft snowflake on Iraq.

                                                                                                                 After reviewing recent his
tory, he argued in the memo that sanctions were proving insufficient to compel Saddam to change his policies and were getting weaker: '[Sad
 dam] undid the UN inspections in the 1990s and is working now to further undo the sanctions and the no-fly zones.

It was clear to him that approaching Saddam was a bad idea, and he signaled as much in his memo, confident that others would agree.

Rumsfeld acknowledged in his memo that a new resolution could serve a useful purpose by helping us recruit members for our military coali

                                   334   WAR AND DECISION 
In addition, the memo included these three notable items: 
 -'US could fail to find WMD on the ground in Iraq and be unpersuasive to the world.'

Rumsfeld sent a copy of this April 1 memo to his fellow Principals.

The CPA knew it had to arrange payments for the dismissed army personnel: Bremer highlighted the point in his May 19 memo to Rums- 

U.S. Government national security organization: Key members of top committees 
U.S. Role in the Gardez Situation Memo, May 6, 2002 
6 Msy, 3002 
3 00PM 
U.S. Role in the Cards Situation 
Scene Setting: 
 -   Gardez and Khwost remain a tangle of inua-Pashtun fighting.

                                             Rodman Memo, August 15, 
This Defense Department memo argues for working with the Iraqi opposi

                                                       alaing m aid and govaaoee in 
the pat-Libaaiaa pwiod 
DRT = Declassification Review Team 
OSD/SP/NESA = Office of the Secretary of Defense/Special Plans/Near East South Asia 
Iraq Interim Authority Implementation Plan 
Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Memo, April 29, 2003 
Iraqi Interim Authority (11A) Implementation Plan 
ME, Policy 29 
IAA Overview 
 The Iraqi Interim Authority (IAA) would serve as the instrument of Iraqi national leadership in the period before the ratification of a new Iraqi Constitution and the free election of a new Iraqi government.

              APPENDIX 11 
Iraq Security Force 
Feith Memo, June 27, 2003 
 FROM: Douglasl.FeithA~6I1'1	

toraylom   CON K+ 
IAW EO 7295   
G-7 = Group 
Seven (the initial Iraqi leadership council) 
SOF = 
Special Operations Forces 
Global Conflict Strategy 
Rumsfeld Memo, July 30, 2004 
SESXT 149414 

                                                                                                                              570   ENDNOTES TO 
44 cut off support for al Qaida: In an August 24, 2001, memo from my office to Wolfowitz, we summarized our thoughts on Afghanistan as follows: 
The Taliban regime presents several threats to US national interests in the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia and beyond: 
• Harboring and supporting Usama bin Laden; • Sponsoring insurgency in Uzbekistan; 
• Opium production and trafficking; 
• Condoning or perpetuating widespread human, ethnic, reli
gious and gender abuses; 
• Serving as a model for discontented populations of other Islamic states; and 
 • Impeding the advancement of a negotiated settlement to Afghanistan's own civil war.

113 'to drive the people responsible for producing actionable ideas': Rumsfeld 
574   ENDNOTES TO PAGES 113-124 
Memo to Myers and Pace, 'What Will Be the Military Role in the War on Terror
 ism,'October 10, 2001.

See Rumsfeld Memo to Bremer, 'Designation as Administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority,' May 13, 2003.

447 holding national elections would take two years: Chris Straub Memo to Wil
 liam Luti, 'Coalition Provisional Authority's (CPA's) Plans for Iraqi Governance,' June 2, 2003 (FOUO).

                                                                                                           preference for, 243 Allen, Chuck, 113 
Allen, Richard, 32, 35, 36 American Civil Liberties Union, 24 American Soldier (Franks), 63 Amnesty and Regime Change Policy Memo (DOD), 539-540 
Andrews, Robert, 171 
Andrews Air Force Base, 5, 11, 91, 130 
Anfal campaign, 184-185, 430, 478n Annan, Kofi,157,402n 

                                                                                                                                                            2001), 126-130 
Feith and, 22, 42-46, 286 Franks and, 106-107, 122, 290 Future of Iraq Project and, 377-378 on homeland defense, 166 
ideological warfare and, 167, 169, 171, 175 
IIA and, 403, 405-406, 410-413, 436, 438, 439, 516 
independence of, 71-72 information leaks and, 251 interagency process and, 304 Imq~l Qaida connection and, 266 Iraqi military and, 368 
Iraqi opposition groups and, 252-254, 282, 369, 383,384 
Iraqi police and, 365, 365n, 366, 421 Iraq occupation and, 279, 284, 470 Iraq provisional government and, 373-374, 401-402 
Iraq reconstruction and, 315-318, 435 Iraq regime change and, 246, 342 
Iraq sovereignty and, 460, 463, 464, 467-469, 483,496 
Iraq Stabilization Group and, 469, 470 
Iraq war plan and, 218-221, 289-291, 332-335, 343,508 
Karzai government and, 140, 141-146 letter to Clinton and, 195 
as memo writer, 57-58, 61, 61n, 62 on Missile Threat Commission, 100 9/11 response and, 5, 11, 12, 13, 15-17, 47, 49-51, 59 
no-fly zone and, 206, 210, 535-538 as NSC member, 53 
OHBA dispute and, 386-388 OSI and, 172 
postwar planning and, 293, 347-350 presidential speeches and, 309, 492, 493 resignation of, 509 
responsibilities of, 148 
at Roundtable meetings, 72-73 sectarian violence and, 482, 483, 484 strategic communications and, 320 Strategic Guidance from, 84-87, 532-540 on strategic uncertainty, 20 
Rumsfeld, Donald (Continued): Tenet and, 77 
thought process of, 4748, 52, 59-62, 74, 75, 110-111,120,318-319,509 
UN weapons inspections and, 299, 302, 313-314,340,341,352 
U.S. force levels in Iraq and, 393-394, 516-517 U.S.-Russia relations and, 1, 44-46 
war on tenor strategy and, 18-19, 81-83, 112-115,294,509-511,564-565 Rumsfeld, Joyce, 116 
 DOD trip to (Oct.

'Who Will Govern Iraq?' Policy Memo (DOD), 546-548 
Wilkins, /mvis, 12 
Wilson, Vice Admiral Tom, 118 Wisner, Frank, 216n 

Of those I will share with you the more memo
 rable ones-and what lessons I believe you can take from them.

One memo from Westar VP Doug Lawrence to executive VP Douglas Lake puts it plainly: 
 Right now, we are working on getting our grandfather provision on PUHCA repeal into the senate version of the energy bill.

                                                                                                                                                                             ISBN 978-0-470-52038-3 
Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 
To Wendy, who has bailed me out of more than a few jams 
Foreword   xiii 
Acknowledgments   xvii 
Introduction   Bailout Nation   1 
Chapter 1   A Brief History of Bailouts   9 
Chapter 2   The Creation of the Federal Reserve, and 
Its Role in Creating Our Bailout Nation   13 
Chapter 3   Pre-Bailout Nation (1860-1942)   21 
Chapter 4   Industrial-Era Bailouts (1971-1995)   33 
Intermezzo   A Pattern Emerges   
Chapter 5   Stock Market Bailouts (1987-1995)   53 
Chapter 6   The Irrational Exuberance Era (1996-1999)   63 ix 
7   The Tech Wreck (2000-2003)   75 
8   The Backwards, Rate-Driven Economy   89 
Intermezzo   A Brief History of Finance and Credit   101 
9   The Mad Scramble for Yield   105 
FAILURE   117 
10   The Machinery of Subprime   119 
Intermezzo   A Memo Found in the Street: 
Uncle Sam the Enahler   
11   Radical Deregulation, Nonfeasance   133 
Chapter 12   
Strange Connections, Unintended 
Consequences   149 
Chapter 13   
Moral Hazard: Why Bailouts Cause Future 
Problems   161 
14   2008: Suicide by Democracy   175 
15   The Fall of Bear Stearns   185 
16   Dot-Com Penis Envy   195 
17   Year of the Bailout, Part I: The Notorious 
AIG   203 
18   The Year of the Bailout, Part 11: 
Too Big to Succeed?   211 
Intermezzo   Idiots Fiddle While Rome Burns   
19   Casting Blame   231 
Contents Chapter 20   Misplaced Fault   251 Chapter 21   The Virtues of Foreclosure   263 Chapter 22   Casino Capitalism   273 Postscript   Advice to a New President   287 Notes   297 Index   315 
 o you find yourself wondering: How 
did we get here? 

                Special thanks xvii 
go to Thomas Donlan of 
who took my disjointed ramblings in 
A Memo Found in the Street 
 ('Dear D.C.') and turned them into a concise thing o£ beauty.


 For one of the most astounding examples of the industry's grotesque role in the housing boom, consider this JPMorgan internal memo, titled 'Zippy Cheats & Tricks.'

The memo taught loan officers how to 'cheat' the firm's own system.

 Tammy Lish was subsequently fired from Chase for releasing the memo publicly.

A Memo Found in the Street: Uncle Sam the Enabler 
To: Washington, D.C. 

                                                                                                                           That chief 
executive, Richard E Syron, in 2004 received a memo from Freddie Mac's chief risk officer warning him that the firm was financing ques
 tionable loans that threatened its financial health.'

Every memo from Murdoch, every conversation with him, was meant to disturb, undermine, unman, threaten, criticize, and harass.

In the course of doing research on this issue, I discovered a Treasury memo from the Truman Administration that exactly reflected Treasury's current view on this issue and whose analysis could have been reused without alteration.

On one memo
 rable occasion, we were walking together on the beach at Shinnecock Bay when we saw a crowd gathered at the water's edge.

Fortunately, the 'keep your yaps shut' memo didn't stop the whistleblowers from going public with even more damning dis

                                                                                                                                                                      151 Fannie Mae, 6 
Fannie May (in Park Forest, Illinois), 112 Farallones Institute, 143 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 173 
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), 7 Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 37, 146, 150 Federal Reserve, 13 
bailouts and, 6-8 
housing and, 4, 7, 8, 11, 20, 41, 43, 46-47,164 
Ferdinand I, king of Castile and of Le6n, 1 
Fisk Street Station (in Chicago, Illinois), 100 
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 14 Flatiron Building (in New York city), 100 
Florida, 10, 12,14,17-23, 25, 27, 40, 49, 51, 53, 61-62, 135, 151, 164, 172 
Bonita Springs, 17, 20-22, 172 Cape Coral, 22-23 
Coral Gables, 150 Coral Springs, 164 Dade County, 23,165 Fort Myers, 17, 23, 87, 
165,171 Gainesville, 163, 166 Kissimmee, 86 Lakeland, 165 Lehigh Acres, 23 Miami, 2,9,23-25,41, 52, 130,136,138,149-150, 152, 165, 171 
Naples, 17, 19, 21-23, 165 Ocala, 166 
Orlando, 86-91, 165 Sarasota, 165 Seaside in, 150 
St. Petersburg, 87, 165 Tampa, 9, 23, 87, 165 West Palm Beach, 148 Forbes, Steve, 140 Ford, Henry, 36, 93, 97 Ford Motor Co., 8, 126, 140 Forest Hills, New York 150 
Forest Stewardship Council, 96 Fort Myers, Florida, 17, 23, 87, 138, 165,171 
Fort Worth, Texas, 68, 163, 166 Franklin, Wisconsin, 53 Freddie Mac, 6 
Frontier home model, 118 Fuller, Buckminster, 139, 142 Futura home, 113 
Gainesville, Florida, 163,166 Gary, Indiana, 68 
Gates, Bill, 82 
Gateway Arch (in St. Louis, Missouri), 139 
Gaylord Palms (in Orlando, Florids), 87-88 
Gehry, Frank, 94 Geithner, Timothy, 7 General Electric (GE), 97-98 General Motors (GM), 8 Geoghegan, Thomas, 125 Georgia, 60, 61 
Atlanta, 60, 61, 68, 70, 138, 162, 163,165 
Columbus, 165 Dalton, 166 Savannah, 30 Wilkes County, 124 Gilbert, Arizona, 164 Glennon, Robert, 62 Glidehouse,94,96,103-106 Goldblatt's (in Park Forest, Illinois), 112,116 
Goldman Sachs, 7 Gore, Al, 140 Gothic Revival, 34-35 
Grandview Commons (in Madison, Wisconsin), 157-158 Grayslake, Illinois, 149 
Great Depression of the 1930s, 2, 3, 36-37,46,155 
Greek Revival style, 120 
Green Built Home standards, 157-158 
Greene, Tom, 85 Greensburg, Kansas, 160 Greenspan, Alan, 40 housing and, 4, 20, 41, 43, 47,48 
Greenville, North Carolina, 166 Grundy County, Illinois, 135 Gulfport, Mississippi, 166 Gutierrez, Raymond, 125-126 
Habitat for Humanity, 160 Hacker, Jacob, 44 
Hale, Jonathan, 34, 102 Hannover Principles, 141 Hartford, Connecticut, 34 Harvard University, 56, 135 Hawaii, 169 
Hawken, Paul, 141 Henderson, Hazel, 141 Henderson, Nevada, 164 Hesperia, California, 23 Home Depot, 122 
Home Owners' Loan Corporation (HOLC), 37 
Homestead Act (1862), 35-36 HomeTown (in Aurora, Illinois), 119-121,149 HomeWorks, 89 
Ho-o-Den Temple (in 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, Illinois), 100 
Lust (McGinn), 18, 55 'Housing Woes in U.S. Spread Around the Globe,' 2 Houston, Texas, 68, 138, 163 Howard, Ebenezer, 37 
Hull House (in Chicago, Illinois), 100 Hurlock, Angela, 126-128,131-132 Hussein 1, king of Jordan, 141 
Idaho, 51 
Illinois, 52-53, 162, 164 Aurora, 118-121,149 
Chicago, 2, 3, 17, 33, 35, 36, 67, 68,70,72,83,85,90,94-99, 105, 111, 113, 119, 121-131, 134-138,147,148,159,163, 165,168 
Chicago Heights, 114,118 Cook County, 117, 134-135 Elgin, 119 
Grayslake, 149 Grundy County, 135 Joliet, 135 
Kendall County, 135 Lake Forest, 150 Matteson, 112-114 Naperville, 119 
Oak Park, 99, 142-143 Olympia Fields, 114 Oregon,80-86 
Park Forest, 110-122,132,147 Peoria, 87 
Prairie Crossing, 149, 155 Riverside, 30,33,67,98-99,150 Rockford, 166 
Rock Island, 166 Schaumberg, 77-78 Waukegan, 125 Will County 135 Illinois Theatre Company, 112 Indiana, 51, 151, 162 Decatur, 104 
Gary, 68 Muncie, 166 Innova Homes, 106 Institute for Local Self-Reliance, 151 Insull, Samuel, 97-98, 100-101 Integral Urban House (in Berkeley, 
California), 143 International Builders' Show, 87-91 
International Harvester Co., 124 Iowa 
Davenport, 166 Des Moines, 166 Irrational 
(Shiller), 39 
Irvine, California, 164 Isabella I, queen of Castile and of Aragon, 1 Italianate style, 34 
It's a Wonderful Life, 
Jackson Park (in Chicago, Illinois), 98 Jacobs,Jane, 152 
Jacuzzi, 91 
Jamestown, Virginia, 30 
Jefferson, Thomas, 28-29, 39, 67,102, 139,142 x144,152,154-155 Louisiana Purchase, 30-32 Monticello, 27, 29-30, 32, 153 Ordinance of 1784, 32 University of Virginia design work, 32-33 
Jefferson National Expansion Memo
rial (in St. Louis, Missouri), 139 Jenkins, Holman, Jr., 13 
Jenney, William Le Baron, 33 Jewel supermarkets, 114 Jillson, Calvin, 29 
Johnson, Lyndon B./Johnson administration, 137 Joliet, Illinois, 135 Jonesboro, Arkansas, 166 JPMorgan Chase, 6 
Kansas Greensburg,160 Wichita, 166 Kansas City, Missouri, 163, 166 Kaufmann, Kevin, 93-94 Kaufmann, Michelle, 93-94, 108, 139,143 
Glidehouse, 94, 96,103-106 mkSolaire, 95-96 
Smart Home, 100-103 Sunset Breezehouse,96 Kendall County, Illinois, 135 Kennedy, James, 47 Kentlands (in Maryland), 149,150 
Kentucky Lexington, 166 Louisville, 166 Kickapoo Mud Creek Nature Conservancy, 82 Kingma, Hilly, 118 Kirkland, Washington, 148 Kissimmee, Florida, 86 KitchenAid, 90 
Kiwanis Club, 115 Klutznick, Philip, 113 Kmart, 111, 117 Knoxville, Tennessee, 160 Kohler, 90 
E.J. Korvette's, 116 Kotkin, Joel, 163 Kotlowitz, Alex, 129 Kuntsler, James Howard, 56-57 Kurosawa, Akira, f12 
La Follette, Robert, 151 Lake Forest, Illinois, 150 Lakeland, Florida, 165 Lakewood, Colorado, 164 Lancaster, California, 23 Lang, Fritz, 90 
Larsen, Joan, 112, 113, 115 Larsen, Paul, 112, 113 
La Salle, Rene-Robert Cavelier, sieur de, 31 
Las Vegas, Nevada, 9, 12, 25, 40, 62, 63,137,165,171 
Law, John, 31, 39 Lawrence, Kathy, 82-86,93 Lawrence, Kent, 82-86, 93 Leadership in Energy and 
Environmental Design (LEED), 160,168 League of Women Voters, 113 Le Corbusier, 154, 155 
Legacy Square (in Park Forest, Illinois), 115, 118 Lehigh Acres (in Florida), 23 Lehman Brothers, 6 
 Leinberger, Christopher, 148 CEnfant, Pierre-Charles, 30 Lennar Corp.,

                                       The remaining assigned text is 
Tangled Memo
ries: The Vietnam War, the AIDS Epidemic, and the Politics of Remember

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   One of those support
ers, lawyer and feminist activist Susan Estrich (who would go on to run Michael Dukakis's presidential campaign in 1988 and who supported Clinton in 2008), submitted a memo, titled 'Unintended Consequences,' arguing that the PLEOs would be predominantly white males, thus running afoul of the DNC mandate (which had emerged from the McGovern-Fraser Commission) for equal representation on gender and a delegate slate that reflected the com
 position of the party.

 Rice's claim that the memo did not 'warn of attacks inside the United States' could not pass the laugh test.

                                        A few days later, another memo leaked out-this one written by the Jus
tice Department Office of Legal Counsel at the request of White House Counsel Alberto Gonzales zs The August 
2002, memo, which redefined U.S. torture policy, became known as the Bybee memo, after Jay Bybee, the 
 head of the Office of Legal Counsel.

Deputy Assistant Attorney General John Yon was co-author of the memo.

                                                                              The memo was titled 'Standards of Conduct for In
terrogation under 18 U.S.C. g4 2340-2340A' (the U.S. anti-torture act) and was 'akin to a binding legal opinion on government 
 on interrogations.'Z

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mark, 23-24, 145, 267 Danzig, 82 
Darth Vadey 44 Daschle, Tom, 45-446 Davis, Danny, 213 Davis, Tom, 144 Dayton, Mark, 37-38, 87 Declaration of Independence, 144-45 Declaratiry Act of 1766, 200-01 Defactualization, 220 
Defense Intelligence Agency, 142 De-intellectualization, 15 Delay, Tom, 174 
Delli Carpini, Michael Delli, 14, 207 Democracy in America, 14-15, 241 Democracy defined, 10 
Democratic National Committee, 81 Democratic National Convention, 36 Democratic Party, 46, 56-57, 122 DeMott, Benjamin, 161 
Denmark, 200 
139 Dependency vs. Democracy, 182-84 Derthick, Martha, 97 
Despotism, 77 Dictatorship, 164 Digital cameras (illegal torture photos), I I I DiLorenzo, Thomas, 279 
Di Rita, Lawrence, 112, 129, 
Doctors (interrogation involvement), 127-28, 130 Dogs (torture), 110, 113, 119, 123, 131, 139 Doggy dance, 123 
Dole, Bob, 33, 177 Dole, Elizabeth, 89 Dominican Republic, 51, 54, 193 Donaldson, Sam, 221 
Dowd, Maureen, 44 
Downing Street Memo, 94-95 Drier, David, 174 
Drought, 13 
Drug Enforcement Administration, 221-22, 233 Drug trafficking, 60 
Drugs, war on, 185, 233 Drury, Shadia, 96 
Duarte, Jose Napoleon, 55 Due process, 9, 128 Duclfer, Charles, 20 Dumbing down, 15, Durbin, Richard, 132 Dzurinda, Michael, 62 
East Europe, 57 Eckert, Beverly, 160 
Editor d Poblisher, 
94 Education policy, 28, 99 Edward, Rob, 42-43 Edwards, John, 89-90 Egypt, 72, 140, 193 Eighth Amendment (Bill of Rights), 118 Eisenhower, Ike, 52 
Eldridge, Seba, 12 
dictatorship, 6-8 Electoral College, 172-74 Electric shocks, 109, 127, 139, 141 El Salvador, 55 
Eminent domain, 227-28 Emotions, 15-16 Employment Service, U.S., 98 Enemas (interrogation method), 130 Enemy combatants, 6-7, 26, 14415, 178-80 England, 3, 200 
English Civil War, 167, 241 Environmental Protection Agency, 185 Epstein, Richard, 228 
Estanga, Pedro Cumona, 62-63 Estonia, 199 
Ethiopia, 171, 181 
Ethnic cleansing, 82-83, 123 Europe, 3, 12, 61-63, 78, 81-84 
Failed state (torture), 113 
Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, 83 Faith-Based Initiative, 28 
Fallujah, 176,198 Farr, Lynn, 4 Fast, Barbara, 142 Fay, 
122-24, 126 Fearmongering, 5, 8-9, 32-49 
Bureau of Investigation, 27, 35, 37, 38, 39, 40, 81, 85, 93, 115, 117, 128-29, 132-33, 137,146,152,153-55,157-58,165,236-37 
Communications Commission, 152 
Emergency Management Agency, 183-84 
Federal Reserve 
Board, 27, 184 
Feeling your pain, 4, 33 Feith, Douglas, 96 Feldman, Noah, 67 Fineman, Howard, 92-93 Fishback,Ian, 142 Fitzwater, Marlin, 59-60 Flashbang grenades, 154 Fleming, Thomas, 51 Florida, 13, 43, 183-84 Florida National Guard, 134-35 Fluoridated water theory of democracy, 25 Folsom, George, 62 
 Ford Foundation, 156 Ford, Gerald, 124 Ford, Greg, 134 Foreign aid, 212-13 Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court.

                                                                     For Doris Kearns Goodwin 
The Squandering 
America: How the Failure 
Our Politics Undermines Our Prosperity (2007) 
Family Re-Union: Reconnecting Parents and Children in Adulthood (with Sharland Trotter, 2002) 
Everything for Sale: The Virtues and Limits 
Markets (1997) 
The End 
Laissez-Faire: National Purpose and the Global Economy After the Cold War (1991) 
The Life 
the Party: Democratic Prospects in 1988 and Beyond (1987) 
The Economic Illusion: False Choices Between Prosperity and Social Justice (1984) 
the Haves: Tax Rebellions and Hard Times (1980) 
 That people can be lifted into their better selves is the secret of transforming leadership ...

After the depressing years of the 1970s, people were ready for 'morning in America.'

 Notwithstanding the extraordinary achievements of Franklin Roosevelt's First Hundred Days and Lyndon Johnson's stunning Great Society Congress after his landslide victory in 1964, the more typical experience of incoming Democratic presidents has been that of John Kennedy, Jimmy Carter, and Bill Clinton.

After threatening to veto the entire bill, Roosevelt reluctantly went on to sign Glass-Steagall.

Only after demonstrators in Birmingham were brutalized by police dogs and high-pressure fire hoses did Kennedy deliver his first major address, June 11, demanding legislation and casting the civil rights issue in moral terms.

But one major explana
 tion for why civil rights endured in the 1960s and collapsed after Lincoln's assassination in the 1860s was the presence or absence of presidential leadership.

 After Roosevelt put all his prestige and powers of persuasion on the line, the House of Representatives approved the Selective Service Act, by a single vote-another huge risk on the eve of an election.

premise that the trustees have used after 2010, the imbalance disappears entirely.

After Obama announced his emergency anti-recession program on July 31, he gave an interview to NPR's usually intelligent Michele Norris.

The labor movement's commitment, after all, is 
 to facilitating and rewarding work, not idleness.

After all, the Reverend Martin Luther King )r.

To many of his biggest fans, however, Chappelle's surfacing in Africa, after walking out on his hit comedy show, seemed a little more out of character.

After the slaves wonder aloud about when they themselves will taste freedom, Silky aims his gun at the slave master's chest and fires.

Indeed, freedom itself meant different things to different slaves, depending on 
What Dave Chappelle Can Teach Us   
what part of the country their masters called homes Even still, we've been left with many moving slave narratives documenting the systematically brutal tactics of slave mas
ters, traders, breakers, and overseers throughout the slav
 ery period and in many different parts of the country, both before and after America became a sovereign nation.

               Four years after it 
What Dave Chappelle Can Teach Us   
 became a national law, Wisconsin's supreme court justice, Abraham Smith, tried to declare the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act (requiring that free states return runaways to their slave masters) unconstitutional.

                                                     'Soon after arriving,' according to historian Fergus Bor
dewich, 'he encountered another fugitive slave whom he had once known in Maryland, who warned him forcefully 
 that no one in New York could be trusted.

There was Rosewood, a black town in Florida burned to the ground in 1923 after a white woman claimed that she had been raped by a black assailant.

Religion would be one of the many validations for slavery in the United States after the American Revolution, but it also provided traction for 
 subsequent antiracist activism.

The cats would periodically enter Naylor's garden and muck around in her vegetables, even after she complained to her neigh
bor about it, which is why she took matters into her own 
De Cardio Racism   107 
 life, both in the United States and abroad.

Although I never kept in touch with her after we left Howard, I do remember (espe
cially as bright-eyed freshmen) the fabulous meals she pre
pared for a few of us, every once in a while, in her tiny 
campus apartment (most of us just had dorm rooms with
 out kitchens).

 In the years after many battles have been fought and won in America's 
courtrooms, such personal initiatives can be decidedly po
 litical acts.

  There is a long literature in the social sciences on contin
ued racial segregation in America after the civil rights move

tic presidential notnince defeated by Republican George Bush it) Novem
ber 1988, observed after the campaign's end: 
 I said in my acceptance speech in Atlanta that the 1988 campaign was not about ideology but about competence....

Not until after the terrorist attack on the United States on September 11, 2001, did this trust-in-government measure fully rcliound.

After all, positive media coverage didn't win the White House for Mondale 
in 1984, or Kerry twenty years later nor did it help the congressional Dem
 ocrats in 1994.

 mately the presidency, after overcoming scandals involving Gennifer Flowers and questions over how lie evaded military service during the Vietnam War (cf.

    In fact, a 
New York Times 
 investigation subsequently concluded that some of the absentee ballots were counted as legitimate despite having no postmark and in some cases despite having been cast after Election Day, circumstances in violation of Florida law (Barstow and Van Natta 2001).

To the contrary, she renounced the name of her brave Nazi-resisting parents, saying she had 'wanted to forget' her real name since she was four years old because she had been called 'daughter of a traitor' after her parents were arrested.

The media did-precisely one month before a hard-fought midterm congressional election and one day after the deadline for removing Foley's name from the Florida ballot.

                            Granting that teenagers tend to exaggerate, what part of that story 
could possibly have been true? Even the 
must have smelled a rat, because after one story mentioning the investigation, there were no fur
ther articles on foster child sex orgies until July 1990, when the 
Times re
 ported that the story was a hoax.

After interviewing nearly one hundred children of divorce, Linda Bird Francke, a divorced 
mother who wrote the book 
Growing Up Divorced, 
 said almost all were sad and virtually all were angry.'

After the mother died, he turned the children over to another couple, who also had no legally enforceable obligations to the children.

Former Clinton White House assistant deputy fellatio apologist 
 Ann Lewis defended Hillary's attacks on Obama by warning that 'in the fall election the Republicans are going to come after us with everything they've got.''

                                         Blubbering on 
60 Minutes 
about the coming Republican attacks, he said, 'The Re- 
 publicans are going to come after me.

Referring to Obama's admitted past drug use, Tom Brokaw's question to Obama was 'Aren't the Republicans going to come after you on that?' (Obama: 'You know, they already have.')'

Thurlow said he knew Kerry had written the After 
 Action Report because the report mentioned 'none of the action I took about saving the men or the boat,' but recounted in glorious detail how Kerry himself had come back and pulled James Rassmann out of the water.

After four years of looking, the best liberals could come up with to discredit the Swiftees were 'contradictions' that were not contradic- 
GUILTY   109 
 bunch of crybabies.

                                                                                              Creating a coherent energy policy
Republicans: FOR 
Democrats: FOR 
When Sarah Palin's daughter came under attack soon after Palin was chosen as McCain's vice presidential choice, Obama again mag
nanimously announced, 'I think people's families are off-limits and peo
 ple's children are especially off-limits.''

In its postelection analysis, the Globe said the Kennedy campaign had cleverly coordinated with union officials to concoct a major media scandal out of a strike at a paper plant acquired by a company that was bought by a private equity firm six months after Romney left the pri
 vate equity firm.

 nally, Edwards said the affair was over before he announced he was running for president, but that claim collapsed almost immediately, after photos were released showing Edwards and Hunter together after he had announced.

Two weeks after the Lewinsky story broke, before the evidence on the blue dress was even 
 columnist Frank Rich huffily reported that '75 percent of the public tells ABC pollsters that there's too much media coverage of the scandal.'

For liberals to complain about Bush replacing his own U.S. attor
neys after excusing Clinton's firing of all U.S. attorneys, not to mention his purge of the White House travel office employees-who were ca

 In order to comply with the new rule, small towns in western states, where arsenic naturally occurs, would be forced to spend hundreds of millions of dollars to buy new water plants.

Thus, for example, after Elian Gonzalez was taken from his Miami relatives' home at gunpoint in the second military action against American citizens by Attorney General Janet Reno, 
New York Times 
columnist Thomas Friedman wrote a column titled, not sarcasti
 cally, 'Reno for President.'

And yet when their husbands were running against each other { for president in 2000, a single column comparing their styles produced diametrically opposed adjectives for the two possible first ladies: 
Tipper: 'bubbly' Laura: 'bookish' 
Tipper: 'colorful' Laura: 'dowdy' 
Tipper: a 'soccer mom' Laura: a 'librarian' 
Tipper: 'a party animal' 
Laura: 'a hostess in the traditional mold' 
GUILTY   229 
Tipper's likely legacy: 'a book of first lady photographs' Laura's likely legacy: 'a cookie named after her' 
Just in case it still wasn't clear enough that Tipper was an effer
 vescent dynamo likely to produce 'a book of first lady photographs,' while Laura was a dreary bore, the column stated outright, '`Tipper' Gore has the edge in pizzazz over Laura Bush.''

On September 11, right after the second plane hit the World Trade Center, the markets were closed and remained closed for the rest of the week.

If short sellers descended on the market after 9/11, that could spark a collapse, destroy
 ing the American economy, but making the short sellers very rich.

After insulting Bush, the Dixie Chicks' cover
 age in the Times doubled overnight.

Michael Barone, 'Democrat Protectionism: It Won't Win Elections or Help the Economy,' Washington Post, September 29, 1985; Clarence Page, 'Obama Hurdle Called `Bubba,'' Chicago Tribune, September 24, 2008; 'Emerging Democratic Majority After 40 Years of Decline,' 
Post, Au
 gust 24, 2008.

My vote against giving the Bush administration a 'blank check' to use force after 9/11 didn't feel momentous-just morally, ethically, and constitutionally cor

After that first call he continued to call for another three or four nights, and I was at a loss over what to do.

Time and again, I return to one of my favorite scriptures to help me through these moments, Ephesians 6:13-18: 
 Therefore put on the full armor of God, so that when the day of evil comes, you may be able to stand your ground and after you have done everything to stand.

58   -~,   Chapter Three 
 The trouble between Huey and Boyette came when after these terms were agreed to and Boyette was victorious, he proposed a counteroffer of a one-time only donation to the Free Breakfast for School Children program.

Despite the brief period of freedom and civil rights that was afforded former slaves after the Civil War, Reconstruction came to an abrupt end in 1877.

After asking us to 'please act like ladies,' Helms directed Capitol Police to escort us from the hearing room.

They were then expected to re
 turn home after their absence as if nothing had ever happened.

After graduating from Mills College in 1973 with a degree in psychology, I decided I wanted to attend graduate school to pursue a degree in clinical psychology to address many of the societal ills that affect poor black women and how those stresses break them down as human beings.

I made the decision to have the boys stay with 
134   -1-   Chapter Seven 
Chapter Seven   -'   135 
 their grandparents in Texas during this period which, turned out to be a wise decision, because not much after I moved in with Bill he began to become abusive.

I believed that if I loved him enough, then marrying him would stop the abuse and we would live happily ever after.

Not long after this I was reading the morning paper one day and came across an article about a man in Berkeley who had knocked on someone's door at 4 a.m.

After leaving Del
 lums' office in 1987, I took a break from politics for a few years and started my own facilities management company, which I ran for more than a decade.

I was very proud of this company which I named after my grandfather and called it the W C. Parish Co., DBA Lee Associates after the hundreds of jobs we provided for many people.

I reluctantly supported McCain-Feingold but I only committed to this modest campaign reform effort after holding out for a long time.

After the vote I thought about how much my life had changed in the past 
 few days.

                                                         I was far hap
pier discussing the idea that especially after September 11, what re- 
Chapter Nine   -'   
182   +   Chapter Nine 
 ally matters is our children, whose causes I have long advocated.

1420 • DAvrD 
 all, it made sense: If the treaty possessed flaws, the League could repair them.

His twenty-two-year-old wife Alice died of Bright's disease, just two days after giving birth to their daughter Alice (causing TR to never actually be able to bear hearing the name `Alice').

'I do not fear for the future, after the child comes,' he repeatedly told her, 'but only for the now.'

It not only leaves the command without a medical officer, but no one to look after him, and he has always been my warmest friend and supporter.

Immediately after Mrs. Cox had left Dayton, the petition says, Cox rented another house and moved into it with the three children, then wrote her telling her she could not re-enter his home.

                                                                                            They quoted Daugherty as saying: 
At the proper time after the Republican National Convention meets, some fifteen men, bleary[-]eyed with loss of sleep and per
 spiring profusely with the excessive heat, will sit down in seclusion around a big table.

Just after 7 p.m., Utah Senator Reed Smoot moved to adjourn.

In 1876; Wilson had thundered: 'Universal suffrage is at the foundation of every evil in this country' Just after Election Day 1912, he patronizingly observed: 
 The principal objection to giving women the ballot is that they are too, logical.

                          Tennessee Governor Albert H. Roberts had wobbled 
1920 * 
all over the lot, but he had promised to call a special legislative session
 his August 5 primary.

Both houses seemed amenable, but the state constitution mandated that legislators ratifying a constitutional amendment be voted into office only 
 any amendment came before it (i.e.,

After voting, Harding golfed with Harry Daugherty at Columbus's 
 Scioto Golf Club, forty miles from Marion.

Recalled Hoover: 
 One day after lunch when we were a few days out, Harding asked me to come to his cabin.

After delib
 erating for just five hours, jurymen found the defendants guilty.

The next day, twelve days after Hoover's first plea, Roosevelt responded, blandly alibiing that a secretary had lost Hoover's 
 original missive and protesting that nothing could be done anyway ('frankly I doubt if anything short of a fairly general withdrawal of deposits can be prevented now').

Brigadier General Roosevelt died of a heart attack in 
 Normandy on July 12, 1944, just thirty-six days after the invasion.

after this little spell of sickness: 1.

Cummings agreed: Moley (After Seven fears), pp. 111-127; Moley (New Deal), pp. 77-81, 92-95; Farley, pp. 3

                                                                                                         2, 358, 359-361, 443 George, David Lloyd, 29, 31, 34, 70 
Gerher, Julius, 275, 281 
Germany, post World War 1, 34-35 Ginger, Ray, 263, 410-411 
Glass, Caner, 192, 198, 249, 251 Goldman, Emma, 147 Gompers, Samuel, 100, 282 Grayson, Cary, 3, 18, 31, 32,47,199-200,421,443 Great Depression, 433, 434, 435-438 
Great Gats6y, The (Fitzgerald), 166 Griffith, D. W, 162, 190, 365 Groton School, 123,132 
Haiti, 132-133, 339-341 
Hamon, Jake L., 209, 418-419, 443 
Harding, Florence (formerly Kling), 3, 51, 73, 74,75,212-213,227,237-238,241,382-383 and Carrie Phillips, 319 
on election day, 402, 404, 409, 410 as First Lady, 421 
at Republican National Convention, 233-234 Harding, Warren G., 3, 40, 51, 72-89, 160, 172, 183,186 
as African American, 369, 370-385, 422 
and African Americans, 362, 363-365 ' after election, 418-419 
blackmailed, 88-89, 317-318 campaign media, 315, 327 death, 426, 427-428 
elected president, 408-409, 411-412 extramarital relationships, 74, 75, 76-77,10-84, 
: 'Front-porch' campaign, 314-315, 316-f(7, 321-323,327,328 
and Haiti, 339--340 
on League of Nations, 323-325 marriage to Florence, 73 nominated for

                                                                                                                                              see also Nineteenth Amendment 
and election results, 414-415 and Electoral College, 296-297 endorsed by ntajor parties, 293 protesters arrested, 294-295, 297 White House demonstrations, 292-293, 293-294 
Wood, Leonard, 7, 86, 129, 167-175, 180, 181, 182,185-186,230-231,453 
accused of corraptimi, 184-185 loses nomination, 224, 236 nominated for president, 213-214 World War I, 18, 22-23, 25 
and African Americans, 356-357 anti-German sentiment, 140-141, 326 economy, after, 142 
evacuation of Unfired States citizens, 108 humanitarian aid, 108-109, 110 opposition to, 267-269, 283 reparations, 29 
Treaty of Versailles, 28-31, 34-35, 37-38, 39-40 
United States enters, 62-63 
World War Veteran, 284, 287, 288, 289 
About the Author 
 Award winner, has authored or edited more than thirty books.

                  Ben Bernanke's Fed 
Ben Bernanke's Fed 


Ethan S. Harris 

Boston, Massachusetts 

It's All About the Benjamin
An Early Look at the New Fed Chairman
The Federal Reserve's Role 
How the World Works
A Brief Course in Macroeconomics
Copyright 2008 Lehman Brothers Inc.

When Bernanke replaced Greenspan, the mantra on Wall Street was 'one and done,' meaning that after fourteen rate hikes in a row under Greenspan, the Bernanke Fed would hike rates just one more time.

Then after keeping the funds rate unchanged for more than a year, in the fall of 2007 the Bernanke Fed abruptly cut the funds rate by 100 basis points over three meetings.

growth-manifest relatively quickly, but the bad stuff-higher infla
 tion-show up only after a long lag.

In my writing at the time I referred to the crisis as a financial 
as one asset class after an
 other became highly illiquid, and investors piled into the Treasury market.

After decades of research on monetary economics and several years as a Fed governor, he had developed a clear agenda.

With stock prices weak, credit markets frozen, and very low returns on cash-like investments, where were investors to turn? For many years, investors had abandoned commodities as an asset class, but after a five-year boom in prices many people in the portfolio advice 
business were recommending that commodities be part of diversi
 fied investment portfolios.

                                             Then he found one ex
cuse after another to avoid administering the tough monetary medi

           Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London WIT 3QT 
For Ussoma and Karim, my brothers 

Author's Note   
Introduction i 
Outside In 
Inside Out 

Israel and the Occupied Territories   
Oslo 11, 1995   
Primary Israeli Settlements in Occupied Territories, 1991   
U.N. Plan to Partition Palestine, 1947   
West Bank Wall   
Bypass Roads   
Closure System, West Bank   
Jerusalem Area   
Fragmentation of West Bank 
Gaza Strip after 2005   

 The first time I saw Palestine, I was too young to understand what I was seeing.

'This is what will happen after separation,' he has said, referring to the current 
government policy to separate Jews from non-Jews in Israel and the occu
 pied territories.

'Facing the special security circumstances in the area and the need to take the necessary steps in order to prevent terrorist attacks and the exit of attackers from the areas of Judea and Samaria to the state of Israel,' wrote General Moshe Kaplinsky that month, 'I hereby declare that the 
Palestine Inside Out 
 This program of modernization was continued after 1948 when the West Bank came under Jordanian rule following the destruction of Palestine and creation of Israel and the eventual annexation of the West Bank by Jordan, in April 1950.

• Length of West Bank-Israel border: 196 miles • Projected length of West Bank wall: 437 miles 
• Projected proportion of wall built on border: 20 percent 
Palestine Inside Out 
Length of wall in and around East Jerusalem: 104 miles 
Length built on internationally recognized border near Jerusalem: 3 miles 
Percentage of West Bank surface area, including enclaves in and near East Jerusalem, cut off by the wall: 12 
Amount of land expropriated for construction of the wall: 8,750 acres 
• Number of gates built into the wall: 67 
• Number open on a daily basis to Palestinians (with appropriate per
mits): 19 
• Percentage of Palestinian agricultural land planted with olive trees: 45 
• Percentage of Palestinian population that participates in annual olive harvest: 50 
•   Number of olive trees in occupied territories: 9 million 
• Number inaccessible or access restricted after construction of wall: 1 million 
• Number burned, uprooted, or bulldozed by Israeli army from 2000 to 2005: 465,945 
• Percentage of Palestinian families not permitted to access their land in 'seam zone' in northern West Bank: 82 
• Palestinian communities in 'seam zone' with 24-hour access to emergency medical care: 1 
• Palestinians living in 'seam zone' upon its completion: 60,500 •   Palestinians living in Jerusalem cut off from the city by the wall: 63,000 

 Mohammad Jalud's story is typical rather than exceptional.

The brothers worked their land together, as they had been doing since the 1960s, until the wall went up in their area in 2003, after which they had to obtain permits from the Israelis to access their crops.

He spoke to me in Hebrew and after he cuffed me, he said, 'You'll stay with us tonight, and we'll show you what we'll do....

Thirty-six of those babies died shortly after birth due to complications that could not be attended to in the mud and dirt on the sides of roads.

After about thirty minutes, I got onto the main road and con
 tinued toward the Deir Sharaf checkpoint.

After about five hun
 dred meters 11,640 feet], at the junction with the Kedumim-Shavey Shomron bypass road, I saw an army jeep.

After waiting for thirty minutes, and because of Muhammad's serious medical condi
 tion, I decided to get out of the taxi and ask the soldiers to let me pass, or to give me back my identity card and Muhammad's medical documents so that I could take him to the hospital in Tulkarm.

At night, I was told that Muhammad had died after arriving at the hospital in Nablus.

64 '   
Palestine Inside Out i 
After the 1967 War, during which Israel captured East Jerusalem and the West Bank (as well as the Gaza Strip), the Israelis expanded the territo
 rial dimensions of what they called Jerusalem by adding almost 27 square miles of West Bank land to the city's municipal borders.

The former mayor of Jerusalem, Teddy Kollek, became forth
 right in his assessment of Israeli planning principles in Jerusalem only after he left office.

In early 1997, that changed, and the ministry announced that permanent residency status would be granted only after a further five-year waiting period-on top of the years already spent waiting for the application to be processed in the first place.

(We met Eric and his scotch cap, a long time ago!!) We look out to Ariel, Yitzar, Male [sic] Ephraim, Shilo and Shvut Rachel and last but not least Rachalim, a small Yeshuv named after a lady who was also killed by terrorist gunfire several years ago.

the West Bank] is that they are Judea and Samaria and we are the people of Israel,' declared General Moshe 
Palestine Inside Out 
 Dayan from firmly within the Israeli mainstream, shortly after the 1967 war.

My two sisters, three brothers and neighbor, Marzuk Muhtaseb, arrived with some soldiers shortly after.

Finally, after more frantic phone calls to and from the Irish 
 embassy, more behind-the-scenes negotiations between the Irish and the Israelis-the Israeli border guards stamped Mona's papers and let her go.

Israel commit
 ted to allowing the export of all agricultural products from Gaza; but in fact, only 4 percent of the 2005-6 harvest season was exported: the vast majority of the crops-over 100 tons of strawberries, flowers, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers-were either given away or destroyed after rotting awaiting shipment.

The doctors filed an emergency request to move the boy to the West Bank, but, even after Israel eventually granted permission to move him, delays at the border prevented him from getting out in time.

After a week, when the curfew was lifted, we rushed 
 to the building and started to remove some cement blocks.

Ghazi Bani Odeh, a freelance journalist who was unable to work for extended periods because of the curfews, says that his family's financial position became precarious after 2002.

After subjecting the terrified child to a torrent of verbal abuse, the sergeant reports, they brought him to checkpoint 300, which was manned by the border police, who are not 
Palestine Inside Out 
 known for their compassionate treatment of Palestinians, 'and what happened after that I don't know.'

 The village of Shajara was completely razed by Zionist forces after its capture.

Even after 1951, there was one attempt, by a cousin of my grandfather who now lives in Tam

It is so named not because there are forty such villages-there are far more-but because the association was founded in the fortieth year after the 
1988; the name stems also from the fact that Arabs com
 monly recommemorate a person's death forty days after his passing.

After that, no one tried.'

In establishing the postwar settlement after 1918, Weizmann therefore urged the British authorities to take into account 'the treacherous nature of the Arab,' and to be careful 'that nothing should happen which might give the Arabs the slightest grievance or ground of complaint.

And the shepherds striding after them like figures from ancient times, whistling merrily and driving the goats toward the trees and bushes-to gnaw at them hungrily; and now the picture has disappeared and is no more.

Notes on Sources 
On Israel's 2005 redeployment from Gaza, see Reinhart, 
Road Map to 
The Gaza Strip After Disengagement' (UN-OCHA Humanitarian Update, November-December 2005); Jeff Halper, 'A Palestinian Prison-State' (Boston 
11 April 2005); John Dugard, 
Report of the 
Special Rapporteur on 
 Occupied Since 1967 (U.N.

approved by Iameil a cabinet (April30,2006) southern rd Areas East of the Barrier 
Jordan Valley and Dead Sea Slopes 
Israeli Settlements WestdMiaBarne 
Settlements East of the Barrier Green Line 1949 
West Bank Area Percentages After the Barrier 
 Areas West of the Be..

wbjed to oermX b binrons 
aeea bsrini i
acceasiGe m arla 
Gaza Strip after 

                          Chapter Seven 
The Operator 

was reelected to the State Senate in 
he went to Washington and won an appoint
 ment as Wilson's assistant secretary of the Navy under Josephus Daniels, a deceptively shrewd old North Carolina newspaper editor who knew nothing of the sea.

After Hoover declined these overtures and joined the GOP, the Democrats nominated Ohio governor James A. Cox on the forty
fourth ballot as their 
 candidate for president against Senator Warren G. Harding.

So Missy became 'the office wife,' the charming and enor
 mously efficient gatekeeper who managed Roosevelt's life and served as his hostess, then stayed for the after-hours banter that helped him ward off loneliness.

After a youth spent searching for European mineral waters for his ailing father, FDR was predisposed to believe the best.

Years after he left office, he continued confirming the im
 pression that he was hopelessly miscast in the job.

After returning 
 from Albany, he had moved from First Avenue to Fifth, and not just physically.

Since the day after his smashing 
 reelection, FDR had been the front-runner to challenge Hoover.

This was only five years after Charles Lindbergh first crossed the Atlantic and only a 
 small fraction in attendance had ever been in an airplane.

He insisted as late as the morning after Roosevelt's nomination that the Democrats would do anything possible to prevent his illness from being mentioned publicly.

Even after leaving the governorship of New York on Janu
 he had offered the nation no plans for easing the Depression, which was increasingly being printed with a capital 'D.'

Il „I~II I
If l 
Nearly Martyred 
in Miami 

on February 
 Astor and his passengers held a farewell dinner.

His rule on not being disturbed at his Washington hotel after 
 p.m. was inflexible.

Just after returning from Miami, FDR attended the Inner Circle Club dinner in New York City on February 
a night of drinking, skits, and easy rapport between reporters and the politicians they cov

          Ten days 
 after his first impassioned letter, Hoover hand-liJrote another letter that further explained the gravity of the crisis.

To prove he was not to blame, Roosevelt enclosed a vague letter he had claimed to have written to Hoover on February 
(three days after Hoover's original missive had been brought by the Secret Ser

It read as if it had been concocted at least several days after that date.

His body was expected to arrive at Union Station in the sleet shortly after the Roosevelt party.

The governor basks in congratulatory telegrams after his dramatic 
 'flight to Chicago' to accept the nomination in person for the first time in history and unveil the 'New Deal.'

'After we passed the Commerce Building, I said to myself, `Spinach!' [the expression was one of his and Eleanor's terms of disgust] 'Protocol or no protocol, someone has to do something.'

                     Chapter Thirty-three 
'An Injection of Adrenalin' 

46o,ooo let
 tern and telegrams arrived at the White House.

She had felt that particularly, she said, when they applauded so loudly after FDR announced he might have to assume wartime powers.

 After FDR and his family left, Holmes reminded his clerks that it was the new president's cousin, Theodore, who had appointed him to the high court.

After several fainted from hunger, they were is
 sued emergency food cards.

                                               When the question

ing got a little rough about the Agriculture r)epartment, FDR ex
 claimed, 'Really, this is not a cross-examination!' After some laughter, the tone of the sessions changed for good.

                                                                                                                     Frtit*hn did not forget entirely about the 
occasion, but the joshing tone of his letter to her is 
sharp contrast to her correspondence with Lorena: 'After a fruitless 
week of thinking and lying awake to find whether you need or want undies, dresses, hats, shoes, sheets, towels, rouge, soup, plates; candy, flowers, lamps, laxa
 tion pills, whisky, beer, etchings or caviar.

After she began signing her name that way, her son noticed and said: 'Mummy is certainly getting grand.'

Even after his relationship with FDR became embittered, Jim Farley wrote that this speech may have been the greatest single utterance by an American president, if judged by its impact: 'No other talk in history ever called forth such a wave of spontaneous enthusiasm and coopera

lawyers settled on Washington,' remembered Peek, 
 began feuding with Wallace and Tugwell almost immediately after arriving.

It wasn't until after the Hundred Days that Roosevelt, who hadn't served in a legislative body in more than twenty years, even fa
 miliarized himself with the outlines of legislation.

After setting this seemingly unrealistic target, FDR worked on the gearing necessary to make it happen.

                                                   After the War Depart
ment estimated the cost of food and shelter, he wrote, 'This figure of 

                                                                                                                     After the CCC was phased out in 
a victim of wartime needs, the final government report on the project explained that without the work provided to millions of men, the threat of revo
lution from the aimless and despairing unemployed might have be
 come real: 'They were ready victims for the moral dry rot that accompanies enforced idleness and its resulting dejection.

Insidiously, there was spreading abroad in the land the nucleus of those bands of young predators who infested the Russian countryside after the revolu
 tion and who became known as `wild boys.'

                   After crime in Chicago dropped by 
percent, a Chicago judge credited the agency with get
 ting troublesome young men off the streets.

After the meeting, he angrily threatened to quit, but was talked out of it by Perkins, under instructions from FDR to 'Stick with Hugh.

But Siatpir lost in November 1934 after being savaged by California indostrial- 
 All the while, vague ideas of 'security' percolated.

FDR, reassessing the politics, told Perkins to make sure reporters knew that he favored the idea after all.

He was dispatched conveniently to Europe during the 
midterm elections, muzzled entirely in 
 and departed soon after to teach.

The backing for home mdrtgages brought tremendous economic gains after World War II.

The groom, Curt'is 
 becam~ a far right-winger after his divorce from the president's daughter.

                                                                                               The most common u_ 
theme was the banality of the local church, especially after having experienced so much supernatural power in Hous

The only time the people there looked alive was after the service at the church's fabulous organic cafeteria.

After hitting a home run in 2004 with his expose on the luxurious lifestyles of the founders of Trinity Broadcasting Network in Orange County, he inexplicably disappeared from the beat.

Where the rubber hits the road is how Christians live:' 
 After Shane came back from Iraq, Spin magazine showed up at his door and wrote him up.

                                                                                                                                                                                                         Of those who attend such groups, Barna found: 
93 percent have spoken prayer during their meetings 90 percent read from the Bible 
89 percent spend time serving people outside of their group 
87 percent devote time to sharing personal needs or experiences 
85 percent spend time eating and talking before or after the meeting 
83 percent discuss the teaching provided 76 percent have a formal teaching time 70 percent incorporate music or singing 58 percent have a prophecy or special word delivered 52 percent take an offering from participants that is given to ministries 
51 percent share communion 
41 percent watch a video presentation as part of the learning experience 
The average size of these groups is twenty people; 64 percent include children and there is an average of seven children under the age of eighteen involved, which shows that the traditional church does not have a lock on the fam
 ily demographic.

 After a dazzling ninety minutes of worship, Bickle preached.

Seventy-five percent of the black church is female, he said, a statistic that will only rise as 'the church does not-will not-seek us black men out or perhaps even mourn our disappearance from the pews' He complains that the typical black church is irrelevant to the many poor people it serves, and its weekly gatherings are 'little more than fundraisers and quasi-fashion shows with a dose of spirituality' 
After listing in an essay the numbing amount of work that needs to be done among America's blacks, he wrote: 
 I suspect, however that as long as our wives, our children and our money flow through the church's doors, as long as there are still a few bodies to fill the seats, as long as the church can claim a semblance of relevance to the community, as long as some of us on the outside loom as potential critics of the direction, heart and stewardship of those black men charged with leading the church, very few are likely to ever come looking for us.

After all, the SBC had passed a resolution in 2000 saying wives should 'gra
 ciously submit' to their husbands.

            As a college student in Portland, Oregon, I was in
vited to an elder's home one Sunday after visiting his church 
 in nearby Lake Oswego.

Introduction: The Coming of the 'Literary Clerk' 
'Grace, Take a Law' • 5 
'Missouri Eng&sh' • 31 
'Sometimes You Sure Get Tired ofAll This Clackety-Clack' • 69 
'Go Back and Give Me 
Speech, Not Two Speeches' 
• 230 

'Don't Give Any F.rplanation. Just Say I Cancelled the Damn Speech' 
The Musketeers • 312 
'I'm Not Going to Dance on the Berlin Wall' • 362 
'No, No, No, This Is a Speech I Just Want to Talk to People' • 402 
'The Troika' • 456 

Notes • 495 
Acknowledgments • 559 
Index • 562 
Illustration Credits • 579 
The Coming of the 'Literary Clerk' 
 en George Washington considered retiring in 1792 after a sin
 le term as president, he asked James Madison to help him draft a farewell address.

     In the days after Truman became president, Rosenman and the 
rest of the White House staff no more than twenty people in total
 submitted their resignations so that the new president could bring his own folks in to the administration.

'He is going to look after my of
 fice while we are gone.'

 A heavy-flaked, wet snow covered Washington on the evening of Saturday, March l, 1947, eight days after the British had warned of the impending problem.

 After the 1960 election, Robert F. Kennedy broached the possibility of Schlesinger joining the White House staff.

That night, he ate his first hot meal in days, sent over to the White House by a friendly Washington matron, and, using Woodrow Wilson's speech declaring the United States' entry into World War I and FDR's speech after Pearl Harbor as reference points, stayed up until three o'clock writing a draft.

But after dispensing with the introductory remarks, he mostly ignored the whole thing in favor of improvisation.

'I've never known him to be satisfied with a speech, either before, after, or at any point.'

i` After virtually every appearance 
Ret feedback 
 friends in network television.

'Anybody that worked with him on a major speech would find that you're going through draft, after draft after draft and it's essentially being turned and twisted and moved around and in the end it's far more him than it is a speechwriter,' Buchanan recalled.

They went through eight drafts, with Nixon working alone 
 the speech until after midnight in the Lincoln Sitting Room-more calls to Kissinger-and then to bed.

After an hour's sleep, he was up, and work
 again, returning to bed at 5:30 am.

He wanted to speak on January 25, five days after the State of the Union.

 After dinner that night with the senior staff, Alex Butterfield, Nixon's appointments secretary, suggested that he and Huebner walk the latest draft over to the president's lodge, Nixon having dined alone.

At a press conference on the after
 noon of January 26, a reporter noted that for two years Carter had avoided an administration slogan.

While Kennedy ran off a string of primary victories after Illi
 nois, Carter won enough delegates to sew up the nomination.

He talked of being 
 the first baby boomer president-not only the first to be born after World War II but the first to take office after the Cold War.

'These white guys thought they were working harder for less money, sleeping less, couldn't even afford a vacation and now the damn guy
 he didn't give me a tax cut and now he's coming after my gun,' he said.'

The 'era of big government' being 'over' was a developing thought buried in three miAor speeches, two of which had been given 
 after reporters' deadlines.*

In the summer of 1996, Waldman would originate the campaign theme of building a bridge to the future after listening to Clinton riff on the image through the spring.

The 'mission' line had its roots in Scully's observation about Bush in the days after the attacks.

had flown half its air force to Iran in advance of the 1991 Gulf War (the planes were never returned), and some al Qaeda leaders had fled to Iran after the fall of Afghanistan (the Iranian government claimed to have arrested them).

Only weeks after the Russian Revolution the Bolsheviks reated secret police forces far more brutal than any that had existed under the tsar.

In the struggle for power 
 after Lenin died, he easily pushed aside Trotsky, his main rival.

Growing up in Austria, Hitler likely did not differ from many of his generation in tending toward anti-Jewish attitudes, though it was not until after the Great War that he became the type of rabid anti-Semite we associate with the Nazi movement.

But just over seven months after the February liberal revolution, the 
 came under particular scrutiny from the tsarist authorities.

                                                            Lenin went into hiding, aided by Stalin, who became a kind of special assis
tant 3° They both branded the government the embodiment of counter
revolution but were sure Kerensky would continue the war, which would inevitably end in defeat 
Indeed, on July 6, Kerensky returned from the front and just days later became the new prime minister after Prince Lvov resigned in dis

 After this incident, and in the context of continuing white-collar resistance, Lenin opted for harsher measures.

It was 'officially permitted for 'social defense' and used against those defined 
In early 1919, just over a year after it was established, Cheka person
nel counted around 37,000, and that number grew to a high in mid-1921 
 Of 137,106, with an additional 94,288 in the frontier troops.

More than twenty different regimes were set up one after another in this area, and in the first months of 1919 alone some cities changed hands dozens of times.

The Don Cossack government had even gone so far as to offer refuge to Kerensky's provisional government after it was overthrown.

their regions in the south of Russia were iden
tified as bastions of the old order and part of the hard-core counterrevo

                                           He warned that the leadefh 
rs o te Bavari 
an Soviet Republic 
wanted the same for Germany
 On July 
he asked once mh ,ore retor
ically: 'What had Bolshevism promised after the revolution?' It would 
 almost a white terror.

After reviewing the options, he said, 'We National Socialists must not flinch from our aim in foreign policy, namely, to secure for the Ger
 man people the land and soil to which they are entitled.'

Other shadings of opinion could be found in the expanding Party, but there was nothing like the factionalism among the Marxists either before or after the Russian Revolution.

's Toward the end of 1907 he went to Western Europe and did not return to Russia until a decade later, after the collapse of the tsarist regime.

Inevitably the heavy workload and strain of the Revolu
 tion and Civil War adversely affected Lenin's shaky health, which declined further as he recuperated after the assassination attempt in August 1918.

                                                             In the first 
189 years after the Party was refounded, however, it became clear that dur
 ing good times, workers were almost immune to Nazism.

 after, each district nominated two people per course.

He took aim at the Communists, who were accused of attacking Party members after his recent talk in Berlin.

The president decided after all to appoint the 'Bohemian corporal' the new head of government 34 
The Hitler cabinet was, except for two posts, dominated by conserva

After swearing in the cabinet, Hindenburg closed the brief ceremony with the words 'And now, gentlemen, forward with God!

There were, therefore, to be many more elections and plebiscites after 
 287 March 1933, but they, too, were opportunities for the nation to acclaim its support for the government.

General Werner von Blomberg, a well-known figure, was made the new minister of defense, chosen by the circle around Hindenburg to look after the interests of the Reichswehr.

                                                      Hindenburg said that 'after initial reservation, he had in Herr Hitler come to know a man of the 
most honorable national will and he was now quite happy that the leader of this great movement was working with him and the other groups of the right '
The officer corps as a whole responded warmly to Hitler's appoint

The latter emerged soon after the March elections.

Adolf Hitler poses with members of his new government soon after his appoint

                                    PART SEVEN 
  oviet leaders were disappointed by the failed revolutions after the First World War, particularly in Germany.

'` Hitler had no difficulty in explaining his position to lead
 ing officers when he met with them only days after his appointment as chancellor.

We should not over

 look its affinity with the `philosophy of war' that became widespread after 1918.

The air force, after taking out strategic targets, worked in tandem with the army to compel the Polish forces to retreat.

Khrushchev had reservations and after the fact recalled them: 
 We had a chance to get our head out from in front of our enemy's rifle, a choice we were pushed into by Western powers.

After delays caused by weather and other matters out of his con
 trol, he determined the attack should begin as soon as possible in the spring of 1941.

After March 27, with the coup of Prince 397 
 Paul in Yugoslavia, a man with whom he was able to deal, Hitler decided that Marita should expand.

                                              PART EIGHT 
days after sweeping across Western Europe and briefly cel
 ebrating his victory over archenemy France, Hitler already had a vision of the invasion of the USSR in mind.

                                                                                              WAR AGAINST THE COMMUNISTS: OPERATION BARBAROSSA 
433 The Wehrmacht was prepared not so much for a full-scale campaign as for 'expeditions' by motorized corps, after which there would be follow
 up 'sorties' into the Ural Mountains, just as the British Indian Army had supposedly done in the nineteenth century in the Afghan mountains.'

On Septem
 he ordered the city put under siege, after which his commander was 'to erase' it 'by means of artillery fire of all caliber and continuous bombardment from the air.''

After the 

Violence swept through the streets, but only after almost a week did the Wehrmacht put a stop to the pogrom; by that time, four to seven thousand (described as Jews and Russians) had been killed.

Most of the fighting would be over by mid-October, after which some German troops could be withdrawn.

One witness quoted Globocnik as boasting among a group of SS men at Belzec, par

 ticularly when someone suggested it might be wise to cover up the crime: 'Gentlemen, if there were ever, after us, a generation so cowardly and soft that they could not understand our work which is so good, so necessary, then, gentlemen, all of National Socialism will have been in vain.

                                                                                                        It was only in 
Khrushchev recalled, that Stalin began to show more confidence, and only after the first big victories did he begin to 
 485 strut about 'like a rooster, his chest puffed out and his nose sticking up to the sky.'

On January 5, 1942, he put it this way: 'The Ger
 mans are in disarray after their defeat near Moscow.

Werth remembered how much changed after Rostov, in the week 
before the battle for Stalingrad really got going: 
 One can only marvel at the relative calm with which people awaited the Stalingrad battle.

 519 Some were eventually allowed to return from exile, but only when the 'thaw' set in after 1956.

Their destruction had become his real war aims 
 Goebbels wanted Hitler to get more involved on the home front and do walkabouts after bombings as Churchill did.

         Although several operations against Stalin were being planned for 
the future, the military situation after Stalingrad was, all factors consid
 ered, hopeless.

In despair Hitler called off the operation after little more than a week.

Allied landings in Sicily on July 
 followed by a collapse of Mussolini's regime soon after, meant that the Germans had to send divisions to Italy to hold the line.

      These 'human animals' 
would be treated appropri- 
 541 ately, Himmler said, but added it was 'a crime against our own blood' to become overly humane, because the Germans who came after would pay.

After another century the empire would reach beyond the Urals to challenge Asia 
 talin's brief visit to the front in August 1943 gave him a psychologi
 cal advantage over Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill.

                     STALIN TAKES THE UPPER HAND   
545 Just after 
p.m. on November 28 the two met (with their transla
 tors), and Roosevelt asked the perfect first question: How were things going on the Soviet battlefront? That opened the door for Stalin to underline the Germans' resistance.

The Polish problem will historically no longer be a big problem for our children and for all who come after us, nor indeed for us.'

He ended his testa
 ment by demanding that even after his death the 'leaders of the nation' observe the 'laws of race' and continue the 'merciless opposition' against the Jews.

In Germany it is true that thousands suffered dreadfully in the first camps, most of them Communists, but they were usually released after a short and nightmarish stay.

                                                                     Sheila Fitzpatrick, 
Stalin's Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village After Collectivization 
 (New York, 1994), 204.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                71 Latvia, 357,384,392
4,396,547; pogroms in,443-4 
Laval, Pierre, 419-20 
League of Militant Atheists, 249, 250 League of Nations, 311, 313 
League of Struggle for German Culture, 195 
Lehmann, Wilhelm, 4o8-9 
Lenin, VladimirL,3,6-8,95,405,408, 433,477,529,567,571,579-83,588; assassination attempts on, 54,56; background of, 24; birth of, 7; and charter of USSR, 148
50; civil liberties suppressed by, 43
4,46; civil 
service and, tot-2; during civil war, 62
4,142-3, 503; consolidation of power of, 41
50; cult Of, 
7, 180,388-9,496; death of, to,131,155, 157,18o; destruction of monuments o£, 448; economic policy of, 143-6; efforts to export revolution by, 72-4, 83-5,87,89,106,345; factions banned by, 154; and famine relief, 76; 'good,' myth of, 9; illness of, 55, 77, 145,148,150,157; and October Revolution, 4-5,29-41,139,142; and peace with Germany, 41-2,50-1; on Politburo, 147; in prerevolutionary period, 7-8,25-8,132-3,135-8; purges of, 267; religions suppressed by, 248-9; repressive measures implemented by, 4658; show trials advocated by,145,161; Stalin as successor to,9-10,77,140,148, 151-3,155,157
8,18o,581;terror policies of,5,7,16,47-8,50-7,59, 6o-1,72,75,140,142,144
5,460,586; testament of, 150-3; vanguardism of, 15,40; youth of, 24-5 
Leningrad, Siege Of, 490
2,500 Leninism, 8,10,73,77,119,133,16o, 217,277,388
2; after Lenin, 155
9; necessity of terror to maintain, 252 Leonhard,Wolfgang,265-6 Levi, Paul, 89, 9o 
Levien, Max, 88, 9o Levine,Eugen,89,go 
(film), 388 Lichtenstein,415 Liebknecht, Karl, 83, 84, 86, 87 List, Field Marshal Wilhelm, 508 Lithuania, 357,384,392
6,547,564; Memel region of, 351,355; Pogroms in,443,444 
Little Red Book 
(Mao), 157 Litvinov, Maxim, 356 Lodz ghetto, 372 
Daily Mail, 
I I 
o, 468 London 
Lossow, General Otto Hermann von, 112-14 
Lubbe, Marinus van der, 298 Ludendorff, General Erich, 
I 11, 
114, 115 
Luftwaffe, 362, 403, 429 
Liittwitz, General Walther von, 87 Lutze, Viktor, 532 
Luxembourg, 415 
Luxembourg, Rosa, 84, 86, 87, 90 Lvov, Prince Georgii E., 23,32 Lyashchenko, General N. G., 496-7 Lysenko,T D., 332 
Machiavelli, Niccolo, 248 
Machine Tractor Station (MTS), 236 Magnitogorsk concentration camps, 263 
Maier, Charles, 14 
Main Directorate of State Security (GUGB), 529 
Majdanek death camp, 461, 463, 465, 538,551,587 
Majority Socialists, German (MSPD), 83-8, 94; 
see also 
Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) Malenkov, Georgy M., 250, 474, 484, 492 
Manhattan Project, 559 Mann, Thomas, 9o Manstein, General Erich von, 379,380 Mao Tse-tung,157, 157,359 
Marshall, General George C., 485, 486 
Martov, Yuh, 39 
Marx, Karl, 25, 29, 30, 32, 54, 62, 99, 134,330 
Marx, Wilhelm,125 
5, 23,32,83,92,95-6, 
Semitism and, 84; class struggle in, 223,277; dictatorship justified by, 4o; end point 'beyond history' in, 
eugenics and, 331-2; factionalism in, 126; Nazi rhetoric against, 8r, 
107,109,115,117-22,192,193,203, 209,210-12,286-8,291,292,295, 297, 214; internationalism of, 28; in Italy, 103;Jews and, 84,90,214,593; of Mensheviks,32,136;in prerevolu
tionary period, 7,25-7,132-34; religion and, 247-8; SA actions against, 211; women opposed to, 195; 
see also specific parties 
Marxism-Leninism, 388-89,409 Maurice, Emit, 118 
Mauthausen concentration camp, 340, 341,369 
Max, Prince of Baden, 83 Mayr, Captain Karl, 91,97 McKee, Arthur, & Company, 164 
Mein Kampf 
(Hitler), 118-23, 203, 
293,318,333,336 Mekhlis, Lev Z., 478 Melgounov, S. P, 72 Memorial (Russia organization), 59, 584 
Mensheviks,23,26, 27,29,30,32-3, 39,
7,154,267 Menzhinsky, Vyacheslav R., 45,175, 176,238 
Meretskov, General Kirill A., 474 Messerschmidt, Manfred, 348-9 Mikhail Alexandrovich, 
 Grand Duke, 23 Mikoyan,Anastas1.,25,167,171,280,

(At first Wolfowitz served as Rumsfeld's 'plus one,' but after I became Under Secretary the task increasingly became mine.)

When Rumsfeld sounded out our European allies about reducing the U.S. presence there, they warned that such a move could bring about wholesale collapse: Years after the U.S. military had helped to save those regions' victimized Muslims, 
 civil government had not yet been established in either place.

 After 9/11, the number of meetings increased-and days off largely disappeared.

In the hours after 9/11, Bush had sent Richard Armitage to demand 
 that Pervez Musharraf declare whether Pakistan was our friend or our enemy.

On issue after issue, Rice worked hard to produce bridging proposals
 even though, when Bush was presented with a clear choice among rival views, he showed the ready decisiveness of a confident executive.

In April 2002, a few weeks after OSI's demise, I laid out my thoughts on the subject in a speech (circulated in advance to State, White House, and Pentagon colleagues): 
 frequently hear that suicide bombing is the product of the combination of poverty and hopelessness.

The video shows him doing it 
 In 1980, a little more than a year after becoming President of Iraq, Saddam invaded Iran, starting an eight-year war that killed an estimated one million people.

After his overthrow, U.S. officials collected some of these records-videos 
 made by Saddam's security services-onto a sickening DVD.

In later years, according to one official Iraqi document captured by U.S. forces after Saddam's overthrow, the Fedayeen Saddam brought Arab volunteers from Egypt, Palestine, 
 Jordan, the Gulf, and Syria to those camps for training.

(Where the vol
 unteers went after their training remains unclear.)

Out of this painful history, the CIA and Chalabi developed a mutual hatred that would affect U.S. policy before and after Saddam's overthrow.

 Time after time, whenever Saddam confronted those who would contain him, he showed that he had more stomach than his opponents did.

After all, having expelled Iraq's invasion forces from Kuwait in 1991, the coalition might have proceeded to overthrow Saddam's regime, in the interests of regional peace and secu

But after a few weeks, Pace commented that we often wasted five minutes or so waiting for the table to be set after the previous meeting ended, so we agreed to dispense with the lunch service.

For example, after the Jordanian govern
 ment indicted Chalabi for financial malfeasance following the 1990-91 Gulf War (convicting him in absentia in a military court), State and CIA officials would report these charges at face value, omitting to note that Jordan's King Hussein received substantial aid from Iraq and had sided with Saddam Hussein in the Gulf War-and Chalabi was Saddam's most prominent Iraqi opponent.

After becoming National Security Adviser, she often commented that if the differing views of National Security 
 Council members could not be resolved through combining elements of each-if the President were required to choose one member's policy option over another's-that would represent a failure on her part.

Hamid Karzai, after all, could fairly be described as an external whom the Afghan internals accepted without questioning his legitimacy.

After a while, it seemed to me, McLaughlin must have gotten indigestion at the mere thought of another Deputies Lunch.

Most important, Luti argued, they could serve as knowledgeable intermediaries, helping to: 
• advise senior coalition leaders 
• form Iraq [intelligence] fusion cell • provide interpreters 
• provide scouts for combat units 
• contract for indigenous logistics support 
 Luti contended that a fifteen-hundred- to two-thousand-man Iraqi force could help CENTCOM perform civil-military operations during and after a war.

General Franks could organize the force into units of mili
 tary police, capable of vetting and commanding Iraq's civilian police and generally contributing to law and order after Saddam's removal.

In the weeks after President Bush's UN speech, it produced important statements on Iraq's links to terrorists and its WMD programs.

                                                                                                                                                  In his Sep
tember 12 speech to the UN, President Bush said it was unreasonable to believe that Saddam had quietly performed the required dismantlement and destruction 
 stopping the inspections.

 to produce a nuclear bomb-and he retained the intention to do so after economic sanctions were lifted.

It took half a century after World War 11 to achieve even 
 Rumsfeld told Wolfowitz and me that the presentation struck him as surprisingly thin-not at all compelling.

The Secretary said little during the meeting, but after McLaughlin and his CIA colleagues left, 
 time Iraq should be given to turn on the light and to come clean....

 On February 5, two months after Iraq's weapons declaration, Colin Powell made his memorable presentation to the UN Security Council on the threat from the Saddam Hussein regime.

To put together a force of a few thousand men, the Administration would need to obtain and vet lists of nominees, marshal the volunteers, and trans- 
 port them to the training center (which Hungary had allowed us to establish on a military base there, after some persuasion from State).

 quickly after Saddam's overthrow.

Even after that statue came down in Baghdad's Firdaus Square, the Iraqis knew that Saddam Hussein and his agents remained at large-and able to strike the coalition and the Iraqis who supported it.

But it wasn't until June 23-a full month after the May 23 dissolu
 tion order-that the CPA announced publicly that the out-of-work soldiers would be paid monthly stipends.

Some of the interviewees 'indicated a resumption after Iraq was free of sanctions.'

The Governing Council completed the document, formally entitled the Tran
 sitional Administrative Law, on March 8, 2004, only a few days after the deadline.

Shortly after the Iran-related anti-Chalabi accusations were leaked to 
 an Iraqi judge issued a warrant for a raid on Chalabi's home.

                                                496   WAR AND DECISION 
Why, then, did the United States run Iraq for those first critical four
teen months after liberation, when we could have put the same set of Iraqi leaders in charge of their own government? 

                                                496   WAR AND DECISION 
Why, then, did the United States run Iraq for those first critical four
teen months after liberation, when we could have put the same set of Iraqi leaders in charge of their own government? 

After the overthrow of the Taliban and Saddam Hussein regimes, Libya decided to get out of the WMD business, and Syria withdrew its military forces from Lebanon for the first time in nearly twenty years.

I recalled that in 1989, when a UN team confirmed that Iraq had used chemical weapons against Iran-thus violating the Geneva Protocol, perhaps the most significant multilateral legal convention after the UN Charter itself-the international meeting to address the violation was unable even to agree to a condemning resolution that would name Iraq as the violator.

He reported that the IAEA was 'not able to reach any conclusion about Iraq's compliance with its Security Council obligations in the nuclear field after December 1998,' when Saddam effectively expelled the IAEA inspectors.

His disciples after him did so as well.

We ask that You keep us safe, and keep safe the people we're going after.

        'Right after the bombing,' Lynn explained, 'Hezbollah came for
ward and claimed credit for having done this, and in a very bragging, 
grandiose way: 
 `We killed all these Americans! We're gettin' em! Were gettin' 'em where it counts, and we're the ones; we did it.!'

Hafizullah Amin-Moscow's man-took over after Taraki's death and eagerly launched attacks against the mujahadeen, killing more than 
 a thousand in just a few weeks.

                                                                                                                      According to 
The 9111 Commission Report, 
after graduating from high school, 'KSM left Kuwait to enroll at Chowan College, a small Baptist school in Murfreesboro, North Caro

After a semester at Chowan, KSM transferred to North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro....

In 2002, not long after the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, Ahmed joined a clandestine al Qaeda cell group operating inside the kingdom.

What's more, they described the case as 'one of the most dangerous terrorist threats that America faces in the perilous world after September 
 2001: an al Qaeda operative born and raised in the United States, trained and committed to carry out deadly attacks on American soil.''

For the next century and a half, they and their descendants and disciples after them embarked on a series of military conquests in the region, culminating in the establish
 ment of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932.*

 After more than a thousand candidates had been denied the right to run for president by the central government, one early poll put Ahmadinejad second to last in a contest among the eight remaining candidates, drawing a paltry 2.8

A few days after the February 1 attacks in Baghdad, I had the privilege of discussing these very questions with one of America's most experi
 enced and highest ranking intelligence officials.

He became a critically important ally of the West in the battle against the Radicals after 9/11 and during the liberation of Iraq and its aftermath.

Once the leader of a violent Kurdish guerrilla faction in the 1960s and 1970s, Talabani put down his arms, ordered his followers to do the 
 same, and helped create a peaceful and prosperous democratic province in northern Iraq in the 1990s after the first Gulf War.

And not just by the Rank-and-File processing the debate as if watching a championship tennis game at Wimbledon-turning their heads from one side to the other and back again-but among some Radicals as well, those whose consciences are burning and whose eyes reflect a growing horror as they see what they are doing in a new light and wonder if perhaps God is not in all this bloodshed and hatred after all.

                                                                         Farsi is actually the third most popular language on the Inter
net, after English and Mandarin Chinese,z
To scan such Farsi blogs is to take the temperature of the molten anger building up pressure underneath the regime in Tehran and threat
 ening to explode like a volcano.

And yet now, suddenly, after all their sacrifice and suffering, here they were, slaves of the Salafists.

                He returned to Iraq   a i 
 after a few days feeling affirmed in his conviction that Iraq needed to build a quiet but strong relationship with the Israelis.

On April 22, 2003, just after arriving in Iraq to begin working on reconstruction and assembling a new government, the first two people U.S. Lieutenant General Jay Garner went to see were Jalal Talabani and 
 Massoud Barzani.

He was tech-savvy, having run a successful telecom business in the Saudi kingdom before returning to Iraq after liberation.

In an interview with an Arab newspaper in Damascus just days after Obamds comments, Talabani unleashed his fury against Islamic Radicals.

Second, Bremer said he believed Al Qaeda in Iraq had overplayed their hand by instigating Muslim-on-Muslim violence that Iraqis saw 
 on their televisions-as well as in their streets-day after day, night after night, week after week.

 You are still democratizing society in America after a few hundred years.

Qubad, do you believe Kurdistan could serve as a model for the rest of Iraq? After all, you have a sixteen-year head start, right? After the first Gulf War, the U.S. imposed a 
 no-fly zone over northern Iraq, keeping Saddam's forces from being able to attack the Kurds.

 and intensified after a series of suicide bombings ripped through several Muslim- and Jewish-owned restaurants and a Jewish community center in Casablanca on May 16, 2003, leaving forty-five dead (including twelve of fourteen bombers) and more than a hundred wounded.

After the abduction and murder of two Moroccan diplomats in Baghdad in the fall of 2005 and repeated 
reports that al Qaeda has been recruiting Moroccans to launch ter
 rorist attacks inside Iraq, the issue of democracy in Iraq and U.S. and European military involvement there apparently have been simply too sensitive for the Moroccan government to tackle thus far.'

After the 2003 bombings in Casablanca, the king personally blessed a series of candlelight vigils and later a rally in which one million Moroccans, including more than a thousand Jews, marched in unison to denounce the radical jihadists and called for peace.

After marrying an American and moving to the United States-a 361 
 country he had long hated-this jihadist found Jesus.

In fact, while this backlash against the theology and practice of Radicalism has been building since 1979, 1 first began to detect it during my travels in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East soon after 9/11.

After each session, they would huddle together to compare notes about what God was doing in their cities, towns, and villages.

Again, the precise numbers are not as important as the trend, and the trend is that the Church is definitely bearing fruit again after centuries of spiritual barrenness.

After explaining why he had given his life to Christ, he died the 
 next day.

'Hundreds and hundreds of churches were planted after the Soviet Union broke down,' one Uzbek Christian leader told me.

But after watching how calmly and patiently his son had endured the village's persecution, and how God had withdrawn his favor from the village and now was giving it back again, the father sat up all night with his son asking him questions about his faith, about the Bible, and about the power of his son's God to hear prayers and answer them.

They began to pay him the monthly stipend, but 
 after a few months they canceled the stipend.

But after the Revolution, we could not start by talking about God because people were so angry.

A crumpled-up hit list was actu
 ally found with the body of Tateos Michaelian after his death.

Him (Jesus Christ], you also, after listening to the message of truth, 
 the gospel of your salvation-having also believed, you were sealed in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise, who is given as a pledge of our inheritance, with a view to the redemption of God's own possession, to the praise of His glory.'

these passages, the Hebrew prophet Ezekiel, writing more than 2,500 years ago, prophesied that: 
• Israel will be reborn as a country (chapters 36-38) 
• The Jews will return to the Holy Land after centuries in exile (36:10-11, 24, 37-38; 37:12, 21; 38:8, 12) 
• The ancient ruins in Israel will be rebuilt (36:36) 
• Israel's desolate, desert lands will again blossom and pro
duce abundant food, fruit, and foliage (36:8-9, 30-35) • Israel will have an 'exceedingly great army' (37:10) 
 Many Arabs, Iranians, and others in the Middle East are not happy that Israel became a country on May 14, 1948, that millions of Jews have moved to Israel, and that the Israeli military has become powerful and highly effective.

So I will shatter Elam before their enemies And before those who seek their lives; And I will bring calamity upon them, Even My fierce anger,' declares the 
 And I will send out the sword after them Until I have consumed them.

After all, we probably wouldn't have even known about this oddball preacher in the first place.

Then, after noting that Obama's campaign had described Obama's relationship with Ayers as 'friendly,' Stephanopoulos pulled the pin on the grenade.

                  Turns out she only went to the Rwanda-Zaire 
ing to an aide to Mrs. McCain, 'in order to assess the condi
tions of the refugees entering the country' And she didn't go 
the genocide, but 

It was Obama's jet, after all, and he could let any
 one he wanted on it, and kick anyone he wanted off it.


  1 he day after the election, two heavy hitters from the media world went on the Charlie Rose show to inform us that Barack Obama is a slightly creepy, deeply manipulative guy.

                                           Meacham, Thomas, and Brokaw are newsmen, right? It is their job to tell us who this Barack Obama is, right-and not 

run interference for him? It is their job to tell us how he thinks, what drives him, what he really believes in, right
and not hide their fears and suspicions until after they got him elected? And they wait almost until Election Day-or in the case of Meacham and Thomas, until 
Election Day
to go on national television and tell us that Barack Obama is a creature created by Barack Obama who is not 'neces
sarily a real person'? 

For a while, it looked like McCain had a chance of beating the historical 

 odds, but after the economy tanked, so did McCain's slim chances of winning.

The press, after all, went after Bill Clinton dur
 ing the Lewinsky scandal (at least until he became a liberal martyr when the Republicans impeached him).

Obama's best press of the year came after he won the North Carolina primary on May 6-after that, 43 percent of stories were favor
 able to Obama, compared to just one percent that were critical.

Financial globalization means that, after more than three hundred years of divergence, 
 the world can no longer be divided neatly into rich developed countries and poor less-developed countries.

The air down the mineshafts was (and remains) noxious and miners had to descend seven-hundred-foot shafts on the most primitive of 
The Cerro Rico at Potosi: the Spanish Empire's mountain of money 

 steps, clambering back up after long hours of digging with sacks of ore tied to their backs.

Everyone lives happily ever after - except Shylock.

After several more rounds, the professor asks the class to compute the increase in the supply of money.

the restrictions on joint-stock banking were lifted, paving the way for the emergence of a few big commercial banks: the London & Westminster (founded in 
the National Provincial 
the Birmingham & Midland 
and Barclays 

                                                                                It was not until 
after the Savings and Loans crisis (see Chapter 5), that the number of national banks fell below 
 for the first time in nearly a century.

And people who wanted to take out a mortgage after the market move would find themselves paying at least 0.41

                                                          So skilfully did Sir John 
Pieter van der Heyden after Pieter Bruegel the Elder, The Battle about Money, after 

 To an extent that even today remains astonishing, the Rothschilds went on to dominate international finance in the half century after Waterloo.

 lateral is, after all, only good if a creditor can get his hands on it.

On the contrary, the decades after 
were a golden age for the 
 in Europe.

Public expenditure continued to exceed tax revenue; arguments for a premature end to wage and price controls prevailed; inflation resumed after only the most fleeting of stabilizations.

After the advent of banking and the birth of the bond market, the next step in the story of the ascent of money was therefore the rise of the joint-stock, limited-liability corporation: joint-stock because the company's capital was jointly owned by multiple investors; limited-liability because the separate existence of the company as a legal `person' protected the investors from losing all their wealth if the venture failed.

Why risk renewing policies here, where natural disasters happen all too often and where, after the disaster, companies have to contend with the likes of Dickie Scruggs? The strong implication would seem to be that providing coverage to the inhabitants of places like Pascagoula and Saint Bernard is no longer something the private sector is prepared to do.

`It is experience alone & nice calculation that must determine the proportional sum the widow is to have after the husband's death,' wrote Wallace in an early draft, `but a beginning may be made by allowing triple the sum the husband payed [sic] in [yearly] during his life .

The women are set to clean the wards, or to pick oakum; the men to break stones, but none are detained longer than four hours after their breakfast which is of the same kind and quantity as their supper.

That was more or less what happened to Rivera's next commission - to decorate the walls of New York's Rockefeller Center for John D. Rockefeller Jr. - after the artist insisted on including a portrait of Lenin as well as Communist slogans like `Down With Imperialistic Wars!', `Workers Unite!' and, most shocking of all, `Free Money!' These were to be carried by demonstrators marching down Wall Street itself.

In the two decades after 
the S&P 
 excluding dividends, rose by a factor of just over five, still comfortably beating housing.

Housing, after all, represents two thirds of the typical US household's portfolio, and a higher proportion in other countries.'

Some have traced the origins of the war back to the naval race of the mid 
others to events in the Balkans after 

[because] the influx of hot money into and out of the country that so frequently follows after capital market liberalization leaves havoc in its wake ...

                                                                            After the shock of 
all the economies affected returned swiftly to rapid growth - growth so rapid, indeed, that by 
some commentators were wondering 
 if the `two sisters' of Bretton Woods any longer had a role to play as international lenders.'

Chimerica, in other words, was the underlying cause of the surge in bank lending, bond issuance and new deriva
 tive contracts that Planet Finance witnessed after zooo.

The average career of a Wall Street CEO is just over twenty-five years, 
 which means that first-hand memories at the top of the US banking system do not extend back beyond 1983 - ten years after the beginning of the last great surge in oil and gold prices.

                                                                                                                                                                                    2nd millennium 
(Trustees of the British Museum) 
p. 4o: The arrest of Gerard Law (Mirrorpix) 
P• 43: Quentin Massys The 
(1514), (photo RMN) 
P. 45: Page from the `secret book' of the Medici (Archive di Stato di Firenze) 
p. 66: Japanese government ten-year bond (Embassy of Japan in the UK) p. 70: Pieter van der Heyden after Pieter Breugel the Elder, The Battle about Money, after 1570 (Metropolitan Museum of Art) 
p. 77: A 5 per cent consol (July 1785) (Hersh L. Stern, Annuity Museum) P. 95: Confederate cotton bond with coupons (Michael Vidler) 
P. 97: Confederate `greyback' State of Louisiana $5 bill (Louisiana State Museum) 
 P. 105: A German billion mark note from 1923 (Ron Wise) P. 13o: The oldest share (r6o6), (

                                                                                                                           see also 
public housing 
counterparty risks 
271, 331 
country banks 
53, 57 
Countrywide Financial 
financial crises Crawford, William 
borrowing against future earnings 
essential for growth 
31, 64 
origins of 
149-50, 266 
as total of banks' assets 
51 see also 
debt; microfinance credit card holders 

Crdit Mobilier 
Credit Suisse 
credit unions 
51, z78-8o 
financial crises Croatia z 
cross-border capital flows 
capital (export) 
currency: conversion problems 
42, 48 
300-1, 305 
first global (Spanish) 
58, 114, x15 
reform: Amsterdam 
48, 1z7; 
see also 
coins/coinage; exchange rates 
currency devaluations/crises/ collapses 
67, Iz5, 333 
medieval monarchs 
sterling devaluation (lggz) 
after First World War 
107, 304 
current accounts 
credit crunches: 
1914: 299 
2007-8: see 
financial crises credit default swaps (CDS) 
4, 17, zz7 
credit markets: 
(2007) z72, 283, 354 
Dallas 253, 
9 Dante Alighieri 35 DarmstAdter Bank 56 Darrow, Charles 231 Darwin, Charles 358 Darwinian processes in financial system 14, 348-58 
Datini, Francesco 186 
Da Vinci Code, The 

                                        Davis, Jefferson 93 Dawkins, Richard 356 Dearborn 242 
death, causes of 183-4 debt/debts: 
debtors' prisons 6o 
debt vs. income balance 281 moratoria 301 
mountain image 71 origins of 
credit securitization 
securitization transferability (pay the bearer) 30 unreliability and hostility of 
debtors 2, 37-8, 59-61 decimal system 32 
deficits, government I18, 307, 30
3 deflation Io6, 164, 296 Defoe, Daniel 145-6 
Delane, John 95 Delors, Jacques 312 democracies 
property-owning democracies; representative governments 
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) x66-7 
deposit insurance 57 depreciation 263 depressions 163 absence of after Second World War 164-6 
Depression economics 313 
also financial crises; Great Depression 
Derenberg & Co. 299 derivatives 4-5, zz7-8, 353 dangers of 228, 353 
over-the-counter' (OTC) 4-5, 228, 353 
 surge in 2.28,

                      After that I 
In the Event of My Untimely Demise 
 told you so, I decided to pay more attention to the little mime inside me.

Not to mention, one's limited knowledge ofm°-' 
 is rendered worthless after Guinness.

In the end, after numerous clandestine consultations with Ms. Hite's report, I felt I knew all there was to know.

Soon after I befriended him I was told I should perhaps have different friends.

It's an educated sweeping gen
 eralization arrived at only after one has made the effort to travel-to read more than one page, as SaintAugustine said.

When he charged twenty thousand dollars' worth of karaoke equipment and decided days later that he didn't actually want to go into the karaoke business after all, I re
 spected the dedication he had to paying off his pointless, absurd debt.

In the Event 
My Untimely Demise 
 warms my heart like the thought of my wife seeing the world with her best friend after I'm gone.

Our Declaration of Inde
 pendence, after all, was written in the name of 'a decent respect for the opinion of mankind.'

A century after Bacon's Rebellion, the Founders in Philadelphia 
 drafted a Constitution in the name of 'We the People.'

After all, none of the nineteen hijackers was American-born, or an Amer
 ican citizen.

After he was assassinated, however, the big shots got a very different
 and, from their point of view, disturbing-sort of character as president: Teddy Roosevelt.

But after 
 the kings did not govern us, and neither did their faith.

The paper's reporters had come across the story more than a year earlier, but Abramson and the other top editors had agreed, after urgent appeals from administration officials, to hold it and try to develop the story more fully in the interim.

After the Times story broke, a fu
 rious President Bush ordered a leak investigation, and Attorney General Alberto Gonzales hinted at the possibility that he might prosecute the newspapers' reporters.

But Congress also broadly charged the president with preventing another attack and gave him the sole job to go after the persons 'he determines' launched or aided in perpetrating the mayhem of 9/11.

                                                                            'Taxes' and 'tariffs' were fight
ing words and concepts; it took a constitutional amendment, no less, to permanently institute an income tax 
years after the founding docu
 ment itself was written.

After LBJ's massive victory, he was determined to build his Great Society.

Determined to show his intellectual bona fides, one-up the Kennedys-and also perform good works-LBJ, and Richard Nixon after him, recruited heavily in academia, bringing social scientists to Washington to apply their theorems.

Parents and children alike were eager to strike out on their own after an era of shared sacrifice.

                               106   THE THIRTEEN AMERICAN ARGUMENTS 
After a decade of learning to swim upstream in the Reagan rhetori
cal tide, Bill Clinton was an expert at juggling the rhetoric of indi
 vidualism and community.

He was a Goldwater man-he was, after all, a Republican from Arizona-and if you saw McCain at his ranch in Sedona, 
 as I did one spring weekend, you saw a fellow who thought of himself in the Western tradition of ornery leave-me-alone-ism.

After six years in the wilderness, the Democrats had returned to power in the Senate, and Kennedy, now in the majority again on Senator Joe Biden's Judiciary Committee, aimed a half decade of pent-up anti-Reagan anger at the judge.

Lincoln spoke of our nation at Gettysburg, Roosevelt at his first inauguration, George W. Bush at the National Cathedral after 

Lee Greenwood became Bush's unoffi
 cial vocalist, showing up to sing 'God Bless the USA' at event after event.

'Basically, after the attacks on the Trade Center in 1993, the FBI blew it,' said Leahy.

                    Three years after his departure, Nixon was asked 
by interviewer David Frost whether some of the domestic spying activi
 ties he had approved were legal.

Just after his inauguration, he invited Senator Joseph Biden-the Democrats' senior man on the topic-to the Oval Office for a chat.

If accepted (and it was not), the theory would reduce the Congress to after
 thought status.

After his years at Harvard Busi- 
 ness School, he had hung out with his parents in Beijing, where his father was in charge of the first American mission.

He had traveled to more countries more times than anyone else on the Hill, and as part of a quite possibly quixotic bid for his party's 
presidential nomination, he had prepared a long cri
tique of Bush's tenure-and of America's position in the world five years after the 

In fact, after he and George W. Bush won a second term, Cheney purchased a $2.67

                After all, our own 
 Revolution was led by gentlemen of education and means.

_   When I first envisioned this book in the spring of 
 I saw it as a reporter's act of explanation, an effort to map what I had come to see, after years on the politics beat, as the double-helix DNA of American public life.

We were born in crushing debt after the Revolution, for example, and worked our way out of it through 
 the ferocious arguments of the Hamiltonians and Jeffersonians.

Then again, the more hidden places where we stayed could have given away my situation-at the 
 where I'd work late so we could stretch out on the floor under my desk after hours; or, as on occasion we found ourselves, in the public bathroom of an Oakland BART station.

     As much as I kept going forward because I believed a better future lay ahead, and as much as I was sure that the encounter out
side San Francisco General Hospital had steered me to that future, the real driving force came from that other pivotal event in my 
Chris Gardner 
 life-which had taken place back in Milwaukee in March 1970, on a day not long after my sixteenth birthday.

Eyes down on her newspaper, not even lifting them, instead of 
Chris Gardner 
making a dig that maybe I could go out and hustle up more hours doing odd jobs after school, she said with trademark subtle sarcasm, 'Well, why don't you just act like you got five dollars?' 

My brain understands he has raped me twice, but my emotions refuse to compute, all messed up over the fear that he's going to kill me after he's done.

Even though Moms could cook anything that Freddie brought home-fried with rice and gravy, it was filet mignon to me, perfect with cornbread, greens, and maybe some yams on the side-cleaning and skinning any
 thing with fur or feathers became a horrific undertaking after a while.

So as Moms, Sharon, and Kim followed Freddie out to his car, I just called after them, 'Merry Christmas! Y'all go ahead, to the party, I'm going to the movies with Belinda, so maybe I'll stop by later.'

After we met, we spent two days just talk

My hair was never the same after boot camp.

jackie had every reason to be frustrated, after all.

In an experience to be filed under the heading of 'best-laid plans of mice and men,' after enjoying those two weeks-during which I don't get around to taking care of the parking tickets-to 
zoa   Chris Gardner 
make a good impression I show up thirty minutes early on the ap
 pointed Monday morning and no one seems to know who I am.

After dinner, a little television, and a visit with TV Joe, our last stop before heading home was to cruise by The palms as the ladies 
Chris Gardner 
 of the evening gathered at their posts, several calling to me and my sop, 'Hey, Chris!

Bear Stearns had only six to seven hundred brokers, and instead of being mass-market-the mom-and-pop investors, folks wanting IRAs and utilities, meat-and-potatoes-this smaller partnership was going after bigger fish in the institutional invest
 ment business: banks, pension funds, insurance companies, money managers, bigger businesses.

After numerous explanations and attempted analogies, I finally put it this way: 'Let's say all these companies that I represent are at the casino and I'm the house.'

The 'emergency' has been in place for five consecutive years now; 
 virtually every bill that has passed through the House in the Bush era has been voted on just hours after emerging from the hairy womb of the Rules Committee.

Soon after that the press left for the day, and Barton grinned, picked up his briefcase, and crossed the hall to con
 front the Rules Committee.

Fortenberry took this set of metaphors and ran with them straight for the hyperbolic end zone, talking about situations 
 when you might add more gauze, or change your gauze, or find out that your gauze was infected-I couldn't keep them straight after a while.

After a minute she looked up.

planning on compromising' all along, if they were always go
ing to cave after the veto,: then won't it look like they were just playing politics with funding for the troops this whole time? If you were always going to compromise in the end, isnt it fair to ask-what was this?' 

Specifically, after enough desperation and misery and corporate self-abnegation, and picking up the phone late at night to listen to fellow Christians wish openly that they can pray their way out of next week's bills, and drinking cheap pow
dered presweetened iced tea out of plastic cups in squalid strip
 mall chain restaurants with self-flagellating, past-middle-aged .

depressives who think Satan is the reason their kids don't call them anymore-after enough of that, a full-on, million-piece
 chorus, John Hagee Sunday spectacular starts to seem like a goddamned Rolling Stones concert.

I'm not sure exactly what was said at first, but I recall that after a stammering attempt on my part to start 
 a discussion, all five or so protesters started speaking at once; I heard something about 'heat levels' on my left and 'video' on my right.

                                                  You had Joe Isuzu talking about using his trucks to haul two-thousand
pound cheeseburgers alongside cola ads that showed ordinary people looking like they were about to have huge heaving or
 gasms at the sight of a cold Coke, or be magically transformed into swimwear models after a couple of Diet Pepsis.

I then saw this assertion repeated religiously all over the Web-Kean naturally led the coverup, he was in the CFR, after all.

After all, I thought, if you really think that the government murdered three thousand Americans, shouldn't you be doing more than holding sit-ins and organizing discussion groups? And so, at some of these meetings, I started to hear 'Lee Smith'-my al
 ter ego-calling for immediate action.

Although the point of the Q&A session was supposed to be a discussion of the movie, the movie had seemingly been forgotten minutes after it ended, 
and the activity we were now engaging in involved circling the 

As for the wild conjecture that interest rates would need to rise to 10 to 12 percent to break the back of the stock market, we will never know because interest rates were never even north of 6 percent in 1994-1995, after hav- 

The Friday after Thanksgiving, two weeks later, was a particularly memorable day.

Nonetheless, the religious fervor with which stock-split candidates were lusted after was a strong hint that madness prevailed.

For instance, there was stock-split fever; all through the late 1990s investors repeatedly chased after companies that were splitting their shares.

A week after the rate hike, Cisco reported its quarterly 


When I became aware of CYBR [Cyber Care Inc.], I did voluminous amounts of research and only after I was totally convinced, I started buying.

                                               But, as Grant explained, after those improvements were cap
tured by government statisticians at the Commerce Department, the 'real' amount of investment (the meas- 

 ure used in productivity calculations) in computers and peripherals became $329 billion annualized.

After that day, almost all economic and financial problems were blamed on its events.

Shortly after the publication of that paper, in the fall of 2003, Greenspan decided that fighting deflation wasn't enough.

After all, he was the Fed Chairman; he was supposed to know these things.

How much vanity must be concealed-not too effectively at that-in order to pretend that one is the personal object of a divine plan? How much self-respect must be sacrificed in order that one may squirm continually in an awareness of one's own sin? How many needless assumptions must be made, and how much contortion is required, to receive every new insight of science and manipulate it so as to 'fit' with the revealed words of ancient man-made deities? How many saints and miracles and coun
cils and conclaves are required in order first to be able to establish a dogma and then-after infinite pain and loss and absurdity and 
cruelty-to be forced to rescind one of those dogmas? God did not   much in common with other tribes of the human species-'race' 
 create man in his own image.

                                                                            (Mother Teresa in the same year gave an interview saying that 
sidy and an intimate relationship with hereditary monarchy, it has a   she hoped her friend Princess Diana would be happier after she had 
 escaped from what was an obviously miserable marriage, but it's less   segregated and suppressed.

Waiting alone for a train, well after midnight, I had been suddenly joined by a crew of repairmen exiting the tunnel with their tools and 
 work gloves.

   Back home in Washington, where that year many people were still fearfully staying indoors after the trauma of 
my youngest daughter was going dauntlessly door to door on Halloween, piping 'Trick or Treat for UNICEF' and heal
 ing or saving, with every fistful of small change, children she would never meet.

Long before modern inquiry and painstaking translation and ex
 cavation had helped enlighten us, it was well within the compass of a thinking person to see that the 'revelation' at Sinai and the rest of the Pentateuch was an ill-carpentered fiction, bolted into place well after the nonevents that it fails to describe convincingly or even plausibly.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The self-taught Thomas Paine has never been refuted since he wrote, while suffering dire persecution by French Jacobin antireligionists, to show 
that these books are spurious, and that Moses is not the author of them; and still further, that they were not written in the time of Moses, nor till several hundred years afterwards, that they are an attempted history of the life of Moses, and of the times in which he is said to have lived; and also of the times prior thereto, written by some very ignorant and stupid pretenders several hun
 dred years after the death of Moses; as men now write histories of things that happened, or are supposed to have happened, several hundred or several thousand years ago.

And it is necessarily odd because, just like the Old Testament, the 'New' one is also a work of crude carpentry, hammered together long after its purported events, and full of improvised attempts to make things come out right.

                                                                                                                    There is no men
tion of any Augustan census by any Roman historian, but the Jewish chronicler Josephus mentions one that did occur-without the oner
 ous requirement for people to return to their places of birth, and six years after the birth of Jesus is supposed to have taken place.

This is, all of it, quite evidently a garbled and oral-based reconstruction un
 dertaken some considerable time after the 'fact.'

Many years after C. S. Lewis had gone to his reward, a very serious young man named Barton Ehrman began to examine his own fundamentalist assumptions.

He was astonished to find that some of the best-known Jesus stories were scribbled into the canon long after the fact, and that this was true of perhaps the best-known of them all.

After the Angel Gabriel (who so identified himself) had told Muhammad that he was to be Allah's messenger, and had departed, Muhammad confided in his wife Khadijah.

Heres returned to the world after passing a fortnight in hell.

But even after the last serviceman flew or sailed away after 
 the eventual return of the savior From was preached and predicted, and an annual ceremony still bears his name.

After such knowledge, what forgiveness? The film 
 won an Academy Award in 1972, and has made absolutely no difference at all.

So notorious did this local tendency become that the region became known as the 'Burned-Over District,' in honor of the way in which it had surrendered to one religious craze after another.

Christians used to resolve this problem by saying that Jesus descended into hell after his crucifix
 ion, where it is thought that he saved or converted the dead.

                                               Who can count the number of lives that have been made miserable in this way, especially since Christian doctors began to adopt ancient Jewish folklore in their hospitals? And who can bear to read the medical textbooks and his
tories which calmly record the number of boy babies who died from infection after their eighth day, or who suffered gross and unbearable dysfunction and disfigurement? The record of syphilitic and other infection, from rotting rabbinical teeth or other rabbinical indiscre
 tions, or of clumsy slitting of the urethra and sometimes a vein, is simply dreadful.

To decide to do nothing is itself a policy and a decision, and it is unfortunately easy to record and explain the church's alignment in terms of a real
politik that sought, not the defeat of Nazism, but an accommodation with 
The very first diplomatic accord undertaken by Hitler's govern
ment was consummated on July 8, 1933, a few months after the sei
 zure of power, and took the form of a treaty with the Vatican.

At the first meeting of his cabinet after this capitulation was signed, Hitler announced that these new circumstances would be 'especially significant in the struggle against international Jewry.'

The afterlife is not mentioned in North Korea, because the idea o£ a defection in any direction is very strongly discouraged, but as against that it is not claimed that the two Kims will continue to dominate you after you are dead.

After a quarter century of theoc-   to condemn-the cartoons!

He tells the audience that his record 
 racism of his Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: a policy of   as a married man improved after he became a Christian.

At the first press conference after his arrest, reporters were baffled when Blagojevich recited the first stanza of 'If.'

                                                                           Abbinanti, now a legitimate business
man after six years in a federal penitentiary on gambling charges, says he never knew Blagojevich and never col
 lected street taxes from him.

His father and grandparents raised him in Muskegon, Michigan, after his mother took off for New York.

On Rod and Patti's wedding day, it seemed as though they would surely live happily ever after.

At Christmastime, just after the election, Dick Mell was in a great mood.

Roland Burris in an expansive mood on December 
 2oo8,just after Governor Blagojevich announced that Burris was his choice to fill the vacant Senate seat of Barack Obama.

After all, without Dick Mell there never would have been a Governor Rod Blagojevich.

After learning that his daughter too had been caught on tape, Mell grew still more concerned about the future of Patti and his granddaughters, though he was enor
mously relieved that Patti was talking to him again and 
Pay to Play 
 bringing the girls to the Mell house.

Pay to Play 
Out in Front on Health Care 
 Shortly after the release of this final report, the governor announced 'Illinois Covered,' his plan to provide universal coverage in Illinois.

We have bids out-and he'll just come after us.'

After the governor's arrest, some observers speculated that those contacts would engulf Emanuel-and even Obama-in the Senate-for-sale scan

But after weighing the possibilities, Democrats retreated from their early calls for a special election.



after Rod Blagojevich was taken away in handcuffs in the early morning hours from his Chicago home, lawmakers in the Illinois House of Representatives voted overwhelmingly-i 
for impeachment, i against, and i vote of 'present'-to authorize the first-ever im
 peachment trial of a sitting governor in the state.

After the tapes were played, not a single person in attendance believed that the upcoming vote to remove Governor Rod Blagojevich would not be unanimous.

And after spending a career focused on foreign states and entities, I am slowly relearning and trying to apply the lessons taught by America's founders and their constructive successors-especially by George Wash

ington, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Paine, Abraham Lincoln, and   k•   
William T. Sherman-and by the two Europeans who best taught Ameri

 cans about the great difficulties in founding and then enduringly protecting a republic, Niccola Machiavelli'and Alexis de Tocqueville.

Introduction to the Paperback Edition 
 Americans will also find that because Osama bin Laden was not killed by Bill Clinton (who as president had ten chances to do so from May 1998 to May 1999) or George Bush (who had one chance, in December 2001), the tall Saudi has steadied, rebuilt, and expanded his organization after it was whacked hard by the U.S.-led coalition in 2001-2002.

[James] Longstreet, a critical patriot, was considered anti-Southern after the War, just as critical patriots are accused of being 'un
 American' now-and out of the same fearful frame of mind.

If the world did change fundamentally for America on and after 9/11
 and I tend to think that it did, and.

If they had, we would have never talked or negotiated with the Soviets after Premier Nikita Khrushchev promised that the USSR would 'bury' the United States-surely a failure to acknowledge America's right to exist if there ever was one.

In the years after 1982, similar and often better-quality training camps began to be built for Sunni militants in places like Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Kashmir, Mindanao, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen.

'Time was running out on the Clinton administration,' Clarke wrote of the weeks after the attack on the 
 There was going to be one last major national security initiative and it was going to be a final try to achieve an Israeli-Palestinian agreement.

After that.1

After the Dushkas, we learned the RPGs, an early version first used in the 1960s, and then the RPG-18, a lighter, short-range version, which was easier to carry because it was collapsible.

They wanted to deal with people who resembled them
 selves in style and temperament, men who were mannered, well-coiffed, wore suits, spoke English or French, were educated in India or the West, and were at most nominal Muslims-after all, no polity needs too much of that religion stuff.

After the bombing, Yusuf scurried out of the United States and continued to roam the world looking for U.S. targets to attack.

Then, after interro
 gations of Yusuf and his colleagues, we learned that the bomb had already been used once.

Kean, Hamilton, and Clarke and so many others failed to see after 1991 was that U.S. national security 
 required a return to the inside-the-box historical thinking that is pertinent to the unpredictable and often uncontainable threats that have dominated human history on either side of the Cold War.

After the October 12, 2000, al-Qaeda attack 
the USS Cole, the National Security Council ordered the CIA and other appropriate IC com
 ponents to establish and maintain an up-to-date list of Taliban and al-Qaeda targets in Afghanistan that could be struck by the U.S. military if bin Laden again attacked U.S. interests.

                                                             The very fact that we remain in Afghanistan seventy-five months after our arrival under
scores our ignorance on this point and, more important, shows that our lead
ers still believe we can operate on Cold War time, taking whatever time we need to work things out to our satisfaction and secure our intended accom
 plishments and implicitly assuming that our enemies will allow us that time.

In making that decision, they stuck hard to the Cold War script U.S. casualties are unpopular at home so do not risk troops; protect U.S. troops by using Afghan mujahedin proxies to go into the mountains after bin Laden, and employ Pakistani military proxies to close the border and block bin Laden's escape; and try to get him, but if you fail another chance will occur.'

This group of infidel-welcoming Afghans has never been large or ruthless enough to hold and administer the country after the invaders were defeated and sent packing by their countrymen.

The releases came after Moroccan authorities had, in 2006, identified eleven 
networks moving would-be Moroccan mujahedin from Morocco to Iraq 

Taking the Right Lessons from Defeat 
When the U.S. defeat in Iraq becomes clear and unquestionable, it will be very important, as it is in Afghanistan, that Americans do not permit the Republicans and Democrats, and the punditry aligned with each, to effec
 tively sell the idea that all would have been well in Iraq if Washington had had an extravagantly expensive and ready-to•roll reconstruction plan to implement after Saddam's regime was destroyed.

Decisive American action along these lines helped preserve democracy in Western Europe during the year; after World War B, thereby laying the groundwork for

Any untoward action by the 
 USSR against the West was always labeled a 'threat to the Free World,' and after 9/11 the phrase 'Free World' was simply replaced by 'Western civilization' 'or another synonymous phrase.

After the July 2005 subway attacks in London, for example, much of media commentary immediately linked the attacks directly to Prime Minister Blair's resolute commitment to the U.S.-led invasion and occupation of Iraq.

After facing a near revolt in his Labor Party in summer 2006, British prime minister Tony Blair was compelled to appease the dissenters by announcing, well before he intended to, a date for stepping down from 
 the premiership.

From academia and the media come claims that are grounded in abhorrence of the U.S. military and any use of martial force, a desire to pull out all the stops to prevent its further use, and career-focused ambitions to play the leading role in a gigantic, federally funded hearts-and-minds campaign; after all, is that not the proper role for sensitive, multicultural social scientists and kum
 bayahing journalists? Starting from different points, the two groups arrive at the same conclusion: we must win the war against al-Qaeda with a hearts-and-minds campaign.

and they have now moved to support the apostate Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas af