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This I will do under the following condition which I am sure, Simplicio, you will not deny me, namely, that you will not require me to sep- arate the points, one from the other, and show them to you,  one by one, on this paper; for I should be content that you, without separating the four or six parts of a line from one an- other, should show me the marked divisions or at most that you should fold them at angles forming a square or a hexagon: for, then, I am certain you would consider the division distindily and adiually accomplished. Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences If now the vessel be weighed * FIR* FIRST DAY 83 83 weighed in air in this condition, it is manifest that the weight of the water will be increased by that of an equal volume of air; the total weight of water and air thus obtained is equal to the weight of the water alone in vacuo. Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences In order therefore to bring this prism into that limiting condition which separates breaking from not breaking, it would be necessary to change the ratio between thickness and length either by increasing the thickness or by diminishing the length. Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences Finally on the horizontal plane the mo- mentum vanishes altogether; the body finds itself in a condition of indifference as to motion or rest; has no inherent tend- ency to move in any dire&ion, and offers no resistance to being set in motion. Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences Fig. 82 Furthermore we may rmark that any velocity once imparted to a moving body will be rigidly maintained as long as the external causes of acceleration or retardation are removed, a condition which is found only on horizontal planes; for in the case of planes which slope downwards there is already present a cause of acceleration, while on planes sloping upward there is retardation; from this it follows that motion along a horizontal plane is perpetual; for, if the velocity be uniform, it cannot be diminished or slackened, much less destroyed. Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences Consequently * It is well known that the first correct solution for the problem of quickest descent, under the condition of a constant force was given by John Bernoulli (16671748). Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences into a circle, I have reduced to adiuality that infinite number of parts which you claimed, while it was straight, were contained in it only potentially? Nor can one deny that the division into an infinite number of points is just as truly accomplished as the one into four parts when the square is formed or into a thousand parts when the millagon is formed; for in such a division the same conditions are satisfied as in the case of a polygon of a thousand or a hundred thousand sides. Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences Under these conditions there can be no doubt but that the weight of the sand thus laid aside represents the weight qf the air which had been forced into the flask and had afterwards escaped. Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences
In the progress of science from its easiest to its more difficult problems, each great step in advance has usually had either as its precur- sor, or as its accompaniment and necessary condition, a corresponding im- provement in the notions and principles of logic received among the most advanced thinkers. System of Logic Thus, in the this source of error; unless they taught their pupil to put away the glasses proposition, The earth is - round, the Predicate is the word round, which de- which distort the object, and to use those which are adapted to his pur- notes the quality affirmed, or (as the phrase is) predicated: the earth, words pose in such a manner as to assist, not perplex, his vision; he would not be denoting the object which that quality is affirmed of, compose the Subject; in a condition to practice the remaining part of their discipline with any the word is, which serves as the connecting mark between the subject and prospect of advantage. System of Logic But this we are not yet in a condition to say: whether such be the correct mode of describing the phenomenon, is an after consideration. System of Logic To what a degree this loose mode of classing and denominating objects has rendered the vocabulary of mental and moral philosophy unfit for the purposes of accurate thinking, is best known to whoever has most medi- tated on the present condition of those branches of knowledge. System of Logic Every word which was originally intended to connote mere ex- istence, seems, after a time, to enlarge its connotation to separate existence, or existence freed from the condition of belonging to a substance; which condition being precisely what constitutes an attribute, attributes are grad- ually shut ont; and along with them feelings, which in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred have no other name than that of the attribute which is grounded o them. System of Logic Pi-opositions in which the assertion is not dependent on a condition, are said, in the language of logi- cians, to be categorical. System of Logic We have seen that when the two or more propositions comprised in what is called a complex proposition are stated absolutely, and not under any condition or proviso, it is not a proposition at all, but a plurality of propositions; since what it expresses is not a single assertion, but several assertions, which, if true when joined, are true also when separated. System of Logic And in like manner, believing is an act which has for its subject the facts themselves, though a previous mental conception of the facts is an indispensable condition. System of Logic If, in our experience, the attributes connoted by man are always accompanied by the attribute connoted by mortal, it will follow as a consequence, that the class man will be wholly included in the class mortal, and that mortal will be a naine of all things of which man is a name: but why? Those objects are brought under the name, by possessing the attributes connoted by it: but their possession of the attributes is the real condition on which System of Logic These are in the same condition as proper names. System of Logic To save the credit of the doctrine that definitions are the premises of scientific kmiowledge, the proviso is sometimes added, that they are so only under a certain condition, namely, that they be f iamed conformably to the phenomena of nature; that is, that they ascribe such meanings to terms as shall suit objects actually existing. System of Logic Moreover, if the dictum de omni makes prominent the fact of the applica- tion of a general principl to a particular case, the axiom I propose makes prominent the condition which alone makes that application a real infem-ence. System of Logic Whenever there is ground for drawing any conclu- sion at all fm-omn particulat- instances, thom-e is ground foi- a genem-al conclu- sion; but that this general conclusion should be actually di-awn, however useful, can not be an indispensable condition of the validity of the inference in time particular case. System of Logic It can not be a necessary condition of reasoning that we should begin by making an assertion, which is after- ward to be employed in proving a part of itself. System of Logic a dark spot on a piece of white poicelain held in the flame, which spot is soluble in hypochloride of calcium, is arsenic; the substance before me con- fom-nms to this condition; therefore it is arsenic. System of Logic The opinion of Dugald Stewart respecting the foundations of ge- ometry, is, I conceive, substantially cormect ; that it is built on hypotheses; that it owes to this alone the peculiar certainty supposed to distinguish it; and that in any science whatevem, by reasoning from a set of hypotheses, we may obtain a body of conclusions as certain as those of geometry, that is, as strictly in accordance with time hypotheses, and as irmesistibly compel- ling assemit, on condition that those hypotheses are true.* System of Logic Will it really be contended that the inconceivableness of the thing, in sueii circumstances, proves any thing against the experimental or- igiLl of the conviction ? Is it not clear that in whichever mode our belief in the prO~)OSitiOfl may have originated, the impossibility of our conceiving the negative of it iiust, on either hypothesis, be the same? As, then, Dr. Whewell exhorts those who have ~ any difficulty in recognizing the distinc- tion held by hint between necessary and contingent truths, to study georn- etrya condition which I can assure him I have conscientiously fulfilled I, in return, with equal confidence, exhort those who agree with him, to study the general laws of association ; being convinced that nothing itiore is requisite than a moderate familiarity with those laws, to dispel the illu- sion which ascribes a peculiar necessity to our earliest inductions from cx- perience, and measures the possibility of things in theiuse~ves, by the ha- mati capacity of conceiving them. System of Logic Sciences in this, that the categorical Certainty which is predicable of its demonstrations is independent of all liyi)OtlleSjs - Oi~ niore accurate investigatioti, howevem-, it will be found that, even in titis case, there is one hypothetj,~~i element in the ratiocination In ail PiOPOSitions concernjflg riutmbei-s, a Coidjt,jo,m is implied, without which none of them would be trime ; aimd that condition is an assiimptiomi which may be false. System of Logic It may be maintained, without ob- vious error, that we cart not ilwgine tangible objects as mere states of our own and other peoples consciousness; that tue Perception of thetit irresist- ibly suggests to us the idea of something external to ourselves: and I am iiot in a condition to say that this is not the fact (though I do not think any one is entitled to affirm it of any person besides himself). System of Logic If this be actually done, the principle which we are now considering, that of the uniformity of the course of nature, will appear as the ultimate major premise of all inductions, and will, therefore, stand to all inductions in the relation in which, as has been shown at so much length, the major proposition of a syllogism always stands to the conclusion ; not contributing at all to prove it, but being a necessary condition of its being proved ; since no conclusion is proved, for which there can not be found a true major pl.emise.* s j~ the first edition a note was appended at this pince, containing some criticism on Arch- bishop Whatelys mode of conceiving the relation between Syllogism and Induction. System of Logic into a syI~ logisrn by prefixing as a major premise (what is at any rate a necessal~~ condition of the validity of the az.gumeiit), System of Logic the course of nature, it is not a necessary Condition that the unifoimity should pervade all n~ ture. System of Logic But though we may think propem- to give the naine of cause to that one conditioum, thue fulfillment of which completes the tale, and bu-ings about the effect without fui-thei- de- lay; this condition has really no closer i-elation to the effect than any of the other conditions has. System of Logic having taken metcury may have been a necessary condition of his catching cold ; and though it might consist with usage to say that the cause of his attack was exposuue to the air, to be accurate we ought to say that the cause was exposureto the air-while under the effect of mer- cury. System of Logic For example, when we say, the cause of a nmans . death was that his foot slipped in climbiimg a ladder, we omit as a thing nnnecessaly to be stated the circumstance of his weight, though quite as indispensable a condition of the effect which took place. System of Logic The stone is immeised in water: it is theiefore a condition of its reaching the gi-ound, that its specific gi-avity exceed that of the surrounding fluid, or in other words that it surpass in weight an equal volume of water Accomd- ingly any one would be acknowledged to speak com-i-eetly who said, that the cause of the stones going to the bottom is its exceeding in specific gmavity the fluid in which it is imnieised. System of Logic - Thus we see that each and every condition of the phenomenon may be taken in its tut-n, and, with equal propriety in common parlance, but with equal inmpi-opi-iety in scientific discoumse, ulmay be spoken of as if it weie the entire cause. System of Logic And in pi-actice, that- pat-tictular condition is usually styled the cause, whose share in the matter is superficially the most conspicuous, or whose 1-equisiteness to the pu-oduction of the effect we happen to be in- sisting on at the monument. System of Logic In all these instances time fact which was dignified with the name of -cause, was the- one condition which -cs~ne last into-existence. System of Logic The next condition is, theie must be an earth: and accordingly it is often said, that the fall of a stone is caused by the earth; or by a power or puoperty of t-he earth, or a foi-ce exerted by the earth, all of which au-e merely roundabout ways of saying that it is caused by the earth; ou., System of Logic Let us now pass to anothei- condition. System of Logic The reviewer ol)serves, that when a person dies of poison, his possession of bodily organs is a necessary condition, but that no one would ever spe~Lk of it as tue cause. System of Logic I admit the t~tct; hut I believe the reason to be, that the occasion could never arise for so speaking of it ; for when in the inaccuracy of common discourse we arc led to speak of some one condition of a phenomenon as its cause, the condition so spoken of is always one which it is at least possi- hIe that the hearer may require to be informed ot. System of Logic lie possession of bodily organs is a known condition, and to give that as the answer, when asked the cause of a persons death, would not supply the information sought. System of Logic Wherever this necessity exists in regard to some one condition, and tiocs not exist in regard to any other, I conceive that it is coTisistelit Wi! h usage. System of Logic the only condition ~vhieh can be supposed to be llflkllO~Vn is a negative condition, the negative condition imv be spoken of as the cause. System of Logic It might he said that a person was drowned because he could not swim the positive condition, namely, that he t~ll into tile water, being already im- plied in the word drowned. System of Logic And here let me remark, that his falling intO the water is in this case the only positive condition : all the conditions not expressly or virtually included in i System of Logic the knowledge -which was necessan t~r it ; nor ihe~ cmuse-ofwriting a hook, th~st a man has time for it, which is a necessary condition. System of Logic These conditions (besides that they are antecedent states, and not proximate antecedent events, and are therefore never the con- ditions in closest apparent proximity to tile effct) are all of them so obviously implied, that it is hardly possible there should exist that Ilc(essity for insisting on them, which alotie gives occasion for speaking of a single condition as if it were the cause. System of Logic tile cause was his inability to swim; because, thought the one condition is positive and the oth- p System of Logic This plopel-ty, which batiscs of ~ill (leScIiptions pOssess, of preventing the effects of other causes by virtue (for the most part) of the same laws according to ~s-hicli they l)locluce their own,* enables us, by establishing the general axiotti that all causes are liable to be counteracted in their effects by one another, to dispense with tue consideration of nega- tive conditions entirely, and limit the notion of cause to the assemblage of the 1)ositive conditions of the ~I~cnomenon : one negative condition inval-ia- bly understood, and the same in all instances (namely, the absence of coun- teracting causes) being sufficient, along with the sum of the positive coud i- tions, to make U~ the whole set of circumstances on which the phenomenon is dependent. System of Logic merely supplies a nega- tive condition. System of Logic It is a condition of the phenomenon explo- sion that an object should be pmcscimt, of one or other of certain kinds, which for that reason are called explosive. System of Logic The vresence of one of these objects is a condition immediately piecedent to the explosion. System of Logic On time othei hand, if the sun is above the horizon, his light not extinct, and no opaque body between us and him, we believe firmly that unless a change takes place in the pmoperties of matter, this combination of antecedents will be followed by time consequent, day ; that if the combina- lion of antecedent could be indefinitely prolonged, it would be always day; and that if the sanie combination had always existed, It would always have been day, quite independently of night as a previous condition. System of Logic Therefore is it that we do miot call night tue cause, nom even a condition, of day. System of Logic The conditions which ame necesSaiy foi the first production of a phenoniemiomi, are occasionally also necessary for its continuance ; though more commonly its continuance ic- quiies no condition except miegative ones, Most tilings, once produced, con- tinue as they arc, until something chammgcs or destmoys thetit ; but somne re- quire the peimnanent presence of time ageucies which 1)uodnced them at fimst. System of Logic Titis condition is realized in the extensive and impot-tant class of phenomena commonly call- ed mechanical, namely the jTheimomena of the communication of motion (or of pressure, which is tendency to motion) fi-om one body to another. System of Logic And hence there is no teason to despair of ultimately raising chemistry and physiology to the condition of deductive sciences ; for though it is impossible to deduce all chemical and ~)hmysiological truths from the laws ot~ propemties of simple substances ou eiementaiy agents, they nuay possibly be deducible from laws which commence when these eletnentat-y agents ai.e System of Logic Until it had been shown by the actual I)moduetiom of the antecedent unmdei known cim-cittustances, and the ocemmnn-enmee thenemipon of the consequent, timat time auntecedermt was ieally the condition on ~viiichi it depended ; the unifonniity of succession which was pmoved to exist between them might, for aught we knew, be (like the successon of day and night) not a case of causation at all; both antecedent and consequent might be successive stages of the effect of an ultem-ior cause. System of Logic - In order-to see these iemarka verified --by the actualtate of the sclences, we have only to think of the condition of natural history. System of Logic Then we may reason thus: b and e are not effects of A, for they were not produced by it in the second expen-iment; nor ame d and e, foi- they were not produced in the flnst, Whatever is i-eally the effect of A must bave been produced in both instances; now this condition is fulfilled by no circumstance except a. System of Logic What- ever antecedent can not be excluded without preventing the phenomne- non, is the cause, or a condition, of that phenomenon: whatever consequent can be excluded, with no other difference in the antecedents than the ab. System of Logic It very commonly hap- pens, as it does in this instance, that the variations of an effect are corre- spondent, or analogoims, to those of its cause ; as the moon moves farther toward the east, the high-water point does the same: but this is not an in- dispensable condition, as may be seen in the saine example, for along with that high-water point there is at the same instant another high-water point diametrically -opposite to it1 and which, therefore, of necessity, moves toward the west, as the moon, followed by the nearer of the tide waves, advances toward the east: and yet both these motions are equally effects of the moons motion. System of Logic Now, organic life (the necessary condition of sensitive life) consisting in a continual st-ate of deconiposition and recomposition of the different organs and tissues, whatever incapacitates them for this de- composition destroys life. System of Logic Around time prinme coimductors of au electrical machine the atmosphere to some ditance, or any conductimig surface suspended in that atmosphere, is found to he in ~mn electric condition opposite to that of the prime conductor itself. System of Logic ~vhcte no dew is pi-oduced : a compulisoti between immstances of dew amid instammces of no dew, being the condition necessary to biing the Method of Diffemence into play. System of Logic We cati, by cooling the sur- face of any body, find in all cases some temperature (more or less inferior to that of the surrounding air, according to its hygromuetric condition) at which dew will begin to be deposited. System of Logic The degree of muscular irritability at the time of death ftLlfills this condition. System of Logic 321 merculy, and known laws of the human body, and by reasoning from these, wotild attempt to discover whethem- mercury will act upon the body when iii the mom-bid condition supposed, in such a manner as would tend to ye- store health. System of Logic It needs hardly be i-emam-kcd how far this condition is fmomn being realized in any case coimnected with time phenomena of life ; hmow far we au-e fi-oui knowing what ai-e all time cii-- cumstances wimich pie--exist in aumv iumstLui(P iii which iiierciiry is :dmiinis tered to a living being. System of Logic In time case last mentioned, this flu-st condition is of easy fulfillment. System of Logic summiumg up the effects of many causes, unless we know accurately the numet-ical law of eacha condition in most cases mmot to be fulfifled ; and even when it is fulfilled, to make the calculation tu-anscends, in any but very simple cases, the utmost power of mathematical science with all its most modem-n imuprovemnents. System of Logic All laws of causation are liable to be counteracted or fustrated, by the imon-fulfihiment of some negative condition; the tendency, therefore, of B to produce C may be defeated. System of Logic rhe property which salt lossesses of preserving animal substances from putrefaction is resolved by Liebig into two more general laws, the strong attraction of salt for water, and the necessity of the pm~esence of water as a condition of puitrefaction. System of Logic Accordingly, most thinkers of any degree of sobriety allow that an hy- pothesis of this kind is not to be received as probably true because it ac- counts for all the known phenoniciin; since this is a condition sometimes fulfilled tolerably well by two conflicting hypotheses; while there are prob- ably many others which are equally possible, but which, for want of any thing analogous in our experience, our minds are unfitted to conceive. System of Logic To the statement, that the condition of accounting for all the known phenomena is often fulfilled equally well by two conflicting hypotheses, Di. System of Logic tic fluid occupying the space between the sun and the earth, supplies the contiguity which is the only condition wanting, and which can be supplied by no supposition but that of an intervening medium, The supposition notwithstanding, is at best a probable cotmjectule, not a proved truth. System of Logic W~ should never have had the notion of causation (in the philosophical meaning of the term) as a condition of all phenomena, unles many cases of causation, or in other words, many partial uniformities of sequence, had previously be. System of Logic If in the coumse of the argument other appi-ox- imate generalizations are introduced, -each of them being in like mannet- expressed as a universal proposition with a condition annexed, the sum of all the conditions will appeau- at the end as the sum of all the en-ou-s which affect the conclusion. System of Logic The sole condition is, that what is supposed to have been obseiveil shall really have been observed ; i-hat it be ami observation, not an inference. System of Logic Now, though this real induction is one thing, amid the descm-iption anothem-, we ai-e in a very different condition for making the induction be- fot-e we have obtained the description, and after it. System of Logic And we need only consider what comparison is, to see that where the objects are more than two, and still more whn they are an indefinite nnm~- ber, a type of some sort is an indispensable condition of the comparison. System of Logic It would thus, in my view of the mattel, be an inaccurate mode of ex- pression to say, that obtaining appropriate conceptions is a condition pre. System of Logic It has been imagined that Naming is also a condition equally indispensable, There are thinkets who have held that language is not solely, according to a phrase generally current, an instrument of thought, but the instrument; that names, or some- thing equivalent to them, some species of artificial signs, are necessary to reasoning; that there could be no inference, and consequently no induction, without them, But if the nature of reasoning was correctly explained in the earlier part of the present work, this Opinion must be held to be an ex- aggeration, though of an important truth. System of Logic The first is, that every general name should have a meaning, steadily fixed, and precisely determined When, by the fulfillment of this condition, such names as we possess are fitted for the due peifoimanc~ of their functions, the next requisite, and the second in order of importance, is that we should possess a name wherever one is needed; wherever there is any thing to be designated by it, which it is of importance to express. System of Logic What is meant by the improper expression of defining a thing (or rather a class of thingsfor nobody talks of defin- ing an individual), s to define the name, subject to the condition that it shall denote those things. System of Logic The act of ascertaining, better than before, in what ask what principle it serves to enunciate, particulars any phenomena which aie classed together agree, he calls in his technical phraseology, unfolding the general conception in virtue of which the condition was lindeIstood that the phrase should continue to denote they are so classed. System of Logic ties, common organs, and common condition of the human race Ac. System of Logic If we find, con- trary to our previous belief, that the characters are not peculiar to one spe- cies, we cease to use the term co-extensively with the characters ; but then it is because the other portion of the connotation fails ; the condition that the class must be a Kind. System of Logic But though the opinions of the generality of mankind, when not dependent on mere habit and inculcation, have their root much more in the inclinations than in the intellect, it is a necessary condition to the triumph of the moral bias that it should first pervert the understanding. System of Logic When he is inquiring into what he terms the forma calidi aut frigidi, gravis aut levis, sicci a-ut hu-midi, and the like, he never for an instamit doubts that there is some one thing, some invai-iable condition or set of conditions, which is present in all cases of heat, or cold, or whatever other phenomenon he is considei-ing; the only difficulty being to find what it is; which accordingly he tries to do by a process of elimination, rejecting or excluding, by negative instances, whatever is not the forma or cause, in or- ~1er to arrive at what is. System of Logic To fulfill this condition, the Epicureans supposed that objects were constantly projecting in all directions impalpable images of themselves, which entered at the eyes and penetrated to the mind; while modern metaphysicians, though they rejected this hypothesis, agreed in deeming it necessary to suppose that not the thing itself, but a mental im- age or repmesentation of it, was the direct object of pem-ception. System of Logic What kind of logician must he be who thinks that a phenomenon is defined to be the condition on which he supposes it to depend? Accoidingly he sas soon after, not that out- ideas are caused by, om- consequent on, certain organic phenomena, but our ideas are animal motions of the organs of sense. System of Logic his guilt; the spectator will reflect that his own danger, whatever it may be, is not contingent on his guiltiness, but threat- ens him equally if he remains innocent, amid how, therefore, is he deterred from guilt by the apprehension of such punishment? M. Cousin supposes that people will be dissuaded from guilt by whatever renders the condi- tion of the guilty moi-e perilous, forgetting that the condition of the inno- cent (also one of the elements in the calculation) is, in the case supposed, made perilous in pi-ecisely an equal degree. System of Logic Where our consciousness recognizes between two phenomena an inherent distinction ; wheme we are sensible of a difference which is not merely of degree, amid feel that no adding one of the phenomena to itself would pioduce the other ; any theory which attempts to bring either un- der the laws of the other must be false ; though a theory which merely treats the one as a cause or condition of the othet-, may possibly be true. System of Logic g, in Aristotles time, without slavery; in later times, with- out an established priesthood, without artificial distinctions of rank, etc. One poor person in a thousand, educated, while the nine hundred and nine- ty-nine remain uneducated, has usually aimed at raising himself out of his class, therefore education makes people dissatisfied with the condition of a laborer. System of Logic For we must remember that even this other and bet-tei- genem-alization, the progm-essive change in the condition of the huiman species, is, after all, but an empirical law ; to which, too, it is not difficult to point out exceedingly large exceptions ; and even if these could be got i-id of, either by disputing the facts or by explaining and urn. System of Logic But in ne- gation there are no gradations, and ito seiies; the genei-alizations, therefore, scam-cely to be-expected- that the general iesult of them, all- should conform which deity the possibility of any given condition of man and society merely because it has nevei- yet been witnessed, can not possess this higher degree of validity even as empirical laws. System of Logic As when one school of physicians-sought for the univeisal pi-iuciple of all disease in lentot- and -mom-bid viscidity- of the blood, amid-imputing most bodily derangements to mechanical obstructions, thought to cut-c them by me- chanical remedies ;* while anothem, the chemical school, acknowledged no soui-ce of disease but the piesence of some hostile acid oi- alkali, oi- some deranged condition in the chemical composition of the fluid or solid pam-ta, and conceived, theiefoie, that all remedies must act by pi-oducing ciheni- ical changes in the body. System of Logic The premise, therefore, is only true secundum quid; but the theory assumes it to be true absolutely, and in- fers that increase of money is increase of riches, even when produced by means subversive of the condition under which alone money can be riches. System of Logic But the premise is only true conditionally ; the owner of tithed land receives less than what time owner of tithe-free land is enabled to receive when other lands are tithed; while the conclusion is applied to a state of circum- stances in which that condition fails, and in~ which, by consequence, the premise will not be true. System of Logic Evei-y sensation has for its pi-oxiniate cause some affection of the portion of oui frame called the nervous system, whether this affection originates in the action of some extemnal object, or in some pathological condition of the nervous organization itself. System of Logic The condition, indeed, of politics as a branch of knowledge was, until vcu-y latch, and has scam-cely even yet ceased to be, that which Bacon aid- madverted on, as the natut-al state of the sciences while theit- cultivation is abandoned to practitioners; not being carried on as a branch of spectilative inquil-v, but only with a view to the exigencies of daily practice, amid the fruceifera experiinenta, them-efoi-e, being aimed at, almost to the exclusion of the luc~fe-a. System of Logic The circumstances, on the contrai-y, which influence the condition and prog- ress of society are innumeuable, and perpetually changing; and though they all change in obedience to causes, and therefore to laws, the multitude of the causes is so gm-eat as to defy our limited poweu-s of calculation. System of Logic The science of society would have attained a very high point of perfection if it enabled us, imu any given condition of social affairs, in the condition, foi- instance, of Eu- rope ot any European country at the present time, to uiideistand by what causes it had, in any and every paiticular, been made what it was ; wheth- er it was tending to any, and to what, changes ; what effects each featum-e of its existing state was likely to pu-oduce in the future; and by whal means any of those effects might be prevented, modified, or accelerated, om a different class of effects supeiinduced. System of Logic If the two nations diffei in this portion of their institutions, it is from some difference in their position, and thence in their apparent intel-ests, or in some portion oi- other of their opinions, habits, and tendencies; which opens a view of ftu-ther differences without any assignable limit, capable of operating on their industrial pros- perity, as well as on evely other feature of them- condition, in more ways than can be enumerated oi- imagined. System of Logic We can never ei ther uderstand in theory om command in practice the condition of a so- ciety in any one respect, without taking into consideration its condition is all other respects. System of Logic There is no social phenomenon which is not more om less influenced by every other part of the condition of the same society~ and them-efore by every cause which is influencing any othem- of th.e System of Logic The condition of all these things, and of many more which will readily suggest themselves, coimstitrite the state of society, on time state of civilization, at any given time. System of Logic In the fir-st kind, the question pio~)oSed is, what effect will follow fi-oui a given cause, a certain general condition of social circunistances being pi-esupposed. System of Logic Without descending to the minute interdependence of the different branches of any one science or art, is it not evident that among the different sciences, as well as among most of the arts, there exists such a connection, that if the state of any one well-marked division of them is sufficiently known to us, we can with real scientific assurance infer, from their necessary correlation, the contempo- raneous state of every one of the others? By a further extension of this consideration, we may conceive the necessary relation which exists be- tween the condition of the sciences in general and that of the arts in gen- eral, except that the mutual dependence is less intense in proportion as it is more indirect. System of Logic It may, moreover, be employed, immedi- ately, and of itself, to supply the place, provisionally at least, of direct ob- servation, which in many cases is not always practicable for some of the elements of society, the real condition of which may, however, be sufficient- ly judged of by means of the relations which connect them with others previously known. System of Logic But when the ques- tioning of these fundamental principles is (hot the occasional disease, oi~ salutary mdicine, but) the habitual condition of the body politic, and when all the violent animosities ai-e called forth, which spring naturally from such a situation, the state is virtually in a position of civil war ; and can never long remain free from it in act and fact. System of Logic The third essential condition of stability in political society, is a strong and active principle of cohesion among the members of the same column. System of Logic It is neces~ry to combine the statical view of social phenomena with the dynamical, considering not only the progressive changes of the differ- ent elements, but the contemporaneous condition of each; and thus obtain empirically the law of correspondence not only between the simultaneous states, but between the simultaneous changes, of those elements. System of Logic Time second condition of permanent political society has been found to be, time existence, in some foi-m or other, of the feeling of allegiance or icy- alty. System of Logic Evei-y considerable change historically known to us in the condition of any portion of mankind, wheum not hi-ought about by external force, has been preceded by a change, of proportion,~al extent, in the state of their knowledge, or in their prevalent beliefs. System of Logic It is necessary to take into considem-ation the whole of past time, fu-om the first recorded condition of the hunian race, to the mem- orable phenomena of the last and present generatiOns. System of Logic When fi-om the mere enunciation of such a proposition, what a flood of light it M. Comte speaks of the metaphysical stage of speculation, he means the stage in which men lets in upon the whole cou i-se of history, when its com~sequences ai-e traced ~mpeak of N~ture and other abstractions as if they were active forces, producing effects; by connecting with each of the three states of human intellect which it dis- when Nature us said to do this, or forbid that; when Natures horror of a vacuum, Nature8 non-admission of a break, Natures vis rnedicaty-jx, were offered as explanations of phenome- tinguishes, and with each successive modification of those three states, time na; when the qualities of things were mistaken for real entities dwelling in the things; when correlative condition of other social phenomena.* System of Logic But I nun of this opinion, not because I i-egard -tbeii- moral ou-- econoniic~ condition either as less powei-ful ou- less variable agencies, but because these are in a gieat deguee the consequences of the intellectual condition, and au-e, in all cases, limited by it; as was obsei-ved in the pi-eceding chaptei-. System of Logic blage of its conditions 6. System of Logic secondly, a name for each of the mure important results of scientific abstrac- more than one cause 532 S. that the conditions of a phenomenon tion 490 must resemble the phenomenon 583 4. thirdly, a nomenclature, or system of the names of Kinds 491 5. System of Logic A right understanding of the mental process itself, of the conditions it depends on, and the steps of which it consists, is the only basis on which a system of rules, fitted for the direction of the process, can possibly be founded. System of Logic So com- plicated are the conditions which govern our practical agency, that to ena bic one thing to be done, it is often requisite to know the nature and prop- erties of many things. System of Logic It does not teach that any particular fact proves any other, but points out to what conditions all facts must conform, in order that they may prove other facts. System of Logic To de- cide whether any given fact fulfills these conditions, or whether facts can be found which fulfill them in a given case, belongs exclusively to the par- ticular art or science, or to our knowledge of the particular subject. System of Logic pose of excluding, as irrelevant to Logic, whatever relates to Belief and Disbelief, or to the pursuit of truth as such, and restricting the science to that very limited portion of its total province, which has reference to the conditions, not of Truth, but of Consistency What I baye thought it useful to say in Opposition to this limitation of the field of Logic, has been said at some length in a separate work, first published in 1865, and entitled An Examina. System of Logic or the conditions under which they may be legitimate or the revere. System of Logic The laws of intuitive belief, and the conditions under which it is legitimate, are a subject which, as we have already so often remarked, belongs not to logic, but to the science of the ultimate laws - of the human mind. System of Logic Thus in the i-elation of greater and less between two magnitudes, the fundamen- turn relationia is the fact that one of the two magnitudes could, under cer- tain conditions, be included in, without entirely filling, the space occupied by the other magnitude. System of Logic Sensations, or other feelings, being given, succession and simultaneousness are the two conditions, to the alternative of which they are subjected by the nature of our faculties; and no one has been able, or needs expect, to analyze the matter any further. System of Logic But though man can not, a being may be con- ceived exactly like a man in all points except that one quality, and those others which ai-e the conditions or consequences of it. System of Logic I shall have occasion to revem-t to this theory in ti-eating of Demonstration, and of the conditions undei- which one pi-operty of a thing adnmits of being demonstm-ated front anothem- property. System of Logic How it is that one property of a thing fol- lows, or can be inferred, from another; under what conditions this is pos- sible, and what is the exact meaning of the phrase; are among the ques- tions which will occupy us in the two succeeding Books. System of Logic The nature and grounds of this inference, and the conditions necessary to make it legitimate, will be the subject of discussion in the Third Book: but that such inference really takes place is not susceptible of question. System of Logic The savage who executes unerringly the ex- act thi-ow which brings down his game, or his enemy, in the manner most suited to his put-pose, under the operation of all the conditions necessarily involved, the weight and form of the weapon, the direction and distance of the object, the action of the wind, etc., owes this power to a long set-ies of REASONING. System of Logic One instance only is demonstrated: but the process by which this is done, is a process which, when we consider its nature, we perceive might be exactly copied in an indefinite number of oth- er instances; in every instance which conforms to certain conditions. System of Logic The conti-ivance of general language furnishing us with terms which connote these conditions, we are able to assert this indefinite multitude of ti-uths in a single expression, and this expression is the general theoi-em. System of Logic A difficulty which, except in cases of unusual mental power, long pi-actice can alone me- move, and i-emoves chiefly by i-endering us familiar with all the configura- tions consistent with the general conditions of the theorem. System of Logic The inquim-er who has logically satisfied himself that the conditions of legitimate immduction wet-c realized in the cases A, B, C, would be as much justified in concluding directly to the Duke of Wellington as in concluding to all men. System of Logic They are not the conditions of reasoning, but a precaution against er- roneous reasoning. System of Logic Most chains of physical deduction are of this more complicated type; and even in mathematics such are abundant, as in all propositions where the hypothesis includes numerous conditions: I/a circle be taken, and ~f within that circle a point be taken, not the centre, and if straight lines be drawn from that point to the circumference, then, etc. 4. System of Logic The only sense iii which necessity can be ascribed to time conclusions of any sciemitific in- vestigation, is that of legitimriately following f momit some assumption, which, by time conditions of time inqmmimy, is not to be questioned. System of Logic We can not attempt mentally to exempljfy the conditions of the assertion in an imaginary case opposed to it, wit/moat violating our habitual recollection qf this experi- ence, and defacing our mental picture of space as grounded on it. System of Logic The combiumation is, mmdci time conditions of our expetietmce, unimaginable. System of Logic What Induction is, therefore, and what conditions render it legitimate, can not but be deem- ed the main question of the science of logicthe question which includes all others. System of Logic Whethem we are inquiring into a scientific principle or into an individual fact, arid whethi er we proceed by expeminment ou by ratiocination, evemy step in the tmairm of inferences is essentially inductive, and tim? legitimacy of time induction de- pends in both cases oui the same conditions. System of Logic The scientific study of facts may be undertaken foi three different pur- poses: the simple descriptioni of the facts; their explanation; ou their pre- diction: meaning by prediction, time determination of the conditions under which similau facts nmay be expected again to occur. System of Logic All the conditions wei-e equally indispensable to the pu-ocjumction of the consequ(~nt; and the statement of the cause is hicom- System of Logic There needs not, howevei-, be any invam-iable commnection between eating of the disim anmd death ; but there cel-tainly is, among -the circumstances whicW-took p1a~ SOIITLC conibinmatjoim oi other on ~vhiciu deatii is iuvau-iably consequent: as, foi- instance, the act of eating of the dish, conubined with a pam-tie-Luau- bod- ily constitution, a pam-ticulai- state of pesent health, and pet-laps even a Celtain State of the atmosphere ; tile whole of wimich circumstances peu hiaps constituted in this partie-tuai- case the conditions of time phenomenon, or, in other wou-ds, the set of anteccdenmts whelm detei-tnined it, and but for which it would not have happened. System of Logic What, in the case we bave Supposed, disguises time incorrectness of the expi-ession, is this : tha-t the val-ions conditions, except the single one of eating the food, ~i-ei.e System of Logic mmot euents (that is, instantaneous changes, or Stuccessions of instain taneoums changes) but states, possessing moi-e or less of pel-unanency ; atmul might thei-efon-e have pi-eceded the effect by an indefinite length of dtim-a- tiout, foi- want of the event which was requisite to complete the mequuin-ed cOflcuirence of conditions : while as soon as that event, eatiumg the food, Oe-CIlis, no other cause is waited fou-, but time effect begins immediately to take place : and hence time appearance is pi-eseuited of a mou-e innumiediatc~ and close connection between the effect and that one antecedent, thati he- tween the effect and the lemaining conditions. System of Logic Wiuen we say that the assent of the crown to a bill makes it law, we mean that the as- sent, being never given until all the other cozuditiomus ai-e fulfilled, makes up the suni of the conditions, though no one now iegards it as the principal one. System of Logic If we do not, when aiming at accuracy, entitnertite all the conditions, it is only because some of them will in most cases be understood without being expressed, or because for the purpose in view they may without ~detinient be oveilooked. System of Logic Ail effects ai-e connected, by the Ia~~- of causation, with some set of positive conditions ; negative ones, it is true, being almnost always requit-ed in addition. System of Logic Nothing can better show the absence of any se-jeu- tific giound foi- the distinction bet~veen the cause of a phenomenon and its conditions, than the capi-icious manner in which we select from among the conditions that which we choose to denominate the cause. System of Logic Howevei nui- meious the conditions may be, there is hamdly any of them which may not, according to the purpose of otmi- immediate cliscouise, obtain that nominal pte-emineflce. System of Logic This ~vi1l be seen by analyzing the conditions of some one familiar phenomenon. System of Logic What ai-e the conditiotis of this event ? In the first place there must be a stone, and watem, and the stone must be thrown into the water; but these suppositions forrmiing vait of time enunciation of the phenomenon itself, to include them also among time conditions would be a vicious tautol- ogy ; and this class of commditions, therefoie, have never received the name of cause ftom any but the At-istotehians, by ~vimom they were called the na- terial cause, causa matericilis. System of Logic which notion, on the contrary, any one of the conditions, either positive or negative, is found, on occasion, completely to accord.* System of Logic Thieve is, no doubt, a tendency (which out- flu-st example, that of death fm-em taking a particular food, sufficiently illustrates) to associate the idea of causation with the proximate antecedent eu~ent, rather than with any of the antecedent states, om pem-manent facts, which may happen also to be conditions of the phenomenon ; the i-eason being that tue event not only exists, but begins to exist immediately previous ; while the othei- conch- tions may have pm-c-existed fom an indefinite time. System of Logic mas- nine-h as the coming of the circumstance which completes time assemblage of conditions, is a change or event, it thence happens that an event s ai- ways the antecedent in closest apparent proximity to the consequent : and this may account for the illusion which disposes us to look upon the pt-ox- imate event as standing moi-e peculiaily in the position of a cause than any of the antecedent states. System of Logic But even this peculiat-ity, of being in closer prox- imity to the effect than army othen- of its conditions, is, as we have ali-eady seen, far from being necessary to the common notion of a cause; with System of Logic The assertion, that any and every one of the conditions of a phenomenon may be and is. System of Logic on* some occa~ions and for some purposes, spoken of as the cause, has been disputed by an intel- ligent revie~Ve of this work in the Prospectire Review (the predecessor of the justly esteemed National Review), who maintains that we always apply the word cause rather to that ele- - - ment itt the antecedents which-exeroisesforee, and which would tend at all times to produce the same or a similar effect to that which, undec certain conditions, it would actually plo- duce. System of Logic It is for the same reason that no one (as the reviewer remarks) calls the cause of a leap, the muscles or sinews of the body, though they are necessary conditions ; nor the cause oh a sel1~.sacrifice, System of Logic Among the positive conditions, as we have seen that there are some mere negative conditions ; but they happened to be the only ones which there could be any necessity to state ; for he walked, most likely, in exactly his usual manner, and the nega- tive conditions made all the difference. System of Logic The negative conditions, however, of any phenomenon, a special enumeration of which would generally be very prolix, may be all summed up under one head, namely, the absence of preventing or counteracting causes. System of Logic The reviewer adds, mere ai-e some conditions absolutely passive, and yet absolutely necessary to physical phenomena, viz, the relations of space and time; and to these no one ever applies the word caus without being immediately arrested by those who hear him, Even from this statement I am compelled to dissent. System of Logic Both of these, it would be universally aI- lowed, are conditions of the phenomenon ; but it would be thought absurd to call the latter the cause, that title being reserved for the former. System of Logic If a pet-son walking out in a frosty day, stumbled and fell, it whi might be said that he stumbled because the ground was slippery, or because he was not suf- cn- ficiently careful: hut few peopte, E suppose, wonld say, that he stumbled because be walked. System of Logic It may be thought that this foi-ni of causation requires us to admit an exception to the doctrine that the conditions of a phenomenonthe ante- cedents required fot calling it into existencemust all be found among the facts immediately, not remotely, pieceding its commencement. System of Logic In the enumeration of the conditions required oi the occurrence of any phenomenon, it always has to l)e incliLded that objects must be ptesent, possessed of given pm-operties. System of Logic Time conditions of tile explosion itself were all present immediately before it took place, and tile general law, therefore, remains intact, ~ 6. System of Logic The existence of the sun (or sonic such luminous body), and thcme being no opaque medium in a straight line* between that body and time pamt of the earth whieme we are situated, are the sole conditions ; and time union of these, without the addition of any superfluous eilclmnmstancc, constitutes the cause. System of Logic 0m if we adopt the conveniemit modification of the meaning of the word cause, which confines it to the assemblage of positive comiditions without the negative, then instead of unconditional- ly, we must say, subject to no other than negative conditions. System of Logic Accoidiimgly, the illumination of any given point of space has always beem looked [11)011 as an immstaiitfnimeous fact, which perishes and is perpetually renewed as Iommg as the mmecessary conditions subsist. System of Logic lhme fact ieinaimis, that iii some cases (tlmou~~h those are a tmiiuiority) tue comititmuance of the conditions which produced an effect is nccess:uy to time contimluamice of time effeet. System of Logic 249 soits of effects quite heterogeneous, but which go on simultaneously one with another ; pmovided, of coumse, that all other conditions requtisite for each of them also exist. System of Logic When the saune phenomenon is followedi (either sub- ject or not to the presence of other conditions) by effects of different and dissimilar orders, it is usual to say that each different sort of effect is puo- duced by a cliffeuent property of the cause. System of Logic These have existed, amid time effects em conseqmuences which they weme fitted to produce have taken place (as often as tiSe othuem conditions of the l)uodtm~i0n met), fmoni the vemy begin- ning of otim experience. System of Logic Not only, foi instance, is the earth itself a pemmancmit camuse, or primitive natural agent, but the earths rotation is so too: it is a cause which has produced, from the earliest period (by the aid of other necessamy conditions), the suc- -4 -4 1 System of Logic As to time mittetior question, whmethici it is strictly neccssamy that the cause, or assemmiblage of conditions, siuomthl precede, by ever so shott an in- stant, the pi-oductiomi of time effect (a question raised and argued with much ingenuity i~y Srm Johmum lLemschel in aim Essay ahieady quoted),* the inquiry is of no commsequence for oui piesemit purpose. System of Logic It had hoimg l)een known that these (liSSimilar pimenomnena had tile j~o~vei, uimidet certaii conditions, of pmolucing one anothmer : ~~-Imat is miew in the theory is a more accurate estimation of what this pmodtict ion consists iii. System of Logic rrlme chief practical conclusion duawn by him, beaning on Causation, is, that we must distinguish in the assemblage of conditions which comistitutes the Cause of a phenomenon, two elenietits: one, time pmesemice of a for-cc-; time otimem, thue collocation or position of objects which is required mi or-tier that the foi-ce mmi:my undeigo the particular transmutation whit-u constitutes time pimenonuenoni. System of Logic The pt-eceding discussions have rendet-ed us familiar with the case iii which sevemi agents, or causes, concur as conditions to the production of an effect; a case, in truth, almost universal, there being vety few effects to the production of which ito more than otme agent commtu-ibtmtes. System of Logic Suppose, then, that two different agents, operating jointly, ni-e followed, under a certain set of collateral conditions, by a given effect. System of Logic If eitlmct- of these agents, instead of being joined with the other, had operated alone, tinder the same set of conditions in all other respects, some effect wotmid probably have followed, which would have been diffetent front the joint effect of time two, and more or less dissimilat- to it. System of Logic Those bodies continue, as before, I omit, for simplicity, to take into account the effect, in this latter case, of the diminution* of pressumre, in diminishing the flow of water through the du-ain; which evidently in no way affects time truth or applicability of the principle, since when the two causes act simnnmhtaneously System of Logic The only mode, therefore, of prosecu- ting this inquiry is that afforded by the Method of Agreement; by which, in fact, through a comparison of all the known substances which have the property of doubly refracting light, it was ascertained that they agree in the circumstance of being crystalline substances; and though the converse does not hold, though all crystalline substances have not the property of double refraction, it was concluded, with reason, that there is a real con- nection between these two properties; that either crystalline structure, or the cause which gives rise to that structure, is one of the conditions of double refraction. System of Logic But the rigorous conditions of the Method of Difference are not yet sat- isfied ; for we can not be sure that these unpoisonous bodies agree with the ~ substances in every property, except the particular one of entering into a difficultly decomposable conmpound ivitim the animal tissues. System of Logic Let the object be* to ascertain the law of what is termed induced electricity; to fimmd under what conditions any electrified body, whether positively oi negatively electrified, gives rise to a contrary electric state in sonme other body adjacent to it. System of Logic It seenis to follow that the two facts are invariably connected, and timat the excitement of electric- ity in any body has for one of its necessary conditions the possibility of a_ simultaneous excitement.. System of Logic This as- sninption of complete resemblance in all material circumstances save one, evidently could not be safely made in any one pair of experiments, because the two legs of any given animal might be accidentally in very different pathological conditions ; b~t if, besides taking pains to avoid any such dif- ference, the experiment was repeated sufficiently often in different animals to exclude the supposition that any abnormal circumstance could be pres- ent in them all, the conditions of the Method of Difference were adequate- ly secured. System of Logic These are the conditions of the Joint Method of Agreement and Difference. System of Logic But time asserters of such supposed differences have not provided them- selves with these necessary logical conditions of time establishment of their doctrine. System of Logic We have regarded a b e de, the aggiegate of time phienionieuia existing at any moment, as commsisting of dissimilar facts, a, b, e, ci, amid e, foi eacim of which one, and only one, cause needs be sougiit; time difficulty beiumg only that of singling out this one cause from time miii- titude of niitecedent circummmstances, A,B,C,D, and E. The cause indeed may not be siumiple; it may coimsist of ami assenmblage of conditions; but we Imave supposed that there was - oumly omme possible assemblage of conditioums - from which time given effect could result. System of Logic It is not tiue, timen, that one effect must be connected with only one cause, ou assemblage of conditions; that each phenomenon can be Pt0- duced only in one way. System of Logic When the - laws of time original agents cease entiuely, and a phenomenon makes its appeamance, which, with iefemence to those laws, is quite heteiogeneous; whemm, foi example, two gaseous substances, hmydiogen and oxygen, on be- itig bmougimt together, throw off theiu peculiai puopemties, and pioduce the substammee called water; in such eases the new fact may be subjected to expemimniental inquimy, like any other phenomenon; and the elements which aue said to compose it may be considemed as the meme agents of its pmo- duetiomutime conditions on which it depends, the facts which make up its cause. System of Logic We have now to consider according to what method these complex effects, c01fl1)Ouflded of time effects of many causes, are to be studied; how we are enabled to ti-ace each effect to the concurrence of causes in which it originated, and ascertain the conditions of its recurm-encethe circum- stances in which it may be expected again to occur. System of Logic Time conditions of a phenomenon which arises from a composition of causes, may be investi- gated either deductively or ex perimnentally. System of Logic Let the sub- ject of inquiry be, the conditions of health and disease iii the human body; or (for greater simplicity) the conditions of recovery from a given disease; and--in order to narrow the question still more, let it be limited, in the first instance, to this one inquiry: Is, or is not, some particular medicament (mercury, for instance) a remedy for the given disease. System of Logic THE mode of immvestigation whicim, fm-am the proved inapplicability of dimect methods of observation and expem-iment, 1-emains to us as the tnain soutce of the knowledge we possess ot- can acquire respecting the conditions and laws of recuri-ence, of the moi-e complex phenomena, is called, in its most general expression, the Deductive Method ; and consists of thmee operations : the fim-st, one of dimect inductiotl ; the second, of ra- tiocination ; the thim-d, of vem-ification. System of Logic If so little can be done by the expem-imental method to determine the conditions of an effect of mammy combined causes, in the case of medical science ; still less is this method applicable to a class of phenomena moi-e complicated than even those of physiology, the phenoniena of politics and histoiy. System of Logic But whether we au-e able to put time question before, or not until after, we have become capable of answei-ing it, in either case it mmmuust be answered; the laws of time diffei-ent camuses must be ascem-tained, befome we cati pioceed to deduce fm-on them the conditions of the effect. System of Logic As this experimentation is not intended to obtain a direct solution of any pm-actical question, but to dis- cover genei-al laws, fmom which aftei-wamd the conditions of ammy pautictulam- effect may be obtained by deduction, the best cases to select au-e those of which the cii-cumstan ces can be best ascem-tained: and such are genem-ally System of Logic Not only lias time order in which the facts of om-ganization amid life successively manifest timemmiselves, fuoni the flu-st gemm of existence to death, been found to be ummifom-m, and vem-y accui-ately ascertainable; but, by a gm-eat application of the Method of Concomitant Vai-iatiotms to time emmtire facts of compau-ative amiatomy amid physiology, the cham-actem-istic omganic struetui-e cori-espouudimmg to each class of functions has been -deteu-mnimmed with considem-able pm-ecision, Whether these oigauic conditiouus au-e- time whole of the conditions, and imu mammy cases -whethem- they are ,conditions -at. System of Logic The law of the effect of a combination of causes is always subjct to the whole of the negative conditions which attach to the action of all the causes severally. System of Logic One part of the law is first ascertained, afterward another part: one set of observations teaches us that the law holds good under some conditions, another that it holds good under other conditions, by combining which observations we -from the laws into which they are resolved. System of Logic remarked, ~he -find that it holds good under conditions much more general, or even uni- versally. System of Logic When, merely some more general, phenomenon, of which it is a partial exemplifica however, the celestial motions were accurately ascertained, and the deduc- tion; or some laws of caasation which produce it by their joint or Succes- tive processes performed, from which it appeared that their laws and sive action, and from which, therefore, its conditions may be determined those of terrestrial gravity corresponded, those celestial observations be- deductively. System of Logic From the foregoing and similar instances, we may see the impor- tance, when a law of nature previously unknown has been brought to light, or when new light has been thrown upon a known law by experiment, of examining all cases which present the conditions necessary for bringing that law into action; a process fertile in demonstrations of special -laws previously unsuspected, and explanations of others already empirically known. System of Logic The law being thus established experimentally, that electricity is evolved, by a magnet, and a conductor moving at right angles to the direc- tion of its poles, we may now look out for fresh instances in which these conditions meet. System of Logic ward which as towam-d otheu ideal limits we ai-e constantly teumdiimg, with- out the prospect of evem- completely attainiumg it) would be to show that each distinguishable variety of oum- semusations, or other states of conscious- ness, has only otme sort of caumse; that, fou- exammiple, whenever we perceive a white color, timere is soumue one conditiomm or set of conditions which is al- ways preseumt, amid the presence of ~vhicim always produces iii us that sensa- tion. System of Logic It is one question what a timing is, tund anotlmei what it depends oui ; and though to ascertain the conditions of an elemnentauy l)heno1~~eu1oum is not to obtain any new insight into the natuume of the phiemmomenonu itself, that is no reason against attenmptiumg to cliscoveu time commditiomms. System of Logic This piocess may evidently be legitimate on one supposition, namely, if the nature of time case be such that the fluai step, the vem-ification, shall amount to, and fulfill time conditions of, a complete induction. System of Logic I have said that in this case the vem-ification fulfills the conditions of an induction; but an induction of what soi-t? Oum exanminatjon we find flint it confou-ms to time canon of the Method of Difference. System of Logic The Another hypothesis, to the legitimacy of which no objection can lie, and which is well cal- rules of Induction are concerned with the conditions of Proof. System of Logic consequences, might afford a plansible explanation of many physiological facts, while there is non, which the first impulse of every one was to reject at once, admissible and discussible, nothing to discourage the hope that ye may in time sufficiently understand the conditions of even as a conjecture? System of Logic No object at rest alters its position without the intem-ventioti of some conditions ax- traneous to itself; and when Once in flioton, no object returns to a state of i-est, or alters either its direction or its velocity, unlesg some new extem- mil conditions ai-e supelindmiced It, therefore, perpetually happens that a tempoiary cause gives i-iso to a permanent effect. System of Logic Even if it weie pmoved - all its motion, howevem- long continued, but the proximate cause of no mo- (which it is not) that the conditions necessaiy for determining the break- tion except that which took place at the first instant, The motion at any ing off of successive rings would certainly occur, there would still be a subsequent instant is proximately caused by the motioji which took place much greater chance of errom- in assuming that the existing laws of natum-e at the instant preceding, It is on that, and not on the om-iginal moving are time same which existed at the origin of the solar system, than in mere- cause, that the n-motion at any given moment depends. System of Logic H, however, the cause, namely, exposure to moist aim, continues, more and more of the ii-on becomes rusted, ummtil all which is exposed is converted into a red powdei, when one of the conditions of time pmoduction of rust, namely, the presence of unoxidizel iion, has ceased, nmd the effect can not any longer be produced. System of Logic The earth, however, not being annihilated, goes on pmoducing in the sec- ond instant an effect similar and of equal amount with the first, which two effects being added together, thom-e results an accelerated velocity; and this operation being repeated at each successive instant, the met-e pemma- nenee of the cause, though without increase, gives iise to a constant pmo- gi-essive increase of time effect, so long as all the conditions, negative and positive, of the production of that effect contimmue to be realized. System of Logic Though the causes themselves ai-e pcrtim:unei-mt, and imm(lcl)emidemit of all conditions known to us, ti-me changes which take place iii the quantities and rlations of the causes are actually caused by ti-me periodical changes in the effects, The causes, as they exist at any moiwnt, having pioduced a certain n-motion, that motion, becoming itself a cause, i-eaets upoim time causes, and produces a change in them. System of Logic And if we knew these, we should also know what ai-e its limits; under what conditions it would cease to be fulfilled. System of Logic What is the reason that in a box where there are nine black balls and one white, we expect to draw a black ball nine times as much (in other words, nine times as often, frequency being the gauge of intensity in expectation) as a white ? Obviously because the local conditions are nine times as favorable ; because the hand may alight in nine places and get a black ball, while it can only alight in one place and find a white ball ; just foi- the same reason that we do not expect to succeed in findiimg a friend in a crowd, the conditions in order that we and he should come together being many and difficult. System of Logic t If this be not so, why do we feel so much more probability added by the first instance than by any single subsequent instance? Why, except that the first instance gives us its pos- sibility (a cause adequate to it), while every other only gives us the frequency of its conditions? System of Logic We have, therefore, the warrant of a rigid induction for con- sidering it probable, in a degree tmndistinguishable from certainty, that the known conditions requisite for the suns rising will exist to-morrow. System of Logic that som of the circumstances which are wanting on the moon are among those which, on the earth, are found to be indispensable conditions of animal life, we may conclude that if that phenomenon does exist in the moon (or at all events on the nearer side), it must be as an effect of causes totally different from those on which it depends here; as a consequence, therefore, of the moons differences from the earth, not of the points of agreement. System of Logic In the same direction the case of effects of which the causes are imperfectly or not at all known, when consequently the observed rder of their occurrence amounts only to an empirical law, it often happens that the conditions which have co-exist- ed whenever the effect was observed, have been very numerous. System of Logic Now if a new case presents itself, in which all these conditions do not exist, but the far greater part of them do, sonic one or a few only being wanting, the inference that the effect will occur, notwithstanding this deficiency of com- 1. System of Logic or the obscurity of the phenomena, our deficient means of observing them, or the logical difficulties arising from the complication of the circum- stances in which they occur; insomuch that, notwithstanding as rigid a dependence on given conditions as exists in the case of any other phenome- non, it was not likely that we should be better acquainted with those con- ditions than we are. System of Logic When it is said that water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen, the affirmation is that hvdi-ogen and oxygen, by the ac- tion on one another which they exert under certain conditions, generate the properties of sva- ter. System of Logic Even when science has ieally determined the univeisal laws of any phenomenon, not only are those laws t~enerally too much encumbered with conditions to be adapted for every- day use, but the cases which present themselves in life ai-e too complicated, and our decisions requite to be taken too rapidly, to admit of waiting till the existence of a phenomenon can be proved by what have been sdientific- ally ascertained to be universal mat-ks of it. System of Logic Thus a person may believe that most Scotchmen can read, because, so far as his information exteuds, most Scotchmen have been sent to school, and most Scotch schools teach reading effectually; and also because most of the Scotchmen whom he has known or heard of could read; though nei- ther of these two sets of observations may by itself fulfill the necessary conditions of extent and variety. System of Logic Secondly: there is a case in which approximate propositions, even with- out oui- taking note of the conditions mmdci- which they ai-e not true of indi- vidual cases, are yet-, for the pitt-poses of science, univet-sal ones; namely, imi the inquiries which i-elate to the pu-opeuties not of individuals, but of multi- tudes. System of Logic We have to commsidei, not how or what to observe, bitt under what conditions observation is to be relied on ; what is needful, iii order that the fact, supposed to be obsem-ved, may safely be received as true. System of Logic That the conception we have obtained is the one we want, can only be known when we have done the woik foi the sake of which we wanted it; when we completely understand the general character of the phenomena, or the conditions of the particulam property with which we concern our- selves. System of Logic As we obtain more knowledge of the phenomena themselves, and of the conditions on which their important properties depend, oui views on this subject naturally alter; and thus we advance from a less to a more appropriate general conception, in the progress of our investigations. System of Logic Without any Conditions necessary to enable those powers to exert themselves: of which conditions I am contending that language is not one, senses and association being sufficient without it. System of Logic Observation and Abstraction, the operations which formed the sub- ject of the two foregoing chapters, are conditions indispensable to indue.. System of Logic This is by no means one of the most obvious properties of living bodies; it might escape altogether the notice of an unscientific obseiver, Yet great authorities (independently of M. De Blainville, who is himself a first-rate authority) have thought that no other property so well answers the conditions required for the definition. System of Logic Cases in whidh it is impossible to comply with all the conditions of a precise definition of a name in agreement with usage, occur very frequent- ly. System of Logic This requisite of philosophical language may be considered under three diffei-ent heads; that number of sepal-ate conditions being involved in it. System of Logic - We shall see presently that where the classification is made foi- the cx- press purpose of a special inductive inquii-y, it is not optional, but necessary ~ for fulfilling the conditions of a correct Inductive Method, that we should establish a type-species or genus, namely, the one which exhibits in the most eminent degi-ee the particular- phenomenon undei- investigation. System of Logic the discovery of the conditions and laws of the general phenomenon of life, which is common to man with those inferior animals. System of Logic Tire dicotyledons an-e of more Complex structure, and some~hat nroie perfect organization, than the rnonocotyledoirs ; and some dicotyledonous families, such as the Composit, :ue rather- moi-e complex in their- organization than the test, But the dif- ferences ar-c not of a marked character, and do not prorniise to throw airy particular- light upon the conditions and laws of vegetable life and develop tuent. System of Logic The propei- arrangement, for example, of a code of laws, depends on the same scientific conditions as the classifica. System of Logic In regard to scarcely any of them has it been found possible to trace any unity of cause, any set of conditions invariably accompanying the quality. System of Logic Why should it not be possible to make gold? Each of the characteristic properties of gold has its forma, its essence, its set of conditions, which if we could discover, and learn how to realize, we could superinduce that particular property upon any other sub- stance, upon wood, or iron, or lime, or clay. System of Logic This is, that the conditions of a phenomenon must, or at least probably will, resemble the phenomenon itself, * Ii- bility at some future period of making goldby first discovering it to be a compound, and putting together its different elements or ingredients, But this is a totally different idea from that of the seekers of the grand arcanum. System of Logic The prejudic~, that the conditions of a phenomenon must i-esemble the phenomenon, is occasionally exaggerated, at least verbally, into a still more palpable absum-dity; the conditions of the thing are spoken of as if they were the very thing itself. System of Logic In Bacona model inquiry, which - ocdupj~ so gm-eat a space in the Novum Orgaum, the inquisitio in forrnam calidi, the conclusion which he favors is that heat is a kind of motion; meaning of course not the feeling of heat, but the conditions of the feeling; meaning, therefore, only that wherever there is. System of Logic heat, there must first be a particu- lar kind of motion; but he makes no distinction in his language between these two ideas, expressing himself as if heat, and the conditions of heat, were one and the same thing. System of Logic In the first place, them-e ai-e certain kinds of generalization which, if the pi-inciples already laid down be coriect, must be groundless; expe- i-ience can not afford time necessary conditions for establishing them by a correct induction. System of Logic Now I am fat- ftom pm-etending that it may not be capable of proof, or that it is not an important addition to otii knowledge if proved, that cer- tain motions in the particles of bodies are the conditions of the production of beat or light; that oem-tam assignable physical modifi~atioiis of the neives may be the conditions not only of our sensations or emotions, but even of our thoughts; that certain mechanical amid chemical cndit-ions may, in the order of natume,be sufficient to determine to action thephysiological laws of life. System of Logic A phenomenon has never been noticed ; this only proves that the conditions of that phenomenon have not yet occurred in ex- perience, but does not prove that they may not occur hereafter. System of Logic The planets - i-esemble the cart-h in describing 4lliptical orbits round the sun, in being attracted by it and by one anothem-, in being nearly spherical, revolving on their axes, etc.; and, as we have now m-eason to believe fi-ont the mevelations of the spectroscope, are com- posed, in gm-eat part at least, of similar materials; bat it is not known that any of these pi-operties, or all of them together, are the conditions on which the possession of inhabitants is dependent, or ai-e marks of those conditions. System of Logic Nevertheless, so long as we do not know what the conditions ai-e, they may be connected by some law of nature with those common pi-operties; and to the extent of that possibility the planets are more likely to be in- habited than if they did not resemble the earth at all. System of Logic Though A, the property common to the two cases, can not be shown to be the cause or effect of B, the analogical rea- soner will endeavor to show that there is some less close degree of connec- tion between them; that A is one of a set of conditions from which, when all united, B would result; or is an occasional effect of some cause which has been known also to produce B; and the like. System of Logic One of the conditions oftenest dropped, when what wotmld otherwise be a true proposition is emmmployed as a premise for proving others, is the con- dition of time. System of Logic There is here fallacy within fallacy; for granting that the words strong and strength were not (as they are) applied in a totally different sense to fermented liquors and to the human body, there would still be involved the error of supposing that an effect must be like its cause; that the conditions of a phenomenon are likely to resemble the phenomenon itself; which we have already treated of as an a priori fallacy of the first rank. System of Logic What is proved is, that certain mental conditions in the person himself must co-operate, in the production of the act, with the external inducement; but those mental conditions also are the effect of causes; and there is nothing in the argument to prove that they can arise without a causethat a spontaneous detem-minittion of the will, without any cause at all, ever takes place, as the free-will doctrine supposes. System of Logic But this is the common confusion, of giving one and the same name to a phenomenon and to the appi-oximate cause or conditions of the phenomenon. System of Logic The laws of this portion of oui- nature the varieties of our sensations, and the physical conditions on which they pm-oximnately dependmanifestly belong to the piovince of Physiology. System of Logic Whethet- the remainder of our mental states ai-e similarly dependent on physical conditions, is one of the vexat questiones in the science of hu- man nature. System of Logic It must by no means be forgotten that time laws of mind may be derivative laws iesiilting fi-om laws of ani- - muaI life, and that their ti-uth, therefome, may ultimately depend ou physic- al conditions; and the influence of physiological states om- physiological changes in altering om- countem-acting the mental successions, is one of the niost important departments of psychological study. System of Logic No mode has been suggested, even by way of hypothesis, in which these can receive any satisfactory, or even plausible, explanation from psy- chological causes alone; and there is great reason to think that they havc as positive, and even as direct and immediate, a connection with physical conditions of the brain and nerves as any of our niere sensations have. System of Logic Whether organic causes exercise a direct influence over aimy other classes of mental phenomena, is hitherto as far from being ascertained as is the precisqn~ure of the organic conditions even in the case of instincts. System of Logic In other words, an empirical law is a generalizaton, of which, not content with finding it true, we are obliged to ask, why is it true? knowing that its truth is not- absolute, but dependent on somemore general conditions, and that it can only be relied on in so far as th~re is ground of assurance that those conditions are realized. System of Logic Here, then, is the explanation of the empi-ical law; hem-e ai-e the conditions which ultimately deterriilne whether th law holds good or not. System of Logic I know of no maxima which can be laid down ou the subject, but to obtain those fimst in m-espect to which the conditions of a real induction can be first and most completely ieahized. System of Logic univem-sahls-, ou to some pau-ticulat- community? without any pu-evious inquiry into the geneial conditions by which the operation of legislative measum-es, om- the effects produced by formns of government, are determined. System of Logic He shall know as much of the facts of history as mere erudition can teachas much as can be proved by testimony, without the assistance of any theom-y; and if those mere facts, propem-ly collated, can fulfill the conditions of a real in- duction, he shall be qualified foi- the task. System of Logic States of society are like differ-ent constitutions or- different ages in the physical fnanrro ; they ai-e conditions not of one or- a few or-gans oi func- tions, but of the whole omganism. System of Logic The first branch of the science as- certains the conditions of stability in the social union; the second, the laws of progress. System of Logic By following out this course of inquiry we shall find a number of requisites, which have been present in every society that has maintained a collective existence, and on the cessation of which it has either merged in some other society, or re- constructed itself on some new basis, in which the conditions were con- formed to. System of Logic There are some circumstances which, being found in all societies without excep- tion, and in the greatest degree where the social union is most complete, may be considered (when psychological and ethological laws confirm the indication) as conditions of the existence of the complex phenomena called System of Logic Now if these philosophers had known human nature under any other type than that of their own age, and of the particular classes of society among whom they lived, it would have occurred to them, that wherever this habitual submission to law and government has been firmly and du- rably established, and yet the vigor and manliness of character which re- sisted its establishment have been in any degree preserved, certain requi- sites have existed, certain conditions have been fulfilled, of which the fol- lowing may he regarded as the principal. System of Logic While the derivative laws of social statics ai-e ascem-tained by an- alyzing different states of society, and comparing them with one another, without regard to the order of their succession, the consideration of the Successive order is, on the contrary, predominant in the study of social dynamics, of which the aim is to observe and explain the sequences of so- cial conditions. System of Logic He desired, to make abstraction of the intellect as the determining and dynamical element of the progression, elimi- nating the more dependent set of conditions, and treating the more active one as if it were an entirely independent variable. System of Logic The science receives it, con- sideu-s it as a phenomenon or effect to be studied, and having investigated its causes and conditions, sends it back to art with a theorem of the corn- * * It is almost superfluous to observe, that there is another meaning of the word Art, in which it may be said to denote the poetical department or aspect of things in general, in con- tradistinction to the scientific. System of Logic Suppose that we have completed the scientific process only up to a certain point; have discovered that a particular cause will produce the desired ef- fect, but have not ascertained all the negative conditions which are neces- sary, that is, all the circumstances which, if present, would prevent its pro- duction. System of Logic We must re-open the investigation to inquire into the remainder of the conditions on which the effect depends; and only after we have ascertained the whole of these are ~ve~prepai-ed to transform the completed law of the effect into a pre- cept, in which those circumstances or combinations of circumstances which the science exhibits as conditions are prescribed as means. System of Logic The rules of art do not attempt to comprise more conditions than require to be attended to in ordinary cases; and are therefore always imperfect. System of Logic In the manual arts, where the requisite conditions are not numerous, and where those which the rules do nt specify are generally eithei- plain to common observation or speedily learned from practice, rules may often be safely act- ed on by persons who know nothing more than the rule. System of Logic Art, though it must assume the same general laws, follows them only into such of their detailed consequences as have led to the formation of rules of conduct ; and brings together from parts of the field of science most remote from one another, the truths relating to the production of the different and heterogeneous conditions necessary to each effect which the exigencies of practical life i-equire to be produced.* System of Logic Science, therefore, following one cause to its various effects, while art traces one effect to its multiplied and diversified causes and conditions, there is need of a set of intermediate scientific truths, derived from the higher generalities of science, and destined to serve as the generalia oi~ first principles of the various arts. System of Logic at,That is, of The effect to be pro- duced, and determining in the same comprehensive manner the set of con- ditions on which that effect depends, there remains to be taken, a general survey of the resources which can be commanded foi- realizing this set of conditions; and when the result of this survey has been embodied in the fewest and most extensive propositions possible, those propositions will express the general relation between the available means and the end, and will constitute the general scientific theory of the art, from which its practical methods will follow as corollarie. System of Logic Otherwise it would follow that if Socrates had grown rich, or had lost his mental faculties by illness, he would no longer have l)een called Socrates. System of Logic Descartes, in like manner, whose work~are a rich mine of almost every description of a priori fallacy, says that the Efficient Cause must at least have all the pem-fections of the effect, and for this singulam- reason: Si enim ponamus ahiquid in ide reperiri quod non fuerit in ejus caus, hoc igitur habet a nihilo ; of which it is scarcely a parody to say, that if there be pepper in the soup there must be pepper in the cook who made it, since otherwise the pepper would be without a cause. System of Logic But should- --an accident have disclosed similar discoveries to a mechanic at Birmingham or Sheffield, and if the man should gm-ow rich in consequence, and partly by the eavy of his neighbors and partly with good reason, be considered by them as a man below par in the general powers of his understanding; then, Oh, what a lucky fellow! System of Logic That theory sets out from the common maxim, that whatever brings in money enriches; or that every one is rich in proportion to the quantity of money he obtains. System of Logic If two nations can be found which ai-e alike in all natural ad- vantages and disadvantages; whose people resemble each other in eveiy quality, physical and moral, spontaneous atmd acquiued; whose habits, usages, opimmions, laws, and institutions are the same in all respects, except that one of tuent has a more piotective tauiff, ou in other m-espects interferes more with the freedom of industry; if one of these natiomis is found to be rich amid the other poor, or one i-icher thami time other, this will be an expe- rimentumn crucis: a i-cal proof by experience, which of the two systems is most favorable to national iiches. System of Logic The following instance I quote from Archbishop Whatelys Rhetoric: It would be admitted that a great and permanent diminution in the quan- tity of some useful commodity, such as corn, or coal, or iron, throughout the world, would be a serious and lasting loss; and again, that if the fields and coal-mines yielded regularly double quantities, with the same labor, we should be so much the richer; hence it might be inferred, that if the quantity of gold and silver in the world were diminished one-half, or were doubled, like results would follow; the utility of these metals, for the pur- poses of coin, being very great. System of Logic All for want of reflecting that if the riches of an individual are in proportion to the quantity of money he can command, it is because that is the measure of his power of purchasing moneys worth; and is therefore subject to the proviso that he is not debarred from em- ploying his money in such purchases. System of Logic As already remarked, one of the main results of the science of social statics would be to ascertain the requisites of stable political union. System of Logic
This single reflection will show, that the doctrine of re- demption is founded on a mere pecuniary idea correspond- ing to that of a debt which another person might pay; and as this pecuniary idea corresponds again with the system of second redemption, obtained through the means of money given to the Church for pardons, the probability is that the same persons fabricated both the one and the other of those theories; and that, in truth there is no such thing as redemp- tionthat it is fabulous, and that man stands in the same relative condition with his Maker as he ever did and stand since man existed, and that it is his greatest consolation to think so. The Age of Reason vent all such evils and impositions is not to admit of any other revelation than that which is manifested in the book of creation, and * J~ n to contemplate the creation as the only true and real word of God mythology began; but it is certain, from the internal evidence that it that ever did or ever will exist; and that everything else, called the carries, that it did not begin in the same state or condition in which it word of God, is fable and imposition. The Age of Reason Thirdly, Because the manner in which the books ascribed to Ezekiel and Daniel are written agrees with the condition these men were in at the time of writing them. The Age of Reason Here we are told that he prayed; but the prayer is a made-up prayer, taken from various parts of the Psalms, without any connection or consistency, and adapted to the distress, but not at all to the condition that Jonah was in. The Age of Reason If we consider the nature of our condition here, we must see there is no occasion for such a thing as revealed religion. The Age of Reason All the knowledge man has of science and of machinery, by the aid of which his existence is rendered comfortable upon earth, and without which he would be scarcely distin- guishable in appearance and condition from a common ani- mal, comes from the great machine and structure of the universe. The Age of Reason The prayer of Agur is in the 8th and 9th verses, Remove far from me vanity and lies; give me neither poverty nor riches; feed me with food convenient for me; lest I be full and deny thee, and say, Who is the Lord? or lest I be poor and steal, and take the name of my God in vain. The Age of Reason This has not any of the marks of being a Jewish prayer, for the Jews never prayed but when they were in trouble, and never for anything but victory, vengeance and riches. The Age of Reason Tt was that kind of prophesying that cor- responds to what we call fortune-telling, such as casting na- tivities, predicting riches, fortunate or unfortunate mar- riages, conjuring for lost goods, etc.; and it is the fraud of the Christian Church, not that of the Jews, and the igno- rance and the superstition of modern, not that of ancient times, that elevated those poetical, musical, conjuring, dreaming, strolling gentry into the rank they have since had. The Age of Reason
The dream is indebted to displacement for its strange appearance, which hinders us from recognizing in it the continuation of our waking thoughts; the dreams use of absurdity and contradiction has cost it the dignity oJ a psychic product, and has misled the authors to assume that the deter- IninRnts of dream-formation are: collapse of mental activity, cessation o~ * n o~ * THE TECHNIQUE OF WIT 655 criticism, morality and logic. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The last condition will probably not have to be much overrated, for the slightest claim on the farther-reaching question whether such outer association can really fur- nish the proper condition to enable the suppressed element to disturb the reproduction of the desired name, or whether after all a more intimate connection between the two themes is not necessarily required. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Previ- ous experience told him, however, what his condition meant and upon reporting it to the physicians, he was honorably discharged. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I lost patience and said: There is no use listening to your friends, who know nothing about your mental condition; you are quite incompetent to take care of your own affairs. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The pa- tients condition became serious and gave my wife the opportunity to show the best side of herself. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Some months previously, I had seen this man in an apparently serious condition and had made the diagnosis of general paresis, but later I had learned of his recovery; consequently my judgment had been incorrect. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We generally leave it unexplained, or we seek a psychologic explanation in the assumption that at the time of execution, the required attention for the action, which was an indispensable condition for the occurrence of the intention, and was then at the disposal of the same action, no longer exists. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Another time, I called on a woman as rich as she was miserly and foolish, who was in the habit of giving the physician the task of working his way through a heap of her complaints before he could reach the simple cause of her condition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud However, the use of the ex- pression error seems to depend on still another condition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This came very readily from the condition required for the last digits if the father had lived longer. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud An insight into the general nature of the condition of faulty and chance actions cannot be gained in this way. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In the condition which it utilized for the analysis of dreams and pathological ideas, this activity is purposely and deliberately renounced, and the psychic energy thus saved (or some part of it) is employed in attentively tracking the undesired thoughts which now come to the surfacethoughts which retain their identity as ideas (in which the condition differs from the state of falling asleep). The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But if we may credit our great poet-philosopher Friedrich Schiler, the essential condition of poetical creation includes a very similar attitude. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud And yet, such a withdrawal of the watchers from the gates of the in- tellect, as Schiller puts it, such a translation into the condition of un- critical self-observation, is by no means difficult. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In this first and important condition, then, the method of dream-interpretation which I employ diverges from the popular, historical and legendary method of interpreta- tion by symbolism and approaches more nearly to the second or cipher method. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Another explanation might be that she does not need it; in fact, until now she has shown herself strong enough to master her condition without out- side help. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But what do I know of her condition? Only the one thing, that like Irma in the dream she suffers from hysterical choking. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud By continually prescribing a drug (suiphonal), which at that time was still considered harmless, I was once responsible for a condition of acute poisoning in the case of a woman 1The complaint of pains in the abdomen, as yet unexplained, may also be referred to this third person. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The dream acquits me of responsibility for Irmas condition, as it refers this condition to other causes (which do, in- deed, furnish quite a number of explanations). The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The whole pleafor this dream is nothing elserecalls vividly the defence offered by a man who was accused by his neighbour of having returned a kettle in a damaged condition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As will readily be seen, Schemer does not ascribe to the wish any further significance for the dream than to any other psychic condition of the waking state; least of all does he insist on the connection between the wish and the essential nature of the dream. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Thus identification is not mere imitation, but an assimilation based upon the same etiological claim; it expresses a just like, and re- fers to some common condition which has remained in the unconscious. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As may be seen, in dream-interpretation the condition is always ful~ filled that one component of the dream-content repeats a recent impres- sion of the day of the dream. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Further, since experience in dream-analysis has drawn my attention to the fact that even from dreams the interpretation of which seems at first sight complete, because the dream-sources ltnd the wish-stimuli are easily demonstrable, important trains of thought proceed which reach back into the earliest years of childhood, I had to ask myself whether this characteristic does not even constitute an essential condition of dreaming. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In all essential points identical with this doctrine is Wundts statement that the concepts of dreams proceed, at all events for the most part, from sensory stimuli, and especially from the stimuli of general sensation, and are therefore mostly phantastic illusionsprobably only to a small ex- tent pure memory-conceptions raised to the condition of hallucinations. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud If one attem~pts to evade this objection by positing the condition that special excitations must proceed from the eye, the ear, the teeth, the bowels, etc., in order to arouse the dream-activity, one is confronted with the difficulty of proving that this increase of stimulation is objective; and proof is pos- sible only in a very few cases. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I was not altogether in a condition to discharge my duties as a physi- cian, but in view of the nature and the location of the malady, it was pos- sible to imagine something else for which I was most of all unfit, namely riding. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It is a habit of mine to run up two or three steps at a time; moreover, there was a wish-fulfilment recog- nized even in the dream, for the ease with which I run upstairs reassures me as to the condition of my heart. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud A peculiar condition of my motor system during sleep cannot be responsible for this dream-con- tent, since a moment earlier I found myself, as though in confirmation of this fact, skipping lightly up the stairs. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The Embarrassment-Dream of Nakedness(a) In a dream in which one is naked or scantily dad in the presence of strangers, it sometimes happens that one is not in the least ashamed of ones condition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In the state of con- fusion, which I regard as an overthrow of the second psychic instance by the first instance, at other times suppressed, the unconscious enmity towards the mother gained the upper hand, and found physical expres- sion; then, when the patient became calmer, the insurrection was sup- pressed, and the domination of the censorship restored, and this enmity had access only to the realms of dreams, in which it realized the wish that the mother might die; and after the normal condition had been still further strengthened it created the excessive concern for the mother as a hysterical counter-reaction and defensive phenomenon. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Then there followed a lucid but rather apathetic condition, with badly disturbed sleep. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud 290 THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS psychic condition at the time of dream-formation. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But how, then, are we to imagine the psychic condition of the sleeper which precedes dreaming? Do all the dream-thoughts exist side by side, or do they pursue one another, or are there several simultaneous trains of thought, proceeding from different centres, which subsequently meet? I do not think it is necessary at this point to form a plastic conception of the 1References to the condensation in dreams are to be found in the works of many writers on the subject. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud THE DREAM-WORK 301 patient about whose condition I last consulted you is really suffering from a neurosis, just as you suspected. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In the meantime, we may state, as a second condition which the elements that find their way into the dream must satisfy, that they must be withdrawn from the resistance of the censorship. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We may, therefore, expect that it will be possible to express this condition, as well as the other condition of the wish-fulfil- ment in a single formula. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In this connection it should be noted that symbolism does not appertajn especially to dreams, but rather to the unconscious imagi- nation, and particularly to that of the people, and it is to be found in a more developed condition in folklore, myths, legends, idiomatic phrases, proverbs, and the current witticisms of a people than in dreams. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud For it is not easy to obtain the material necessary to demonstrate the symbolism in a sufficiently isolated condition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As such questioning on the part of the father never occurred in reality, we must conceive the dream-thought as a wish, or perhaps take it condition- ally, as follows. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I have therefore good reason for rejecting the explanation that it is the condition of our cutaneous sensations during sleep, the sensation of the movements of the lungs, etc., that evoke dreams of flying and falling. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I had an embittered literary controversy with hini in reference to masculine hysteria, the existence of which he denied, and When I visited him during his last illness, and asked him how he felt, he described his condition at some length, and concluded with the words: You know, I have always been one of the prettiest cases of masculine 386 THE INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS hysteria. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We learn of this condition of affairs by considering the occasion of the dream. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We know of persons who un- dertake railway journeys in a crepuscular state, without betraying their abnormal condition by any sign whatever, until at some stage of their journey they come to themselves, and are surprised by the gap in their memory. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I had received the news that he was about to undergo an operation, and that relatives of his living in Vienna would inform me as to his condition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The phrase serves as a point of irruption from which a com- plete whole is simultaneously put into a condition of stimulation. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We call this condition psychosis. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Sleep is just as com- patible with such a wish-resolve as it is with some proviso as a condition of waking up (wet-nurses sleep). The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It is dear from this observation that the influence of puberty may produce in a boy of delicate health a condition of extreme weak- ness, and that this may lead to a very marked cerebral anaemia.2 The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud becomes the preliminary condition of repression. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud nection is especially seen in cases showing a simple fetichistic condition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The coarsest and most important factor of this condition may well be due to the fact that masturbation truly represents the executive part of the entire Infantile sexuality and is therefore capable of taking over this fixated sense of guilt. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud If we could assume that very painful feelings can also attain the same erogenous result, especially if the pain be toned down or held in abeyance by a subsidiary condition, such a situation would then contain the main 1Those who love each other tease each other. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We shall try, if possible, to learn something from the condition of the case in question, and we shall 574 CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE THEORY OF SEX avoid encroaching on the problem as a whole. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The infantile manifestations of sexuality not only condition the deviations from the normal sexual life, but also the normal formations of the same. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This anesthesia may become permanent if the clitoric zone refuses to give up its excitability; a condition brought on by profuse sexual activities in infantile life. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In another place (p. 20), the aesthetic attitude towards an object is characterized by the condition that we expect nothing from this objectespecially no gratification of our serious needsbut that we content ourselves with the pleasure of contemplating the same. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In the further development of this last condition, the antithesis of sense in nonsense becomes obvious. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The physician, of course, referred to the condition of the wife, but he expressed his apprehension about the patient in such words as to afford the husband the means of utilizing them to assert his conjugal aversion. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The creditor does not blame him fon eating salmon on the day that he borrowed the money, but reminds him that in his condition, he has no right to think of such luxuries at all. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud His defense was this: In the first place, I never borrowed any kettle from B., secondly, the kettle had a hole in it when I received it from B., thirdly, tise kttle was in perfect condition when I returned it. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It might have been possible that the Rabbi of Lemberg had died at the moment when the Rabbi of Cracow had prodaimed his death, but the ~upil displaces the accent from the condition under which the teachers ct would be remarkable to the unconditional admiration of this act. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The way in which the second com- parison came into existence seems to contain the condition of the wit- ticism, and not the two comparisons themselves. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The philosophers who consider wit as a part of the comic and deal with the latter itself in the field of sthetics, characterize the sthetic feeling through the following condition: that we are not thereby interested in or about the objects, that we do not need these objects to satisfy our great wants in life, but that we are satisfied with the mere contemplation of the same, and with the pleasure of the idea itself. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I suspect that this is really the condition which underlies all sthetic thinking, but I know too little about sthetics to be willing to support this theory. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Some time there- after the doctor met him on the street and inquired in a loud voice about his condition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The doctor again inquired into his condition in the usual voice, but noticed that he did not make himself audible. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This condition, according to our as- sumption, was present in the aggressive joke of Mr. N. and in the one of Wendell Phillips, in whom a strong inclination to use invectives was stifled by a highly developed sthetic sense. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud -If I may be permitted to anticipate what later is discussed in the text, I can here throw some light upon the condition which seems to be authoritative in the usage of language when it is a question of caffing a joke good or poor. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud There are witti- cisms which are entirely free from this condition, and in a treatise on wit it is incumbent upon us to make use of such examples almost exclusively. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The only condition is that in comparison to others they must produce a greater sense of satis- faction.1 The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud However, owing to insufficient data, we certainly cannot maintain that such a psycho- neurotic constitution is a regular or necessary subjective condition for wit-making. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But still another condition leading to the same result is possible in the first person of the wit. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The second condition for the production of the free discharge, in which there is another utilization for the liberated energy, seems to me of far greater importance. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Secondly, it strictly adheres to the condition of being easily under- stood (y. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud MOTIVES OF WIT AND WIT AS A SOCIAL PROCESS 707 in this condition of deviation of attention we have disclosed no unessen- tial characteristic of the psychic process in the hearer of wit. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud All that is confusing evokes in the hearer that condition of distribution of energy which Lipps has desig- nated as psychic damming; and, doubtless, he has a right to assume that the force of the discharge varies with the success of the damming process which precedes it. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In the case of adults the universally valid condition for the dream-creating wish seems to be that the latter should appear foreign to conscious thinking, that is, it should be a repressed wish, or that it should supply consciousness with reinforcement from unknown sources. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But in order to make possible its employment by the dream-work, this day remnant must be capable of being cast into the form of a wish, a condition that is not difficult to fulfill. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We shall soon learn that in consequence of the rle of the third person, wit is bound by a certain condition which does not affect the dream. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As a consequence of this condition, ironic expressions are particularly subject to the danger of being misunderstood. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It must therefore bind itself to the condition of intelligibleness; it may employ distortion made practicable in the unconscious through condensation and displacement, to no greater extent than can be deciphered by the intelli- gence of the third person. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud If the affective determination of wit consists in the fact that both per- sons should be subject to about the same inhibitions or inner resistances, we may say now that the condition of the nave consists in the fact that one person should have Inhibitions which the other lacks. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This other factor is the result of the condition mentioned before, namely, that in order to recognize the nave we have to be cognizant of the fact that there are no inner inhibitions in the producing person. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The nave would thus be a form of the comic, in so far as its pleasure originates from the difference in expenditure which results in our effort to understand the other person; and it resembles wit through the condition that the ex- penditure saved by the comparison must be an inhibition expenditure.1 The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Let us look for the same condition out- side of the manufactured comic, that is, under circumstances where it may unintentionally be found. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud One then produces the comic exactly as if one were really so, by complying with the condition of comparison which leads to the dif- ference of expenditure; but one does not make himself laughable or con- temptible through this; indeed, under certain circumstances one can even secure admiration. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This has, however, this condition; the presence of the exalted element must not force us into a disposition of reverence. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The difference of expenditure is surely the main condition of the comic pleasure, but observation teaches that such differ- ence does not always produce pleasure. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Just as special precautions must be taken in wit, in order to guard against making new use of expenditure recognized as superfluous, so also can comic pleasure originate only under relations which fulfill this latter condition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud A closer analysis reveals something like the following relations: a) The favorable condition for the origin of comic pleasure is brought about by a general happy disposition in which one is in the mood for laughing. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud b) A similar favorable condition is produced by the expectation of the gomic or by putting ones self in the right mood for comic pleasure. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud On the contrary, spying out an exposure, forms no example of the comic for the one spying, because the effort he exerts thereby abrogates the condition of comic pleasure; the only thing remaining is the sexual pleasure in what is seen. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The uncertainty itself of the comic difference, causing now the lesser and now the greatet expenditure to appear comical to me, would correspond to the infantilc condition; the comic therein is actually always on the side of the infantile. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The humoristic dis- placement is, therefore, just as impossible in the light of conscious atten- tion as in the comic comparison; like the latter it is connected with the condition to remain in the foreconsciousthat is to say, to remain auto- niatic. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It is a condition for the origin of the comic that we be induced to applyeither simultaneously or in rapid successionto the same thought function two different modes of ideas, between which the comparison then takes place and the comic differ- ence results. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Mlinaud, from whom I borrowed the above expression, conceives the condition for laughing in the following formula: Ce qui fait rire, cest qui est la fois, dun ct, absurde et de lautre, familier (Pourquoi rit-on? Revue de deux mondes, Febru- ary, i8~). The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But even if no account is taken of cases in which this last condition does not remove the prohibitin, this explana- tion is subject to the objection that it does not throw any light on the custom dealing with the relation between mother-in-law and son-in-law, thus overlooking the sexual factor, and that it does not take into account the almost sacred loathing which finds expression in the laws of avoid- ance.2 The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It is his function to keep storms in check, and in general, to see to an even, healthy condition of the atmosphere.2 The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud 2Perhaps this condition is to be added: as long as any part of his physical remains The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This new stage is called narcism, in view of the pathological fixation of this condition which may be observed later on. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud About the time of this third Congress, the condition of the International Psychoanalytic Association was as follows: The local groups at Vienna, Berlin and Zrich had constituted themselves already at the congress at Nuremberg in 1910. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It was here doubly conditioned (i) by the superiority on certain interesting occasions of the doctor to the father, of whom the subject was very jealous, and (2) by the doctors knowledge of forbidden topics and his opportunity for illicit indulgence. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But it is a questionable proceeding to draw conclusions from these and apply them to dreams in general, for they are mostly dreams of neurotic1 and especially hysterical, persons; and the part played in these dreams by childish scenes might be conditioned by the nature of the neurosis, and not by the nature of dreams in general. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The result of this interpretation is the so-called nerve-stimulus dreamthat is, a dream the components of which are conditioned by the fact that a nerve-stimulus produces its psychical effect in the life of the mind in accordance with the laws of reproduction. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud from two sides: first from the P-system, whose excitation, qualitatively conditioned, probably undergoes a new elabora- tion until it attains conscious perception; and, secondly, from the in~ tenor of the apparatus itself, whose quantitative processes are perceived as a qualitative series of pleasures and pains once they have reached con- sciousness alter undergoing certain changes. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The sexual object in this case as in many others is there- fore not of the same sex, but a union of both sex characteristics, a com- promise between the impulses striving for the man and for the woman, but firmly conditioned by the masculinity of body (the genitals). The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The state of desire for repetition of gratification can be recognized through a peculiar feeling of tension which in itself is rather of a painful character, and through a centrally-conditioned feeling of itching or sensi- tiveness which is projected into the peripheral erogenous zone. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Experience shows that such a harmful circumstance is conditioned by the fact that the concerned eroge- nous zone or the corresponding partial impulse had already contributed an unusual amount of pleasure in infantile life. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The change might have been accomplished in a less violent manner and still have conditioned the appearance of the moral reaction. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But variations seem to occur, both in this temporal succession as well as in the duration of the same, and these must exercise a conditioning influence on the end result. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But it is a different and * FOR FORGETTING OF PROPER NAMES 7 Perhaps it is not superfluous to remark that the given explanation does not contradict the conditions of memory reproduction and forgetting as- sumed by other psychologists, which they seek in certain relations and dispositions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Perhaps this would not have occurred in another name having more favorable conditions of reproduction. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud For it is quite probable that a suppressed element continually strives to assert itself in some other way, but attains this success only where it meets with suitable conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud When we recapitulate the conditions for forgetting a name with faulty recollection we find: (I) a certain disposition to forget the name; (2) a process of suppression which has taken place shortly before; and (~) the possibility of establishing an outer association between the concerned name and the element previously suppressed. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This would suggest that there are particularly formed conditions of mem- ory (in the sense of conscious reproduction) which have thus far eluded our knowledge. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud What we observe in normal persons as slips of the tongue gives the same impression as the first step of the so-called paraphasias which manifest themselves under pathologic conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In this respect, I am in full accord with Wundt, who likewise assumes that the conditions underlying speech- blunders are complex and go far beyond the contact effect of the sounds. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I do not think that such conditions favor any noticeable increase in the mistakes. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We are acquainted with some of the conditions that underlie the tenaciousness of memory and th~ awakening of that which would otherwise remain forgotten. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud With the purpose of adding some small contribution to the knowledge of the conditions of forgetting, I was wont to subject to a psychologic analysis those cases in which forgetting concerned me personally. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud (e) Another case of mislaying merits our interest on account of the conditions under which the mislaid object was rediscovered. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud A patient treated under such conditions is rarely forgotten by a physician in six months. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud At that time, I already entertained the impression that these conditions had a different connection, that the fall was already a preparation of the neurosis, and an expression of the same unconscious phantasies of sexual content which may be taken as the moving forces behind the symptoms. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Concerning self-inflicted injuries of my own experience, I cannot report anything in calm times, but under extraordinary conditions, I do not be- lieve myself incapable of such acts. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In order to enjoy the advantage of this exceptional position, these actions which no longer daim awkwardness as an excuse must fulfill certain conditions: they must not be striking, and their effects must be insignificant. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud To the physician, they often serve as valuable indications for orienting himself in new or unfamiliar conditions; to the keen ob- server, they often betray everything, occasionally even more than he cares to know. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In order to belong to the class of phenomena which can thus be ex- plained, a faulty psychic action must satisfy the following conditions: (a) It must not exceed a certain measure, which is firmly established through our estimation, and is designated by the expression within normal limits. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud None of the proposed tentative explanations seems right to me, because none takes account of anything but the accompany- ing manifestations and the conditions favoring the phenomenon. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Does the solution given for faulty and chance actions apply in general or only in particular cases, and if only in the latter, what are the conditions under which it may also be employed in the explana- tion of the other phenomena? The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud (i) What are the content and origin of the thoughts and feelings which show themselves through faulty and chance actions? (2) What are the conditions which force a thought or a feeling to make use of these occurrences as a means of expression and place it in a position to do so? (~) Can constant and definite associations be demon- strated between the manner of the faulty action and the qualities brought to expression through it? The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But we should like to know whether special conditions must not be fulfilled in order that such condensation, which is considered regu- lar in dream-work and faulty in our waking thoughts, should take place. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But I would refuse to draw the condusion from this, that there are no such conditions, as, for instance, the relaxation of conscious attention; for I have learned elsewhere that automatic actions are especially charac- terized by correctness and reliability. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The question as to what special conditions render possible the universally resistant forgetting in individual cases cannot be solved from this further connection. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The principal conditions of the normal process in forgetting are unknown. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We have now reached the answer to the second questionthat is, what psychologic conditions are responsible for the fact that a thought must seek expression, not in its complete form, but, as it were, in parasitic form, as a modification and disturbance of another. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud One is therefore justified in taking the result of this last investiga- tion as an indication of the fact that the satisfactory explanation of the psychological conditions of faulty and chance actions is to be acquired in another way and from another source. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In view of the failure of our other therapeutic efforts, and in the face of the mysterious character of these pathological conditions, it seemed to me tempting, in spite of all the difficulties, to follow the method initiated by Breuer until a complete elucidation of the subject had been achieved. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In my own judgment, conditions are more likely to be favourable in self-observation than in the observation of others; in any case, it is permissible to investigate how much can be accomplished in the matter of dream-interpretation by means of self-analysis. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Hence every dream would require a very long introduction, and an investigation of the nature and etiological conditions of the psychoneuroses, matters which are in themselves novel and exceedingly strange, and which would therefore distract attention from the dream-problem proper. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Perhaps this collection will suffice to prove that frequently, and under the most complex conditions, dreams may be noted which can be under- stood only as wish-fulfilments, and which present their content without concealment. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud On the other hand, it seems that dreams of an infantile type reappear with especial frequency in adults who are transferred into the midst of unfamiliar conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The detailed correspondence between the phenomena of censorship and the phenomena of dream-distortion justifies us in presupposing similar conditions for both. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In my further attempts to arrive at a theory of dreams I shall again have occasion to revert to the conditions of anxiety-dreams and their compatibility with the theory of wish-fulfilment. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud And this is perhaps the best time to summarize in schematic form the different conditions under which the dream-sources are operative. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The apparent multi- plicity of these conditions results merely from the alternative, that a displacement has or has not occurred, and it may here be noted that this alternative enables us to explain the contrasts of the dream quite as readily as the medical theory of the dream explains the series of states from the partial to the complete waking of the brain cells. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In one single case (a) both these conditions are fulfilled by the same impression. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The proof that we are dealing with impressions of our childhood must thus be adduced objectively, and only in rare instances L * * THE MATERIAL AND SOURCES OF DREAMS 223 do the conditions favour such proof. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Thus there exists a sort of dream-book, a guide to the interpretation of dreams, by means of which bodily sensations, the conditions of the organs, and states of stimulation, may be inferred from the dream-images. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud More than one occasion for enmity lies hidden amidst the relations of parents and children; conditions are present in the greatest abundance under which wishes which cannot pass the censorship are bound to arise. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Special conditions must obtain in order to make this possible. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But for the present let us take it as a point of departure, and ask ourselves: If only a few of the elements of the dream-thoughts make their way into the dream-content, what are the conditions that determine their selection? The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In order to solve this problem, let us turn our attention to those ele- ments of the dream-content which must have fulfilled the conditions for which we are looking. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In waking reality I can make very little claim to the predicate witty; if my dreams appear witty, this is not the fault of my individuality, but of the peculiar psychological conditions under which the dream is fabricated, and is intimately connected with the theory of wit and the comical. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud THE MEANS OF REPRESENTATION IN DREAMS Besides the two factors of condensation and displacement in dreams, which we have found to be at work in the transformation of the latent dream-material into the manifest dream-content, we shall, in the course of this investigation, come upon two further conditions which exercise an unquestionable influence over the selection of the material that even- tuality appears in the dream. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It will be readily understood how far this representation by means of identifica- tion may circumvent the censoring resistance which sets up such harsh conditions for the dream-work. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We must now ask ourselves by what conditions in the dream-material these differences in the distinctness of the individual portions of the dream-content are brought about. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We shall see later on that this very motor paralysis during sleep is one of the fundamental conditions of the psychic process which functions during dreaming. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud When a poem is to be written in rhymed couplets, the second rhym- ing line is bound by two conditions: it must express the meaning allotted to it, and its expression must permit of a rhyme with the first line. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I have, of course, an abundance of such material, but to reproduce it here would lead us too far into the consideration of neurotic conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The conditions for the creation of absurd dreams are here grouped together in a typical fashion. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Does my colleague know anyone who can get on any faster? Does he not know that conditions of this sort are usually incurable and last for life? What are four or five years in comparison to a whole lifetime, especially when life has been made so much easier for the patient during the treatment? The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud If I add, further, that the book of my so severely criticized friend (One asks oneself whether the author or oneself is crazy had been the opinion of another critic) treats of the temporal conditions of life, and refers the duration of Goethes life to the multiple of a number signifi- cant from the biological point of view, it will readily be admitted that in my dream I am putting myself in my friends place. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud My next concern is to show that the dream-work is exhausted by the co-operation of the three factors enumeratedand of a fourth which has still to be mentionedthat it does no more than translate the dream- thoughts, observing the four conditions prescribed, and that the ques- tion whether the mind goes to work in dreams with all its intellectual faculties, or with only part of them, is wrongly stated, and does not meet the actual state of affairs. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In my Autodidasker dream the second part of the dream at least is the faithful repetition of a day-phantasyharmless in itselfof my dealings with Professor N. The fact that the exciting phantasy forms only a part of the dream, or that only a part of it finds its way into the dream-content, is due to the complexity of the conditions which the dream must satisfy at its genesis. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But of the four conditions necessary for dream-formation, the last recognized is that whose exactions appear to be least binding upon the dream. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We must rather as- sume that the requirements of this agency constitute from the very first one of the conditions which the dream must satisfy, and that this condi- tion, as well as the conditions of condensation, the opposing censorship, Tobowoiska, Justine. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It may be exhaustively described if we do not lose sight of the conditions which its product must satisfy. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The dream is fundamen- tally nothing more than a special form of our thinking, which is made possible by the conditions of the sleeping state. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The preliminary conditions of this typical dream were as follows: A father had been watching day and night beside the sick-bed of his child. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The influence of a tendency which seeks to veil the fundamental conditions of dream- formation and divert our interest from its instinctual roots is as evident in Silberers theory as in other theoretical efforts of the last few years. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Thus, the reciprocal relation of the wish-motives, and the four conditions, as well as the mutual relations of these conditions, must now be investi- gated; the dream must be inserted in the context of the psychic life. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud ness without any further detention, provided certain other conditions are fulfflled, e.g. the attainment of a definite degree of intensity, a certain apportionment of that function which we must call attention, etc. This is at the same time the system which holds the keys of voluntary motility. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud On the other hand, I have found nothing in the psychology of dreams to warrant the assumption that sleep produces any but secondary changes in the conditions of the Ucs. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But what is the relation of the preconscious day-resi- dues to the dream? There is no doubt that they penetrate abundantly into 11 have endeavoured to penetrate farther into the relations of the sleeping state and the conditions of hallucination in my essay, Metapsychological Supplement to the The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The conditions for its realization are, that repressions shall have occurred, and that the suppressed wish-impulses can become suffi- ciently strong. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The train of thought cathected by some aim becomes able under certain conditions to attract the attention of con- sciousness, and by the mediation of consciousness it then receives hyper- cathexis. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I therefore assume that the course taken by any excitation under the control of the second system is bound to quite dif- ferent mechanical conditions from those which obtain under the control of the first system. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Under certain conditions, chiefly when the normal sexual object is inaccessible, or through imitation, they are able to take as the sexual object a person of the same sex and thus find sexual gratification. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Ferenczi correctly criticizes the fact that under the term Homosexuality (which term he would replace by the better one Homoerotic) a number of different conditions are grouped which are of quite variable significance both from an organic as well as psychical point of view because the one symptom of inversion is present. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The determination as to the definite sexual behavior does not occur until after puberty and is the result of a series of as yet not observable factors, some of which * THE* THE SEXUAL ABERRATIONS 529 The conditions in the woman are more definite; here the active inverts show with special frequency the somatic and psychic characteristic of man and desire femininity in their sexual object; though even here greater variation will be found on more intimate investigation. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud He who is in any way psychically abnormal, be it in social or ethical conditions, is, according to my experience, regu- larly soin his sexual life. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As a general result of these discussions we come to see that, under nu- merous conditions and in a surprising number of individuals, the nature and value of the sexual object steps into the background. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We shall hear how this claim is justified by the de- velopment of the sexual instinct and how it is fulfilled in the sympto- matology of certain morbid conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The physicians who at first studied the perversions in pronounced cases and under peculiar conditions were naturally inclined to attribute to them the characteristic of morbidity or degeneracy similar to the inversions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Wherever the conditions are favorable, even a normal person may for a. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The provocation of the disease in hysterically predisposed persons is brought about, if in consequence of their progressive maturity or external conditions of life they are earnestly confronted with the real sexual de- mand. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud He who in the unconscious is an exhibitionist is at the same time a voyeur, he who suffers from sadistic feelings as a result of repres- The well known fancies of perverts which under favorable conditions may be changed into actions, the delusional fears of paranoiacs which are in a hostile man- ner projected on others, and the unconscious fancies of hysterics which are discov- ered in their symptoms by psychoanalysis, agree as to content in the minutest details. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud There is no doubt that the pleas- ure-producing stimuli are governed by special conditions; as yet we do not know them. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As the first outer cause, there is the influence of seduction which prematurely treats the child as a sexual object; under conditions favoring impressions, this teaches the child the gratification of the genital zones and thus, usually forces it to repeat this gratification in masturbation. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Such a woman may re- main sexually normal under usual conditions, but under the guidance of a clever seducer, she will find pleasure in every perversion and will retain it as her sexual activity. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The menace to the conditions of his existence through the actual or expected arrival of a new child, the fear of losing the care and love which is connected with this event, cause the child to become thoughtful and sagacious. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The fore-pleasure is thus the same as that which could already be furnished by the infantile sexual instinct, albeit on a reduced scale; while the end-pleasure is new and is probably associated with conditions which first appear at puberty. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud If the tenderness of the parents for the child has luckily failed to awaken the sexual instinct of the child prematurely, i.e., before the physi- cal conditions of puberty appear, and if that awakening has not gone so far as to cause an unmistakable breaking through of the psychic ex- citement into the genital system, it can then fulfill its task and direct the child at theage of maturity in the selection of the sexual object. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Other dispositions of the same origin permit the man, still sup- ported by his infancy, to develop more than one single sexual series and to form various conditions for object selection. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It appears to contain one of the conditions for fitting man to develop to a higher culture, but also for his tendency to neurosis. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We do not at all understand the connection that is supposed to exist between the individual conditions; for instance, what the brevity of wit may have to do with that side of wit exhibited in the playful judgment; besides we do not know whether wit must satisfy all or only some of these conditions in order to form real wit; which of them may be replaced and which ones are indispensable. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In one of Lichtenbergs jokes, precisely those conditions have been selected in which the blurred words have regained their meaning. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It is a pity that this excellent example contains such complicated tech- nical conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We have no criterion at our 1 A similar nonsense technique results when the joke aims to maintain a connection which seems to be removed through the special conditions of its content. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Henceforth, our attention may be centered upon two factors, first upon the rle that the third personthe listenerplays, and secondly, upon the intrinsic conditions of the smutty joke itself. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We acknowledge to culture and higher civilization an important influence in the develop- ment of repressions, and assume that under these conditions there has come about a change in our psychic organization which may also have been brought along as an inherited disposition. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In all obscene jokes we succumb to striking mistakes of judgment about the goodness of the joke as far as it depends upon formal conditions; the technique of these jokes is often very poor while their laughing effect is enormous. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Right from the start we meet with similar conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As long as the art of healing has not succeeded in safeguarding our lives, and as long as the social organiza- tions do not do more towards making conditions more agreeable, just so long cannot the voice within us which is striving against the demands of morality, be stifled. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud However, the more earnest content of this joke is the question of the conditions of truth; again the joke points to a problem and makes use of the uncer- tainty of one of our commonest notions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But the manner in which wit brings about gratifi- cation is connected with special conditions from which we may perhaps gain further information. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud What usually happens if in one constellation there Is a meeting of pleasurable and painful conditions? Upon what depends the result and the previous intimations of the result? Tendency-wit particularly shows these possibilities. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud There is one feeling or impulse which strives to liberate pleasure from a certain source and under un- restricted conditions certainly would liberate it, but there is another 1m- The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The investigation of the conditions of laughter will perhaps aid us in forming a dearer picture of the process of the help which wit gets against suppression. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Furthermore, one is not inclined in the first place to claim similar complicated conditions for the origin of each and every witticism. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Other subjective determinations or favorable conditions for wit-making are less shrouded in darkness. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud A certain amount of wfflingness or a cer- tain indifference, the absence of all factors which might evoke strong feelings in opposition to the tendency, are absolute conditions for the participation of the third person in the completion of the wit process. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud LAUGHTER AS A DISCHARGE Thus, according to our assumption, the conditions for laughter are such that a sum of psychic energy hitherto employed in the cathexis2 of some paths may experience free discharge. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud At any rate, if we have well in mind these views about the conditions of laughter and about the psychic process in the third person, we have arrived at a place where we can satisfactorily elucidate an entire series of peculiarities which are familiar in wit, but which have not been under- stood. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Before an amount of interlocked energy, capable of discharge, is to be liberated in the third person, there are several conditions which must be fulfilled, or which at least are desirable. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The first of these conditions deterl2lines one of the qualifications of the third person as hearer of the witticism. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud ELEMENTS FAVORING THE WIT-PROcESS As elements favoring the wit-process, even if we can no longer considet them as conditions, I present in the third place those three technical aids to wit-work which are destined to increase the sums of energy to be dis. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The Janus-like double-facedness of wit, which safeguards its original resultant pleasure 708 WIT AND ITS RELATION TO THE TJNCONSCIOTJS against the impugnment of critical reason, belongs to the first tendency together with the mechanism of fore-pleasure; the other complications of the technique resulting from the conditions discussed in this chapter concern the third person of the witticism. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud From our examinations of the conditions in the third person for pleasure gaining and pleasure discharging, we can draw the conclusion that in the first person the conditions for discharge are lacking, and that those for gaining pleasure are only incompletely ful- filled. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Roughly speaking, one can distinguish three general stages in the formation of the dream: first, the transference of the consciOus day remnants into the un- conscious, a transference in which the conditions of the sleeping state 718 WIT AND ITS RELATION TO THE UNCONSCIOUS must co-operate; secondly, the actual dream-work in the unconscious; and thirdly, the regression of the elaborated dream material to the region of perception, whereby the dream becomes conscious. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud THE RELATION OF WIT TO DREAMS 721 Jzation in the unconscious, and we must assume that the conditions for such condensations which are lacking in the foreconscious are present in the unconscious mental process.1 The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The cathexis from the unconscious presents by far the more favorable conditions for the selection of the expression. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Finally, the most powerful incentive for wit-work is the presence of strong tendencies which reach back into the unconscious and which indicate a particular fitness for witty productions; these tendencies might explain to us why the subjective conditions of wit are so frequently fulfilled in the case of neurotic persons. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud What conditions the function of the nave is the fact that we are aware that the person does not possess this inhibition, otherwise we should not call it nave but impudent, and instead of laughing we should be indignant. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud However, the comical can be considered apart from the person in whom it is found, if the conditions under which a person becomes comical can be discerned. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Thus arises the comical situa- tion,~and this knowledge enables us to make a person comical at will by putting him into situations in which the conditions necessary for the comic are bound up with his actions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The childs motions do not appear to us comical, even if he jumps and fidgets, but it is comical to see a little boy or girl follow with the tongue the movement of his pen-holder when he is trying to master the art of writing; we see in these additional motions a superfluous expenditure of energy which under similar conditions we save. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As a result of this superficial survey of the manifestations of the comic we can readily see that the comic originates from wide-spread sources, and that conditions so specialized as those found in the nave cannot be expected in the case of the comic. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In order to get a due to the conditions 1 Also Bergson (Laughter, An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic, translated by Bre- reton and Rothwell, The Macmillan Co., 1914) rejects with sound arguments this sort of explanation of comic pleasure, which has unmistakably been influenced by the effort to create an analogy to the laughing of a person tickled. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud COMPARISON OF TWO KINDS OF EXPENDITURE AS PLEASURE-SOURCES We now note that we must continue our discussion by following two dif- ferent paths; first, to determine the conditions for the discharge of the surplus; secondly, to test whether the other cases of the comic can be conceived similarly to our conception of comic motion. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In Pav- lovs experiments with salivary secretions of dogs who, provided with salivary fistul, are shown different kinds of food, it is noticed that the amount of saliva secreted through the fistul depends on whether the conditions of the experiment have strengthened or disappointed the dogs expectation to be fed with the food shown them. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The problem has been greatly confused by the general conditions determining the comic, whereby the comic pleasure is seen to have its source now in a too-muchness The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud There- fore, it evidently depends on whether the nonsense of the wit appears comical or common plain nonsense, and the conditions for this we have not yet investigated. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The former release of pleasure and the contribution from the conditions of conceptual mimicry may perhaps explain the gradual change-which is determined by quantitative relationsfrom the universally pleasurable to the comic, which takes place during the comparison. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Through a union not altogether incidental the same material also gives us a resultant pleasure which is at the same time comical and witty; it does not matter whether or not the conditions of the one promote the origin of the other, such a union acts confusingly on the feeling whose function it is to announce to us whether we have before us wit or the comic, and only a careful ex- amination independent of the disposition of pleasure can decide the question. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The saying: To hang ones bread- basket high, expresses metaphorically the idea of placing one under difficult conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Through such means, that is, by not restricting essential conditions, wit, riddles, and other forms, which in themselves produce no comic pleasure, can be made into sources of comic pleasure. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud What other conditions must be added, or what disturbances must be checked in order that pleasure should result from the difference of expenditure? But before proceeding with the answers to these questions we wish to verify what was said in the conclu- sions of the former discussion, namely, that the comic of speech is not synonymous with wit, and that wit must be something quite different from speech comic. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As we are about to attack the problem just formulated, concerning the conditions of the origin of comic pleasure from the difference of ex- penditure, we may permit ourselves to facilitate this task so as to attain for ourselves some pleasure. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud What depreciates the general validity of these definitions, are conditions, which are indispensable for the origin of the comic pleasure, but in which one must not necessarily search for the nature of comic pleas- ure. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud THE CONDITIONS OF ISOLATION OF THE COMIC Two observations obtrude themselves upon the observer who reviews even only superficially the origin of comic pleasure from the difference of expenditure; first, that there are cases in which the comic appears regu. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud larly and as if necessarily; and, in contrast to these cases, others in which this depends on the conditions of the case and on the viewpoint of the observer. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But secondly, that unusually large differences very often tri- umph over unfavorable conditions, so that the comic feeling originates in spite of it. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It would be tempting to follow the conditions which are essential to each class. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The dependence or relativity of the comic is therefore much greater than that of wit, which never happens but is regularly made, and at its production one may already give attention to the conditions under which it finds ac- ceptance. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud f) If we also mention that the development of the comic pleasure can be promoted by means of any other pleasurable addition to the case which acts like a sort of contact-effect (after the manner of the fore-pleasure principle in the tendency-wit), then we have discussed surely not all the conditions of comic pleasure, yet enough of them to serve our purpose. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We then see that for these conditions, as well as for the inconstancy and dependence of the comic effect, no other assumption so easily lends itself as this one which traces the comic pleasure from the discharge of a dif- ference, which under many conditions can be diverted to a different use than discharge. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud c) Unfavorable conditions for the comic result from the kind of psychic activity which may occupy the individual at the moment. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud What is important in the second class are the conditions, of which one may be designated as the isolation of the comic case. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As a matter of fact we meet a whole series of conditions which seem most promising, when we examine the relation of the comic to the child. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The child itself does not by any means seem comic to us, although its character fulfills all conditions which, in comparison to our own, would result in a comic difference. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Certain pleasure motives of the child seem to be lost for us grown-ups, but as a substitute for these we perceive under the same conditions the comic feeling. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud For the conditions of the discharge come thereby into consideration. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud If we are in a situation which tempts us to liberate painful affects fects in statu nascendi, we have the conditions for humor. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The mechanism of humoristic pleasure is not disturbed by our knowing that this family history is a fictitious one, and that this fiction serves a satirical tendency to expose the embellishments which result in imparting such pedigrees to others; it is just as independent of the conditions of reality as the manu- factured comic. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The manifestations of humor are above all determined by two peculiarities, which are connected with the conditions of its origin. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The difficulty then consists in the fact that it is not altogether easy to decide what in the actual conditions Is to be taken as a faithful copy of the significant past and what is to be considered as a secondary dis- tortion of it. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It is, therefore, not super- fluous to note that the customs of Australians recognize social conditions and festive occasions at which th.e The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But whereas the totem exogamy makes the impression of a sacred statute which sprang into existence, no one knows how, and is therefore a custom, the complicated institutions of the marriage classes, with their subdivisions and the conditions attached to them, seem to spring from legislation with a definite aim in view. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Although we believe we understand the motives of the marriage re- ~trictions among the Australian savages, we have still to learn that the actual conditions reveal a still more bewildering complication. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The neurotic, however, regu- larly presents to us a piece of psychic infantilism; he has either not been able to free himself from the childlike conditions of psycho-sexuality, or else he has returned to them (inhibited development and regression). The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Temporary taboos attach themselves to certain conditions such as menstruation and child-bed, the status of the warrior before and after the expedition, the activities of fishing and of the chase, and similar activities. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This power is inherent in all persons who are more or less prominent, such as kings, priests and the newly born, in all exceptional physical states such es menstruation, puberty and birth, in everything sinister like illness and death and in everything connected with these conditions by virtue of con- tagion or dissemination. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud However, the term taboo includes all persons, localities, objects and temporary conditions which are carriers or sources of this mysterious attribute. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud To begin with, it is restricted to conditions which bring about an unusual situation in life for the person tabooed. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But the fact that this important characteristic is per- manently held in common points to the existence of an original agree- ment here between these two spheres which gave way to a differentiation only as the result of further conditions through which both finally de- veloped into opposites. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Assuredly would it be both premature and unprofitable to base conclusions relating to inner relationships upon the correspondence of merely mechanical conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But how can we connect this fact with the other, namely that the taboo adheres not only to persons who have done what is prohibited, but also to persons who are in exceptional circumstances, as well as to these circumstances themselves and to impersonal things? What can this dangerous attribute be which always remains the same under all these different conditions? The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Most of the excep- tional positions and conditions have this character and possess this dangerous power. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Therefore, all~ these persons and all these conditions are taboo, for one must not yield to the temptations which they offer. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We shall therefore seek to con- firm those psychological conditions for taboo with which we have be- come acquainted in the case of compulsion neurosis. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Frazer makes these conditions responsible for the fact that in the development of history a separation of the original priest-kingship into a spiritual and a secular power finally took place. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud When a paranoiac names a person of his acquaintance as his per- secutor, he thereby elevates him to the paternal succession and brings him under conditions which enable him to make him responsible for all the misfortune which he experiences. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Under conditions that have not yet been sufficiently determined even inner perceptions of ideational and emo- tional processes are projected outwardly, like sense perceptions, and are used to shape the outer world, whereas they ought to remain in the inner world. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It probably originates under conditions which are in force both for taboo and the compulsion neurosis, that is, one component of the two contrasting feelings is unconscious and is kept repressed by the compulsive domination of the other component. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Thanks to the indestructibility of unconscious processes and their inaccessibility to correction, the impulse may be saved over from earlier times to which it was adapted to later periods and conditions in which its manifesta- tions must necessarily seem foreign. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In the case of the child which finds itself under analogous psychic conditions, without being as yet capable of motor activity, we have else- where advocated the assumption that it at first really satisfies its wishes by means of hallucinations, in that it creates the satisfying situation through centrifugal excitements of its sensory organs. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It is hard to decide whether these first compulsive and protective actions follow the principle of similarity, or of contrast, for under the conditions of the neurosis they are usually distorted through displacement upon some trifle, upon some action which in itself is quite insignificant. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Magic, the technique of animism, clearly and unmistakably shows the tendency of forcing the laws of psychic life upon the reality of things, under conditions where spirits did not yet have to play any r6le, and could still be taken as objects of magic treatment. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I want to consider another group of hitherto unexplained taboo rules because they admit of an explanation with which the psychoanalyst is familiar, tinder certain conditions it is forbidden to many savage races to keep in the house sharp weapons and instruments for cutting. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It is certain, on the contrary, that far-reaching changes in all directions have taken place among primitive races, so that we can never unhesitat- ingly decide which of their present conditions and opinions have preserved the original past, having remained petrified, as it were, and which represent a distortion and change of the original. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud To establish the original conditions, therefore, always remains a matter of construction. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This is in accord with the significant contradictory phenomenon found in this connexion, namely, that under certain conditions there was a kind of ceremonial consumption of the totem flesh. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The totem was hereditary only through the female lne; it was forbidden to bill the totem (or to eat it, Which under primitive conditions amounts to the same thing); members of a totem were forbidden to have texual intercourse with each otherS The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The understanding should be at once historical and psycho- logical; it should inform us under what conditions this peculiar institu- tion developed and to what psychic needs of man it has given expression. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But in judging the state of affairs we must not forget the remark of Andrew Lang, that even primitive races have not preserved these original forms and the conditions of their origin, so that we are groups. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud He shows from conditions in Australia that the totem is always the mark of a group of people and never of an individual. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Though they raise the myth of immaculate concep- tion through a spirit to a general theory of conception, we cannot for that reason credit them with ignorance as to the conditions of procreation any more than we could the old races who lived during the rise of the Christian myths. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud the instinctive character of this aversion in the Studies in the Psychology of Sex, he otherwise supported the same explanation in its essentials by declaring: The normal absence of the manifestation of the pairing instinct where brothers and sisters or boys and girls living together from childhood are concerned, is a purely negative phenomenon due to the fact that under these circumstances the antecedent conditions for arousing the mating instinct must be entirely lacking. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Each one of those driven away could found a similar horde in which, thanks to jealousy of the chief, the same prohi- bition as to sexual intercourse obtained, and in the course of time these conditions would have brought about the rule which is now known as law: no sexual intercourse with the members of the horde. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Through the analysis of little John we have learnt a fact which is very valuable in relation to totemism, namely, that under such conditions the child displaces a part of its feelings from the father upon some animal. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In other words, we should succeed in making it probable that the totemic system resulted from the conditions underlying the OEdipus complex, just as the animal phobia of little John and the poultry perversion of little Arpd resulted from it. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Robertson Smith himself has referred to exam- ples in which the sacramental mening of sacrifices seems certain, such as the human sacrifices of the Astecs and others which recall the conditions of the totem feast, the bear sacrifices of the bear tribe of the Ouataouaks in America, and the bear festival of the Ainus in Japan. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This took place in the form of remorse, a sense of guilt The seemingly monstrous assumption that the tyrannical father was overcome and slain by a combination of the expelled sons has also been accepted by Atkinson as a direct result of the conditions of the Darwinian primal horde. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Atkinson, who spent his life in New Caledonia and had unusual opportunities to study the natives, also refers to the fact that the conditions of the primal horde which Darwin assumes can easily be observed among herds of wild cattle and horses and regularly lead to the killing of the father animal. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The ambivalent strain was probably too great to be adjusted by any arrangement, or else the psychological conditions are entirely unfavourable to any kind of settle- ment of these contradictory feelings. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I had become a physician quite reluctantly, but was, at that time, impelled by a strong motive to help nervous patients, or, at least, to learn to understand something of their conditions. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I could not succeed in establishing among the members that friendly relation which should obtain among men doing the same difficult work, nor could I crush out the quarrels about the priority of discoveries, for which there were ample opportunities under these conditions of working in common. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The self-reliance of 914 * HI* HISTORY OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC MOVEMENT 9i5 mental workers, their early independence of the teacher, is always gratify- ing psychologically, but a scientific gain only results when certain, not too frequently occurring, personal conditions are also fulfilled in the workers. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The value of public or literary discussions :eemed to me very doubtful under the particular conditions in which the fight over psychoanalysis took place. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Our supposed observer would, more likely, be led astray by the particular conditions prevailing in Vienna than be enlightened as to the cause of the neuroses. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But how does he come to look at it in this manner?1ese conceptions of strict determinism In seemingly arbitrary actions have already borne rich fruit for psychologyperhaps also for the administration of justice. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Here not only the dream-content, but also the per- sonality and social position of the dreamer are taken into consideration, so that the saine dream-content has a significance for the rich man, the married man, or the orator, which is different from that which applies to the poor man, the bachelor, or, let us say, the merchant. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud III THE DREAM AS WISH-FULFILMENT WHEN, after passing through a narrow defile, one suddenly reaches a height beyond which the ways part and a rich prospect lies outspread in different directions, it is well to stop for a moment and consider whither one shall turn next. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud How rich in unsuspected content the dreams of children no more than four or five years of age may be is shown by the examples in my Analyse der Phobie eines fnfjhrigen Knaben (Jahrbuch von Bleuler-Freud~ vol. i, 1909), and Jungs Experiences Concerning the Psychic Life of the Child, translated by Brill, American Journal of Psychology, April, 19x0. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud One need not, like Lessings Hnschen Schkju, be astonished that only the rich people of the world possess the most money. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud On the night following this journey I dreamt that the young friend whom I had asked one of my companions to recommend was in a fashion- able drawing-room, and with all the bearing of a man of the world was makingbefore a distinguished company, in which I recognized all the rich and aristocratic persons of my acquaintancea funeral oration over the old lady (who in my dream had already died) who was the aunt of my second fellow-traveller. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The content of this dream is too rich to be fully reported here. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud However confident the representatives of this theory may be of its factual basisespecially in respect of the accidental and external nerve- stimuli, which may without difficulty be recognized in the dream-content nevertheless they have all come near to admitting that the rich con- tent of ideas found in dreams cannot be derived from the external nerve- stimuli alone. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud She gives her virginity and expects in return for it a rich love-life. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Stekels book, Die Sprache des Traumes, is espe- cially rich in such examples, but I avoid citing illustrations from this work as the authors lack of critical judgment and his arbitrary technique would make even the unprejudiced observer feel doubtful. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In general, a dream is less rich in affects than the psychic material from which it is elaborated. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud About the same time as the sexual life of the child reaches its first rich development, from the age of three to the age of five, there appear the beginnings of that activity which are ascribed to the impulse for knowledge and investigation. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We have then been compelled to affirm as one of the most striking discoveries, that this early flowering of the infantile sexual life (from the second to the fifth year) also brings to maturity an object choice with all its rich psychic activities. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In that part of the Reisebilder entitled Die Bder von Lucca, Heine introduces the precious character, Hirsch-Hyacinth, the Hamburg lot- tery agent and curer of corns, who, boasting to the poet of his relationship with the rich Baron Rothschild, ends thus: And as true as I pray that the Lord may grant me all good things, I sat next to Solomon Rothschild, who treated me just as if I were his equal, quite famihionaire. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We would only add, The condescen- 607 6o8 WIT AND ITS RELATION TO THE UNCONSCIOUS sion of a rich man always carries something embarrassing for the one experiencing it. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Dr. Johnson said of the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, which was poor in purse, but prolific in the distribution of its degrees: Let ii persevere in its present plan and it may become rich by degrees. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We then cause Souli to say, Just see how the people are thronging about that blockhead only because he is rich. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Very well, I shall assist you, said the rich baron, but is it absolutely necessary for you to go to Ostend, which ia the most expensive of all watering-places? Sir, was the reproving re- ply, nothing is too expensive for my health. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The answer is given from the viewpoint of a rich man. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud One finds a rich assortment of pertinent and witty comparisons in the writings of Lichtenberg (Vol. II of the Gttingen edition, 1853). The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud As shown in the aforementioned examples, a harmless jest: i.e., a witticism without a tendency, can also be very rich in content anc express something worth while. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The agent asks: What are you looking for in your bride? The reply is: She must be pretty, she must be rich, and she must be cultured. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud And in our times it has been said in emphatic and striking terms that this morality is merely the selfish precept of the few rich and mighty who can gratify their de- sires at any time without deferment. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The truth is that the shnorrer who mentally treats the rich mans money as his own, really possesss almost the right to this mistake, according to the sacred codes of the Jews. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Another especially interesting series of jokes presents the relation- ship between the poor and the rich Jews: their heroes are the shnorrer, 1 and the charitable Jewish philanthropists. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Another story relates how on the steps of a rich mans house a shnorrer met one of his own kind. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud But the absurdity is only apparent, for it is almost true that the rich man gives him nothing, since he is obligated by the mandate to give alms, and strictly speaking must be thankful that the shnorrer gives him an oppor- tunity to be charitable. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud From the no longer witty complaint: it is really no advantage to be a rich man among Jews. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud This process we found, for example, in the reply which Augustus received to his query whether the mother of the stranger he addressed had ever sojourned in his home, and likewise in the question of the art critic who asked: And where is the Savior? when the two rich rogues showed him their por- traits. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud His rich relatives in Hamburg always dealt with him condescendingly. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The fisherman has come home rich with a big bag of money and tells his wife, whom he finds waiting in front of the hut, what good luck he has had in the far countries. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud In trying to prove that the people are rich he proves at the same time that they are not rich but very poor. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Still this does not seem to exhaust the nature of imitation; it is incontestable that in itself it represents an extraordinarily rich source of comic pleasure, for we laugh particularly over faithful imitations. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud It is true that the letters of Wippchen are also witty in so far as they are interspersed with a rich collection of all sorts of witticisms, some of which very successful ones (as festively undressed when he speaks of a parade of savages), but what lends the peculiar character to these ptoductions is not these isolated witticisms, but the 754 WIT AND ITS RELATION TO THE UNCONSCIOUS superabundant flow of comic speech contained therein. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud ~ Arid in The Tempest: Full fathom five thy father lies: 0f his bones are coral made; Those are pearls that were his eyes; Nothing of him that doth fade But doth suffer a sea-change Into something rich and strange. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I had placed reliance on physical therapy and found myself helpless in the face of the disap- pointments that I had with W. Erbs Electrotherapy, so rich in advice and indications. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud For years he had expressed a disparaging opinion of psychoanalysis, but now he befriended it and recommended it to his countrymen and his colleagues in numerous lectures, rich in content and fine of form. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Everything else is still waiting for workers who can expect a rich harvest in this very field. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud I endeavored to evade the far richer material furnished me by my neurotic patients be- cause I had to preclude the objection that the phenomena in question were only the result and manifestation of the neurosis. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Once the abstractly expressed and unservice- able dream-thought is translated into pictorial language, those contacts and identities between this new expression and the rest of the dream- material which are required by the dream-work, and which it contrives whenever they are not available, are more readily provided, since in every language concrete terms, owing to their evolution, are richer in associa- tions than are abstract terms. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Wundt himself has to acknowledge that the changes which taboo un- dergoes in the richer culture of the Polynesians and in the Malayan Archi- peligo are not very profound. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud They are my pride and my riches. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud We must beware of introducing the contempt for what is merely thought or wished which characterizes our sober world where there are only material values, into the world of primitive man and the neurotic, which is full of inner riches only. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The richest output of such chance or symptomatic actions is above ai] obtained in the psychoanalytic treatment of neurotics. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud The works of this author, and especially his book: Die Sprache des Traumes, contain the richest collection of interpretations of sym- bols, some of which were ingeniously guessed and were proved to be cor- rect upon investigation, as, for example, in the section on the symbolism of death. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud To be sure, jusi as watch-makers are wont to enclose very good works in valuable cases, sc it may likewise happen with wit that the best wit-contrivances are used to invest the richest thoughts. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud At all events, the sphere of the sexual or obscene offers the richest opportunities for gaining comic pleas- ure beside the pleasurable sexual stimulation, as it exposes the persons dependence on his physical needs (degradation) or it can uncover behind the spiritual love the physical demands of the same (unmasking). The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud He thought highly of studying in his room and was heartily in favor of learned stable fodder. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Or: I am nothing but a leafless pillar which tells of a vanished splendor, which is a fusion of leafless trunk and a pillar which, etc. Or: Where is Ariadnes thread which leads out of the Scylla of this Augean stable?, for which three different Greek myths contribute an element each. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud Upon analys- ing it, I immediately think of the Augean stables which were cleansed by Hercules. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud He told me how much he had learned from me, that he now saw everything through dif- ferent eyes, that I had cleansed the Augean stables of error and prejudice, which encumbered the theory of the neurosesin short, that I was a very great man. The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud
Theyd met the third condition: the modems connected to their internal network could call all over the country. The Cuckoo's Egg Id shut up, all right, on one condition. The Cuckoo's Egg Regina Wiggen has been my editorial mainstay; thanks also to Jochen Sperber, Jon Rochlis, Dean Chacon, Wmona Smith, Stephan Stoll, Dan Sack, Donald Alvarez, Laurie McPher- son, Rich Muller, Gene Spafford, Andy Goldstein, and Guy Point, a book that changed my way of writing. The Cuckoo's Egg Rich- ard Stailman, a free-lance computer programmer, loudly proclaimed that information should be free. The Cuckoo's Egg In the late 70s, Unix zealots from Bell Labs visited the Berkeley campus, and a new, richer version-of U-nix was developed. The Cuckoo's Egg
jBen opened the door to the car, his knees so weak that he seemed likely to collapse in the driveway. The Great Santini The band was playing loudly when the Mannes entered the restaurant and headed as decorously as their condition per- mitted for seats at the bar. The Great Santini It had rich curves that invited the secret scholarship of mens eyes. The Great Santini It was an alien geography that thrust outreaching along the waters edge; a land of a thousand creeks, brown and turgid, but rich in the smell of the sea. The Great Santini The air was rich with the combined perfume of the garden and the river which was visible through a clearing fifty yards behind the school bus. The Great Santini Here in the night he thought that somehow the secret of this marsh- haunted land resided in the quivering flesh of oysters, the rich- flavored meat of crabs, the limp of the flower boy, and the eggs of the great turtles that navigated toward their birthing sands through waters bright with the moon. The Great Santini Ben put his nose into the leather sleeve and breathed in rich memories of his own life. The Great Santini At all times, Philip was impeccably groomed, his shock of rich brown hair combed neatly, his demeanor serious and forthright. The Great Santini He remembered that he was in the land of the hardshell, the barren hardscrabble of the spirit where the sign of the cross conjured up rich images in lands that had been totally immersed in the waters of a hard- assed Christ. The Great Santini Girls love his rich little ass. The Great Santini Ive always hoped you would build up a storehouse of rich memories from that house. The Great Santini You know, to eat the sins of the rich. The Great Santini For the marsh itself was both a sanctuary and a tomb, its slender grasses rich 421 THE GREAT SANTINI in both fooi and safety, in both food and danger. The Great Santini When the ordeal was over, when Lillian Meecham half believed that her personal riches were not re- duced to dust from mishandling, and when the movers drove off griping about incipient hernias, the gears of the truck grind- ing against the humidity of the afternoon, the family was left with the task of getting the house into inspection order for the critical gaze of Colonel Meecham. The Great Santini He made Stinky Sanders, the mortician, the richest man in town, Colonel, Hobie Rawls said while pouring coffee into Bulls cup from a steaming glass globe. The Great Santini You know, of course, that some of the boys who proposed to me in Atlanta are some of the richest, most prominent men in the South right now. The Great Santini Now Ill give yall a good look over and if you can put it in the hole or pull leather off the wood, then I can always use another stud in the stable. The Great Santini
Either the result is a mad-hatters metaphysical race to complete an infinite regress, or essence and existence are no longer distinct but collapse into each other, a conclusion which is incompatible with other assertions of Thomistic metaphysics. The Quest For Being This brave differentiation collapses almost at once because, like Heideg- ger, Tillich takes human existence as paradigmatic of the structure of all Beingso that he is capable of writing: a self is not a thing that may or may not exist: it is an original phenomenon which logically precedes all questions of existence. The Quest For Being There have been many attempts to enunciate the Christian ethos but it seems to me that the best warranted formulation is to be found in the work of the famous German scholar, Ernst Troelsch: The lasting and eternal content of the Christian Ethos, he maintains, recognizes differences in social position, power and capacity, as a condition which has been established by the in- scrutable Will of God; and then transforms this condition by the inner upbuilding of personality and the development of the mu- THG 17 16 tuai sense of obligation into an ethical cosmos. The Quest For Being The fact that my volition, say, to undergo an operation, is caused by a complex of factors, among which the existence of sickness or disease, or the belief in the exist- ence of sickness or disease, is normally a necessary condition, does not make my action less free. The Quest For Being If he continues to bemoan his condition, we are inclined to think of him as a self.indulgent The Quest For Being The Christian Ethos, according to TroeltsCh, recog- nizeS differences in social positiofl~ power and capacity, as a con- dition which has been established by the inscrutable Will of God; and then transforms this condition by the inner uphuilding of the personalitY~ and the development of the mutual sense of obliga- tion, into an ethical cosmos. The Quest For Being But certainly this element of subjectivity is not a sufficient condition of knowledge, else there would be no difference between veridical and hallucinatory ex- perience on any level. The Quest For Being And even if valid, it would be a necessary condition not a sufficient one, for The55 the eternity of the world would be compatible with the existence of its Prime Mover. The Quest For Being That these categories are restrictive follows from their claim to be meaningful since a necessary condition of a meaningful statement is that it should be incompatible with its opposite. The Quest For Being (i) The commonest characterization of materialism, one which prefaces most refutations of the doctrine, attributes to it as a cardinal principle, the assertion that only matter is real where matter is an historical variable with values ranging from Democ- ritus atoms in the void to Diracs positron, and where real is an ambiguous term meaning either (a) existence, or (b) impor- tance, or (c) necessary condition. The Quest For Being (c) Where real means necessary condition or independent variable, we have an elliptical statement which becomes more com- plete when we ask necessary condition for what? independent variable in relation to what situation, context, and expected conse- quence? In this sense, the statement x is real is an assertion that where certain events are expected or certain effects are to be attained, x (which as a meaningful term involves some ultimate denotative reference) is the most reliable sign of the event ex- pected or the most reliable way of securing specific effects. The Quest For Being No one would infer from this that the notion of mathematical validity is historically conditioned, for despite the variations in rigor they progressively illustrate one underlying logical pattern of proof to which no alternative has ever been formulated. The Quest For Being At his best, he projects a vision of human excel- lence, of what men may become, rooted in a firm knowledge of the limiting conditions of nature, and a sober assessment of the possi- bilities of development open to men in an unfinished universe. The Quest For Being Multiple causes and multiple factors, limiting objective conditions, are invariably pres- ent. The Quest For Being The failure of revolutions to develop where ob- jective conditions are ripe for them is attributed to the influence of traditional ideas or to absence of proper political organization which in part depends upon correct ideas of organization. The Quest For Being Ideas and ideals may reflect or express social forces or conditions or national interests. The Quest For Being No set of ideas merely reflects or expresses given conditions. The Quest For Being To the extent that it is believed or commands influ- ence, it strengthens or weakens these conditions. The Quest For Being Grant, for the moment, that there is some determinate connection between organic theories of society, which teach that the welfare of all groups, classes and individuals is inherently harmonious, and the special interests and needs of a bureaucratic class to maintain existing power relations; between atomistic or individualistic theories of empiricism and movements of social reform, decentralization and opposition to the constraints of tradition; between theories of renunciation, rejection of and withdrawal from the world, and conditions of social chaos and dis- orderthis does not by itself establish where the causal primacy lies. The Quest For Being The orthodox Marxist view assumes that there is a one way dependence of philosophical views on political and socioeconomic conditions and that if there is no clear line of causal connection between them then both can be shown to be consequences of an earlier set of social conditions. The Quest For Being 1 Whatever the social conditions were which gave rise to the Christian Ethos, it is clear that this Ethos played a powerful role in practical affairs in two ways. The Quest For Being To be sure, conditions must be ripe before the principles become operative. The Quest For Being But conditions may be ripe, and yet, without appropriate belief, they may never mature. The Quest For Being Sometimes what human beings believe is an index or a part of the ripeness of conditions. The Quest For Being An empirical approach would have indicated the conditions under which revolu- tions were justified and when they were not; but the upshot of Burkes Reflections was that revolutions were never justified in any circumstances. The Quest For Being It had been widely as- sumed that the whole problem of whether the will is free had been replaced, in consequence of the writings of Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Mill, and the modern naturalists and positivists, by the problem of the conditions under which mens actions are free. The Quest For Being To the extent that conditions exist which prevent a man from act- ing as he wishes (e.g., ignorance, physical incapacity, constraint used upon his body and mind) he is unfree. The Quest For Being Given the sum total of conditions which preceded his action, the latter is in principle always predictable or determined, and therefore unavoidable. The Quest For Being If every event is in principle predictable and therefore determined, then the choice itself, given all the ante- cedent conditions, is unavoidable. The Quest For Being Further, it is one thing to imply that the concept of moral re- sponsibility is empty, that although in fact no individuals are Moral d morally responsible, there are conditions or circumstances under which they could be legitimately held responsible; it is quite an- other thing to hold that the concept of moral responsibility is completely vacuous, that no matter what the specific conditions are under which men choose to act, it would still be inappropriate to hold them morally responsible or blame them. The Quest For Being What is absolutely novel in experience cannot be derived either deductively or inductively from the quali- ties of the initial conditions or given data from which, together with general laws, we predict future events. The Quest For Being Nonetheless we know enough about human behavior under everyday as well as labora- tory conditions to make a reasonable induction that, given certain antecedent conditions, certain choices will be made (or even more strongly~ certain choices are unavoidable). The Quest For Being And of the choices they believe undetermin&t, they are prepared to grant that certain necessary conditions of their occurrence exists. The Quest For Being They deny that these undetermined choices follow from any set of sufficient conditions. The Quest For Being If all actioflS are in principle predictable or unavoid- tendencies altogether, but insist upon a certain kind of determina- able,t tion which manifests itself in addition to, or over and above, the or can factors extrinsic to the particular situation in which the choosing scould individual finds himself. The Quest For Being That the actions of both sentries, given the antecedent conditions, were determined or pre- dictable, although in one case it was easier than in the other, seems irrelevant. The Quest For Being Given the antecedent conditions, the choice, of course, was unavoidable. The Quest For Being But wherever it is possible to alter these conditions by informed action, that particular choice can no longer be regarded as unavoidable. The Quest For Being As distinct from attempted definitions of qualities and relations in other fields, such discussions have usually turned into an analysis of the nature of definitionssometimes into an analysis of analysisas if this were a necessary preliminary both to a definition of value and to subsequent investigation of the relationships between values and the conditions of their discovery. The Quest For Being When the physicists declare that under certain conditions it is illegitimate to attribute both of these predicates at the same time to a given particles they are apparently running counter to common usage. The Quest For Being It will also include certain general rules like thoughtfulness, honesty and truthfulness, which are the conditions of any social life in which human values are systematically pursued and sufficiently enjoyed to make social peace preferable to civil war. The Quest For Being He nowhere actually says that x is desirable is synonymous with x is desired under normal conditions. The Quest For Being What formally cor- responds to normal conditions where values are concerned is understood in the light of its causes and consequences. The Quest For Being - and of certain conditions which must be met in order The 7 that any form of human association must be maintained,1 is an empirical question to which the answer is difficult but not inacces- sible to study. The Quest For Being And since the successful satisfaction of these needs depends upon the knowl- edge of all sorts of conditions and consequences~ there is no prob- lem about justifying the use of intelligence to the extent that any man has it. The Quest For Being If seeing were believing, or if all seeing were evidence of what could be believed, independently of the conditions under which the seeing took place, it would be easy to keep men perpetually duped. The Quest For Being This in turn rests, as we have seen, upon the notion that Fascism is the consequence not of economic conditions, nationalist tradi- tion, and disastrous political policies inside Germany and out, but of the spread of positivism, secularism, and humanism. The Quest For Being For whatever its program for a more humane control of the material conditions of life, democracy permits each individual to save his soul in his own way. The Quest For Being Now if the laws of logic are taken as formal conditions of discourse they cannot establish the existence of anything (including God) as necessary. The Quest For Being Matter is found to ap- pear at certain times and under certain conditions. The Quest For Being The first is oriented towards some transcendental ele- ment which conditions the whole of human experience; the second regards human experience as the matrix of all religion. The Quest For Being But the more important point is that for these other fundamental terms, although formal definitions cannot be offered, we can state the rules or linguistic conventions which guide our usage of them under certain conditions. The Quest For Being But as Kant wrote in his critique of the ontological argument: To use the word unconditioned, in order to get rid of all the conditions which the understanding re- quires, when wishing to conceive something as necessary, does not render it clear to us in the least whether, after that, we are still thinking anything or perhaps nothing, by the concept of uncon- ditionally necessary.9 The Quest For Being It is subject, so you are told, to no ma- terial conditions of determination whatsoever. The Quest For Being The very request that these conditions be indicated is brushed aside as revealing a constitutional incapacity or blindness to grasp this unique entity to which all sorts of edifying qualities are attributed in an ana- logical sense, including a triune gender. The Quest For Being The native plants his sweet potato with the most exacting care for the conditions of soil, mois- ture, and other elements which affect its growth: but in addition, THE180 he goes through some religious ritual, supported by a myth, before he believes he has a right to expect a successful crop. The Quest For Being The history of science reveals that the conditions which a scientific theory must fulfill to be accepted have been more rigor- ous at some times than at others. The Quest For Being For it rec- ognizes the complex natural interrelations of maninterrelations made even more complex by his behavior as an historical creature in time, with a developing society and consciousness which, within certain limits, can influence the natural conditions of his existence. The Quest For Being Let us assume that the ideal type of explanation consists in the subsump- tion under general laws of particular phenomena which have ful- filled certain initial defining conditions, thus enabling us to pre- dict and sometimes to control events. The Quest For Being It is false further in suggesting that any trait which differentiates a class of phe- nomena from other classes, whether it be the mammary glands of mammals or mans rationality or sense of humor, cannot be cor- related with material conditions of determination, physical or social. The Quest For Being And since the adequacy of his causal explanations depends in part on whether the experience in question can be reduplicated or trans- formed under certain conditions, it is literally absurd, if we take note of his procedure, to charge him with reductionism. The Quest For Being It knows that human ideals and human volition, as well as knowledge of what transpired in the past, may enter as contrib- uting conditions in redetermining the movement of events. The Quest For Being The same antecedent conditions which determine objective alternatives do not determine the human perception and action which alter the probabilities that one or the other alternative will in fact be realized. The Quest For Being The impression that relativism is entailed by every form of naturalism is reinforced by the refusal of current humanists to content themselves with the affirmation of general ends certified to immediate intuition and by their insistence that ends must be related to means and both tc determinate conditions of trouble and difficulty in specific his- torical situations. The Quest For Being How far such agreement can be won cannot be foretold until actual in- vestigation into the conditions and consequences of value claims in definite situations is undertakenand this is precisely what nat- uralistic humanists propose to do instead of taking moral intui- tions as absolute fiats subject to no control. The Quest For Being It does not deprive human beings of their responsibility but rather brings home to them their own responsibility, within the constrain- ing conditions of nature and social traditions. The Quest For Being Here, too, taken literally the proposi- tion represents a violent abuse of terms, for it implies that the con- ditions of Reason are themselves reasonable, the conditions of Will are endowed with volition, etc. But the proof that the traditional materialist and idealist are not to be taken literally, can be found in their own writings, in which the distinctions drawn by science and common sense are taken over and rebaptized by introducing adjectival differentiations in the Mind or Matter presumed to be TH233 232 exclusively existent. The Quest For Being The next day he reports personal con- tact with another presence which he calls the analogical father, and the day after, the analogical grandfather, and so on, until even the most fervent supernaturalist finds himself confronted with an em- barrassment of supernatural riches. The Quest For Being But not until a democratic, freedom-and-welfare-planning economy is built out of what is left of our world, in which stable traditions can absorb the conventions of revolt of political man and the experiments of growth of individual men, will these intellectual excesses subside from epidemic to episodic proportions. The Quest For Being Religious sanction is requiredjust as the police force isfor any society which wishes to be stable without being totalitarian. The Quest For Being And if by personal salvation we mean the achievement of a sane and dignified order in the life of individuals, recent history furnishes a grim but conclusive reminder that for the overwhelm- ing majority of men this is impossible until a stable and more equitable social order has been introduced. The Quest For Being
1983 Printed in the United States of America Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publishers prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser. The Scarlet Letter At all events, I, the present writer, as their representative, hereby take shame upon myself for their sakes, and pray that any curse in- curred by themas I have heard, and as the dreary and un- prosperous condition of the race, for many a long year back, would argue to existmay be now and henceforth removed. The Scarlet Letter His integrity was perfect; it ws a law of nature with him, rather than a choice or a principle; nor can it be otherwise than the man condition of an intellect so remarkably clear and accurate as his, to be honest and regular in the administration of affairs. The Scarlet Letter Such was the young clergymans condition, and so imminent the prospect that his dawning light would be extinguished, all untimely, when Roger Chillingworth made his advent to the town. The Scarlet Letter Another View of Hester In her late singular interview with Mr. Dimmesdale, Hester Prynne was shocked at the condition to which she found the clergyman reduced. The Scarlet Letter But, then, what reams of other manuscripts__filled not with the dullness of official formalities, but with the thought of inventive brains and the rich effusion of deep heartshad gone equally to oblivion; and that, moreover, without serving a purpose in their day, as these heaped-up papers had, andsaddest of allwith- out purchasing for their writers the comfortable livelihood which the clerks of the Custom-House had gained by these worthless scratchings of the pen! The Scarlet Letter It were well, muttered the most iron-visaged of the old dames, if we stripped Madam Hesters rich gown off her dainty shoulders; and as for the red letter, which she hath stitched so curiously, Ill bestow a rag of mine own rheumatic flannel, to make a fitter one! The Scarlet Letter The young pastors voice was tremulously sweet, rich, deep, and broken. The Scarlet Letter She had in her nature a rich, voluptuous, Oriental characteristic,a taste for the gorgeously beautiful, which, save in the exquisite productions of her needle, found nothing else, in all the possibilities of her life, to exercise itself upon. The Scarlet Letter We have spoken of Pearls rich and luxuriant beauty; a beauty that shone with deep and vivid tints; a bright complexion, eyes possessing intensity both of depth and glow, and hair already of a deep, glossy brown, and which, in after years, would be nearly akin to black. The Scarlet Letter Cabbages grew in plain sight; and a pumpkin vine, rooted at some distance, had run across the intervening space, * THE* THE SCARLET LETTER 95 95 and deposited one of its gigantic products directly beneath the hall-window; as if to warn the Governor that this great lump of vegetable gold was as rich an ornament as New England earth would offer him. The Scarlet Letter The old clergyman, nurtured at the rich bosom of the English Church, had a long established and legitimate taste for all good and comfortable things; and however stern he might show himself in the pulpit, or in his public reproof of such trans- gressions as that of Hester Prynne, still, the genial benevolence of his private life had won him warmer affection than was ac- corded to any of his professional contemporaries. The Scarlet Letter But the child, unaccus- tomed to the touch or familiarity of any but her mother, escaped through the open window and stood on the upper step, looking like a wild, tropical bird, of rich plumage, ready to take flight into the upper air. The Scarlet Letter His form grew emaciated; his voice, though still rich and sweet, had a certain melancholy prophecy of decay in it; he was often observed, on any slight alarm or other sudden accident, to put his hand over his heart, with first a flush and then a paleness, indicative of pain. The Scarlet Letter Here, the pale clergyman piled up his library, rich with parchment-bound folios of the Fathers, and the lore of Rabbis, and monkish erudition, of which the Protestant di- vines, even while they vilified and decried that class of writers, were yet constrained 9ften to avail themselves. The Scarlet Letter In such emergencies, Hesters nature showed itself warm and rich; a well-spring of human tenderness, unfailing to every real demand, and inexhaustible by the largest. The Scarlet Letter It was a sad transformation, too, that her rich and luxuriant hair had either been cut off, or was so completely hidden by a cap, that not a shining lock of it ever once gushed into the sunshine. The Scarlet Letter No life had been more peaceful and innocent than mine; few lives so * * THE SCARLET LETTER 1151 rich with benefits conferred. The Scarlet Letter By another impulse, she took off the formal cap that confined her hair; and down it fell upon her shoulders, dark and rich, with at once a shadow and a light in ts abundance, and imparting the charm of softness to her features. The Scarlet Letter She made a very grand appearance; having on a high head-dress, a rich gown of velvet, and a ruff done up with the famous yellow starch, of which Ann Turner,72 her especial friend, had taught her the secret, before this last good lady had been hanged for Sir Thomas Overburys murder. The Scarlet Letter There was the Bible, in its rich old Hebrew, with Moses and the Prophets speaking to him, and Gods voice through all! The Scarlet Letter Might there not be an irresistible desire to quaff a last, long, breathless draught of the cup of wormwood and aloes, with which nearly all her years of womanhood had been perpetually flavored? The wine of life, henceforth to be presented to her lips, must be indeed rich, de- licious, and exhilarating, in its chased and golden beaker; or else leave an inevitable and weary languor, after the lees of bitterness wherewith she had been drugged, as with a cordial of intensest potency. The Scarlet Letter He, moving proudly past, enveloped, as it were, in the rich mu- sic, with the procession of majestic and venerable fathers; he, so unattainable in his worldly position, and still more so in that far vista of his unsympathizing thoughts, through which she now beheld him! The Scarlet Letter THE SCARLET LETTER 211 1 This vocal organ was in itself a rich endowment; insomuch that a listener, comprehending nothing of the language in which the preacher spoke, might still have been swayed to and fro by the mere tone and cadence. The Scarlet Letter Now that there was an end, they needed other breath, more fit to support the gross and earthly life into which they relapsed, than that atmosphere which the preacher had converted into words of flame, and had burdened with the rich fragrance of his thought. The Scarlet Letter He stood, at this moment, on the very proud- est eminence of superiority, to which the gifts of intellect, rich lore, prevailing eloquence, and a reputation of whitest sanctity, could exalt a clergyman in New Englands earliest days, when the professional character was of itself a lofty pedestal. The Scarlet Letter None knewnor ever learned, with the fulness of perfect cer- taintywhether the elf-child had gone thus untimely to a maiden grave; or whether her wild, rich nature had been softened and subdued, and made capable of a womans gentle happiness. The Scarlet Letter And, once, Hester was seen embroidering a baby-garment, with such a lavish rich- * TH* THE SCARLET LETTER 227227 t~ess of golden fancy as would have raised a public tumult, had any infant, thus apparelled, been shown to our sombre-hued community. The Scarlet Letter She bore on her breast, in the curiously embroidered let- ter, a specimen of her delicate and imaginative skill, of which the dames of a court might gladly have availed themselves, to add the richer and more spiritual adornment of human ingenuity to their fabrics of silk and gold. The Scarlet Letter In the early nineteenth century, when Nathaniel Hawthorne was a boy, authorship was in the process of evolving into a profession whose rewards might be riches as well as rep- utation. The Scarlet Letter Her mother, with a morbid purpose that may be better understood hereafter, had boughi the richest tissues that could be procured, and allowed her imag. The Scarlet Letter The next day, however, being the Sabbath, he preached a dis- course which was held to be the richest and most powerful, and the most replete with heavenly influences, that had ever pro- ceeded from his lips. The Scarlet Letter I tell thee, Hester Prynne, the richest fee that ever phy- sician earned from monarch could not have bought such care as I have wasted on this miserable priest! The Scarlet Letter She possessed affections, too, though hitherto acrid and disagreeable, as are the richest flavors of unripe fruit. The Scarlet Letter So Pearlthe elf-child,the demon offspring as some peo- ple, up to that epbch, persisted in considering herbecame the richest heiress of her day, in the New World. The Scarlet Letter He was the richest man in the settlement. The Scarlet Letter
This is particularly true of our con- cepts of time and space, which physicists have been obliged by the facts to bring down from the Olympus of the a priori in order to adjust them and put them in a serviceable condition. The Theory of Relativity Condition for symmetry: Condition for skew-symmetry: . The Theory of Relativity Finally, with Minkowski, we introduce in place of the real time co-ordinate I = cl, the imaginary time co-ordinate Then the equation defining the propagation of light, which must be co-variant with respect to the Lorentz transformation, becomes (22c) This condition is always satisfied* if we sati~fy the more general condition that 23 / shall be an invariant with respect to the transformation. The Theory of Relativity This condition is satisfied only by linear transformations, that is, transformations of the type (24) in which the summation over the a is to be extended from a = 1 to a = 4. The Theory of Relativity Since the quantities themselves may be presumed to transform in the same way as their increments, we infer that the aggre- gate of the four quantities has itself vector character; these quantities are referred  SPECIAL RELATIVITY to an instantaneous condition of the body (e.g. at the tim 1 = li). The Theory of Relativity It follows from the invariance of ds2 for an arbitrary choice of the dx,, in connexion with the condition of symmetry consistent with (55), that the gp, are components of a symmetrical co-variant tensor (Fundamental Tensor). The Theory of Relativity Its vanishing is a sufficient condition (disregarding the reality of the chosen co-ordinates) that the continuum is Euclidean. The Theory of Relativity But this condition remains satisfied in any infinitesimal change of co-ordinates, se that there are still four conditions to which the may be subjected, provided these conditions do not conflict with the conditions for the order of magnitude of the . The Theory of Relativity From the standpoint of the theory of relativity, to postu- late a closed universe is very much simpler than to postulate the corresponding boundary condition at infinity of the quasi-Euclidean structure of the universe. The Theory of Relativity hypothetic translation of Galileos law of inertia to the case of the existence of genuine gravitational fields, It has been shown that this law of motiongeneralized to the case of arbitrarily large gravitating massescan be derived from the field-equations of empty space alone, According to this derivation the law of motion is implied by the condition that the field be singular nowhere out side its generating mass ~OifltS A third step forward, concerning the so-called cosmo- logic problem, will be considered here in detail, in part because of its basic importance, partly also because the discussion of these questions is by no means concluded, I feel urged toward a more exact discussion also by the fact that I cannot escape the impression that in the present treatment of this problem the most important basic points of view are not sufficiently stressed. The Theory of Relativity The simplest and most radical specialization would be the condition: The (natu- rally measured) density, p of matter is the same everywhere in (four-dimensional) space, the metric is, for a suitable choice of coordinates, independent of X4 and homogeneous and isotropic with respect to Xi, X2, X3. The Theory of Relativity The condition of the above invariance implies that the entire geodesic lies on the axis of rotation and that its points remain invariant under rotation of the coordinate system. The Theory of Relativity a This condition not only limits the metric, but it necessitates that for every geodesic there exist a system ot coordinates such that relative to this system the invariance under rotation around this geodesic is valid. The Theory of Relativity On the other hand, the lower indices of play quite different roles in the defining equation (2) so that there is no compelling reason to restrict the r by the condition f symmetry with regard to the lower indices. The Theory of Relativity If, however, one does not subject the to a restrictive symmetry condition, one arrives at that generalization of the law of gravitation that appears to me as the natural one. The Theory of Relativity The synimetry condition for r loses in such a theory its objective significance. The Theory of Relativity If g and are symmetric, this condition is, of course, also satisfied; it is a generalization of the condition that the field quantities for the contracted curvature tensor in terms of U. This be symmetric. The Theory of Relativity But if one does not add the boundary condition that vanish (or remain finite) at infinity, then there exist solutions that are entire functions of the x (e.g. and become infinite at infinity. The Theory of Relativity Such fields can only be excluded by postulating a boundary condition in case the space is an open one. The Theory of Relativity If we PUt = 1, (2b) and (3a) furnish the conditions (4)  ] PRE-RELATIVITY PHYSICS in which = I, or = 0, according s or The conditions (4) are called the conditions of ortho- gonality, and the transformations (3), (4), linear orthogonal transformations. The Theory of Relativity We shall also test for co-variance the equations which express the dependence of the stress components upon the properties of the matter, and set up these equations for the case of a compressible viscous fluid with the aid of the conditions of co-variance. The Theory of Relativity The relations (22) and (22a) which when equated define the Lorentz transformation show, further, a difference in the rle of the time co-ordinate from that of the space co-ordinates; for the term has the opposite sign to the space terms, Before we analyse further the conditions which define the Lorentz transformation, we shall introduce the light- time, I = cl, in place of the time, t, in order that the con- 31]n- 31] SPECIAL RELATIVITY stant c shall not enter explicitly into the formulas to be developed later. The Theory of Relativity We can also conclude that the coefficients must satisfy the conditions (25) Since the ratios of the x, are real, it follows that all the a,, and the b,,a are real, except a4, b41, b42, b43, b14, b24, and b34, which are purely imaginary. The Theory of Relativity We obtain then for the indices I and 2, on account of the three inde- pendent conditions which the relations (25) furnish, (26) This is a simple rotation in space of the (space) co-ordi- nate system about the x3-axis. The Theory of Relativity In this latter statement absolutum means not only physically real, but also independent in its physical properties, having a physical effect, but not itself influenced by physical conditions. The Theory of Relativity Gauss overcame this difficulty, in his theory of surfaces, by intro- ducing curvilinear co-ordinates which, apart from satisfying conditions of continuity, were wholly arbitrary, and only afterwards these co-ordinates were related to the metrical properties of the surface. The Theory of Relativity Since it may be proved mathe-The first two of these conditions are naturally taken3. The Theory of Relativity In the language of the general theory of relativity it demands that the Riemann tensor of 99] ] THE GENERAL THEORY the fourth rank, shall vanish at infinity, which furnishes twenty independent conditions, while only ten curvature components, ~ enter into the laws of the gravi- tational field. The Theory of Relativity If we think these ideas consistently through to the end we must expect the whole inertia, that is, the whole g,~,-field, to be determined by the matter of the universe, and not mainly by the boundary conditions at infinity. The Theory of Relativity Since the first derivatives conditions at infinity which are so inconvenient from the of the and therefore also the ~, vanish at the origin, standpoint of the general theory of relativity, may be the calculation of the for this manifold, by (88), is very replaced by the much more natural conditions for a closed simple at the origin. The Theory of Relativity We must now investigate whether such an assump- tion can satisfy the field equations of gravitation, In order to be able to investigate this, we must first find what differential conditions the three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature satisfies. The Theory of Relativity The above conditions are by no means sufficient to make the problem a definite one. The Theory of Relativity We thus obtain for the nth order coefficients conditions. The Theory of Relativity Hence, if the free coefficients for all orders smaller than n have been fixed, the conditions for the coefficients of order n can always be satisfied without changing the coefficients already chosen. The Theory of Relativity The conditions that these nth order coefficients must satisfy are obtained by (n 1)fold differentiation of the eight field equations of the first order, The number of these conditions is therefore These conditions, however, are not independent of each other, since there exist among the eight equations two identities of second order. The Theory of Relativity They yield upon (n 2)fold differentiation algebraic identities among the conditions obtained from the field equations. The Theory of Relativity Therefore, the number of expansion 137 coefficients that actually determine the field is reduced by the number of the identities between these N conditions, viz. a certain amount which we must now compute. The Theory of Relativity More- over, the introduction of singularities is equivalent to postulating boundary conditions (which are arbitrary from the point of view of the field equations) on surfaces which closely surround the singularities. The Theory of Relativity In my opinion the answer to the second question is that the postulation of boundary conditions is indispensable. The Theory of Relativity
1.75 pt Linotype Granjon Typeset by Rowland Phototypesetting Ltd, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk Printed in England by Clays Ltd, St Ives plc Except in the United States of America, this book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out, or otherwise circulated without the publishers prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser * CONTENTS Preface vihaser * CONTENTS Preface vii Adam Smith ix Abbreviations and References xii Introduction by Andrew Skinner xv Further Reading lx THE WEALTH OF NATIONS BOOK IV 3 BOOK V 277 Notes on the Index 557 Index 559 * x 557 Index 559 * PREFACE The Wealth of Nations: Books JIII, was first published in Penguin Classics in 1970. The Wealth of Nations In 1700, the prohibition of importing bonelace into England was taken off upon condition that the importation of English woollens into Flanders should be put on the same footing as before. The Wealth of Nations The natural effort of every individual to better his own condition, when suffered to exert itself with freedom and security, is so powerful a principle that it is alone, and without any assistance, not only capable of carrying on the society to wealth and prosperity, but of surmounting a hundred impertinent obstructions with which the folly of human laws too often incumbers its operations; though the effect of these obstructions is always more or less either to encroach upon its freedom, or to diminish its security. The Wealth of Nations His sacred royal majesty of Portugal promises, both in his own name, and that of his successors, to admit, for ever hereafter, into Portugal, the woollen cloths, and the rest of the woollen manufactures of the British, as was accustomed, till they were prohibited by the law; nevertheless upon this condition: * : * TREATIES OF COMMERCE 1E 125 ART. The Wealth of Nations When the greater part of the coin, however, was in this degenerate condition, forty-four guineas and a half, fresh from the mint, would purchase no more goods in the market than any other ordinary guineas, because when they came into the coffers of the merchant, being confounded with other money, they could not afterwards be distinguished without more trouble than the difference was worth. The Wealth of Nations He approaches more to the condition of a free servant, and may possess some degree of integrity and attachment to his masters interest, virtues which frequently belong to free servants, but which never can belong to a slave who is treated as slaves commonly are in countries where the master is perfectly free and secure. The Wealth of Nations That the condition of a slave is better under an arbitrary than under a free government is, I believe, supported by the history of all ages and nations. The Wealth of Nations The island of Barbadoes, in short, was the only British colony of any consequence of which the condition at that time bore any resemblance to what it is at present. The Wealth of Nations In her present condition, Great Britain resembles one of those unwholesome bodies in which some of the vital parts are overgrown, and which, upon that account, are liable to many dangerous disorders scarce incident to those in which all the parts are more properly proportioned. The Wealth of Nations He seems not to have considered that, in the political body, the natural effort which every man is continually making to better his own condition is a principle of preservation capable of preventing and correcting, in many respects, the bad effects of a political economy, in some degree, both partial and oppressive. The Wealth of Nations The captains of his Majestys navy, indeed, or any other commissioned officers appointed by the Board of Admiralty, may inquire into the condition of the forts and garrisons, and report their observations to that board. The Wealth of Nations The wiser and better sort of the common people, there- fore, have always the utmost abhorrence and detestation of such excesses, which their experience tells them are so immediately fatal to people of their condition. The Wealth of Nations By this arrangement * T THE EXPENSES OF THE SOVEREIGN 3889 the condition of the sovereign was still worse than it had been before. The Wealth of Nations The common people look upon him with that kindness with which we naturally regard one who approaches somewhat to our own condition, but who, we think, ought to be in a higher. The Wealth of Nations In the ancient monarchies of Europe, the manners and cus- toms of the times sufficiently prepared the great body of the people for war; and when they took the field, they were, by the condition of their feudal tenures, to be maintained either at their own expense, or at that of their immediate lords, without bringing any new charge upon the sovereign. The Wealth of Nations This condition, which is generally the effect of the landlords conceit of his own superior knowledge (a conceit in most cases very ill funded), ought always to be considered as an additional rent; as a rent in service instead of a rent in money. The Wealth of Nations The number of rich people, besides, who are either averse to marry, or whose condition of life renders it either improper or inconvenient for them to do so, is much greater in France than in England. The Wealth of Nations To transfer from the owners of those two great sources of revenue, land and capital stock, from the persons immediately interested in the good condition of every particular portion of land, and in the good management of every particular portion of capital stock, to another set of persons (the creditors of the public, who have no such particular interest), the greater part of the revenue arising from either must, in the long-run, occasion both the neglect of land, and the waste or removal of capital stock. The Wealth of Nations A creditor of the public has no doubt a general i~Iterest in the prosperity of the agriculture, manufactures, and commerce of the country, and consequently in the good condition of its lands, and in the good management of its capital stock. The Wealth of Nations But a creditor of the public, considered merely as such, has no interest in the good condition of any particular portion of land, or in the good management of any particular portion of capital stock. The Wealth of Nations The blacks, indeed, who make the greater part of the inhabitants both of the southern colonies upon the continent and of the West India islands, as 542ONS they are in a state of slavery, are, no doubt, in a worse condition than the poorest people either in Scotland or Ireland. The Wealth of Nations The natural effort of every Is hence driven to call upon his originally colonized by the individual to better his condition, subjects for extraordinary aids, 509. The Wealth of Nations Miserable condition ence on the spot where it is pur- manufactures, on equal terms, 480. The Wealth of Nations Smith further argued that while governments must be respon- sible for establishing major public works, care should be taken to ensure that services were administered by such bodies, or under such conditions, as made it in the interest of individuals to do so effectively.38 The Wealth of Nations upon the same conditions. The Wealth of Nations Proper penalties might be enacted against concealing or misrepresenting any of the conditions; and if part of those penalties were to be paid to either of the two parties who informed against and convicted the other of such concealment or misrepresentation, it would effectually deter them from combining together in order to defraud the public revenue. The Wealth of Nations All the conditions of the lease might be sufficiently known from such a record. The Wealth of Nations - Leases, the various usual conditions 01,4212. The Wealth of Nations There is no doubt as to the buoyancy of Smiths tone in describing the growth rate of North America: though North America is not yet so rich as England, it is much more thriving, and advancing with much greater rapidity to the further acquisition of riches.02 The Wealth of Nations We say of a rich man that he is worth a great deal, and of a poor man that he is worth very little money. The Wealth of Nations A frugal man, or a man eager to be rich, is said to love money; and a careless, a generous, or a profuse man, is said to be indifferent about it. The Wealth of Nations To grow rich is to get money; and wealth and money, in short, are, in common language, con- sidered as in every respect synonymous. The Wealth of Nations A rich country, in the same manner as a rich man, is supposed to be a country abounding in money; and to heap up gold and silver in any country is supposed to be the readiest way to enrich it. The Wealth of Nations They wanted to know if the country was rich enough to be worth the conquering. The Wealth of Nations But rich and civilised nations can always exchange 26 THS to a much greater value with one another than with savages and barbarians. The Wealth of Nations A nation that would enrich itself by foreign trade is certainly most likely to do so when its neighbours are all rich, industrious, and commercial nations. The Wealth of Nations As a rich man is likely to be a better customer to the industrious people in his neighbourhood than a poor, so is likewise a rich nation. The Wealth of Nations A rich man, indeed, who is himself a manufacturer, is a very dangerous neighbour to all those who deal in the same way. The Wealth of Nations The manufacturers of a rich nation, in the same manner, may no doubt be very dangerous rivals to those of their neighbours. The Wealth of Nations They are both rich and industrious nations; and the merchants and manufacturers of each dread the competition of the skill and activity of those of the other. The Wealth of Nations Jack of all trades will never be rich, says the proverb. The Wealth of Nations But among the ancient Romans the lands of the rich were all cultivated by slaves, who wrought under an overseer who was likewise a slave; so that a poor freeman had little chance of being employed either as a farmer or as a labourer. The Wealth of Nations All trades and manufactures too, even the retail trade, were carried on by the slaves of the rich for the benefit of their masters, whose wealth, authority, and protection made it difficult for a poor freeman to maintain the competition against them. The Wealth of Nations The tribunes, when they had a mind to animate the people against the rich and the great, put them in mind of the ancient division of lands, and represented that law which restricted this sort of private property as the fundamental law of the republic. The Wealth of Nations The people became clamorous to get land, and the rich and the great, we may believe, were perfectly determined not to give them any part of theirs. The Wealth of Nations Even when at last convinced that they were different, he still flattered himself that those rich countries were at no great distance, and, in a subsequent voyage, accordingly, went in quest of them along the coast of Terra Firma, and towards the Isthmus of Darien. The Wealth of Nations It is perhaps the most disadvantageous lottery in the world, or the one in which the gain of those who draw the prizes bears the least proportion to the loss of those who draw the blanks: for though the prizes are few and the blanks many, the common price of a ticket is the whole fortune of a -very rich man. The Wealth of Nations The same passion which has suggested to so many people the absurd idea of the philosophers stone, has suggested to others the equally absurd one of immense rich mines of gold and silver. The Wealth of Nations Such ceremonials are not only real taxes paid by the rich colonists upon those particular occasions, but they serve to introduce among them the habit of vanity and expense upon all other occasions. The Wealth of Nations The most common way in which the colonists contract this debt is not by borrowing upon bond of the rich people of the mother country, though they sometimes do this too, but by running as much in arrear to their correspondents, who supply them with goods from Europe, as those correspondents will allow them. The Wealth of Nations These causes seem to be other monopolies of different kinds; the degradation of the value of gold and silver below what it is in most other countries; the exclusion from foreign markets by improper taxes upon exportation, and the narrowing of the home market, by still more improper taxes upon the transportation of goods from one part of the country to another; but above all, that irregular and partial administration of justice, which often protects the rich and powerful debtor from the pursuit of his injured creditor, and which makes the industrious part of the nation afraid to prepare goods for the consumption of those haughiy and great men to whom they dare not refuse to sell upon credit, and from whom they are altogether uncertain of repayment. The Wealth of Nations They are supposed, however, many of them, to be a good deal richer than the greater part of the former, and not quite so rich as many of the latter. The Wealth of Nations In rich countries they naturally repel from it a good deal of stock which would otherwise go to it. The Wealth of Nations Such a rich country as Holland, on the contrary, would probably, in the case of a free trade, send many more ships to the East Indies than it actually does. The Wealth of Nations It has not been uncommon, I am well assured, for the chief, that is, the first clerk of a factory, to ordr a peasant to plough up a rich field of poppies, and sow it with rice or some other grain. The Wealth of Nations Upon other occasions the order has been reversed; and a rich field of rice or other grain has been ploughed up, in order to make room for a plantation of poppies; when the chief foresaw that extraordinary profit was likely to be made by opium. The Wealth of Nations It is the industry which is carried on for the benefit of the rich and the powerful that is principally encouraged by our mercantile system. The Wealth of Nations Nations on the contrary, which, like Holland and Hamburg, are composed chiefly of merchants, artificers, and manufacturers can grow rich only through parsimony and privation. The Wealth of Nations The rich, not being able to distinguish themselves by the expense of any one dress, will naturally endeavour to do so by the multitude and vairety of their dresses. The Wealth of Nations Such trades were, at Athens and Rome, all occupied by the slaves of the rich, who exercised them for the benefit of their masters, whose wealth, power, and protection made it almost impossible for a poor freeman to find a market for his work, when it came into competition with that of the slaves of the rich. The Wealth of Nations For one very rich man there must be at least five hundred poor, and the affluence of the few supposes the indigence of the many. The Wealth of Nations The affluence -of the rich excites the indignation of the poor, who are often both driven by want, and prompted by envy, to invade his possessions. The Wealth of Nations But avarice and 298 S ambition in the rich, in the poor the hatred of labour and the love of present ease and enjoyment, are the passions which prompt to invade property, passions much more steady in their operation, and much more universal in their influence. The Wealth of Nations The rich, in particular, are necessarily interested to support that order of things which can alone secure them in the possession of their own advantages. The Wealth of Nations Civil government, so far as it is instituted for the security of property, is in reality instituted for the defence of the rich against the poor, or of those who have some property against those who have none at all. The Wealth of Nations When the toll upon carriages of luxury, upon coaches, post- chaises, etc., is made somewhat higher in proportion to their weight than upon carriages of necessary use, such as carts, waggons, etc., the indolence and vanity of the rich is made to contribute in a very easy manner to the relief of the poor, by rendering cheaper the transportation of heavy goods to all the different parts of the country. The Wealth of Nations Whatever exigency of the state therefore this tax might be intended to supply, that exigency would be chiefly supplied at the expense of the poor, not of the rich; at the expense of those who are least able to supply it, not of those who are most able. The Wealth of Nations Like the stewards of a rich man, they are apt to consider attention to small matters * T* THE EXPENSES OF THE SOVEREIGN 33 33 as not for their masters honour, and very easily give themselves a dispensation from having it. The Wealth of Nations They defended Madras, took Pondicherry, recovered Calcutta, and acquired the revenues of a rich and extensive territory, amounting, it was then said, to upwards of three millions a year. The Wealth of Nations In some very rich lands the produce is so great that the one half of it is fully sufficient to replace to the farmer his capital employed in cultivation, together with the ordinary profits of farming stock in the neighbourhood. The Wealth of Nations Upon the rent of rich lands, the tythe may sometimes be a tax of no more than one-fifth part, or four shillings in the pound; whereas upon that * T * THE SOURCES OF REVENUE 42 429 of poorer lands, it may sometimes be a tax of one-half, or of ten shillings in the pound. The Wealth of Nations The luxuries and vanities of life occasion the principal expense of the rich, and a magnificent house embellishes and sets off to the best advantage all the other luxuries and vanities which they possess. The Wealth of Nations A tax upon house-rents, therefore, would in general fall heaviest upon the rich; and in this sort of inequality there would not, perhaps, be anything very unreasonable. The Wealth of Nations It is not very unreason- able that the rich should contribute to the public expense, not only in proportion to their revenue, but something more than in that proportion. The Wealth of Nations If rated according to the expense which they may have cost in building, a tax of three or four shillings in the pound, joined with other taxes, would ruin almost all the rich and great families of this, and, I believe, of every other civilised country. The Wealth of Nations In every country the greatest number of rich competi- tors is in the capital, and it is there accordingly that the highest ground-rents are always to be found. The Wealth of Nations The principal objection to all such taxes is their inequality, an inequality of the worst kind, as they must frequently fall much heavier upon the poor than upon the rich. The Wealth of Nations A tax upon tobacco, for example, though a luxury of the poor as well as of the rich, will not raise wages. The Wealth of Nations The poor pay the duties upon malt, hops, beer, and ale, upon their own consumption: the rich, upon both their own consumption and that of their servants. The Wealth of Nations This exemption, of which the object is to save private families from the odious visit and examination of the tax-gatherer, occasions the burden of those duties to fall frequently much lighter upon the rich than upon the poor. The Wealth of Nations But in the country many middling and almost all rich and great families brew their own beer. The Wealth of Nations But in rich and great families, where country hospitality is much practised, * 485 THE SOURCES OF REVENUE the malt liquors consumed by the members of the family make but a small part of the consumption of the house. The Wealth of Nations A hospitality in which there is no luxury, and a liberality in which there is no ostentation, occasion, in this situation of things, the principal expenses of the rich and the great. The Wealth of Nations How can it be supposed that he should be the only rich man in his dominions who is insensible to pleasures of this kind? If he does not, what he is very likely to do, spend upon those pleasures so great a part of his revenue as to debilitate very much the defensive power of the state, ii cannot well be expected that he should not spend upon them all that part of it which is over and above what is necessary for supporting that defensive power. The Wealth of Nations In Rome, as in all the other ancient republics, the poor people were constantly in debt to the rich and the great, who, in order to secure their votes at the annual elections, used to lend them money at exorbitant interest, which, being never paid, soon accumulated into a sum too great either for the debtor to pay, or for anybody else to pay for him. The Wealth of Nations In order to satisfy the people, the rich and the great were, upon several different occasions, obliged to consent to laws both for abolishing debts, and for introducing new tables; and they probably were induced to consent to this law partly for the same reason, and partly that, by liberating the public revenue, they might restore vigour to that government of which they them- selves had the principal direction. The Wealth of Nations They are reckoned, however, as thriving, and consequently as rich, as any of their neighbours. The Wealth of Nations It is not because they are poor that their payments are irregular and uncertain, but because they are too eager to become excessively rich. The Wealth of Nations Why dearer in some rich commercial countries, as Holland and Genoa, ib. The Wealth of Nations Why unfit to and rich than corn countries, 310. The Wealth of Nations On wines, cur- tutions injurious to good edu- in a poor, and in a rich country, rants, and wrought silks, ib. The Wealth of Nations In increase of demand, are always in rich, and high in poor countries, England and Scotland, ib. The Wealth of Nations Spain, one of the poorest countries in Europe, notwithstanding its rich mines, 345. The Wealth of Nations That of Reformation in Berne and Zurich, turcs by acquiring rich and fertile every society divided among differ- colonies, 193. The Wealth of Nations The country, therefore, could never become either richer or poorer by means of it, except so far as its prosperity or decay might indirectly influence the state of foreign trade. The Wealth of Nations But the empires of China, Indostan, Japan, as well as several others in the East Indies, without having richer mines of gold or silver, were in every other respect much richer, better cultivated, and more advanced in all arts and manufactures than either Mexico or Peru, even though we should credit, what plainly deserves no credit, the exaggerated accounts of the Spanish writers concerning the ancient state of those empires. The Wealth of Nations As a merchant who ha a hundred and ten thousand pounds worth of wine in his cellar is a richer man than he who has only a hundred thousand pounds worth of tobacco in his warehouse, so is he likewise a richer man than he who has only a hundred thousand pounds worth of gold in his coffers. The Wealth of Nations Our North American colonies were never supposed to contain more than three millions; and France is a much richer country than North America; though, on account of the more unequal distribution of riches, there is much more poverty and beggary in the one country than in the other. The Wealth of Nations The consequent rise of all money prices, though it does not make those who receive them really richer, does not make them really poorer. The Wealth of Nations But that degradation in the value of silver which, being the effect either of the peculiar situation or of the political institutions of a particular country, takes place only in that country, is a matter of very great consequence, which, far from tending to make anybody really richer, tends to make everybody really poorer. The Wealth of Nations The Hungarian mines, it is remarked by Mr Montesquieu, though not richer, have always been wrought with less expense, and therefore with more profit, than the Turkish mines in their neighbourhood. The Wealth of Nations These accomplishments the richer citizens seem fre- quently to have acquired at home by the assistance of some domestic pedagogue, who was generally either a slave or a freed-man; and the poorer citizens, in the schools of such masters as made a trade of teaching for hire. The Wealth of Nations On the contrary, they were provoked and disgusted by the vanity, luxury, and expense of the richer clergy, who appeared to spend upon their own pleas- ures what had always before been regarded as the patrimony of the poor. The Wealth of Nations It may be laid down as a certain maxim that, all other things being supposed equal, the richer the church, the poorer must necessarily be, either the sovereign on the one hand, or the people on the other; and, in all cases, the less able must the state be todefend itself. The Wealth of Nations More or less can be got for it according as the competitors happen to be richer or poorer, or can afford to gratify their fancy for a particular spot of ground at a greater or smaller expense. The Wealth of Nations Those countries are represented as more fertile, more extensive, and, in proportion to their extent, much richer and more popu- lous than Great Britain. The Wealth of Nations in some countries, merely for the Coal, must generally be cheaper than Church, the richer the church, the sake of the hides and tallow, 336. The Wealth of Nations 1781 Distribution of Riches. The Wealth of Nations Smith was also able to meet A. R. J. Turgot, later Minister of Finance, whose Reflections on the For,nation and Distribution of Riches was in the process of completion. The Wealth of Nations Anne Robert Jacques Turgot, Baron de lAulne, (172 781) The economic analysis in Turgots Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Riches must have made an immediate impact on Smith, not least because Turgot opened his argument, as Smith had done in his Lctures on Jurisprudence, with an account of the division of labour.2 The Wealth of Nations We are further satisfied that he derived a much larger portion of his reasoning from them, than he himself perhaps recollected; that his principles on the formation and distribution of national riches approached more nearly to those of Quesnay, than he was himself aware; and that, to have recognised an * In * INTRODUCTION XX XXiX entire coincidence, it was only necessary for him to have followed out his analysis a few steps further.59 The Wealth of Nations first two-thirds of the Reflections on the Formation and Distribution of Riches. The Wealth of Nations The exclusive privileges of those East India companies, their great riches, the great favour and protection which these have procured them from their respective governments, have excited much envy against them. The Wealth of Nations A great nation surrounded on all sides by wandering savages and poor barbarians might, no doubt, acquire riches by the cultivation of its own lands, and by its own interior commerce, but not by foreign trade. The Wealth of Nations The same maxims which would in this manner direct the common sense of one, or ten, or twenty individuals, should regulate the judgment of one, or ten, or twenty millions, and should make a whole nation regard the riches of its neighbours as a probable cause and occasion for itself to acquire riches. The Wealth of Nations It was of importance to Columbus, however, that the countries which he had discovered, whatever they were, should be rep- resented to the court of Spain as of very great consequence; and, in what constitutes the real riches of every country, the animal and vegetable productions of the soil, there was at that time nothing which could well justify such a representation of them. The Wealth of Nations It was a revenue, too, of a nature to excite in human avidity the most extravagant expectations of still greater riches. The Wealth of Nations The prosperity of the English sugar colonies has been, in a great measure, owing to the great riches of England, of which a part has overflowed, if one may say so, upon those colonies. The Wealth of Nations Though in representing the labour which is employed upon land as the only productive labour, the notions which it inculcates are perhaps too narrow and confined; yet in rep- resenting the wealth of nations as consisting, not in the uncon- sumable riches of money, but in the consumable goods annually reproduced by the labour of the society, and in representing perfect liberty as the only effectual expedient for rendering this annual reproduction the greatest possible, its doctrine seems to be in every respect as just as it is generous and liberal. The Wealth of Nations The authority of riches, however, though great in eyery age of society, is perhaps greatest in the rudest age of society which admits of any considerable inequality of fortune. The Wealth of Nations than all the other carrying trade of the improvement and cultivation Children, riches unfavourable to the England, 471. The Wealth of Nations The abundance of, constitutes the principal part of the riches of the world, and gives the principal value to many other kinds of riches, - 279. The Wealth of Nations Remarks on the trade and riches of, ib. The Wealth of Nations No established Holland, observations on the riches administration of justice, needful and trade of the republic of, 194. The Wealth of Nations The revenue of the Riches, the chiefenjoyment of, consists 3767. The Wealth of Nations Individuals, by pursu- the increase and riches of commer- in the West Indies as sugar, ib. The Wealth of Nations Such taxes, when they have grown up to a certain height, are a curse equal to the barrenness of the earth and the inclemency of the heavens; and yet it is in the richest and most industrious countries that they have been most generally imposed. The Wealth of Nations The little bits of gold with which the inhabitants ornamented their dress, and which, he was informed, they frequently found in the rivulets and torrents that fell from the mountains, were sufficient to satisfy him that those mountains abounded with the richest gold mines. The Wealth of Nations Since they had the richest and most fertile in the world, they have both ceased to-be so. The Wealth of Nations Notwith- * 343 3 THE EXPENSES OF THE SOVEREIGN standing that, during a momentary fit of good conduct, they had at one time collected into the treasury of Calcutta more than three millions sterling; notwithstanding that they had afterwards extended, either their dominion, or their dep- redations, over a vast accession of some of the richest and most fertile countries in India, all was wasted and destroyed. The Wealth of Nations In some of the richest and best-endowed univer- sities, the tutors content themselves with teaching a few unconnec- ted shreds and parcels of this corrupted course; and even these they commonly teach very negligently and superficially. The Wealth of Nations In general, the richest and best-endowed universities have been the slowest in adopting those improvements, and the most averse to permit any considerable change in the established plan of education. The Wealth of Nations After the Church of Rome, that of England is by far the richest and best endowed church in Christendom. The Wealth of Nations Whoever will examine, with attention, the different town and country houses of some of the richest and greatest families in this country will find that, at the rate of only six and a half or seven per cent. The Wealth of Nations But, as it might be troublesome for the receiver to prosecute the whole parish, he takes at his choice five or six of the richest contributors and obliges them to make good what had been lost by the insolvency of the collector. The Wealth of Nations Why one more remarkable for the exporta- Bounty, on the exportation of corn, of the richest countries in Europe, tion of manufactures than of grain, the tendency of this measure exam- while Spain and Portugal are ined, 299; among the poorest, 121. The Wealth of Nations Is the symptom, but not the cause, of national wealth, and hence points out the two richest countries in Europe, 473. The Wealth of Nations Exportation of the The two richest countries in, enjoy tradesmen in towns, 496. The Wealth of Nations The classic examples are provided by Smiths willingness to regulate the issue of small-denomination banknotes in the interests of a stable banking system. The Wealth of Nations Land is a fund of a more stable and permanent nature; and the rent of public lands, accordIngly, has been the principal source of the public revenue of many a great nation that was much advanced beyond the shepherd state. The Wealth of Nations The care of his stables was committed to the lord constable and the lord marshal. The Wealth of Nations
Prey such as mice and lizards are lured out in spite of themselves, wan- der into the desert, and collapse from hunger and fatigue. The Woman in the Dunes Arid the fact that he does not leave off once he has grown up is quite definitely a sign that the condition has become worse. The Woman in the Dunes And his interest in sand, which was the condition for the beetles existence, could not help but grow. The Woman in the Dunes If things went on this way he would be in no condition for tomorrows work. The Woman in the Dunes Under no condition must he rest his arms. The Woman in the Dunes They had underestimated his condition and had not called a doctor. The Woman in the Dunes I even heard that soil rich enough to grow cucumbers came out of the roof boards of a house that had been buried under the sand. The Woman in the Dunes Generally it is not particularly difficult to make a superstable state into a normally stable one. The Woman in the Dunes