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The Turks and their allies, the Muslim warriors of Circassia 37 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA and Daghestan, were still entrenched in large areas of North Caucasia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Eastwards of Tbilisi, Georgias internal security was still threatened by the warlike Lezghian tribesmen of Daghestan, and by the independent Muslim khans of Ganja, Shekki and Baku, allies and nominally vassals of the Shah of Persia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Lengthy negotia- tions between the Georgians and the German Foreign Ministry ensued, only to be rendered abortive by the defeat of Imperial Germany at the hands of the Allies in November 1918. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia By the end of December 1918, Evgeni Gegechkori, who succeeded the pro-German Chkhenkeli as Foreign Minister, was assuring the British Mission in Tbilisi that the Georgian government, animated by the desire to work in harmony with the Allies for the realization of the principles of right and justice proclaimed by them, gives its consent to the entry of the troops. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In September 1918, Niko Nikoladze, a member of the Georgian negotiating team in Berlin, returned to Tbilisi and informed Zhordania that Germanys defeat at the hands of the Allies appeared inevitable. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Most of the year 1919 was occupied in pleading with the Allies to restrain their friends Kolchak and Denikin from attacking the Caucasian republics. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Lord Curzon himself took the initiative of proposing to the Supreme Council of the Allies the recogni- tion defacto of the republics of Georgia and Azerbaijan. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Soon afterwards, however, it was announced that the Allies had no intention of sending any fresh troops to Transcaucasia, though the Trans- caucasian republics were promised arms and ammunition. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Small wonder that the patient Vansittart, repeating Pilates gesture, 221 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA his face expressing perplexity, weariness and boredom, was obliged to wash his hands of the matter and report to Lord Curzon, the British government and the Supreme Council of the Allies that the Transcaucasian republics, unable to agree among themselves, could not be expected to play any useful part in a defence system designed to check the advance of Bolshevik Russia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia There were other factors which also helped to render unten- able the position of the Allies in Transcaucasia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It contains ambiguous dauses which could be read to mean that Georgia is obliged to evict the Allies. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The signature of this treaty by the Sultan led the Turkish national- ists under Mustafa Kemal to declare themselves armed oppon- ents of the Allies. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On the political front, Gegechkoris efforts finally resulted in the de jure recognition of independent Georgia by the Allies on 27 January 192 i, a few weeks before the country was overrun by the Red Army. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A French High Commissioner made his appearance in Tbilisi, where he declared with Gallic bravado that any infringement of Georgias integrity would be resisted to the death by France and her allies. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On 7 February 1921, a banquet was held in Thilisi to celebrate the de jure recognition of Georgia by the Western Allies. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia There may therefore be some degree of topicality in offering to the Western reader an outline of the modern history of one of the smaller peoples now embraced within the Soviet Union, in tracing the rise and fall of Tsarist autocratic rule over Georgia and Caucasia, and in showing how this led to Georgias present membership of the family of Soviet nations, of which she is now a leading representative. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It is true that our genera- tion stands too close to the cataclysmic events which attended the birth of Russias social and industrial revolution, and that books written today will have to be radically revised in the broader perspective enjoyed by historians of a future age. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia None the less, I think that some useful purpose may be served by putting down on paper some salient facts of recent Georgian history while eyewitnesses and protagonists are alive to be consulted, and impressions from visits to Soviet Georgia in 1960 and 1962 remain fresh. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the Rioni delta of Western Georgia, the draining of swamps has been an essential preliminary to any form of settled life; in Eastern Georgia, there are arid stretches of steppe land which have to be irrigated to yield up their wealth. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Islamic names are to be compared with Syriac Gur~an, Middle Iranian JVyrshn and Armenian Vir-k, the equivalent of the Iveroi or Iberians familiar to the ancient geographers. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia As soon as the whole people witnessed this, they glorified God and began to declare this to be a proof of the kings faith and the religion of the captive woman. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Only the Kjirie eleison, which means Lord, have mercy, or Lord be merciful to us, is pronounced in Greek. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia When King David the Builder (1o89I 125) recaptured the city of Thilisi, he guaranteed to the Muslims everything they wished, according to the pact which is valid even today, and stipu- lated that pigs should not be brought over to the Muslim quarter of the town. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Be this as it might, one was afforded a very distinct glimpse into the past when one saw these stalwarts, armed cap-d-pie and com- plete with boss and spear, taking the air on the Golovinski among a fashionably dressed assembly. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the bazaar quarter and down the back streets, however, glimpses of old Tbilisi may still be snatched. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Unlike the Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians or even the neighbouring Armenians, the Georgians of antiquity never succeeded in overrunning large tracts of territory whose inhabitants could be led away wholesale into slavery. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It has yet to be proved that chattel slaves were a dominant factor in the economy and the social order. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But it is clear that the roots of Georgian feudalism can be traced back to a far earlier epoch. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Analogies should rather be sought in Byzantium and in Sassan- ian Iran. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Although the Bagratids claimed for prestige purposes to be descended from David and Solomon of Israel, they were in reality princes of Speri (Ispir), in the Upper Chorokhi valley north of Erzurum, and had a castle at the modern Bayburt. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Nevertheless, the power of the great nobles and ecciesiastics who sat upon the royal council of state had always to be reckoned with, as had that of the provincial tribal chieftains. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The nation could be divided into the categories of patroni, or lord, and qma, which with the ordeals so familiar in Western Christendom In meant either vassal or serf according to context and social position. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A nobleman, logically enough, would normally be a patroni in regard to his peasants, and a qma, or vassal, in the eyes of his suzerain prince or king. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia No sum of blood money is prescribed to be exacted from a man slaying either of them, for such a crime was punished as high treason, by execution. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In cases of wounding, abduction of a wife, and other forms of insult or injury, full wergild or a fixed portion of it would be payable by way of compensation to the injured party. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia These no doubt derived from those practised in ancient Iran; they also have features in common Georgia, the presumed guilt or innocence of an accused party was established by single combat; by the ordeals of boiling water and red-hot iron; by solemn oath on an icon; and by an odd ceremony known as saddling oneself with sin, in which the accused took the plaintiff upon his back and declared: May God hold me responsible for thy sins at the Last Judgement, and may I be judged in thy place, if this deed has really been committed by me.5 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Vakhtang was one of the most gifted monarchs Georgia has produced; as patron of the arts and sciences, he may be compared with the Renaissance princes of Italy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The empress and her lover were aware of the important role which the Christian Georgians might be made to play in furthering Russian designs to partition Persia and the Ottoman Empire. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia When Catherines second Turkish war broke out in 1787, it was decided, despite frantic protests from the Georg- ians, that the Russian expeditionary force should be withdrawn, and the Georgians left to their own devices. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In signing the Treaty of Georgievsk, Erekle undertook to renounce all dependence on Persia or any other power but Russia; he and his posterity were solemnly confirmed for ever in possession of all territories under their sway; the kings of Georgia, on succeeding to the throne, would request and receive from St. Petersburg their insignia of investiture; Erekle was to conduct negotiations with foreign powers only after securing the approval of the Russian authorities; the empress and her heirs were pledged to treat Georgias foes as those of Russia; there was to be no interference in the internal affairs of Georgia; the Georgian Catholicos-Patriarch was given the eighth place among the Russian prelates, and made a member of the Holy Synod; the Georgian nobility were to have the same prerogatives as the Russian aristocracy; special facilities were to be afforded to Russian traders in Georgia and to Georgian merchants in Russia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The treaty was to remain in force permanently, and any modification was to be made only by the voluntary consent of both parties. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The destruction of his capital city was a death blow to Ereldes dream of establishing, with Russian protection, a strong and united Georgian kingdom, into which Imereti and the lost provinces under Turkish rule would all eventually be drawn. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In September 1799, he sent an embassy to St. Petersburg with instructions to surrender the realm of Eastern Georgia into the care of Tsar Paulnot under his protection, but into his full authority provided only that the royal dignity should be preserved for ever in the Georgian royal family of the Bagratids. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But even this modest remnant of autonomy was to be denied to the Georgian kings and their subjects. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia However, in November , 8oo, the emperor wrote to the Russian general in command on the Caucasian front: The weakening of the kings health gives ground for expecting his decease; you are therefore imme- diately to despatch, as soon as this occurs, a proclamation in Our name that until Our consent is received no action should be taken even to nominate an heir to the Georgian throne.9 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Before the succession problem could be finally settled, Tsar Paul 39 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA was himself assassinated in St. Petersburg during the night of 1112 March i8oi. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In their view, the perpetration of so flagrant a wrong against the Georgian royal house would be a blot on the emperors honour. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Each branch was to be headed by a Russian official set over four Georgian committee members. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Corres- ponding local administrations were to be set up in the country 42 GEORGIA UNDER THE TSARS: 180132 districts under Russian kapitan-ispravniki or district officers. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The mountain clans of the Pshavs, Khevsurs and Tush, as well as the Tatar nomads dwelling in the southern borderlands, continued to be governed by Georgian mouravs or prefects. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia For civil litigation, the code of King Vakhtang VT remained in force, while criminal cases were to be judged according to Russian law. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The late King Giorgis second son, bane, who had come to St. Petersburg, tried to organize a nation-wide petition to be submitted to the emperor, urging him at least to maintain the royal title in the Bagratid line in accordance with the treaty of 1783 and subsequent Russian pledges. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A number of petitions were received from Georgia, urging the claims of the Prince-Regent David or of his uncle, Prince Yulon, to be retained as titular head of the Georgian admin- istration. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On 12 April i 8oz, the Russian commander-in-chief in the Caucasus, General Karl Knorring, published in Tbilisi the imperial proclamation of September i8oi, confirming Tsar Pauls earlier decree, and affirming Kartlo-Kakheti to be an integral part of the Russian dominions. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It was reported to the Tsar by one of his trusted advisers, Count Kochubey, that Knorring and Kovalensky were committing great exactions; that they were maintaining discord among the peoples of the country in order to be able to pillage them with more ease; and all kinds of similar horrors. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It can hardly be said that Tsar Alexander was much of a liberal in his dealings with his Georgian subjects. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Tsar further empowered him to take immediate steps to persuadeif necessary by physical forcethe former Georgian royal family to settle in Russia, and thus put an end to all agitation for the Bagratid dynasty to be retored. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He therefore gave orders that the queen and her children should be sent off into exile in Russia under guard the very next morning. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The general strode brusquely up to the queen and said, through his interpreter: Get up, it is time to be off. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia If I wake them up abruptly it might be harmful to them. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It had been one of the conditions of the various pacts concluded between Russia and Georgia that the Georgian aristocracy and squirearchy should be confirmed in their traditional privileges, and placed on the same footing as the Russian 49 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA nobility. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In 1811, for instance, a million silver rubles had to be sent to pay the troops and civil servants stationed in the country. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He thought that it would be best to retain the Georgian language as the medium for transacting local official business. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Thus when Count Kochubey, Alexanders liberal-minded minister of the interior, wrote in i8o4 to ask whether one of the Georgian royal princes might not after all be setup as a vassal ruler in Georgia under Russian supervision, Tsitsianov at once stifled the project.24 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He recommended that the transition from the old oral system of administering justice to the bureaucratic formalism characteristic of Russian official 50 GEORGIA UNDER THE T5ARS: 18013 2 procedure should be brought about by gradual stages. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia How can our lives be dear to us after such ignominy? We are guilty before God and the Russian Tsar of steeping our hands in Christian blood, but God knows that we never plotted to betray the Russians. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It will be recalled that the Russo-Georgian treaty of 1783 had guaranteed to the Patriarch of Georgia the eighth place among the prelates of Russia and a seat in the Russian Holy Synod. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This complete suppression of a national Church by the government of a friendly Christian power must be without parallel in the modern annals of civilized nations. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He himself declared: I desire that the terror of my name should guard our frontiers more potently than chains of fortresses, that my word should be for the natives a law more inevitable than death. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia By this route, manufactured goods from Russian cities and Western Europe could be trans- ported via Tbilisi to Baku on the Caspian, or into Persia overland via Tabriz. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It ~ would, however, be wrong to imagine that Russia benefited GEORGIA UNDER THE TSARS: 180132 financially at this period from her colonization of Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Ermolov reacted with what can only be termed masterly inactivity. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He started work on a romantic tragedy to be entitled Georgian N:gbt, based on a theme from national legend. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia One eyewitness, Colonel Rottiers, a Belgian in the Russian service, went so far as to recommend that Russian officials be removed altogether from service in Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia They would be happy to see punished, or at least recalled, the officials of whom they have bad the most to complain. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia They desire, finally, to be eligible according to merit to posts which up to now have been bestowed by favour alone, and, furthermore, they would like themselves to elect their municipal magistrates, their mouravs or justices of the peace. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The quantity of unresolved lawsuits turned out to be beyond calculation. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At a given signal, they would all be assassinated. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Prince Alexander Bagration would return from Persia to be proclaimed king of Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The ball at which the Russian officers were to be assassinated was scheduled for 20 November i 832, the day of the meeting 68 GEORGIA UNDER ~HE TSAR5: 180132 of Georgian princes and nobles at Tbilisi for the election of deputies to the Provincial Assembly of the Nobility. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Most of the conspirators were later allowed to resume their official careers, and one of them, Prince Grigol Orbeiani, rose to be Governor of Tbilisi. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Men of every rank and class had free access to him; they might bring their own interpreter, and be sure of hav- ing justice quickly administered. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia However, 72 TSAR NICHOLAS AND VICEROY VORONrsOV: 183255 such glowing accounts of this campaign were sent to St. Petersburg that the Emperor Nicholas, when he visited the Caucasus in the autumn of 1837, quite expected to be met by a suppliant Shamil in person. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia An example of this occurred in 1834, when the Russian Senate decided that peasants from Western Georgia (Imereti and Mingrelia) who had run away from their masters and taken refuge in Eastern Georgia should, after due investi- gation, be handed back to their owners. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia No journey, needless to say, could be undertaken without the masters permission. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Among the various dues and services which might be required of the peasant were working a stipulated number of days on the lords private land, helping to build the lords house or barns, handing over a share of the harvest or of flocks and herds, offering hospitality 76 j TSAR NICHOLAS AND VICEROY vORONTSOV: 183255 to the lords guests and their retinue, gathering and delivering firewood, and providing food for the lords table at weddings and church festivals. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia They suspected, not without good grounds, that one object of this proposal was to introduce into Georgia the I Russian system of conscription, which would be easy to put into effect once the liberated serfs had no lord to defend their interests. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Moral questions apart, a charge which could be brought against serfdom in Georgia, as indeed against serfdom gen- erally, was that it impeded the growth of the economy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the same year, to the horror of Rosen and his associates, it was learnt that Hahn would soon be followed by his imperial master in person. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Nicholas soon showed that this visit was to be no formal parade. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia To the petrified company, the Tsar declared: Gentlemen, mark well that this is my first act of justice in Georgia; and it will not be my last. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In 1840, be returned to the Caucasus with a mandate to put his system into operation. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He abolished the use of the Georgian code of King Vakhtang VI as a guide for civil actions, and forced everyone to be governed by Russian laws which were unintelligible to the people. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The new corn- mander-in-chief~ General Golovin, was reputed to be an honest man, but was constantly hoodwinked by his underlings. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Hahns attempt to regulate and standardize the amount of dues to be rendered by peasants to their feudal masters proved unpopular. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Vorontsov was appointed to be both commander-in-chief of the Russian armies on the Caucasian front, and Viceroy of the Tsar with overall administrative authority over the Caucasus. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia 8z TSAR NICHOLAS AND VICEROY VORONT5OV: 183255 He was the first of Georgias governors to be officially invested with the viceregal title. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia To what, it may be asked, did the Vorontsovs owe this devotion which they inspired among the Georgians, who had 84 TSAR NICHOLAS AND VICEROY VORONTSOV: 183255 usually SO little affection for Russian proconsuls sent to govern them in Tbilisi? A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Landed property ceased to be the sole source of wealth and influence. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Six years went by, be says, and through all Kartli, on both banks of the 87~ A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA Kura, there was not one village left which did not owe me money. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The inadequacies of Russias military machine and backward economic and social system were now to be revealed in a con- flict with a rearmed Ottoman Empire supported, albeit in- efficiently, by a concert of Western powers. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia As the new year of 1854 opened, the septuagenarian viceroy felt his physical powers to be waning. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But be had reckoned without the torrential rain and 92 TSAR NICHOLAS AND VICEROY VORONTSOV: 18325 5 pestilential vapours typical of the Mingreian climate. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Now that most of the country had been thoroughly subjugated from a military viewpoint, it could be peacefully assimilated into the Tsarist system, and the old arbitrary methods of military government replaced by more civilized methods of administra- tion. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Surrounded on the rocky brow of Gunib, the surviving five hundred Murids put up a determined light until, seeing the situation to be hopeless, Shamil surrendered to the Russian viceroy in person, and was sent into honourable exile at Kaluga in Russia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia For the next five years, both government and public opinion in Russia were occupied with preparations for the peasant reform of 1861 which, after some delay, was to be applied also to Russias dominions beyond the Caucasus. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia May Russias internal welfare be established and perfected; may justice and mercy reign in her law courts; may the desire for instruc- tion and all useful work grow everywhere with new strength; and may everyone enjoy in peace the fruits of honest labour under the shelter of laws equally just to all, equally protecting all. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It will be recalled that the Dadian or ruling prince of Mingrelia had been placed under a Russian protectorate in 1803, but had retained a large measure of authority as a vassal of the emperor. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In 1857, Prince Baryatinsky ordered Svaneti to be subdued by armed force, despite the existence of the treaties of 1833 and 1840, which established a protectorate over the principality of Western Upper Svaneti and the self-governing tribal area of Free (Eastern Upper) Svaneti. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It will be recalled that the Lord of Abkhazia, Safar Bey or Giorgi Sharvashidze, had been received under Russian protection as long ago as 1809, and confirmed in perpetual possession of his domains. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Rather than remain under infidel rule, some 6oo,ooo Circassian Muslims emigrated to various regions of the Ottoman Empire, where their descendants may be found to this day. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The peasant question in Georgia While the emancipation of the serfs in European Russia did not for the time being affect conditions in Georgia and other regions of Caucasia, its application there was seen to be only a matter of time. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia More corn had to be brought in to feed the growing population, while maize and wine were exported in bulk. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia There was an increasing tendency for feudal dues in labour or in kind to be commuted into a money payment. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Chonkadzes story may be com- pared in this respect with Uncle Toms Cabin, or with Turgenevs Huntsmans Sketches or Mumu. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Grand Duke considered rather that since many of the Caucasian peoples had entered the Russian empire volun- tarily and were serving with loyalty in Russias army and civi] service, there was no distinction to be made between them and the inhabitants of European Russia.M A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Ilias novel may be compared with Gogols Dead Souls or with the savage rustic satires of Saltykov-Shchedrin. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the wake of this mad bustle, there must be many disappointments, many false starts. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Georgians had accepted Christianity more than six centuries before the Russians, had been a bulwark of Christendom in the East for a millennium and a half, and had entered voluntarily under the Russian sceptreonly to be treated now as if they were barbarians. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Admittedly, Georg- ian could be studied as a voluntary extra, but it was deprived of its place on the official time-table. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Chavchavadzes ideology at this stage of his career could justly be described as bourgeois-nationalist. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In a series of articles which appeared between 1877 and i88i under the title Life and Law, Ilia preached that the antagonisms which existed in other countries between rich and poor, high and low, either did not exist in Georgia, or could be easily dispelled thanks, apparently, to some superior, moral qualities vouchsafed to the Georgian nation. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia lilas real aim, which under the Tsarist censorship could not be proclaimed in print, was to unite his fellow countrymen, regardless of social status, into a closely knit national com- munity capable one day of winning independence from the Russian overlord. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia For Gogebashvili, there could be no revival of self-respect among his fellow-countrymen without a revival of interest in the Georgian language. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The status of the Georgian tongue in Georgian scholastic institutions may be compared with that of a wretched foundling, deprived of all care and protection. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA A/exander III and Russian reaction After the assassination of Tsar Alexander II and the accession of Alexander III (188194), relations between the Russians and their Georgian subjects continued to be strained. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The representative of law and order was drunk, hopelessly drunk, and treated the suppliant in such a manner that I blushed to be in his company.6 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It is to be wished that the noble and powerful people of Eng- land should know that even in our little country, the mind functions and the heart beats in a human way; that even here, men have their longings and their hopes; that even here, there exists faith and painful striving towards better days; and that this people of ours feels nothing human to be alien to it. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Children of ten to twelve years of age could now be employed on night work, while the manufacturers could resort to abuses such as substituting payments in kind for wages in cash, imposing arbitrary fines, and forcing workers to buy their supplies from the factory shop. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In January 1895, he received from the Zemsivo or provincial assembly of Tver a congratulatory address on his marriage, in which the hope was expressed that the voice of the people would be listened to, and that the rule of law would stand above the changing views of the individual instruments of the supreme power. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia When the Grand Duke Michael retired from the viceroyalty in i88z, Alexander III down-graded the post and appointed Prince A. M. Dondukov-Korsakov to be merely Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief in the Caucasus. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In 1876, the Georgian Narodniks held a conference at which, according to police reports of the time, speakers proclaimed the impending destruction of the auto- cratic rgime, following which everyone would be equal, and all property would be shared out equally.Why, A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Nor should the priests be believed when they asserted that the Tsar was a protector set over the people by God. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But if God did not exist any more, the Tsar could not be H.is representative. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia (What is to be done?). A Modern History of Soviet Georgia I now realized for the first time that Russian socialism was a thoroughly utopian and reactionary movement, and that if it should ever be put into operation anywhere, we should be plunged back into barbarism. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Again, the Poles deep-rooted antagonism to Russian ways, language and religious dogma, more intense than anything Zhordania had seen in Georgia, made him see that in subjugated countries there must first of all take place a political revolution; democracy must be estab- lished first, and only afterwards, by the furtherance of economic progress and by extensive organizational work, can we pro- ceed towards social revolution. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Ninoshvili, whose real name was Egnate Ingoroqva, occupies an important place in Georgian literature and social thought, as the first truly work- ing-class writer, in which respect he may be compared with Maxim Gorky in Russia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But it had to be recognized that even village life was becoming to some extent coloured by urban influences. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But of true peasants on the Russian or Georgian model, no sign was to be seen. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He brought back with him the conviction that Georgias political and economic progress could not be assured without direct contacts with Western European culture, and a break with the mingled Persian, Turkish and Russian influences in which the people and even the intelligentsia had for so long stagnated. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It may be reckoned therefore that industrial workers with their families formed scarcely a tenth part of the population. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia As Tbilisi and Baku were also the leading cities of the land, strategic hub~of administration, education, journalism, publishing and com- merce, they were places from which industrial unrest could be stirred up and socialist propaganda diffused in a most effective manner. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Sweated labour It may seem strange at first sight that a people so largely made up of peasants and mountain clansmen, with a small 129 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA industry and a comparatively negligible and uneducated proletariat, should be attracted to Marxian socialism. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Like many middle-class socialists, however, Zhordania and his associates failed to realise that the class struggle, for the intensification of which they enthusiastically campaigned, would result in a holocaust of which they themselves would be among the victims. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia a substantial slice, as will be seen, belonged personally to individual members of the Russian imperial family. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Implicit in Zhordanias reasoning 33 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA though such ideas could not be expressed openly in printwas the conclusion that only after the overthrow of the Russian imperial system could Georgia hope to achieve national fulfil- ment through democratic socialism, in which effete elements such as princes, priests and capitalists would have no share. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The first of May 1899, was celebrated by the first May Day demonstration to be held in the Caucasus. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia There were some 11,000 industrial workers, a motley, polyglot mixture of Christians and Mus- lims, with some of the riffraff always to be found in ports and dockyards. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia When it was learnt that all the detainees were to be deported from Batumi, an even larger crowd of demon- strators, including workers from the Rothschild and Mantashev factories, the docks and the railway yards, in all about 6,ooo, set out for the barracks where the prisoners were held. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The movement was particularly strong in the south-western province of 4 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA Guria, where the small size of the peasant allotments gave rise to an often quoted saying: If I tie up a cow on my bit of land, her tail will be in someone elses! A Modern History of Soviet Georgia S Down with autocracfl The Cossacks and gendarmes could not be everywhere at once. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Demon- strations took place, red flags were waved, and the cry of Down with autocracy! was repeatedly to be heard. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Bodies of murdered policemen and 142 THE STORM GATHERS: 18941904 soldiers were refused church burial and had to be discreetly interred by the police themselves. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Plehve and the Black Hundreds All these local developments in Georgia must, of course, be viewed against the general background of Russias general political state. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Plehves recipe for maintaining authority was compounded of pogroms against the Jews and the forced russiuication of other national minorities, floggings and shootings of unruly peasants and factory workers, combined with a programme of chauvinistic militarism in the Far East, whereby patriotic zeal would be rallied to the Tsar and attention diverted from troubles at home. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Before any social gathering could be held, per- mission had to be sought from the police. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The war party at St. Petersburg, headed by Plehve, cherished high hopes that Russias revolutionary fever would be speedily cured by this timely small, victorious war. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Lenin insisted that only those who regularly participated in the underground organization could be enrolled as members of the Party and have the formal right to influence its policy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The members of the clandestine organization were to be the shock 47 F A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA troops of revolution, obedient to the orders of the central leadership. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The director of the Tbilisi railway department was forced to demand military protection for the city station, and trains had to be convoyed under armed guard. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Factories were idle and the trams had to be escorted by troops. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia were every- where to be heard. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Third Congress of the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers Party, which met in London that April, listened with rapt attention to the report of the Georgian revolutionary Mikha Tskhakaia (i86~ 195 o), and declared: That the special conditions of social and political life in the Caucasus have favoured the creation there of the most militant of our partys organizations; that the revolutionary mood of the majority of the population of the Caucasus, both in the towns and in the villages, has already brought about a national uprising against absolutism; that the autocratic rgime is already sending an army with artillery into Guria, and preparing the most merciless onslaught on all the chief centres of insurrection; that the victory of absolutism over the popular uprising in the Caucasus, which might be facilitated by the multi-racial composition of the local population, would have the most harmful consequences for the outcome of the revolt throughout Russia as a whole. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It will be recalled that the Georgian Church, whose freedom had been guaranteed by Russia by solemn treaty, had been liquidated in i 8ii and absorbed by the St. Petersburg Synod. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This was to be nothing more than a consultative assem- bly, and the franchise was limited to the middle and upper classes and to the suppos~dly monarchist peasantry. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A woman doctor who happened to be present was wounded, but in spite of her injuries was bandaging other casualties with strips of her own clothing; a Cossack came up and brained her with his rifle butt. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia As a crown- ing outrage, the public, which peacefully and trustfully attended what it understood to be a meeting of the Town Council, has been shot down and hacked to pieces. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Can we be expected to busy ourselves 7 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA in docile fashion with the paving and lighting of the city streets when unarmed people are murdered simply because they collected for a peaceful debate? Deprived of the ability to hold our sessions in public and make the population aware of our indignation at the atrocity committed by the government and the cossacks, and con- sidering therefore that our work has been thereby rendered in- effectual, especially within the walls of this building in which so much innocent blood has been shed, we, representatives of the Council, resigning the title of Councillor, renounce all further municipal activity, until the population is granted the elementary conditions of civilized society and until the possibility of a repetition of those bloody events which occurred on 29 August has been eliminated. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia No law was to be enacted without the consent of the new national assembly or Duma. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Georgian Bolsheviks, on the other hand, led by Stalin and his associates, declared that the workers should be content with nothing short of the overthrow of the Russian monarchy and the setting up of a popular Constituent Assembly. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Only on the bones of the oppressors can the peoples freedom be erected, only with the blood of the oppressors can the soil be fertilized for the autocracy of the people! A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Only when the armed people come out headed by the proletariat and raise the banner of general insurrection can the Tsarist government, which rests on bayonets, be overthrown.82 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The viceroy, who had completely lost his head, agreed to issue five hundred rifles to a Peoples Militia directed by the Georg- i~t ian Social-Democrats, on the understanding that the weapons would be returned at the conclusion of the emergency. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Staroselsky recommended that martial law should be lifted from Western Georgia, and ex- tensive concessions made to the local population. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The army units are un- doubtedly reliable, but so limited in number that no active opera- tions can be undertaken. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At the Tammerfors conference of the Russian Social- Democratic Party held in 1905, the Master argued against the barren tactics of boycotting the Duma: he saw no reason why revolution should not be furthered from the parliamentary tribune. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Revolution, said Lenin, could be preached even from a dungheap or a pigsty. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At a meeting of workers representatives in Tbilisi, Stalin, Shaumian and the other local leaders recommended that the Thilisi Social- Democratic organization should be wound up, its members go underground, and await better days before attempting to renew the death struggle against Tsarism. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But sooner or later, the struggle would be resumed and autocracy would not be given another cl~ance. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia All the peasant electors of Kutaisi province turned out to be Social-Democrats, with the result that the provincial assembly returned as its three nominees three Social-Democrats Isidore Ramishvili, Dr. Gomarteli and the advocate Japaridze. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On his arrival at the Russian capital, Ilia declared that he intended to be not a defender of sectional interests, but a champion of the Georgian national cause. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Stolypin soon found himself condemned the Marxists in strong terms, saying: Ii For them, the social revolution must be brought about by the agency of the State, within the frontiers of the State and with the aid of the State; but for us, it must be brought about outside the State, Russian, literally fists), as the wealthier peasant farmers were in opposition to the State, with the aid of completely new social forces and principles. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Court considered his ideas too radical, while the Social-Democrats and Social-Revolutionaries be- laboured Stolypin for encouraging the loathsome kulaks (in nicknamed. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia All those Social-Democratic deputies who could be tracked down were arrested. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Nikon was said to sympathize with the cause of the Georgian Church, and his murderers were alleged to be hooligans from the Russian extremist Black-Hundred gangs who feared that Nikon would intercede for the Georgian Church with the authorities in St. Petersburg. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Too often, the agricultural worker would be seen year after year turning the same shallow furrow in dry and stony ground with a primitive wooden hand-plough. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It must be admitted that the estates cultivated by the more enterprising landowners and foreign colonists were precisely those whichyielded the best crops and gave the bestpromise for the countrys future prosperity. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the event, as we know, World War I turned out to be catastrophic for the Armenian people, whose fate became a disgrace to the conscience of the world. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Others, including extremists both on the nationalist wing and among the revolutionary groups, hoped for a Russian defeat at the hands of Germany and Austria, to be followed eventually by a new order for the peoples of the Tsarist empire. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The routes by which his army was to advance were snow-covered mountain tracks, and the bulk of the Turkish transport and artillery had to be left behind. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Before this plan could be carried into effect, the news reached Tbilisi on i~ March i ~ that the imperial rgime had ceased to exist. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Among these may be mentioned Vasil Barnovi (18561934), author of historical novels, tales of old Tbilisi, and realistic stories based on contemporary Georgian life, and Shio Aragvispireli (1867 1926), revolutionary agitator, veterinary surgeon and author of powerful short stories in which he exposed the social evils of his time. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It would be unjust to belittle the support given by the Rus- sian government and by Russian learned societies to the study of Georgian and Caucasian antiquities. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia While the worthy Jaqo falsified the estate accounts and plotted the ruin of his trustful lord: Teimuraz was writing a treatise in three volumes on the history of Georgian civilization, composing dozens of leading articles, reports, judgements, researches and memoranda; at the same time, he used to attend secret political meetings and, in company with so many of his contemporaries, he went on gnawing and sawing away busily day by day at the mighty branch upon which be nonchalantly dozed and cheerfully fluttered about. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia To the Georgian Social-Democrats Zhordania and Noe Ramishvili, the grand duke expressed the hope that he might himself be granted a seat in the Constituent Assembly which would be called upon to decide the future organization of the Russian state. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia However, this was not to be. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This, obviously, could not be settled overnight. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Only now, when the old order was already in dissolution, 95 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA could this overdue reform be tried out for a brief season, only to be swept away by the invasion of Communist Russia in 1921. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia No reply could we get, except for vague reassurances and appeals for calm: We are making pre- parations, everything will be all right, etc., A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Thus, Zhordania was strongly critical of the democratic cretinism which inspired the Kerensky govern- ment to postpone settlement of the many crying social and economic problems left over from Tsardom until these could be referred to a constituent assembly convened with every refinement of electoral procedure from all corners of the far- flung Russian state. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia There was indeed much to be said in favour of a ceasefire on the Caucasian front, where the Russian army had conquered vast areas of Turkish Anatolia and Armenia and was holding out deep in Turkish territory against the depleted and demoralized remains of the Ottoman Army. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Mortally afraid of the Turks, the Armenians had been encouraged by the American President Wilson to believe that an Allied victory would be followed by the creation of an independent Greater Armenia carved from the debris of the Turkish empire and stretching from the Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A few days later, another meeting declared that the war with Germany and Turkey should go on and no separate peace be concluded. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On 24 November 1917, a conference of the Regional Centre of Soviets, the Regional Soviet of the Caucasian Army, the Thilisi City Council, the Ozakom, the trades unions and other representative bodies met in Tbilisi and decided that since Transcaucasia could not recog- nize the Bolshevik usurpation in Petrograd, a local rgime would have to be organized. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the meantime, Trotsky had signed the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk, whereby the Bolsheviks agreed to exclude from Russian territory the districts of Batumi, Ardahan and Kars, where the fate of the population was to be decided by a free plebiscite. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia An ephemeral federation For the last six months, the Transcaucasian Commissariat had clung to the illusion that Russia would soon quell the Bolshe- vik usurpers and revert to the paths of true democracy, in which case Transcaucasia would be painlessly restored to the broad bosom of Russian Social-Democracy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At railway stations and other strategic points German helmets were soon to be seen, which the Christian inhabitants thought vastly preferable to the Turkish fez. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Birth of the Georgian Republic There was no time to lose, if anything was to be salvaged from the wreck of united Transcaucasia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia True to their policy of playing off the Turks and Germans against one another, the Georgian delegation in Berlin declared to the German Foreign Ministry that inasmuch as Georgia, under direct pressure from Turkey, was compelled to sign any agree- ment whatsoever with her alone, the obligations incurred in such conditions must be considered null and void. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia By the end of 1918, as we shall see, German and Turkish hegemony over Caucasia had melted away, to be replaced for a short season by the rather less Gegechkori, while Konstantine Kandelaki, leader of the popular occupation of the victorious British. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Zhordania believed that, as Marx taught, the transition from a feucini to a sociaiistsociety must be accomplished via an intermediate bourgeois order..Accc~di.ag1y, A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In December 1917, before Transcaucasia had proclaimed itself independent of Russia, the Mensheviks had brought the land issue before the Diet, which approved by an overwhelming majority the principle of limiting land holdings and confiscating without compensation all estates above a statutory maximum to be established. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Transcaucasian Commissariat published a decree stating that in order to alleviate the plight of the landless peasants, all estates belonging to the former Russian crown and to the Church would be nationalized, together with lands belonging to private individuals and exceeding certain norms to be subsequently laid down. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The West was treated to a sad spectacle of two peoples, ruled by parties which were members of the Second International and professed peace to be their chief aim, fighting over a few strips of land in the manner of a Germany or a Russia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Had he possessed the most rudi- mentary political acumen he would have made friends with Rumania and left the Bessarabian question to be settled after the Bolsheviks were beaten; he would have acted similarly, mutatis mutandis, with regard to Poland, the Baltic Republics, the Caucasians, the Trans- caucasians and the other Russian Succession States instead of antagonizing them and in some cases actually engaging in hostilities against them.2 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This volte-fac~ had to be accom- plished with speed and agility. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In 1919, however, the British government took the imaginative step of appointing Oliver Wardrop, the well-known scholar of 218 INDEPENDENT GEORGIA: 191821 Georgian literature and history, to be Chief British Com- missioner to the Republics of Georgia, Armenia and Azer- baijan. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Armed clashes between Denikin and the Georgians had to be quelled by the British military representatives. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the circles of the Supreme Council, be told a gathering of these rival delegates, many are of the opinion that the Trans- caucasian Republics have no future at all, as they are unable to achieve any sort of solidarity, and are exhausting themselves in conflicts with each other. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia With Baku in Bolshevik hands, no more oil would be flowing to Batumi, the commercial value of which was thereby impaired. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The events sur- rounding this closing drama will be unfolded in the next chapter. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Georgian agreement of 1920 indeed contains striking parallels with the treaty concluded in 1783 between Catherine the Great of Russia and King Erekie II of Georgia, which proved to be the prelude to Georgias complete annexation. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On 29 June 1920, Kixov threatened that if the happenings mentioned by me should not be stopped, my Government would have no other choice but to retaliate against Georgian citizens in the territory of the RSFSR. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia General Odishelidze represented to his government in January 1921 that in the event of a Russian attack, his front line forces would be outnumbered two to one. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Lenin versus Stalin on Georgia The unexpected mildness of the terms offered by the Georgian Communists to their defeated rivals is to be explained in part by divergent reactions to the Georgian affair within the Politbureau in Moscow. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Both Lenin and Trotsky were appalled when they later heard that heavy fighting was taking place and that the Mensheviks had rallied the nation to their side; they were most apprehensive of the impression which would be created among foreign socialists when it was learnt that the Russian Communists were now accompli, and Trotsky, though highly critical of Stalins hand- overthrowing other, independent socialist regimes by force of arms. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The risk taken by Stalin in simultaneously hoodwinking his 236 GEORGIA AND COMMUNIST RUSSIA: 192024 own comrades and defying world opinion in this fashion is partly to be accounted for in terms of his own past career, and his impatience to settle old personal scores. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But it was a standing affront to Stalin, as Soviet Commissar of Nationalities, to be defied and held up to scorn in his own native Georgia of all places, while his sway extended over most of the other territory of the old Tsarist domains. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Georgia must at all costs be brought with- in the Soviet fold. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Stalin also began to toy with the idea of bringing Georgia into a Transcaucasian Federation of Soviet Republics, into which Armenia and Azerbaijan would also be merged. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This is to be explained by the fact that these crops were grown on lands newly re- claimed from the marshy swamps of Western Georgia, and Ofl: plantations exploited as co-operative or state enterprises and equipped with modern tools and machinery. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The war against the kulaks The Secretary of the Central Committee of the Georgian Com- munist Party, Mikheil Kakhiani, ordered a ruthless, all-out campaign to be launched to achieve full collectivization of Georgian agriculture by February 1931, the tenth anniversary of Soviet rule in Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He declared: The kulaks as a class must be destroyed. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia are to be removed from areas scheduled for com- plete collectivization. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia is to be turned over to the use of kolk.ho~es A Modern History of Soviet Georgia When wine-growing areas are subjected to general collectivi- zation, wine cellars belonging to kulaks are to be taken from them and handed over to the collectives. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Livestock and implements are to be taken from kulak.s. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Lands belonging to kulaks are to be confiscated and given to the kolkbo~es. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Economic, administrative and legal sanctions are to be applied against the kulak.s, A Modern History of Soviet Georgia and public trials of them staged; all kulak property must be confiscated; kulaks agitating against collectiviza- tion are to be arrested. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Kulaks are to be forced to engage in public works and com- pulsory labour. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Without consulting the Politbureau and the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party, that same Stalin who had for months been issuing peremptory directives ordering compulsory collectivization at all costs now declared: Collective farms cannot be set up by force, and called for a cessation of violence and a pause for peaceful consolidation. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Armed uprisings took place in southern Georgia in Borchalo and Lori, which had to be put down by entire battalions of Red Army troops. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia If any Communist foreman displayed an excess of zeal, he would disappear in the night and be seen alive no more. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia His choice fell upon L. P. Beria (i 899195 3), a man who was many years later to be unmasked as an enemy of the people and condemned to die as a traitor to the Soviet fatherland. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia While the unbalanced and degenerate NKVD chiefs Yezhov and Yagoda were torturing and killing millions of high officials, army officers, intellectuals and ordinary citizens throughout Russia, Beria in the Caucasus eliminated every individual whose adherence to the Party Line could be called in question, or whose survival might conceivably challenge the myth of Stalins infallibility. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Before the Stalin-Beria purges, Tbilisi was famed for the high level of culture of the leading section of societyan active intellectual life which, by then, was rarely to be found elsewhere.7 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In April 1952, Beria, now Vice-President of the Soviet Council of Ministers, came from Moscow to attend a meeting of the Central Committee of the Georgian Communist Party, at which be subjected the party leadership to severe criticism for failing to instil the Communist creed in Georgian youth and to tear out all traces of local nationalism. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia By methods which cannot be condoned by any standards of human or divine morality, he fashioned the social and industrial springboard from which the Soviet Union today is leaping irresistibly forward as one of the two dominant world powers of our generation. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia While these charges can hardly be taken seriously, little pity need be wasted on Beria and his accomplices, whose hands had for years been dripping with innocent blood. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The sarcastic and bitter manner in which Khrushchev ascribed all the horrors of the purges to the genial leader Stalin, whom, as he ironically put it, the Georgians so much enjoyed calling the great son of the Georgian nation, must have rankled with the Georgian masses, who had learnt to be proud of the stupendous role which their Soso Jughashvili had played for long in Soviet and in world affairs. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Could the Georgians, comparing the situation in their republic with the hard situation of the working masses in Turkey, be aspir- ing to join Turkey?. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Previously, these enterprises had been under different departments and ministries, many of them based entirely on Moscow, where all decisions had to be made. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia If Georgia were to pull its weight in the new Seven-Year Plan for 195965, then severe sanctions would have to be applied against inferior standards of work and behaviour, Marxist-Leninist ideological campaigns would have to be intensified, and anti-religious propaganda vigor- ously pursued. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The housing crisis The housing position in Georgia, though leaving much to be desired, is alleviated somewhat by the fact that the land was not ravaged by the Nazi Germans, as was European Russia, and also by the ease with which simple peasant houses can be run up in this temperate climate from wood, mud and other cheap materials. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The state plans to build over ioo,ooo more dwellings by 1965,and people constructing their own homes will be assisted to erect another 6o,ooo. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The citrus fruit plantations are only now recovering from the disastrous frosts of 19495 0 and 195 35 4, and it will be some time before the 1949 harvest of 710 million fruit is equalled or exceeded. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Vineyards are to be extended from 170,000 to 300,000 acres and should yield close on half a million tons of grapes. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The areas under tobacco, olives, sugar beet and maize are also to be greatly extended. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It must also be remembered that peasants are drifting away from the countryside into the new urban factories or the prosperous state-run tea or wine combines. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia However, as the Soviet Unions internal trading and communications system becomes further rationalized, it should be easy to supplement local food pro- duction with cheap grain and dairy products from the Ukraine and elsewhere, leaving Georgian growers free to concentrate on the more rewarding sub-tropical and specialized crops for which Georgias climate is uniquely suited. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia ~8i schools have boarding I facilities, of which 7,000 children at present take advantage; the boarding system is shortly to be further expanded. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It is doubtful, however, whether such a development would be either feasible or beneficial, even assuming that Mr. Khrushchev suddenly encouraged Georgia to take advantage of the break away clause in the 1936 Constitution. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But at least it ensures that when at last the day comes for Georgia and other 273 smaller peoples of the Soviet Union to enjoy a larger measure of free speech, genuine democracy and a wider seif-determina- tion, they will do so without drifting back into a vicious circle of ignorance, poverty and disease, and be able to stand on their own feet economically and industrially in this competitive modern age. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia For the older period prior to the Russian occupation of i 8oi, reference should be made to the vividly written and finely illustrated work by W. E. D. Allen, A Historj of the Georgian People (London: Kegan Paul, 1932). A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Some idea of Georgias ancient Christian civilization may be gleaned from my little book, Lives and Legends of the Georgian Saints (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1956). A Modern History of Soviet Georgia For the history of the revolutionary movement in Georgia, reference should be made to Isaac Deutschers Stalin,: A Political Biographj (Oxford University Press, 1949) as well as to Bertram D. Wolfe, Three who made a Revolution (New edition, New York, 1960). A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The ill-fated Lavrenti Berias monograph On the historj of the Bolshevik organizations in Transcaucasia (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1949) contains interesting 284 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES: FURTHER READING documents, but can be used only with extreme caution owing to its many distortions and falsifications. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Reference may usefully be made also to The Independence of Georgia in International Politics, 19181921 (London: Headley Bros., A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The bees yield plenteous supplies of honey and wax; this honey is excellent and in some places it comes in honeycombs, white and firm as sugar. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Ethnic varie~y The ethnological face of Caucasia, with its numerous races and tribes, came into being over many centuries. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The European nameGeorgian, Georgia (Russian: Gru~in, Gru~jya)has a different origin, being connected with Arabic and Persian Gurji, Gurjistan. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Threats and protests from the Shah of Persia soon led to the Cossacks being withdrawn. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Being mostly engaged in civil wars among themselves, these minor kings and princes of Western Georgia presented little danger to Turkeys eastern frontiers. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Driven from his capital, Vakhtang soon lost all hope of effective Russian support: While Peter plans to succour Paul, Paul is being skinned. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Caravans of merchants were con- stantly being waylaid and robbed. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The king thus lived in constant fear of being deposed or even murdered by his half-brothers, or of seeing yet another Persian army invading his kingdom. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This success enhanced Russian prestige to such an extent that for the time being, to use the historian Dubrovins metaphor, the rulers of neighbouring k.banates A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The element of surprise 5 C A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA which had enabled the Russians to overcome the petty Caucas- ian states one by one was now lost; the Persian shah and the Turkish sultan were on the alert, and neither the British nor the French could view with approval this Russian wedge being driven down towards Mesopotamia and the Levant on the one side, and towards the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean on the other. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This put a stop for the time being to any increase in Georgias importance as a stage in the international trade route between Europe and the East. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He won renown as a lyric poet, as did Prince Grigol Orbeliani (180083), both of them being high-ranking officers in the Russian Army. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Throughout Europe, the ideals typified by the Holy Alliance and the policies of Metterich and the Russian auto- crats were being called in question by thinking men. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The income of the Georgian Exarchate was not being spent, as it should have been, in keeping the churches under its authority in good repair. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At the same time, the native population not numbered among the Elect often grumbled at being ex- posed to Russian reprisals, while Shamils radicalism alarmed the conservative beks or tribal chiefs of Daghestan, some of whom were driven out of their estates by the Murids and forced to seek refuge with the Russians. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Thus, instead of being the hub of a trade network con- necting Europe with Asia via the Black Sea and the Caspian, Tbilisi became for the time being a commercial backwater, and J the Caucasian market served mainly as an outlet for the inferior products of Russian manufacturers. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia According to a British visitor, The road which leads through the marshy forests of Mingreia being axle deep in mud, the Emperor had become impatient, and, ordering the escort of Cossacks to dismount, bad mounted with his own staff, and proceeded on horseback, riding on a Cossack-saddle, and wearing the black felt japoncha of the natives. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia By that time, General Golovins army in Daghestan was being depleted through casualties at the rate of 12,000 men a year, apart from the loss of scores of guns and other valuable equipment. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In reality, the causes of their impoverishment lie far deeper, being bound up with the economic evolution of the Russian Empire, indeed of Europe as a whole. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the end, both parties welcomed Russian interventionthe landowners to safeguard their lives and property, the serfs in the hope of being guaranteed a status approximating to that enjoyed by crown peasants in Russia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia From the i 840s onwards, the Georgians grew potatoes, cabbages and teathe latter being introduced from 98 SOCIAL CHANGE AND NATIONAL AWAKENING: 185 594 China in 1845. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Baku being on the land-locked Caspian, Batumi became the main outlet for Baku oil. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He made himself extremely popular throughout the Caucasus, being a complete stranger to the narrow-minded chauvinism which developed in Russia towards the end of the nineteenth century and found expression in pan-Slavonic jingoism, anti-Jewish pogroms and other unlovely manifesta- tions. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The aristocratic interior was equally squalid, His Highnesss sitting room being furnished with sofas spread with carpets kept in such a condition that every excellent movement of Their Excellencies excellent limbs sent clouds of dust into the air, thus mercifully obscuring other sordid features of the apartment. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Thinking people in Georgia could not avoid being affected by the general tension and malaise affecting Russia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Every Georgian will feel gratified that you and your respected brother have conceived a love for our universally forgotten land, and desire to convey to your countrymen its bad and good sides, with all that affection and sympathy which so adorn a human being and are the priceless consolation of those who are oppressed by fate. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia These verses were part of a poem entitled Spring which appeared in a Tbilisi paper, and within a few days was being recited all over Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Like virtually every important Georgian man of letters of those days, he was constantly harried by the Russian censorship, which prevented some of his best works from being published during his life time. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia These two trends are born the one from the other; the first summons the second into being, while the second contributes to the development of the first. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The life of the Georgian people generally was being Europeanized. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The rich manganese ore deposits of Chiatura and the oil industry of Baku and Batumi were being developed, largely by foreign capital. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Batumi correspondent of lila Chavchavadzes paper, Iveria, reported in 1890 that not a day goes by without one or two workers being maimed and losing an arm or a foot. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Many of his comrades being under arrest, it fell to him to carry through the plans which had been made for a May Day demon- stration far more audacious than the inoffensive gatherings of 1899 and 1900. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In January 1902, a strike at Mantashevs ended in victory for the workers, the management being forced into important concessions. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In several Georgian towns, strikers engaged in violent combat with Cossacks and gendarmes, casualties being heavy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In December 1904, Nicholas finally issued a decree, but did not go beyond vague and general promises, no mention being made of a representative assembly. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia With increasing frequency, any of our enactments which have ex- ceeded the limits of minor domestic management have been forth- with annulled and prevented from being carried into effect. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Led by Isidore Ramishvili, the Georgian Mensheviks conscientiously fulfilled their part of the bargain, several of their number being killed while trying to restrain the Azerbaijan Turkish mobs. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A state of emergency prevails in the Kutaisi province; apart from Governor Staroselsky, no officials are being obeyed. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Social-Democrats were accused of plotting against the rgime, evidence of armed conspiracy being fabricated by agents provocateurs. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia During World War II, some wretched old man is said to have confessed to being em- ployed by the Russian gendarmerie chiefs to lead the attack on lila. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Gorodtsev, accused Georgian clerics of being behind the crime, and great bitterness was engendered on all sides. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Italian socialist made it cleat to Zhordania that however much Germany might A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA appear to the Tsars subjects in the guise of a liberator, many socialists of Western Europe could not reconcile themselves to the prospect of republican France and democratic Belgium and Britain being trampled underfoot by the Prussian jackboot. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The leading Georgian Social- Democrats renounced for the time being the extremist slogans of Bolshevik class war and came out on the side of national unity. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia For the civilian population of Tbilisi, ten wagon-loads of wheat a day were required, whereas only four were currently being delivered. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In their dim, dogmatic way, they were, no doubt, excellent patriots, though rather indifferent nationalists, being wholeheartedly devoted to the fashionable slogans of international brotherhood and working- class solidarity. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Georgian Menshevik Evgeni Gegechkori was elected chairman, as well as being Commissar of Labour and External Affairs. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia There remained in being only the so-called Georgian National Council, which had never been formally elected by the people. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Georgian was declared the sole permitted medium of official business, the use of Russian being outlawed in the Constituent Assembly, the law courts and the army. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He declared: I cannot permit the self-styled formations of Georgia and Azerbaijan, which have sprung up to the detriment of Russian state interests and which are clearly hostile to the idea of the Russian State, to receive food supplies at the expense of the areas of Russia which are being liberated from the Bolsheviks. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Not until February 1920, when the Whites were being rolled back in disorder by the Red Army, did Denikin deign to acknowledge de facto the governments of Russias border areas which were hostile to Bolshevism. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This bureau later formed the nucleus of an enlarged Caucasian Bureau, which came into being in May. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In a secret supplement, not made public for the time being, Georgia made an even greater concession to the Bolsheviks. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Have protested strongly and, I am thankful to say, effectively against Mission being accommodated, as was desired by the Bolshevik advance guard, in the house immediately facing, our Mission.8 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Georgian Peoples Guard displayed a zz8 GEORGIA AND COMMUNIST RUSSIA: 192024 frenzy of chauvinistic zeal during the mopping-up operations, many villages being burnt to the ground and large areas of fertile land ravaged and depopulated. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Kremlin propaganda machine proclaimed 230 GEORGIA AND COMMUNIST RUSSIA: 192024 that following Wrangels collapse in the Crimea, Georgia was being turned into a bastion of counter-revolution. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The morale of the troops was reported low, the ranks being undermined by revolutionary propaganda; desertion was rife and mutual hostility existed between the regular army and the Peoples Guard. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Broadly speaking, the agreement was extremely favourable to Turkey, the effect being to move the Turco-Soviet frontier virtually to the line existing prior to the war of 187778. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The desperate short- age of food and the breakdown of medical services resulted in heavy mortality, the Georgian Catholicos-Patriarch Leonid being among the dead. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the village of Ruisi, for instance, every human being carrying the name of 243 A MODERN HISTORY OP GEORGIA Paniashvili was put to death. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Many months later, foreign visitors to Tbilisi would receive smuggled notes begging them to intercede for individual prisoners held captive in the dungeons of the Cheka, while lorry-loads of prisoners being driven off into exile were a common sight on the roads. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Although the entire land surface had been nationalized follow- ing the Bolshevik occupation in i9zi, ri~ attempt was made as yet to enforce collectivization, so that the peasants continued for the time being to enjoy the use of the land distributed to them during the period of Georgian independence. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Plant that will harness 36,000 horse-power from the River Kura is now being erected. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Efforts are being made on a practical and effective scale for the entertainment, training, and even the education of the workers employed. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Holders of such views were denounced as rightist opportunists, and extensive purges of lukewarm officials and party workers took place: the Kaspi and Telavi regional com- mittees of the Communist Party, for instance, were drastically overhauled in 1931, all their leading members being dismissed from their posts. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia To crown it all, the cattle taken away from the peasants is being allowed to die off through lack of proper care and their equipment is being allowed to spoil. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Restaurants, hotels and shops were completely municipalized, though this was far from being an unmixed blessing for the consumer and general public. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Most of the migr min- isters, however, were distinguished by their longevity, one or two venerable octogenarians being alive even today. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia N. S. Khrushchev has said that at the time of his death in March 1953, Stalin was planning the annihilation of many of the veteran Politbureau members: Marshal Voro- shilov was under the extraordinary suspicion of being an English spy; Andreev bad been dismissed and relegated to limbo; baseless charges had been brought against Mikoyan and Molotov. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia While Tbilisi now has its own efficient tele- vision studio and transmitter, the production and marketing of television and radio sets, as well as such consumer durables as refrigerators, washing machines and electric cookers, is far from being equal to the potential demand. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Relief was mingled with bewilderment, while some people suspected that abuse of Stalin was being used in certain quarters as a pretext for discrediting the Georgians generally. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Some of my Soviet friends have expressed misgivings at my attempt to write an objective history of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, on the grounds that this may revive painful memories best wrapped in oblivion. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At the same time, I hope that this book may arouse interest in a fascinating and congenial people whom the accidents of history have too often cut off from the Western civilization with which they have so many xlii PREFACE affinities, and to which they are in a position to make so worth- while a contribution. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Whatever one may think of the impact of Russian ways upon the Caucasian peoples generally, there is no doubt that recent improvements in Svaneti have been highly beneficial. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Industrj and agriculture From Thilisi, one may motor rapidly down to the great metallurgical combine at Rustavi, which has done so much over the last dozen years to transform the economic life of Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Alternatively, one may take the dusty road which leads over a dry upland plateau into the easternmost Georgian province of Kakheti, or else take the little train which meand- ers slowly down the Telavi branch line. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The same author also gives the opening formula deemed appropriate for use in official despatches from the Egyptian Sultan to the King of Georgia: May God make permanent the felicity of the exalted presence, the presence of the great monarch, the hero, the bold, the lion, the illustrious, the attacker, the dauntless, the enthroned, the crowned, a scholar in his community, just to his subjects, the successor of the Greek kings, Sultan of the Georgians, treasure of the kingdom of the seas and gulfs, protector of the homeland of the knights, 9 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA the heir of his fathers in thrones and crowns, bulwark of the lands of Asia Minor and Iran, offspring of the Hellenes, the quintessence of the kings of the Syrians, the successor of the sons of thrones and crowns, the strengthener of Christianity, supporter of the religion compilers of dictionaries and astronomical and geographical of Jesus, the anointed leader of the Christian heroes, who glorifies Jerusalem by sincere purpose, the pillar of the sons of baptism, the helper of the Bab who is the Pope of Rome, the lover of the Mus- lims, the best of close companions, and the friend of Kings and Sultans. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia As evidence of this, one may cite two interesting Sassanian silver dishes discovered in Georgia at Armazi and Bori respectively: each portrays the sacrificial figure of a horse standing before the ritual fire altar. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia May Your Majesty add to your glorious titles that of Emperor of Asia! A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But may you deign to liberate me, together with a million Christian souls, from the yoke of the pitiless emperor of Moscow, either by your lofty mediation, or else by the might of your all-powerful arm, and set me beneath the protective shadow of your guardianship!26 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Peace with the Ottoman Empire had already been concluded at Bucarest in May i8iz, whereby the Russians handed back to the Turks the Black Sea port of Poti and the strategic town of Akhal- kalaki. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But, you may say, these folk are as good as J demanding a constitution! A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This venture was greeted 89 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA with great enthusiasm, so that in May, Eristavi staged another of his comedies, The Lawsuit (Dava). A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But in the end, this burst of feverish activity may have the good effect of teaching the Georgians that there is no substitute for diligent learning, steady work and the careful thinking out of feasible projects and undertakings.55 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia They were addressed by Lado Ketskhoveli and other orators, who stressed the significance of May Day as a symbol of the international solidarity of the toiling masses. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia 37 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA The workers of the whole of Russia, declared a revolutionary broadsheet of the time, have decided to celebrate the First of May openlyin the best thoroughfares of the city. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The im- mediate aim of this propaganda is the desire at all costs to hold an anti-government demonstration on or about i8 April (Old Style: i.e. the First of May), to show that the workers censure the govern- ment for pursuing an unnecessary war with Japan, and that they have only one aim: Down with autocracy! A Modern History of Soviet Georgia 76 By placing the city under martial law, the authorities in Tbilisi nipped in the bud the projected May Day procession there. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In May 1905, a meeting of Georgian priests and bishops was convened in Tbilisi to dis- cuss this important question. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The crush- ing annihilation of the Baltic fleet at Tsushima 011 272 8 May provoked fresh demands for an end to the unpopular Russo- Japanese war. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The viceroy, Vorontsov-Dashkov, arrived in Tbilisi on i8 May 1905, and found the situation even worse than he had expected. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In May, Nakashidze was assassinated by Armenian nationalists. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia When the First Duma assembled on 27 April/io May I9O~ at the Tauride Palace in St. Petersburg, the well-organized Georgian Social-Democratic faction under Zhordanias leader- ship immediately assumed a dominant role in the left-wing opposition. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia While the Second Duma was in session, the Fifth Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Party took place in London in May 1907. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Matters reached a head in 1908, when the Russian Exarch of Georgia, Archbishop Nikon, was murdered on z8 May at his 77 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA residence in Thilisi by unidentified assassins. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Among these we may men- tion the executive committees of the cities of Tbilisi and Kutaisi, which represented a wide range of social groups and classes, and normally obeyed the directives of the Ozakom, and the Tbilisi Soviet of Workers Deputies (Chairman, Noe Zhordania), in which the Georgian Mensheviks had a decisive majority and to which as time went on deputies of the soldiers and peasants also adhered. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In May i 917, the first congress of delegates of the Caucasian army met in Tbilisi. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The resumed peace talks between Turkey and Transcaucasia opened at Batumi, now in Turkish hands, on ii May 1918. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On 24 May 1918, von Lossow announced that owing to Turkish intransigence, his efforts at mediation had failed, and that the German delegation would leave Batumi at once on the S.S. Minna Horn. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia That same day, 26 May 1918, Irakli Tseretei in the Diet in Tbilisi had proclaimed Georgia a sovereign country independ- ent of the Transcaucasian Federative Republic, which was now dissolved; Zhordania read a formal Act of Independence; and von Kressenstein and von der Schulenburg appeared in person at the Tbilisi Town Hall, to announce the establishment of a German protectorate over the newly born Georgian republic. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A provisional agreement between Imperial Germany and the Georgian Republic was signed at Poti on z8 May 1918. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia zo8 CHAPTER X INDEPENDENT GEORGIA: 1918-21 Formation of the Georgian cabinet Trends in Georgian Socialism The agrarian question Financial instabilitji The British replace the Germans An Armenian invasion Denikin and the lVhites The British withdrawal Georgia at the Paris Conference Formation of the Georgian cabinet THE GEORGIAN GOVERNMENT formed by Noe Ramish- vili on 26 May 1918 included several Menshevik leaders who had already held portfolios in the former Transcaucasian administration. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On 7 May 1920 the Georgian Menshevik government felt it advisable to sign a treaty of friendship with Soviet Russia, pledging themselves among other things to work for the removal of all foreign troops from Georgian soil. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On ii May, General Sir George Milne, Com- mander-in-Chief of the British Army of the Black Sea, was accidentally fired upon by Georgian artillery when on an in- spection tour of the border area of the Batumi military district. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia on 3 May 1920, twenty-five Bolsheviks, mostly Armenians, attempted to seize the Military Academy as a preliminary to a coup detat. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Zhordania, anxious above all to secure for Georgia dejure recognition by all the great powers, overruled his Foreign Minister, and the treaty was signed in Moscow on 7 May 1920. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Soviet-Georgian treaty of May 1920 was simply a tactical manceuvre; by November, Stalin was declaring: Georgia, which has been transformed into the principal base of the imperialist operations of England and France and which therefore has entered into hostile relations with Soviet Russia, that Georgia is now living out the last days of her life. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Among these were the principal leaders of the resistance movement, Generals Kon- stantine Abkhazi, Alexander Andronikashvili and Vardan Dsulukidze; they were executed on 20 May i 923. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Industty and construction The concluding phrase quoted may perhaps contain an element of wishful thinking. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Amongworks written from a standpoint definitely favourable to the Soviet Union, one may cite Russia: The Oj7Icial Report of the British Trades Union Delega- tion to Russia and Caucasia, Nov. and Dec., 1924 (London: TUG, 1925), as well as a good, up to date little booklet on Georgia written by the present Prime Minister of the Georgian SSR, Mr. Givi Javakhishvili, and published for sixpence in the series The Fifteen Soviet Socialist Republics Todqy and Tomorrow (London: Soviet Booklets, 1960). A Modern History of Soviet Georgia They are clean and well turned out. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Likewise, King Dimitri of Georgia visited the Thilisi cathedral mosque on a Friday, sat on a platform opposite the preacher and remained in his place throughout the service; on his way out, he granted the mosque two hundred gold dinars.5 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Legions of little pigs with blunt noses and naked haunches obscenely pink, ran about like animated brushes, squealing out their discoveries and their discomforts to an indifferent world. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At Telavi, one can look out from the eighteenth-century palace and chapel of King Erekle II, now converted into a regional museum, over the great green plain of Kakheti to the mount- ains of Daghestan, or walk down the road to an immense tree under which Georgian writers and poets of half a century ago used to assemble and talk. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Nor do we have the impression of an urban society on the scale of Athens or Rome, where every citizen of substance was attended by scores of slaves, and entrepreneurs made a handsome living by leasing out thou- sands of slave labourers to mine operators and industrial contractors. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Nervous, brittle and inteffigent in his small tumbling world, to use W. E. D. Allens graphic phrase, the king felt out this way and that for the bricks of some stability.7 A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In 1768, war broke out between Russia and Turkey. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Now this honorific title had 40 RISE AND FALL OF THE GEORGIAN KINGS become reality with a vengeance; having entered voluntarily into the bears embrace, the kings of Georgia now found the breath hugged out of them altogether. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Tsitsianovthat mad dog! Queen Mariam cried out. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia When one of the children cried out that he was thirsty, a bystander brought up a jug of water, which the Russian escort hurled to the ground. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Queen Dowager Darejanthat Hydra, as Tsitsianov delicately termed herheld out until the October of i 803, when she too was bundled off to Russia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A contributory cause of this fiasco was a mass uprising which broke out along the Georgian military highway over the Caucasus range, on which the Russians depended for all reinforcements and supplies. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia As Tsitsianov rode out to meet the khan and his followers, the Persians opened fire and shot him down on the spot. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Famine and plague broke out, and some 30,000 people perished, while hundreds of peasant families sought refuge in Eastern Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Only King Solomon II of Imereti held out to the bitter end. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia However, this eloquent plea, which reached him shortly before he set out on his ill-fated campaign to Moscow, provided him with encouraging evidence of the unsettled condition of Russias Transcaucasian provinces. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But as things turned out, Napoleon could not save even his own Grand Army from virtual annihilation, let alone a princeling down in the distant 53 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA Caucasus. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia No sooner was Western Georgia out- wardly pacified than fresh troubles broke out in Kartli and Kakheti. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia They wiped out the garrison of Sighnaghi and blockaded Telavi, the capital town of Kakheti. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Condescension in the eyes of Asiatics is a sign of weakness, and out of pure human- ity I am inexorably severe. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Imports of Western manufactured goods, however, far out- weighed Georgian exports of raw materials. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The fire seemed to have gone out of the veteran warrior. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia During the winter, Paskevich visited his imperial master in St. Petersburg, and impressed upon him the potentialities of an all-out offensive in Asia Minor. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This hope, as it turned out, was a trifle premature. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The British advent- urers Longworth and Bell made several trips across the Black Sea to establish contact with the Circassians, to whom they held out hopes of material help and diplomatic support from the British government. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In spite of these factors, Rosen carried out the Senates orders to the letter. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Serfs knew what their obligations were, masters, what they could require of their serfs, and both sides carried out their duties meticulously. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This officer made a fortune by hiring out his soldiers as forced labourers and pocketing their wages. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The reigning princess of Guria, Sophia, had been driven out by the Russians during the war of 182829, and took refuge in Turkey. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Members of the Georgian aristocracy would go out of their way to visit Odessa and call on Prince Vorontsovs widow, ne Countess Elizabeth Branitskaya, a gracious lady who had in her youth attracted the admiration of the poet Pushkin. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the spring of x 846, Shamil set out in force from his highland fastnesses, and crossed the military highway and the River Terek to the north of Vladikavkaz. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Akaki Tsereteli the poet relates in his reminiscences how, as a young cadet, he once rejected out of pride a pocketful of gold ducats offered to him as a gift by Princess Vorontsov herself. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But he is no passive fatalist, no pessimist; his faith in a better future stands out clearly in his verse. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He visited Georgia during the viceroyalty of Prince Vorontsov, who joined with local notables in encourag- ing his work, helping him to search out and edit ancient charters and record inscriptions on churches and ancient monuments. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Other noteworthy Georgian scholars of the time included David Chubinashvili or Chubinov (i8 1491), Professor of 90 TSAR NICHOLAS AND VICEROY VORONTSOV: 18325 5 Georgian at St. Petersburg University, who brought out valuable Georgian dictionaries and an anthology of Georgian literature, and assisted M.-F. Brosset in editing the Georgian annals; also Platon boseiani, the Thilisi antiquary, who wrote a brief history of the Georgian Church, a life of King Giorgi XII, and studies of ancient Georgian cities. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In spite of the incompetence of the local Russian commander, who was the Georgian prince Ivane Bagration-Mukhransky, Omars campaign gradually petered out. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Prince Baryatinsky, who succeeded Count Muraviev as viceroy of the Caucasus in i 856, worked out a systematic plan for the reduction of Daghestan. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Shamils authority had for some time been waning, so that the Russians, who had greatly improved their communications system, were able to cut off the Murids from their sources of supply and gradually to squeeze them out of one redoubt after another. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia During the Turkish invasion under Omar Pasha in i8~ ~ -~6, the Regent of Mm- grelia, Catherine Dadiani, showed attachment to the Russian 95 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA cause, and organized a militia to help drive out the intruders. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A peasant revolt broke out, led by a blacksmith named thu Mikava. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Landowners often loaned out their serfs to factories and plantations on a seasonal basis, in return for a cash pay- ment. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Everyone has come to feel that the era when it was possible to live an insouciant, idle existence at the expense of other peoples efforts has vanished completely, or is at least on the way out. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia One man is building a wine ware- house to supply the city with drink, another is trying to make a fortune out of milkthere is no limit to these bright ideas, and all their promoters are naturally keen to secure financial backing from the bank! A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Overtaken in the end by poverty, he went out of his mind, and died after four sad years in Tbiilsi asylum. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The workmen were ignorant and clumsy, so that productivity was low; in fact, it often took three or more persons to carry out tasks which a trained Western worker could perform single-handed. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia 121 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA The Third Group The first systematic Georgian Marxists were a band of young intellectuals known as the Mesame Dasi (Third Group), which set out to supersede both the so-called First Group, the movement headed by lila Chavchavadze and his contemporaries, who had led the crusade against serfdom a generation before, and the liberal Second Group of Giorgi Tsereteli and Niko Nikoladze. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia One stuck to the time-honoured agrarian programme; the other, led by G. V. Plekhanov, set out to graft on to the Russian revolutionary movement the ideas of Western industrial socialism. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In December i 892, there took place at Zestafoni in Western Georgia the first meeting of the so-called Third Group, Out of which was to grow the Georgian Social-Democratic Partji. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Once new ideas took root in the towns, they would soon spread out into the villages of their own accord. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But the fact that the workers were concentrated at key centres of transport and communications gave them an importance out of all proportion to their numer- ical strength. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The crippled victim is mercilessly kicked out into the street, like a piece of useless old rubbish. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A positive impetus to their movement was provided by a series of well planned strikes which broke out from 1898 onwards in various sectors of Georgian industry. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In December i 898, the main Tbilisi railway depot came out on strike in protest against a reduction in wages, the abolition of free railway passes for railwaymen and their families, and other vexatious measures. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In the following month, a strike broke out at Rothschilds over the dismissal of nearly four hundred workers suspected of subversive activities. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia A company of the 7th Caucasian Rifles were called out to clear the square, but were met with jeers and stones. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Then the prisoners inside managed to break out and join their comrades outside the barracks. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In July 1903, a general strike broke out in the southern u provinces of Russia, beginning at the great oil city of Baku. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia These agrarian revolutionaries formed the Georgian Socialist-Federalist Revolutionary Party, allied to the Russian Social-Revolutionaries or S.-R.s. The leading spirit in this party was Archil Jorjadze, who convened its first conference at Geneva in 1904 and brought out a newspaper Sakartvelo or La Georgie which appeared at Paris in Georgian and French. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia When war broke out between Russia and Japan in February 1904, the Georgian Social-Democrats immediately set to work to exploit the new situation. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Representatives of the provincial Zemstvos or county councils met privately in St. Petersburg in November, and worked out a petition which they submitted to Nicholas, asking for in- violability of the person, freedom of conscience, of speech, of meeting, of the Press, of association, and equal civil rights for every class of society. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Strikes broke out in Russias chief cities, and the Social-Revolutionary, Kalyaev, blew up the Grand Duke Sergius in the Kremlin. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Pending the viceroys arrival in Tbilisi, a special representative of the viceregal council, Privy Councillor Prince N. A. Sultan Krym-Girey, was sent to Guria to carry out a first-hand enquiry into the underlying causes of the disorders and to assure the population that the viceroy would make every attempt to redress their legitimate grievances. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Peasants were rising against the gendarmes and the landlords, murder- ing them or turning them out, and seizing property and estates. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Heightened tension led to yet another general strike which broke out in Tbilisi on 20 June 1905, and lasted until the end of the month. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At the present moment, they wrote, when we are witnessing the birth of new forms of government and the working out of fundamental problems, freedom of assembly and of speech, as well as personal security, are elementary and normal conditions without which it is impossible to bring about any measures of reform, or find any way out of the present intolerable situation. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The walls of the Town Hall are crimsoned with gore and riddled with bullets, on the floor lie pools of blood and traces of the savage and inhuman vengeance meted out to a peaceful crowd. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Anticipate strike of railway workers and clerks, some of whom already out. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At Kutaisi, Batumi and Akhal-Senaki they broke out of their barracks, terrorized the local inhabitants and massacred a number of them. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia While Litvinov and Krassin in St. Petersburg edited Novqya Zhi~n (The New L~e), and Trotsky published his brilliant Nachalo (The Start), down in Tbilisi Stalin and his Armenian fellow-Bolshevik Shaumian brought out a Bolshevik daily with the more prosaic title, The Caucasian lVorkers News-sheet. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Couriers sent out with 163 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA reports are searched by revolutionaries and their papers seized; the situation there is quite beyond control. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The out- rages committed against women resulted in the launching of an Appeal from the Women of Georgia directed to public opinion all over the world, and Mrs. N. F. Dryhurst and others constituted a Hampstead Committee formed in response to the Georgian Womens Appeal. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Conse- quently, 72 out of the 8o members of the Tbilisi electoral college were Social-Democrats, and they in their turn elected Noe Zhordania to represent them in the Duma. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Before the Kropotkinite movement faded out, however, leading Georgian Marxists spent much energy in combating the Anarchist ideology, which they considered especially pernicious. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia If only you would leave us alone to sort out our affairs in our own way, we could soon get them straight. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Georgian bishops pointed out that under the Russian exarchs sent down from St. Peters- burg to run Georgias ecclesiastical affairs, the Georgian Church had been robbed of some 140 million rubles worth of property and estates; ancient icons had been stripped of precious gems, sold to line the pockets of Russian governors and army commanders; unique Gospel manuscripts had been ripped from their jewelled bindings and left to decay; Church schools had been closed down, and the use of Georgian in the ference of Georgian clergy which met at Thilisi in 1905 had been broken up by police and troops. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In 1910, Father Michael Tamarati (Tamarashvili), a Georgian Catholic priest, brought out in Rome a detailed and well documented history of the Georgian Church, written in French, in which he showed how this important branch of Christendom, which neither Arabs, Mongols, Turks nor Persians could exterminate, had finally been subjugated and crushed by Russian fellow-Christians of the Holy Orthodox Church. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The port workers at Poti and Batumi came out in sympathy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Armenians on the other hand looked forward eagerly to the annihilation of the hated Turk and the establishment of an independent Greater Armenia carved out of the Ottoman Empire and Russian Transcaucasia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Mussolini listened for a time and then burst out: We shall not permit Germany to crush France! A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At the northern end of the front, a Turkish detachment from Trebizond drove the Russians out of Ardahan. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Lyakhov ravaged and depopulated the entire Chorokhi valley up to Artvin, in the vicinity of which only 7,000 out of a previous population of 52,000 Georgian Muslims were left alive. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Plans were worked out for a Russian thrust on Mosul to coincide with the anticipated British capture of Baghdad, which took place at length in March 1917. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Unappreciated during his lifetime, Pirosmani eked out a life of misery, painting panels for inns and executing chance commissions for any who would employ him. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia She financed this and other valuable works both out of her own pocket and by means of subsidies which she obtained from members of the imperial family. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Bishop Kyrion was elected Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia, taking the title of Kyrion II, and new statutes were worked out at synods held in Tbilisi in 1917 and at the historic monastery of Gelati in 1921. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Divergences often broke out over tactics and priorities. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The procurement of such quantities was out of the question. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia With public speakers of the calibre of Irakli Tsereteli and Nikolai Chkheidze prominent first in the Tsarist Dumas and then under Kerensky, the Georgian Mensheviks exerted an influence in Russian affairs out of all proportion to their numerical strength. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Three days after its forma- tion, the Turks occupied the great fortress of Kars, from which thousands of panic-stricken men and women streamed out, carrying their children and their possessions on their backs. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The reform was carried out with great thoroughness. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia During the summer of 1918, the land was patrolled by German helmets, some actually worn by polite, 214 INDEPENDENT GEORGIA: 191821 well-disciplined German soldiers, others lent out to the Georg- ian National Army and prominently exhibited on sticks at strategic points along the Turkish frontier. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Armen- ians were at first victorious and marched on Tbilisi itself, the large Armenian colony of which was subjected to many out- rages at the hands of the incensed Georgians. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia That the 1920 agreement would turn out in the same way could, however, scarcely have been foreseen when it was signed. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Armenias death agony was prolonged until April 1921, when Bolshevik rule was re-established and the country finally parcelled out between Soviet Russia and Kemalist Turkey. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Conflict also arose out of Georgias contacts with Baron Wrangel, who had succeeded the inept Denikin as head of the White Russian movement, and managed to maintain himself from April until November 1920 in the Crimea. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia When war actually broke out, Georgia had a small, poorly equipped army with an insignificant cavalry, and a few aeroplanes which remained 232 GEORGIA AND COMMUNIST RUSSIA: 192024 grounded throughout the campaign through lack of high-grade petrol. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Georgian commander-in-chief, Kvinitadze, was at length obliged to admit that Tbilisi could hold out no longer. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Georgians hope of holding out near Kutaisi was further dashed by the bold advance of a Red Army detachment from North Caucasia which traversed the difficult Mamison Pass through deep snow drifts in arctic conditions and advanced down the Rioni valley into Imereti. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Twenty years earlier, in the days of the old Mesame Dasi when Social-Democracy was first taking root in Georgia, young Jughashvill-Stalin had been the odd man out. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In October 1917 he had the satisfaction of seeing his compatriots and rivals Karlo Chkheidze and Irakli Tsereteli, both leading figures in the Kerensky rgime, turned out of Petrograd and banished to their native Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The crowd reserved its ovation for the veteran revolu- tionary leader Isidore Ramishvili and another of their leaders, Alexander Dgebuadze, who asked Stalin straight out: Why have you destroyed Georgia? What have you to offer by way of atonement? Surrounded by the angry faces of his old comrades Stalin turned pale and could only stutter a few words of self- justification, after which he left the hail cowering behind his Russian bodyguard. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Guerilla warfare broke out in several regions. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The trouble was, Lenin shrewdly diagnosed, that Stalin the Georgian and Dzerzhinsky the Pole had gone out of their way to assume true Russian char- acteristics. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Rector, the noted historian Ivane Javakhishvili (18761940), was dismissed from his post and replaced by a professor more in tune with Communist aims; as it turned out, this eclipse probably saved Javakhishvilis life, since the then Rector of the University was among the purge victims during the terror of 193637. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia They undertook lightning campaigns in selected villages, turning alleged kulaks out of their homes and 248 L THE STALIN ERA: 192453 distributing their goods and chattels to the poorer peasants. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Fierce fighting broke out in Kakheti, where a hundred and fifty soldiers were killed. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Drainage and irrigation schemes were carried out. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Beria himself set out to eliminate any of the Georgian Old Bolsheviks who might have felt inclined to challenge the truth of his assertions. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Central Committee of the Georgian Communist Party has found out that the outstanding masters of the Georgian languageMikheil Javakhishvili, Titsian Tabidze and Paolo Iasbvilibecame victims of the intrigues and terrorism of that abominable gang of murderers. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The next fIfteen years or more were a period of utter stagnation in Georgian literature, in which writers eked out an existence by composing dithyrambs about life in factories or on collective farms, or sycophantic odes to Stalin the superman. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In metropolitan Russia, Stalins fantastic delusions manifested themselves in such sinis- ter incidents as the 1949 Leningrad affair, involving the shooting out of hand of the State Planning Chairman Voznes- ensky, and the bogus Doctors Plot, in which leading Russian physicians narrowly escaped extermination at the hands of the secret police. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia This disturbance arose out of perfectly legal demonstrations held to commemorate the third anniversary of Stalins death. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia N. S. Khrushchev himself ridiculed this idea in 1956, when pouring scorn on Stalins obsession with a supposed Georgian nationalist movement planning to take Georgia out of the Soviet Union and join her to Turkey. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Scient:fic advances Extensive research has been carried out recently in Georgia into automation, instrument making, electrical engineering and telemechanics. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The nuclear reactor recently installed in Tbilisi enables scientists there to carry out investigations into the peaceful uses of atomic energy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The reorganization of management in industry and con- struction works carried out in the USSR in 1957 helped to accelerate the development of the Georgian economy. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Eighteen out of every thousand of the popu- lation hold a university degree or training college diploma. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Professor Simon Qaukhchishvili has brought out a new edition of the Georgian Annals (Kartlis tskbovreba), based on all the best manuscripts. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The adoption of the Christian faith had momentous consequences for the entire nation, which became an outer bulwark of Christendom in the pagan Orient. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia However, they were obliged to negotiate with him concerning the supply of wheat and oats for Georgia, and there were occasions when the Georgians failed to intern and hand over to the Communists certain White Russian units and ships seeking a temporary refuge on Georgian soil or in Georgian ports. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In this way, Caucasia became a living museum of ancient races and the repository of a deep stratification of various cultures and creeds. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Although the peoples of the Caucasus speak many languages and profess a variety of different religions, the region possesses a characteristic atmosphere and way of living which permeates every racial group and walk of life. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The old part of the town lies at the south-eastern end, where the hills converge and fOrm a ravine through which the river fights its way with swift eddies and much noise. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In this way there was erected the imposing structure of the Georgian monarchy, a veritable Caucasian empire, exercising suzerainty over the Muslim kingdom of Shirvan on the Caspian Sea and z8 RISE AND FALL OF THE GEORGIAN KINGS later, over the Christian realm of Trebizond on the Black Sea an empire renowned for its political and military might, its cultural efflorescence and its economic prosperity. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At the Kremlin, Tsar Alexis had plenty to occupy him in the way of tumult, religious schism, and wars with his European neigh- bours. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Georgians fought like lions at bay, but were decimated and had to give way at last before the overwhelming numbers of the foe. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It appears also that representatives of Western powers expressed, albeit discreetly, their misgivings at the way in which Georgias absorption had been effected. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The high-handed way in which Alexander had suppressed the independence of Kartlo-Kakheti did not pass without protest. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The general proposed first to conquer Erzurum and overrun the Armenian highlands; next, to launch a combined operation against Trebizond, with the support of the Russian Navy; and thirdly, to advance into the heart of Anatolla by way of Sivas. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Georgia sank gradually into a mood of torpid acquiescence, until the economic and intellectual revival which occurred during the viceroyalty of Prince Vorontsov, between i 845 and i 8H~ paved the way for a fresh upsurge of national con- sciousness. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He set Avaria alight, invaded the north- eastern Caucasus by way of Tarku, and laid siege to the Russian stronghold of Vnezapnaya in Chechnya. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In this way, the Russian authorities endeared themselves to the landed gentry of Western Georgia, though at the expense of the wretched serfs. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia At its best, indeed, the old Georgian feudal system could provide a benevolent, patriarchal way of life. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Not all serfs were taxed the same amount by way of quitrent. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia But if you show your devotion in some other way, perhaps I will remove this quitrent. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It was during the reign of Nicholas I, which lasted from 1825 to i 8~ ~, that the industriaL revolution really got under way in Russia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On his way to banishment, this Svanian prince, Constantine Dadeshkeliani by name, came to Kutaisi for a farewell audience with the Governor-General of Western Georgia, Prince Alexander Gagarin, a jovial man and a good administrator, who had built a boulevard and two bridges over the Rioni at Kutaisi and embellished the town with a public garden. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In i888, zi per cent, of the world supply of oil passed through that port on its way to Russia and other consumer countries. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia 105 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA So long as the feudal system persisted in our land, everyone relied on the peasants unpaid labour and concentrated on living in a care- free way. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Added obstacles were placed in the way of the Georgians progress towards full civic rights. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia All this helped to pave the way for active participation by the Georgians in the revolutionary struggle which culminated in the events of 1917. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Escaping in 1876, he made his way to Switzerland and joined in the literary and conspiratorial work of the Russian emigres there. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia If on questions relating to our internal way of life we are at loggerheads, nevertheless we stand united against the external foe. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Zhordania went on to stress that in the new conditions created by capitalism, it was the town and not the village which led the way towards economic progress and social change. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Its many oppressive acts cleared the way for Socialist propagandists. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia To this, the all-powerful minister retorted that the country was now on the verge of revolution, and that the one way to avert it was a small victorious war. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia However, the organizers forced their way in and the meeting began in the presence of an audience of some 2,000, including many ordinary citizens who had come from sheer curiosity. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia On 28 August, he was way- laid and murdered by a gang of assassins close to his country home at Saguramo, near Mtskheta. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The Turkish supreme commander and War Minister was Enver Pasha, who conceived a grand strategy which would, he believed, open the way to the expulsion of Russia from the entire Caucasus. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Only posthumously did fame come his way. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia In this way the Georgian capital was preserved from the marauding hordes of Russian troops returning home pell-mell from the Caucasian front. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia About a million acres were soon disposed of in this way. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Another member of the Berlin delegation, Zurab Avalishvili, was therefore sent to neutral Scandinavia to make contact with British and French diplomats there in an effort to secure recognition of Georgias neutral status and pave the way for a transfer of allegiance from the German to the Allied side. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia It passed resolutions calling upon the Revcom to defend Georgias rights to self-determination and independence; to hasten the formation of a national Red Army of Georgia; to secure for the working masses of Georgia the right to select their representatives by free elections; to ensure that the new Soviet order was introduced into Georgia in such a way as to respect the customs of the people; and to legalize the existence of all socialist organizations not actually engaging in activities directed against the rgime. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Russian agents of the political police or Cheka were sent to Georgia to mop up the local Mensheviks, whom the Georgian Bolsheviks would rather have been left to win over or render harmless in their own way. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Russian national4y policj todgy Friends of Georgia will naturally hope that further de-Stalin- ization is in store for her, as well as for the Soviet Union as a whole, and that the monolithic exclusiveness of single-party rule will give way over the generations to a more truly demo- cratic system. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia I The coming of the Russians, the building of roads and rail- 8 THE LAND AND THE PEOPLE ways, the digging of mines, and the introduction and develop- ment of collective and state farms have greatly changed the face of Imereti over the last century and a half. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The impact of European ways is spreading apace. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Feudalism as practised in Georgia was by no means identical with the Russian system of serf proprietorship, which had reached the high point of its development during the reign of Catherine the Great, and was in many ways indis- tinguishable from outright slavery. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Nor can one overlook the deterioration of relations between the native Georgian population and the occupying power, resulting from the exactions of the military commanders and the corrupt ways of Tsarist officialdom. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia He was soon replaced by a Russian cleric, Theophilact Rusanov, a man quite alien to Georgian ways. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Thus ended the inde- pendent existence of this renowned nation of fighters and hunters, mentioned with respect by Strabo and the ancients, but sunk in more recent times into squalor and ignorance from which contact with European ways has only lately begun to redeem them. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Patriarchal customs unchallenged over the centuries were breaking down as the Georgian people came into contact with European ways and acquired new tastes and habits. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Contact with the writings of such pioneer radicals as Belinsky and Herzen, and the personal influence of the fearless progressives Chernyshevsky and Dobrolyubov, soon produced in these Georgian students a state of mind highly critical towards Tsarist autocracy, the institution of serfdom, 99 A MODERN HISTORY OF GEORGIA and the patriarchal ways which they had taken for granted in their native Georgia. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The motto of the bookCriticize your friend to his face, your foe behind his backshows the authors intention of depicting the seamy side Of Georgian life in the hope of stirring his countrymen to mend their ways. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Poles, Ukrainians and other Slavonic lesser breeds were coerced into conformity with Muscovite ways and ideas, while every attempt was made to assimilate Russias Asiatic subjects and bring them into line. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia While forced to instruct their flock in the uncongenial idiom of Russian, the teachers drum- med into their pupils contempt for alien ways and pride in their native Georgian heritage. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia The majestic mountain scenery, the ways and customs of the hill folk, their virile, jealous and combative spirit, and their rich folk-traditions, were important elements in Vazba-Pshavelas artistic inspiration. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Zhordania relates in his memoirs that after one meeting, Lenin came up to him in the street and said: I Look here, CastroWhy dont you Georgians cease meddling in Russias affairs? You dont understand our people, their psy- chology, their ways and customs. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia Hydro- electric power, mineral springs and spas, the Tqibuli coal mines, the Chiatura manganese industry, the ports and rail- ways, were all nationalized. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia
A great many inteffi- gent people believe that answers have already been Introduction Behaviorism is not the science of human behav- Some of these questions will eventuafly be answered ABOUT BBavIoRIsM 4 found and that they are all unpromising. About Behaviorism It works with animals, particularly with white rats, but not with people, and its picture of human be- havior is therefore confined to those features which human beings share with animals. About Behaviorism Its achievements under laboratory control cannot be duplicated in daily life, and what it has to say about human behavior in the world at large is therefore un- supported metascience. About Behaviorism If its contentions are valid, they must apply to the behavioral scientist himself, and what he says is therefore only what he has been conditioned to say and cannot be true. About Behaviorism It is necessarily antidemocratic because the re- lation between experimenter and subject is manipula- tive, and its results can therefore be used by dictators but not by men of good will. About Behaviorism How can it be ex- plained? The early history of the movement may have caused trouble. About Behaviorism As the title shows, he was not proposing a new science but arguing that psychology should be redefined as the study of behavior. About Behaviorism All the misunderstandings listed above are to be found in cur- rent publications by philosophers, theologians, social scientists, historians, men and women of letters, psy- chologists, and many others. About Behaviorism It seemed to be implied that human behavior had no distinguishing characteristics. About Behaviorism Nevertheless, it would be unfair to argue that the critic has not been able to ABOUT BEHAVIOBISM 8 9 Introduction free himself from these historical prejudices. About Behaviorism There must be some other reason why behaviorism as the philosophy of a science of behavior is still so seriously misunderstood. About Behaviorism Much is at stake in the way in which we look at ourselves, and a be- havioristic formulation certainly calls for some disturb- ing changes. About Behaviorism There are many different kinds of be- havioral science, and some of them, as I shall show later, formulate the field in ways which do not raise important behavioristic issues. About Behaviorism The criticisms listed above are most effectively answered by a special dis- cipline, which has come to be called the experimental analysis of behavior. About Behaviorism The behaviorism I present in this book is the phi- losophy of this special version of a science of be- havior. About Behaviorism Watson spoke for the behaviorist, and in his time he was the be- haviorist, but no one can assume that mantle today. About Behaviorism Tradi- tional views have ,been around for centuries, and I think it is fair to say that they have proved to be in- adequate. About Behaviorism The major prob- lems facing the world today can be solved only if we improve our understanding of human behavior. About Behaviorism 1J The Causes of Behavior Why do people behave as they do? It was prob- ably first a practical question: How could a person anticipate and hence prepare for what another person would do? Later it would become practical in another sense: How could another person be induced to be- have in a given way? Eventually it became a matter of understanding and explaining behavior. About Behaviorism It could al- ways be reduced to a question about causes. About Behaviorism It is true that we felt angry before, or as, we spoke, and so we take our anger to be the cause of our remark. About Behaviorism We seem to be saying, When I have felt like this before, I have behaved in such and such a way. About Behaviorism Of many ex- amples to be found in the explanation of human be- havior, one is especially important here. About Behaviorism But an- other question then arises: How can a mental event cause or be caused by a physical one? If we want to predict what a person will do, how can we discover the mental causes of his behavior, and how can we produce the feelings and states of mind which will induce him to behave in a given way? Suppose, for example, that we want to get a child to eat a nutritious but not very palatable food. About Behaviorism It appears that in depriving him of food (a physical event) we have made him feel hungry (a mental event), and that be- cause he has felt hungry, he has eaten the nutritious food (a physical event). About Behaviorism What is to be done about them? About Behaviorism All this may be done through direct observation, possibly with the help of recording systems, and with interviews, questionnaires, tests, and polls. About Behaviorism The study of literature, art, and music is often confined to the forms of these products of human be- havior, and linguists may confine themselves to pho- netics, semantics, and syntax. About Behaviorism Mind, it is said, will eventually be found to have a physical basis. About Behaviorism Freud believed that his very complicated mental apparatus would eventually be found to be physiological, and early introspective psy- chologists called their discipline Physiological Psy- chology. About Behaviorism But in any case we seem to be no worse off for ignoring philosophical problems. About Behaviorism The structure or organization of behavior can also be studied as a function of time or age, as in the de- velopment of a childs verbal behavior or his problem- solving strategies or in the sequence of stages through which a person passes on his way from infancy to ma- turity, or in the stages through which a culture evolves. About Behaviorism History emphasizes changes occurring in time, and if patterns of development or growth can be discovered, they may also prove helpful in predicting future events. About Behaviorism Time ABoUT BER&vloRIsM 14 or age cannot be manipulated; we can only wait for a person or a culture to pass through a developmental period. About Behaviorism Methodological Behaviorism The mentalistic problem can be avoided by going di- rectly to the prior physical causes while bypassing in- termediate feelings or states of mind. About Behaviorism The quickest way to do this is to confine oneself to what an early be- haviorist, Max Meyer, called the psychology of the other one: consider only those facts which can be ob- jectively observed in the behavior of one person in its relation to his prior environmental history. About Behaviorism A program of methodological behaviorism be- came plausible only when progress began to be made in the scientific observation of behavior, because only then was it possible to override the powerful effect of men- talism in diverting inquiry away from the role of the environment. About Behaviorism Once the environment begins to be studied, however, its significance cannot be denied. About Behaviorism Methodological behaviorism might be thought of as a psychological version of logical positivism or opera- tionism, but they are concerned with different issues. About Behaviorism Logical positivism or operationism holds that since no two observers can agree on what happens in the world of the mind, then from the point of view of physical science mental events are unobservables; there can be no truth by agreement, and we must abandon the cx- animation of mental events and turn instead to how they are studied. About Behaviorism We cannot measure sensations and perceptions as such, but we can measure a persons capacity to discriminate among stimuli, and the con- cept of sensation or perception can then be reduced to the operation of discrimination. About Behaviorism They argued that a robot which behaved pre- cisely like a person, responding in the same way to stimuli, changing its behavior as a result of the same operations, would be indistinguishable from a real per- son, even though it would not have feelings, sensations, or ideas. About Behaviorism If such a robot could be built, it would prove that none of the supposed manifestations of mental life demanded a mentalistic explanation. About Behaviorism With respect to its own goals, methodological be- haviorism was successful. About Behaviorism The view that a purely physical world could be self-sufficient bad been suggested centuries before, in the doctrine of psy- chophysical parallelism, which held that there were two worldsone of mind and one of matterand that neither had any effect on the other. About Behaviorism Most methodological be- haviorists granted the existence of mental events while ruling them out of consideration. About Behaviorism Must all this be ignored because it cannot be studied objectively? About Behaviorism Methodological behaviorism and some versions of logical positivism ruled private events out of bounds because there could be no public agreement about their validity. About Behaviorism Introspec- tion could not be accepted as a scientific practice, and the psychology of people like Wilhelm Wundt and Ed- ward B. Titchener was attacked accordingly. About Behaviorism Mentalism kept attention away from the external antecedent events which might have explained be- havior, by seeming to supply an alternative explanation. About Behaviorism The position can be stated as follows: what is felt or introspectively observed is not some nonphysical world of consciousness, mind, or mental life but the 19 The Causes of Behavior observers own body. About Behaviorism An organism be- haves as it does because of its current structure, but most of this is out of reach of introspection. About Behaviorism The environment made its first great contribution during the evolution of the species, but it exerts a dif- ferent kind of effect during the lifetime of the indivi- dual, and the combination of the two effects is the be- havior we observe at any given time. About Behaviorism To the extent that either can be changed, behavior can be changed. About Behaviorism Some can be translated into behavior, others discarded as unnecessary or meaningless. About Behaviorism Nevertheless, he was right in insisting that we are all culture-bound and that we approach the study of be- havior with preconceptions. About Behaviorism If they were about mushrooms, the word mushroom would be repeated as often. About Behaviorism A few facts and principles will, I hope, become familiar enough to be useful, since the discussion cannot proceed in a vacuum, but the book is not about a science of behavior but about its phi- losophy, and I have kept the scientific material to a bare minimum. About Behaviorism I am concerned with interpretation rather than prediction and control Every scientific field has a boundary beyond which discussion, though necessary, cannot be as precise as one would wish. About Behaviorism One writer has recently said that mere speculation which cannot be put to the test of experimental verification does not form part of science, but if that were true, a great deal of astronomy, for example, or atomic physics would not be science. About Behaviorism (I express my regrets if the authors would have preferred to be given credit, but I have applied the Golden Rule and have done unto others what I should have wished to have done if I had used such expressions.) About Behaviorism I do so while acknowledging that Traduttori traditoriTranslators are traitorsand that there are perhaps no exact be- havioral equivalents, certainly none with the overtones and contexts of the originals. About Behaviorism To spend much time on exact redefinitions of consciousness, will, wishes, sub- limation, and so on would be as unwise as for physicists to do the same for ether, phlogiston, or vis viva. About Behaviorism When it is important to be clear about an issue, nothing but a technical vocabu- lary will suffice. About Behaviorism Old ways of speaking are abandoned with regret, and new ones are awkward and uncomfortable, but the change must be made. About Behaviorism There were periods when it was dif- ficult for the astronomer not to sound like an astrologer (or to be an astrologer at heart) and when the chemist had by no means freed himself from alchemy. About Behaviorism No very good account is now available, however, and it therefore seems all the more important that we should be in touch with it in other ways. About Behaviorism Nevertheless, our behavior in making that contact needs to be examined. About Behaviorism We might expect that because a person is in such intimate contact with his own body he should be able to describe its conditions and processes particularly well, but the very privacy which seems to confer a special privilege on the individual makes it difficult for ABOUT Bi~wvioB1sM 26 community can teach a child to name colors in various ways. About Behaviorism Pains can be wrenching or piercing; a headache may pound; and excruciating is related to crucifixion. About Behaviorism The private stimuli which come to control the response That hurts are then less likely to be de- scribed with terms first descriptive of public stimuli. About Behaviorism For example, we feel sad I in the original sense of sated, or excited in the sense of stirred up, but these expressions may be little more than metaphors. About Behaviorism The question What are you doing? asks for information which may be quite pub- lic but which is at the moment out of reach of the questioner, who may be speaking over the telephone, for example, or in the dark, or around a corner. About Behaviorism The vocabulary in which the answer is given can be ac- quired when the behavior is visible to all parties, and the verbal community therefore suffers no limitation. About Behaviorism Descriptions may be confined to. About Behaviorism What are you inclined to do? is a metaphorical question, to which a metaphor- ical answer might be I lean toward going. About Behaviorism In describing covert be- havior we may be describing public behavior in minia- ture, but it is more likely that we are describing pri- 31 The World Within the Skin vate conditions associated with public behavior but not necessarily generated by it. About Behaviorism It may be a report of strong covert behavior likely to be emitted publicly when the occasion arises (When I see him, I shall remind him that he owes me ten dol- lars). About Behaviorism It may be a prediction of behavior based on cur- rent conditions with which the behavior is often asso- ciated (When things are like this, I generally give up or Im hungry and I sin going to get something to eat). About Behaviorism It may be a report of a strong probability of be- having in a given way. About Behaviorism Perhaps I feel like playing cards may be ABouT BulAviolusM 32 translated as I feel as I often feel when I have started to play cards. About Behaviorism An attitude (Do you really want to do what you are doing? or Do you really want to go to the beach for your vacation?) may be part of the metaphor of in- clination or tendency. About Behaviorism I am hungry may also be equivalent to 33 The World Within the Skin I feel like eating in the sense of I have felt this way before when I have started to eat. About Behaviorism It may be equiva- lent to I am covertly engaging in behavior similar to that involved in getting and consuming food or I am fantasying eating or I am thinking of things I like to eat or I am eating to myself. About Behaviorism To say, I am hungry, may be to report several or ali of these condi- tions. About Behaviorism I am hungry may also be equivalent to It has been a long time since I have had anything to eat, although the expression is most likely to be used in de- scribing future behavior: If I miss my dinner, I shall be hungry. About Behaviorism Conditions relevant to behavior are reported according to the circumstances in which they have been acquired, and this means that an expression may be translated in several ways. About Behaviorism Consider the report I am, was, or wifi be hungry. About Behaviorism I am hun- gry may be equivalent to I have hunger pangs, and if the verbal community had some means of observing the contractions of the stomach associated with pangs, it could pin the response to these stimuli alone. About Behaviorism It may also be equivalent to I am eating actively. About Behaviorism The question might be asked of some- one who is rummaging a box of small objects, and a characteristic response might be I am looking for my old pocketknife. About Behaviorism It is possible that many myths are little more than invented causes of the superstitious beha- vior, seemingly uncaused, to be discussed in Chapter 8. About Behaviorism Such an answer is often acceptable, but if the verbal community insists upon something else, it may ask, Why do you feel like doing it? and the answer will then be either a reference to other feelings or (at long last) to external circumstances. About Behaviorism We may take feeling to be simply responding to stimuli, but reporting is the prod- uct of the special verbal contingencies arranged by a community. About Behaviorism There is a similar difference between be- having and reporting that one is behaving or reporting the causes of ones behavior. About Behaviorism The consciousness of which a person is said to be aware has become such a staple of Wes- tern thinking that everyone knows what it means to be conscious, and the behaviorist who raises a ques- tion is called disingenuous, as if he were refusing to ad- mit the evidence of his senses. About Behaviorism Plato is said to have discovered the mind, but it would be more accurate to say that he invented one version of it. About Behaviorism We have had Aristotelian revivals and are now said to be re- turning to Plato. About Behaviorism Modem psychology can claim to be far beyond Plato in controlling the environments of which people are said to be conscious, but it has not greatly improved their access to consciousness itself, because it has not been able to improve the verbal con- tingencies under which feelings and states of mind are described and known. About Behaviorism When we know enough about, the anatomy and physiology of the newborn, we shall be able to say why it breathes, suckles, urinates, and defecates, but at the moment we must be content with describing the be- havior itself and investigating the conditions under which it occurssuch as external or internal stimula- tion, age, or level of deprivation. About Behaviorism To say that a baby breathes or suckles be- cause it possesses appropriate reflexes is simply to say that it breathes or suckles, presumably because it has evolved in such a way that it does so. About Behaviorism Breathing and suckling involve responses to the environment, but in no other way are they to be distinguished from the rest of respiration and digestion. About Behaviorism When reflexes first began to be studied in isolated parts of the organism, the results were felt to challenge the role of inner determiners of conduct. About Behaviorism 39 Innate Behavior Instinctive behavior presents a more complex assign- ment for the physiologist than reflex, and at the moment we have few relevant facts and can only speculate about the kinds of systems which may be involved. About Behaviorism The difficulties raised by the key terms in sentences of that sorttension, discharge, re- laxation, knowing, feeling, striving, and likingwill be considered in later chapters. About Behaviorism The lan vital, for ABour BEHAVIORISM 40 example, was said to be a tireless power continually driving onward and upward. About Behaviorism The Freudian instincts were also treated as driving forces; behavior which led to danger, ifi health, or death was said to show a death instinct, while behavior said to be in the service of life showed a life instinct, although the observed fact was simply that behavior might have sustaining or de- structive consequences. About Behaviorism Two examples which have recently attracted a good deal of attention may be noted: (1) When injured or threatened, an organism is likely to attackfor exam- ple, by striking or bitingand, as I shall argue in a moment, some behavior of this sort may be as much a part of the genetic endowment as respiration or diges- tion, but we have no reason to say that an organism attacks because it possesses an aggressive instinct. About Behaviorism (2) Some species defend the territories in which they live, and some of the behavior seems to be due to a genetic endowment, but to say that an organism de- fends its territory because of a territorial imperative or any other kind of instinct is simply to say that it is the kind of organism which defends its territory. About Behaviorism The origin of a fantastic variety of living things could be explained by the contribution which novel features, possibly of random provenance, made to survival. About Behaviorism Survival may be said to be contingent upon certain kinds of behavior. About Behaviorism It is not easy to study these contingencies of survival experimentally because selection is a slow process, but some effects may be shown by studying species which quickly mature to breeding age and by carefully arranging conditions of selection. About Behaviorism To say that there is no obvious selection pressure on mammals that explains the high level of inteffigence reached by primates is simply to say that it is hard to imagine conditions under which slightly more inteffigent members of a species would be more likely to survive. About Behaviorism Preparation for New Environments I: RESPONDENT CONDITIONING Contingencies of survival cannot produce useful behav- ior if the environment changes substantially from gen- eration to generation, but certain mechanisms have evolved by virtue of which the individual acquires be- havior appropriate to a novel environment during his lifetime. About Behaviorism The behavior is said to be strengt.~ned About Behaviorism Be- havior that reduces a potentially damaging condition, such as an extreme of temperature, is reinforced by that consequence and therefore tends to recur on similar occasions. About Behaviorism The process and its effects have given rise to a large number of mentalistic concepts, many of which will be examined in the following chapters. About Behaviorism Operant behavior is felt to be under the control of the behaving person and has traditionally been attrib- uted to an act of will. About Behaviorism When we have reviewed the contin- gencies which generate new forms of behavior in the individual, we shall be in a better position to evaluate those which generate innate behavior in the species. About Behaviorism What the duckling inherits is the capacity to be reinforced by maintaining or reducing the distance be- tween itself and a moving object. About Behaviorism In the natural en- vironment, and in the laboratory in which imprinting is studied, approaching and following have these conse- quences, but the contingencies can be changed. About Behaviorism A me- chanical system can be constructed in which movement toward an object causes the object to move rapidly away, while movement away from the object causes it to come closer. About Behaviorism Only by know- ing what and how the duckling learns during its life- time can we be sure of what it is equipped to do at birth. About Behaviorism The survival value of behaving as others be- have seems obvious. About Behaviorism In general when a person is behaving in a given way, be is doing so be- cause of prevailing contingencies, and similar behavior I 47 Innate Behavior on the part of another person in the same situation is likely to be subject to the same contingencies. About Behaviorism When no duck is present, the duckling be- haves in much the same way with respect to other ob- jects. About Behaviorism Modern warfare is often said to exemplify territoriality and aggression, but it would be hard to find any act of a soldier that could have been selected by contingencies of survival. About Behaviorism At best, warlike behavior is acquired because of an inherent capacity to be rein- forced by gains in territory or damage inflicted upon others. About Behaviorism Aggressive behavior may be innate and released by specific circumstances in which survival value is plau- sible. About Behaviorism Or the behavior may be shaped and maintained because people are susceptible to reinforcement by signs of damage to others. About Behaviorism The capacity to be reinforced when an opponent cries out or runs away would have survival value because a person so endowed would quickly learn to defend himself. About Behaviorism Or, third, the behavior may be reinforced by consequences not explicitly re- lated to aggression. About Behaviorism The ques- tion is not whether the human species has a genetic endowment but how it is to be analyzed. About Behaviorism The conditions under which a person acquires be- havior are relatively accessible and can often be ma- nipulated; the conditions under which a species acquires behavior are very nearly out of reach. About Behaviorism One unfortunate consequence is that genetic sources sometimes become a kind of dumping ground: any aspect of behavior which at the moment escapes analysis in terms of con- tingencies of reinforcement is likely to be assigned to genetic endowment, and we are likely to accept the explanation because we are so accustomed to going no further than a state of the organism. About Behaviorism What sort of physical gene could carry the potential of mind, ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 50 and how could mind satisfy physical contingencies of survival? If mind is nothing more than a manifestation of physiology, such questions can be answered, or at least postponed without anxiety until physiology can answer them, but not all who subscribe to inentalism accept that position. About Behaviorism Mind has been said by some Teilhard de Chardin, for exampleto be the end and purpose of evolution, if not something beyond it. About Behaviorism The point may be made for the reinforcers which play a part in the conditioning of reflexes. About Behaviorism This is very different from saying that these things reinforce be- cause they taste or feel good. About Behaviorism The same may be said of operant reinforcers. About Behaviorism Salt and sugar are critical requirements, and individuals who were especially likely to be reinforced by them have more effectively learned and remembered where and how to get them and have therefore been more likely I to survive and transmit this susceptibility to the species. About Behaviorism One reason is that the conditions we report when we say that a taste, odor, sound, picture, or piece of music is delicious, pleasant, or beautiful are part of the immediate situation, whereas the effect they may have in changing our be- havior is much less salientand much less likely to be seen, because the verbal environment cannot estab- lish good contingencies. About Behaviorism The verb to like is a synonym of to be pleased with; we say If you like and If you please more or less interchangeably. About Behaviorism What we learn is similar to what we learn by testing the effect of a reinforcer: be is talking about what has reinforced him in the past or what he sees himself going for. About Behaviorism The expressions I like Brahms, I love Brahms, 1 enjoy Brahms, and Brahms pleases me may easily be taken to refer to feelings, but they can be regarded as statements that the music of Brahms is reinforcing. About Behaviorism The significant fact is that a person who needs or wants food is particularly likely to be reinforced by food and that be is particularly likely to engage in any behavior which has previously been reinforced with food. About Behaviorism A person under aversive control is particularly likely to be rein- forced if he escapes and to engage in any behavior which has led to escape. About Behaviorism The allusion to what is felt needs to be carefully examined. About Behaviorism The state- ment I love my wife seems to be a report of feelings, but it also involves a probability of action. About Behaviorism With respect to a person with whom we interact, then, to love is to behave in ways having certain kinds of effects, possibly with accompanying conditions which may be felt. About Behaviorism If we know the level of deprivation or aversive stim- ulation, we can more accurately predict how reinforc- ing a given event will be and how likely it is that a per- son will engage in relevant behavior. About Behaviorism People have been made hungry so that they will work for food and so that they can be reinforced with food, as they have been made miserable so that they will act in ways which reduce their misery. About Behaviorism Food is reinforcing even when it does not satiate, and deprivation can be changed in ways which are not rein- forcing. About Behaviorism When we reinforce a person we are said to give him a motive or incentive, but we infer the motive or the incentive from the be- havior. About Behaviorism We are said to be at the mercy of sex, hunger, and hatred, even though they are said to supply the psychic energy needed for action. About Behaviorism The states associated with wanting and needing are more likely to be felt if no relevant behavior is at the moment possible. About Behaviorism The lover writes I want you or I need you when nothing else can be done, and if he is doing anything else, aside from writing, it must be a matter of existing in the state which he describes with these expressions. About Behaviorism Desiring, longing, hoping, and yearning are more closely related to a current absence of appropriate be- havior because they terminate when action begins. About Behaviorism I miss you could almost be thought of as a metaphor based on target practice, equivalent to My behavior with respect to you as a person cannot reach its mark or I look for you and fail to find you. About Behaviorism For example, the statement The term aggression should be restricted to behavior motivated by the wish to injure is intended to make a useful distinction between behavior which is merely aggressive in form and any part of such behavior which is emitted because it injures another person, but nothing is gained by speaking of the wish to injure or, in particular, of being motivated by a wish. About Behaviorism Idea and Wifi The consequences which shape and maintain the be- havior called an operant are not present in the setting in which a response occurs; they have become part of ABouT BBH&vIolusM 58 the history of the organism. About Behaviorism It is possible that the report I feel like going is close to I feel now as I have felt in the past when I have gone; and I want to go may be a report of deprivation or a shortage. About Behaviorism Nevertheless, when we say, I have an idea; lets 59 Operant Behavior try the rear door; it may be unlocked, what is had is the behavior of trying the rear door. About Behaviorism When a person successfully imitates a dancing teacher, he may be said to get the idea, although what he gets is nothing more than behavior similar to that of the teacher. About Behaviorism (It might be better to say simply that it appears, since emission may imply that behavior exists inside the organism and then comes out. About Behaviorism The principal feature is that there seems to be no nec- essary prior causal event. About Behaviorism Behavior is said to be put into play when a person wills to act. About Behaviorism Freedom usually means the absence of restraint or coercion, but more comprehensively it means a lack of any prior determination: All things that come to be, except acts of will, have causes. About Behaviorism 61 Operant Behavior A very different role of the will follows from its seeming spontaneity and mystery, which suggest that consequences may be produced without physical action. About Behaviorism Purpose and Intention Possibly no charge is more often leveled against be- haviorism or a science of behavior than that it cannot deal with purpose or intention. About Behaviorism (Feedback may be used in a kind of explicit goal-seeking behavior to be discussed in Chapter 8.) About Behaviorism Gambling can be demonstrated in many other species and is explained by a special schedule of reinforcement to be noted in a moment The ultimate loss (the negative utility) does not offset the effect of the schedule. About Behaviorism The Utilitarians supposed that it might be possible to measure quantifies of pleasure and pain in such a way that the pleasure generated by socially objection- able behavior could be offset by a calculated amount of pain in the form of punishment. About Behaviorism People can usually say what they are looking for and why they are looking in a given place, but like other species they also may not be able to do so. About Behaviorism Associated bodily conditions can be felt or observed introspectively, and they are often cited as the causes of the states or changes in probability. About Behaviorism A person feels sure, or certain, that he will be successful. About Behaviorism When reinforcement is no longer forthcoming, be- havior undergoes extinction and appears rarely, if at all. About Behaviorism For example, a person is said to be unable to go to work because he is discouraged or depressed, although his not going, together with what he feels, is due to a lack of reinforcementeither in his work or in some other part of his life. About Behaviorism 65 Operant Behavior Frustration is a rather different condition, which in- cludes a tendency, often characteristic of a failure to be reinforced, to attack the system. About Behaviorism When a person has left home for the first time, much of the behavior ap- propriate to that environment can no longer be emitted. About Behaviorism The condition felt may be similar to depression, which is said to be common in people who have moved from one city to another. About Behaviorism The ratio of responses to reinforcements may be stretched until it becomes quite unfavorable. About Behaviorism (This kind of interpretation of a his- torical event can never be more than plausible, but it is a better explanation than will power.) About Behaviorism Variable-ratio schedules, in which reinforcement oc- curs after a given average number of responses but in which the next response to be reinforced cannot be pre- dicted, are particularly interesting. About Behaviorism It is said that Hitler prolonged the Second World War for nearly a year by an in- credible exercise of will power which all the others in Germany lacked, but his behavior (and hence his will power) can be plausibly attributed to an extraordi- narily favorable program (favorable for Hitler, disas-. About Behaviorism it is characteristic of intermittent reinforcement that behavior may be sustained over long periods of time with very little return. About Behaviorism On the other hand, his negatively reinforced behavior may be strengthened, and he may act more compul- sively or aggressively or move to escape. About Behaviorism The same stimuli are used, and negative reinforcement might be defined as the punishment of not behaving, but pun- ishment is designed to remove behavior from a reper- toire, whereas negative reinforcement generates be- havior. About Behaviorism If the effect were simply the reverse of the effect of reinforcement, a great deal of behavior could be easily explained; but when behavior is punished, various stimuli generated by the behavior or the occasion are conditioned in the respondent pattern, and the punished behavior is then displaced by incompatible behavior conditioned as escape or avoidance. About Behaviorism A thunderstorm may set up conditions felt as anxiety, and during a storm positively reinforced ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 70 behavior may be weakened, and negatively reinforced (such as ifight or concealment) strengthened, but this condition is not felt as guilt. About Behaviorism He is not claiming to have any direct information about feelings, and presumably means understanding what they said and did, but anxiety and worry are useful clues only if they can be explained in turn. About Behaviorism If behavior stifi occurs but in a weakened form, it may be said to show inhibition, timidity, em- barrassment, fear, or caution. About Behaviorism A fool rushes into a dangerous situation not because he feels reckless but because reinforcing consequences have completely offset punishing; and we may attempt to correct his be- havior by supplying other (possibly verbal) punish. About Behaviorism When punishment is particularly severe, the self- knowledge discussed in Chapter 2 may be affected. About Behaviorism They could continue to be troublesome, however, and man was said to be haunted by his repressed long- ings. About Behaviorism As I have noted, be- liavioralism confined itself to the topography of politi- cal behavior, and structuralism in anthropology is often not far beyond the position that customs are followed simply because it is customary to follow them. About Behaviorism If behaviorism had not replaced the feelings and states of mind which it discarded as explanations, it could indeed be called a kind of structuralism, but it found replacements in the environment. About Behaviorism The point may be illustrated with the concept of imi- tation. About Behaviorism In a purely formalistic definition, one organism might be said to be imitating another when it behaves as the other behaves, but, as we saw in Chapter 3, con- tingencies of both survival and reinforcement must be considered. About Behaviorism Since it was assumed that learning was an orderly process, there appeared to be a discrepancy, but it was resolved by supposing that learning was not very accurately revealed in the be- havior the organism displayed. About Behaviorism The same confusion may be seen in the contention that operant and respondent conditioning represent a single process, a contention said to be opposed to the view that the two kinds of conditioning affect different systems of behavior, respondent conditioning being ap- propriate to the autonomic nervous system and operant conditioning to the skeletal musculature. About Behaviorism it is true that much of the activity of the autonomic nervous system does not have natural consequences which could easily have become part of operant contingencies, but such consequences can be arranged. About Behaviorism The psychopathology of the drug addict has been said to be due to arrested infantile psychic development. About Behaviorism As these examples sug- gest, what grows is said to be something in the mind, as with Piaget, or in the personality, as with Freud. About Behaviorism As I noted in Chapter 1, a merely structural account may be supplemented by invoking time as an indepen- dent variable. About Behaviorism The growth of the embryo from a fertil- ized egg to a fetus at term is a remarkable example of development, and it has been suggested that similar sequences in the growth of a skill, of an art, of a con- cept in the mind may be important. About Behaviorism Compared with the experimental analysis of be- havior, developmental psychology stands in the posi- tion of evolutionary theory before Darwin. About Behaviorism It remains for us to consider other men- ABoUT BEHAVIOB~M 76 talistic processes which are said to be needed if operant conditioning is to take place. About Behaviorism The Mind in Operant Behavior In most of this chapter I have been concerned with feel- ings or states of mind which may be interpreted as collateral products of the contingencies which gen- erate behavior. About Behaviorism Mind is often represented as an agent, scarcely to be distinguished from the person who has the mind. About Behaviorism When re- sponses of glands or smooth muscle (under control of the autonomic nervous system) are brought under op- erant control by making reinforcement contingent upon occurrence of a behavior is considered to be a func- them, the result is said to demonstrate the control of mind over matter; but what it demonstrates is that a person may respond with his glands or his smooth muscles under operant contingencies. About Behaviorism A mechanical arm designed to be operated by muscles normally op- erating some other part of the body is said to be thought-operated or operated by the mind, al- though it is operated by the person who originally moved some other part of his body. About Behaviorism There are other words referring to mental activities said to be more specifically required by behavior. About Behaviorism In operant experiments a rat presses a lever because it anticipates that food will be delivered or expects food to be delivered when it does so. About Behaviorism Increasing the probability that people will re- ABOUT BBnA~vR*mM 75 spond in certain ways is sometimes said to be a matter of raising consciousness. About Behaviorism Another supposed mental process said to be needed in operant conditioning is understanding, People must understand the regularities upon which they can count. About Behaviorism Their action must be grounded on the under- standing of how things behave. About Behaviorism Another state said to be needed is belief. About Behaviorism The relation of beliefs to other conditions, such as wants and needs, can be easily stated: to say that desires enter into the causa- tion of beliefs is simply to say that the probability of behavior with which a belief is associated depends not only upon reinforcement but upon a state of depriva- tion or aversive stimulation. About Behaviorism The things which make us happy are the things which reinforce us, but it is the things, not the feelings, which must be identified and used in prediction, control, and interpretation. About Behaviorism It has been said that the pursuit of happiness cannot be an ex- planation of behavior because nothing proves that I 79 Operant Behavior men in modern societies are happier than men in ar- chaic societies, but operant reinforcement is effective quite apart from any ultimate gain, as the negative utility of gambling abundantly demonstrates. About Behaviorism Behavior be- comes pursuit only after reinforcement. About Behaviorism Perceiving Perhaps the most difficult problem faced by be- haviorism has been the treatment of conscious con- tent. About Behaviorism I believe the answer is to be found in the special role assigned to stimuli in an operant analysis. About Behaviorism For the Greeks, to know was to be intimate with. About Behaviorism The two formulations could be combinedan image of the outer world striking the retina of the eye activates a most intricate process that results in vision: the transformation of the retinal image into a perception. About Behaviorism A basic question could be put this way: What becomes of the stimulus? About Behaviorism The behavior is not dominated by the current setting, as it appeared to be in stimulus- response psychology; it is not stimulus-bound. About Behaviorism An early objection to John Lockes theory of human understanding was that stimulation seemed to be coldly engraved on the tabula rasa of the mind, and efforts were made to supplement the theory by saying that a person beheld things as liked or disliked, approved or disapproved, or pleas- ing or displeasing, or that a person judged the world as he perceived it. About Behaviorism But expressions of that sort simply assign to fanciful inner processes what is to be found in genetic endowment and personal history. About Behaviorism To the person who is just learning to play, the setting may be ii an occasion for a number of moves but moves which have not been much affected by consequences. About Behaviorism To the completely nave, the board and its pieces are a visual setting to be described only through possible resem- blances to situations in his non-chess-playing history. About Behaviorism Traffic signs are I 85 PerceivIng designed to be easily seen, but we see them or ignore them largely because of the contingent consequences. About Behaviorism But we can also arrange that a particular object will be seen by establishing contingencies which can be met only by responding to it. About Behaviorism Gestalt psychologists may be said to have argued that certain kinds of patterns force the orgiinism to perceive them in certain ways. About Behaviorism Some examples seem to be reasonably ex- plained in terms of natural selection: it is not surpris- ing that when we see a bird fly behind a tree trunk, we behave as if it continued to exist when out of sight, and even see it move from one side to the other as we see a traffic light jump from red to green. About Behaviorism But to investigate bow a Azour BEEWI0IUsM 86 87 Perceiving situation looks to a person, or how he interprets it, or what meaning it has for him, we must examine his be- havior with respect to it, including his descriptions of it, and we can do this only in terms of his genetic and environmental histories. About Behaviorism Experience Versus Reality The great differences in what is seen at different times in a given setting suggest that a stimulus cannot be de- scribed in purely physical terms. About Behaviorism Behaviorism is said to be at fault in failing to recognize that what is important is how the situation looks to a person or how a person interprets a situation or what meaning a situation has for a person. About Behaviorism What is seen seems to depart from the object world, for ex- ample, in the illusions mentioned above, in some of which the mind is said to infer and predict reality from incomplete data, but we should say instead that because of his genetic endowment a person responds in a possibly effective way to what seem to be fragmen- tary stimulL The psychophysicists have most rigorously explored I the correspondence between experience and reality. About Behaviorism A psycho- physical function was said to represent the relation be- tween the two worlds; but we could say instead that it represents facts about the discriminative control of stimuli. About Behaviorism In 1865 Claude Bernard had contended that experimental studies of sense or- gans must be made on man because animals cannot di- rectly account to us for the sensations they experience, but there is now an elaborate animal psychophysics, in which stimulus control is analyzed with great pre- ABoUT BEnAviolusM 88 Ii 89 Perceiving cision. About Behaviorism it is still likely to be said that the experimenter has taught the miimal to report what it sees, but the results can be much more consistently formulated in terms of the control set up by specific contingencies of reinforcement. About Behaviorism Were the qualities of images and ideas to be found in nature at all? To use a well-worn example, did a falling tree make a noise if no one heard it? Light might be a matter of corpuscles or waves, but it certainly did not seem to be a matter of colors; green was not a wave length of light. About Behaviorism How are we to perceive the reality of the war or the technological change in order to discover that it has indeed been misperceived? We are always dealing with reality, al- though the term must be taken to include more than a current presentation. About Behaviorism The be- havior of seeing is neglected in all such formulations. About Behaviorism Simi- larly, when a person sees a person or place in his imagi- nation, he may simply be doing what he does in. About Behaviorism I believe, on the contrary, that it offers the only way in which the subject of imaging or imagining can be put in good order. About Behaviorism If we cannot go, we may buy pictures of Venicerealistic pictures in color of ABOUT BEHAVIoRISM 92 93 Perceiving its most beautiful aspects, although a black-and-white sketch may be enough. About Behaviorism The mistake is to suppose that because we create physical stimuli which enable us to see Venice more effectively by going to Venice or buying a picture, we must therefore create mental stimuli to be seen in mem- ory. About Behaviorism If we have found the city of Venice reinforcing (we refer to one reinforcing effect when we call it beautiful), we may go to Venice in order to be thus reinforced. About Behaviorism does not mean possessing a map to be followed in getting about. About Behaviorism We may also see a thing in its absence, not because I we are immediately reinforced when we do so, but be- cause we are then able to engage in behavior which is subsequently reinforced. About Behaviorism Claude Bernard might also have said that it is im- possible to get animals to report the things they are imagining, but there is no reason why the contingencies under which a person sees things which are not there should not be effective with other species. About Behaviorism The design of verbal contingen- cies which would permit it to tell us that it saw a triangle would be an interesting exercise. About Behaviorism behavior, and the difference be- tween behavior whcn asleep and w.cn About Behaviorism Certain practices in be- havior therapy, in which the patient is asked to imag- ine various conditions or events, have been criticized as not genuinely behavioral because they make use of images. About Behaviorism It is seldom if ever enough simply to instruct the patient to have feelings, to ask him to feel sexually excited or nauseated, but he may be shown pornographic or nauseating material or be asked to visualize as clearly as possible a sexual or disgusting episode. About Behaviorism There are many ways of getting a person to see when there is nothing to be seen, and they can all be an- alyzed as the arrangement of contingencies which strengthen perceptual behavior. About Behaviorism That a person may see things when there is nothing to be seen must have been a strong reason why the world of the mind was invented. About Behaviorism It was hard enough to imagine how a copy of the current environment could get into the head where it could be known, but there was at least a world outside which might account for it. About Behaviorism When a per- son is out of touch with reality, his mind is said to be wandering, or possibly absent. About Behaviorism Things come to mind or are called to mind, and one who is suffering a delusion may be told that its all in your mind, as distinct from being in the real world. About Behaviorism If there are no copies of things inside the body at any time, then all that can be seen introspectively is the act of seeing, and this is what one reports when asked, Do you see that? It is still possible, however, to dis- criminate between things which are there or not there to be seen. About Behaviorism I could be said to know that this sheet of paper is really there because I pick up a pen and write on it, and that the bright after-image which bothers me is not there because I do not try to brush it away. About Behaviorism As a result, it is free of the spatial, temporal, and mechanical relations which prevail between operant be- havior and nonsocial consequences. About Behaviorism 11 the opening of a door will be reinforcing, a person may grasp the knob, turn it, and push or pull in a given way, but if, in- stead, he says, Please open the door, and a listener responds appropriately, the same reinforcing conse- quence follows. About Behaviorism The contingencies are different, and they generate many important differences in the be- havior which have long been obscured by mentalistic explanations. About Behaviorism The words and sentences of which a lan- guage is composed are said to be tools used to express meanings, thoughts, ideas, propositions, emotions, needs, desires, and many other things in or on the speakers mind. About Behaviorism A ver- bal repertoire may be rudimentary or it may display an elaborate topography under many subtle kinds of stim- ulus control. About Behaviorism The contingencies which shape it may be indulgent (as when parents respond to their childrens crude approximations to standard forms) or demanding (as in the teaching of diction). About Behaviorism But the meaning of a response is not in its topog- raphy or form (that is the mistake of the structuralist, not the behaviorist); it is to be found in its antecedent history. About Behaviorism To take a primitive example, if one rat presses a lever to obtain food when hungry while another does so to obtain water when thirsty, the topographies of their be- haviors may be indistinguishable, but they may be said to differ in meaning: to one rat pressing the lever means food; to the other it means water. About Behaviorism But these are aspects of the contingencies which have brought be- havior under the control of the current occasion. About Behaviorism Simi- larly, if a rat is reinforced with food when it presses the lever in the presence of a flashing light but with water when the light is steady, then it could be said that the flashing light means food and the steady light means water, but again these are references not to some prop- erty of the light but to the contingencies of which the lights have been parts. About Behaviorism This wifi happen only if the be- ABOuT BEHAvlolusM 102 haviors of speaker and listener are supported by ad- ditional contingencies arranged by the verbal commu- nity. About Behaviorism The three terms which appear in the contingencies of reinforcement generating an operant are divided be- tween two people: the speaker responds to the setting, and the listener engages in the behavior and is affected by the consequences. About Behaviorism The same point may be made, but with many more implications, in spealdng of the meaning of verbal be- havior. About Behaviorism To define interpersonal trust as an expectancy held by an individual or a group that the word, promise, verbal or written statement of another individual or group can be relied on is to complicate matters unnecessarily. About Behaviorism A referent might be defined as that aspect of the en- vironment which exerts control over the~ response of which it is said to be the referent. About Behaviorism In traditional terms, meanings and referents are not to be found in words but in the circumstances under which words are used by speakers and understood by listeners, but used and understanding need further analysis. About Behaviorism Verbal responses are often said to be taken by the listener as signs, or symbols, of the situations they de- scribe, and a great deal has been made of the symbolic process, some examples of which we shall consider in the following chapter. About Behaviorism Certain atmospheric conditions may be a sign of rain, and we respond to them to avoid getting wet. About Behaviorism But a single property may be ha- portant to the listener who takes many kinds of prac- tical action on many different occasions because of it and who therefore reinforces appropriately when a given object is called red. About Behaviorism The referent for red can never be identified in any one setting. About Behaviorism The contingencies explain the behavior, and we need not be disturbed because it is impossible to discover the referent in any single instance. About Behaviorism The statement Scientific concepts enable certain aspects of the enormous complexity of the world to be handled by mens minds is vastly im- proved by substituting human beings for mens minds. About Behaviorism But what is this common element? Where is it to be found? A dictionary that gave the meanings of sentences would simply con- tain other sentences having the same meanings. About Behaviorism A translation can best be defined as a verbal stimulus that has the same effect as the original (or as much of the same effect as possible) on a different verbal com- munity. About Behaviorism The same interpretation may be made of a translation from one medium into another. About Behaviorism The concepts of expression and communication may be treated in a similar way. About Behaviorism A speaker or a listener re- sponds to conditions of his body which he has learned to call feelings, but what he says or hears is behavior, due to contingencies of which the felt conditions may be by-products. About Behaviorism To say that music expresses what is inexpressible in cognitive, and especially in scientific, language is to say that it has an effect that verbal be- havior cannot have. About Behaviorism Possibly fact could be said to de- scribe a referent of the latter, although its suggestion of truth versus falsity raises difficulties.. About Behaviorism He does so ABouT BEHAVIORISM 108 as part of an analysis of the practices of a given verbal community, from which he extracts rules which may be used In the construction of new sentences, as we shall see in Chapter 8. About Behaviorism A classical example is ABOuT BEEAYIORJSM 110 a paradox, such as This sentence is false, which ap- pears to be true if false and false if true. About Behaviorism A sentence must be in existence before a speaker can say, This sentence is false, and the response itself will not serve, since it did not exist until it was emitted. About Behaviorism The transformational rules which generate sentences acceptable to a listener may be of interest, but even so it is a mistake to suppose that verbal behavior is gen- erated by them. About Behaviorism (This fact about verbal be- havior is due to the contingencies of reinforcement ar- ranged by most verbal communities.) About Behaviorism The growth of language in a child is easily compared with the growth 111 Verbal Behavior of an embryo, and grammar can then be attributed to rules possessed by the child at birth. About Behaviorism What happens when rules are discovered will be considered in Chapter 8. About Behaviorism We know the words a child first uses and the characteristic orders in which they tend to be used. About Behaviorism If structure were enough, that would be the whole story. About Behaviorism But a record of topography needs to be supplemented by an equally detailed record of the conditions under which it was acquired. About Behaviorism What speech has the child heard? Under what circumstances has he heard it? What effects has he achieved when he has uttered similar responses? Until we have this kind of information, the success or failure of any analysis of verbal behavior cannot be judged. About Behaviorism It is quite possible that it is a separable oper- ant, as a separate indicator of the past tense or of com- pleted action in another language might be, and that go and a terminal -ed are put together, as purple and automobile are put together, on a novel occasion. About Behaviorism The so-called creative aspect of verbal behavior will be mentioned again later. About Behaviorism Given such well-established precedents, it is not surprising that certain remaining behavioral functions should also be moved inside. About Behaviorism The present analysis is short I ABouT BEHAVIORISM 114 of perfection for another reason: it must be brief. About Behaviorism But if a behavioristic interpretation of thinking is not all we should like to have, it must be remembered that mental or cognitive explanations are not explanations at alL Thinking often means behaving weakly, where the weakness may be due, for example, to defective stimulus control. About Behaviorism Usually, how- ever, the term refers to completed behavior which oc- curs on a scale so small that it cannot be detected by others. About Behaviorism The commonest examples are verbal, because verbal behavior requires no environmental support and because, as both speaker and listener, a person can talk to himself effectively; 4 but nonverbal behavior may also be covert. About Behaviorism Thus, what a chess player has in mind may be other moves he has made as he has played the game covertly to test the consequences. About Behaviorism It would also be a mistake not to recognize its limitations. About Behaviorism It does not explain overt behavior: it is simply more behavior to be explained. About Behaviorism Covert behavior has the advantage that we can act without committing ourselves; we can revoke the be- havior and try again if private consequences are not re- inforcing. About Behaviorism Thinking is be- having. About Behaviorism Several examples showing how this has been done may be considered. About Behaviorism A rather similar process can be demonstrated as fol- lows: A hungry pigeon is occasionally reinforced with food when it pecks a circular disk on the wall of an ex- perimental chamber. About Behaviorism In testing the acidity of a solu- tion, for example, another solution is added, and if the color changes in a specified way, the acidity can be de- I termined. About Behaviorism It has been said to be conceivable that the nervous system actually switches off one ear in order to listen to the other. About Behaviorism Discern, like discrimi- nate, may mean an act favoring a response (it may be closer to look at than to see), but it need not be. About Behaviorism We discern the important things in a given setting be- cause of past contingencies in which they have been important. About Behaviorism We say that a person discerns or makes out an object in a fog or at a great distance in the sense that be even- tually responds to it correctly. About Behaviorism Abstracting and forming concepts are likely to be called cognitive, but they also involve contingencies of reinforcement. About Behaviorism it is commonly said that concepts unify our thoughts, but the evidence seems to be that they simply enable us to talk about features of the world common to a large assortment of instances. About Behaviorism It is certainly an enormous simpli- ficationor would be, if feasiblebut it is the sim- plification of verbal and practical behavior rather than of thought. About Behaviorism But what does this tell us? Can we be sure that the second child has not also been taught to say 9 to 6 + 3 at some other time? Has he perhaps learned a large number of instances such as 1 + 2=2+ 1 and 1 + 3 = 3+ 1? Has he learned to state the rule of commutation and to exemplify it? About Behaviorism The fact that it is active, and even the fact that it is active in particular ways, may be part of its genetic endowment, explained in turn by the survival value of the behavior, but the way in which an organism looks for food in a familiar environment is clearly dependent upon its past successes. About Behaviorism We have no reason to call the be- havior cognitive, but a rather similar process is said to take place in the world of the mind. About Behaviorism The practice has led to the elaboration of a cognitive metaphor, no doubt antedating by centuries any psycho- logical system-making, in which experiences are said to be stored in memory, later to be retrieved or recalled and used in order to behave more effectively in a cur- rent setting. About Behaviorism What is said to be stored are copies of stimuli faces, names, ~ texts, places, and so onwhich when retrieved have some of the effect of the originals. About Behaviorism The extensive experiments by cognitive psychologists on accessibility can all be reinterpreted in terms of probability. About Behaviorism The artist looking at a scene which he will later sketch will to some extent sketch it as he looks, thus strengthening the kind of behavior which will be important to him later. About Behaviorism Mnemonics are pre-learned or easily learned behaviors which prompt or otherwise strengthen the behavior to be recalled. About Behaviorism The metaphor of storage in memory, which has seemed to be so dramatically confirmed by the com- puter, has caused a great deal of trouble. About Behaviorism Problems need to be solved, we are told, because a person needs to orient himself in an in- finitely complex reality, to order the endless particu- larity of experience, to find essences behind facts, to attach meaning to being-in-the-world. About Behaviorism A person has a problem when some condition will be reinforcing but he lacks a response that will produce it. About Behaviorism ABouT BEHAVIORISM 124 125 ThInking We learn some of these strategies from the prob- lematic contingencies to which we are exposed, but not much can be learned in a single lifetime, and an im- portant function of a culture is to transmit what others have learned. About Behaviorism Whether problem solving arises from raw contingencies or from instruction by others, it is ac- quired in overt form (with the possible exception of a strategy learned at the covert level from private conse- quences) and can always be carried out at the overt level. About Behaviorism The covert case, to which the term thinking is most likely to be applied, enjoys no special advantage beyond that of speed or confidentiality. About Behaviorism A person usually solves it and escapes from indecision by chang- ing the setting To say that humans can make choices and desire to do so simply means that a situation in which two or more responses are about equally probable may be aversive, and that any decision-making behavior which strengthens one response and makes the other unlikely is reinforced. About Behaviorism Reviewing is not- re-calling, since all the facts to be used are available. About Behaviorism Simply to make one of several possible responsesas in walking aimlessly through a parkrequires no seri- ous act of decision, but when consequences are impor- tant and the probabilities of two or more responses are nearly equal, a problem must be solved. About Behaviorism A problem to which a good deal of attention has been given arises when two or more re- sponses appear to be possible and a person chooses or decides among them. About Behaviorism To solve such a problem a chimpanzee must have learned at least the following: to stop reaching for a banana out of reach; to stop reaching with short sticks; to discriminate be- tween long and short sticks, as by using long sticks to rake in bananas successfully; to pick up two sticks in separate hands; and to thrust sticks into holes. About Behaviorism Explicit ways of making it more was an insoluble problem for stimulus-response psy- chology because if behavior were nothing but responses to stimuli, the stimuli might be novel but not the be- havior. About Behaviorism Operant conditioning solves the problem more setting or the topography of behavior may be dehber- or less as natural selection solved a similar problem in evolutionary theory. About Behaviorism Moreover, at first glance, there seems to be no room for chance in any completely de- termined system. About Behaviorism The muta- tions in genetic and evolutionary theory are random, and the topographies of response selected by reinforce- ment are, if not random, at least not necessarily related to the contingencies under which they will be selected. About Behaviorism The results may be reinforcing in the sense that they are beautiful or, in most of mathematics and in science and invention, successful. About Behaviorism The teacher is to cultivate the mind as a farmer cultivates his fields, and the intell ct is to be traine s a vine istrained in a vineyard. About Behaviorism Novel verbal responses are likely to be generated by discussion, not only because more than one history of reinforcement is then active but also because different histories may by accident or design lead to novel set- tings. About Behaviorism The be- havior which is said to indicate the possession of the concept of inertia and the age at which it normally ap- pears are no doubt important facts, but we should also know something about the many thousands of occasions upon which a child has pushed, pulled, twisted, and turned things in developing that concept. About Behaviorism It may be true that there is no structure without construction, but we must look to the constructing environment, not to a constructing mind. About Behaviorism It can be empty ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 130 131 Thinking or filled with facts; it can be ordered or chaotic. About Behaviorism Sometimes the mind appears to be the instrument of thinking it can be keen or dull, muddled by alcohol or cleared by a brisk walk. About Behaviorism The brain is the place where thinking is said to take place; it is the instrument of thinking and may be keen or dull; and it is the agent which processes in- coming data and stores them in the form of data struc- tures. About Behaviorism Thinking has the dimensions of behavior, not of a fancied inner process which finds expression in be- havior. About Behaviorism We are only just beginning to understand the effects of complex contingencies of reinforcement, but if our analysis of the behavior called thinking is still defective, the facts to be treated are nevertheless relatively clear- I cut and accessible. About Behaviorism Causes and Reasons Some important kinds of thinking remain to be considered. About Behaviorism As in Chapters 5 and 6, the probability that he will respond could be called a measure of his trust or belief in the speaker or in what the speaker says. About Behaviorism Directions for operating a vending machine describe a series of acts to be under- taken in order: To operate, place coin in slot and pull plunger beneath item wanted. About Behaviorism Directions do not im- part knowledge or convey information: they describe behavior to be executed and state or imply conse- quences. About Behaviorism These verbal stimuli may at first be directions, but they become instruction if verbal help is given only as needed. About Behaviorism The would-be driver would have to discover what hap- pens when he moves the shift lever, turns the wheel, presses on the accelerator, applies the brake, and so on, and all with great danger to himself. About Behaviorism I 135 Causes and Reasons Folklore, Maxims, and Proverbs Some forms of instruction can be transmitted from gen- eration to generation because the contingencies they de- scribe are long-lasting. About Behaviorism We might translate La Rochefoucaulds Self-esteem is the great- est of flatterers in this way: We are more likely to say good things about ourselves than about others, and what we say is more likely to be a matter of pleasing the listener, than of reporting the facts. About Behaviorism When social contingencies characteristic of a small, slowly changing community are disturbed, formal direc- tions need to be invoked which were once unnecessary. About Behaviorism Stan- ABoUT BEuLvloiusM 136 dard warnings could be formulated, as the behavior came to be called bad and punished accordingly, even by those who were not injured by a specific instance. About Behaviorism As a well-governed state owed its order to its laws, so it might be possible to discover the laws responsible for the order in the physi- cal world. About Behaviorism A more formal statement of the law of the lever permitted the principle to be used in situations where contingency-shaped behavior was unlikely or impossible. About Behaviorism The first are said to be made, the second merely discovered, but the difference is not in the laws but in the contingencies ABOUT BEE&vIoRIsM 138 the laws describe. About Behaviorism Contingency-Shaped Versus Rule-Governed Behavior Rules can usually be learned more quickly than the be- havior shaped by the contingencies they describe. About Behaviorism Most people can learn the instruction Push down on the gearshift lever before moving it into the reverse posi- tion more readily than the actual shifting movement, especially if the lever does not move easily or if, in other cars with which the driver is familiar, it does not need to be pushed down. About Behaviorism In learning a second language, for 139 Causes and Reasons example, he can discover appropriate responses in a two-language dictionary and appropriate rules in a gram- mar. If these aids are adequate, he can presumably speak correctly, but he would be helpless without the dictionary and the grammar, and even if he memorized both of them, he would still not know the language in the sense to be discussed in the following chapter. About Behaviorism A person who is following directions, taking advice, heeding warnings, or obeying rules or laws does not be- have precisely as one who has been directly exposed to the contingencies, because a description of the contin- gencies is never complete or exact (it is usually simpli- 4 fled in order to be easily taught or understood) and be- cause the supporting contingencies are seldom fully maintained. About Behaviorism This is neces- sarily the case when the contingencies have never been analyzedwhen, as in poetry or mysticism, they are said to be ineffable. About Behaviorism Doing good be- cause one is reinforced by the good of others is more highly honored than doing good because the law dc- mands it. About Behaviorism Rule-following behavior is said to be the veneer of civilization, whereas behavior shaped by natural contin- gencies comes from the depths of the personality or mind. About Behaviorism Artists, composers, and poets sometimes follow rules (imitating the work of others, for example, is a version of rule following), but greater merit attaches to behavior which is due to a personal exposure to an environment Unlike those who submit to contingencies arranged to support rules, a natural artist, composer, or poet will behave in idiosyncratic ways and will be more likely to feel the bodily conditions, called excite- ment or joy, associated with natural reinforcers. About Behaviorism One has to do with the problem of knowledge, which is discussed in the next chapter but about which some- thing should be said here. About Behaviorism We do not need to describe contingencies of reinforcement in order to be affected by them. About Behaviorism Lower organisms presumably do not do so, nor did the human species before it acquired verbal be- havior. About Behaviorism It is said to be a thing of the mind which distinguishes man from the brutes. About Behaviorism To give a student reasons why something is worth learning is to point to possibly reinforcing consequences, but they may be long deferred, and the students behavior will change as a result of the pointing only if the teacher has been part of effective contingencies in the past. About Behaviorism When a therapist points to reasons why his patients behavior is costing him friends, he can be said to clar- ify a relation between behavior and certain aversive consequences, but the patient will change only if the therapist makes remarks effective in other waysnot by building trust or belief but by making his behavior a part of contingencies in which the patient has been reinforced. About Behaviorism Stimuli having 143 Causes and Reasons the status of advice and warnings must play a part in a long history of conditioning before a person can be in- duced to behave by being given reasons. About Behaviorism The term seems more suitable than cause, especially if we have not fully understood the process of selection, because anything which follows behavior does not seem to be in the right place to be the cause of it. About Behaviorism It is a step forward to discover that we carry bad news in part because we are reinforced by the discomfiture of our friends and that we mention the name of a person be- cause there is someone in the room who resembles him, although we have not up to this point seen him. About Behaviorism We may object when this is pointed out, because we may not want to believe, as one writer has put it, that there is more to human personTality than immediate conscious- ness tells us there is, but what is left out is not to be cannot, of course, analyze contingencies which we do not observe, but we can observe them without analyzing Several aspects of the life of reason deserve comment. About Behaviorism The life of reason is no doubt admirable, but there would be nothing to be reasonable about if it were not for the effect of food, sex, and other basic reinforcers the things Erasmus called folly. About Behaviorism The persistence of human folly in the face of heroic efforts to enlighten it with reason may be the tragedy of our times, but if we are to take effective action, reason will consist of an analysis of the contingencies represented by folly and of the uses which may be made of them. About Behaviorism They need not be suppressed by reason; on the con- trary, they may be made vastly more effective. About Behaviorism Instinct is sometimes a synonym: it is said to be a mistake to attribute to logical design what is the result of blind instinct, but the reference is simply to behav- ior shaped by unanalyzed contingencies of reinforce- ment. About Behaviorism It is no be- trayal of reason to accept what artists teach us about life, nature, and society, since not to accept it would be to assert that contingencies are effective only when they have been described or formulated as rules. About Behaviorism it is also a mistake to reserve intuition for the effect of contingencies from which it does not seem to be possible to derive rules. About Behaviorism it is said, for example, that the concept of torque required nearly two hundred years to be formulated, although skillful behavior with respect to systems involving torque had long existed and could be acquired without benefit of rule in a very short time. About Behaviorism It has often been said, in fact, that proofs of the existence of God are detrimental to faith, because they supply reasons for a belief that would otherwise be more highly valued as intuitive. About Behaviorism I conceive, said Thomas Hobbes, that when a man deliberates whether he shall do a thing or not do it, he does nothing else but consider whether it be better for himself to do it or not to do itwhether, in short, he would be re- inforced by the consequences. About Behaviorism No rule can be derived from the contingencies. About Behaviorism Neverthe- less, the behavior may be strong. About Behaviorism The explanation given for a rain dance might be that it pleases the person, force, or spirit that brings rain. About Behaviorism The advantages gained from examining the reasons for ones behavior are perhaps responsible for the tendency to construct reasons when ABouT BEHAVIoRISM 148 none can be found. About Behaviorism We do 149 Causes and Reasons not need to say that on a given rainy day he infers that no game will be played. About Behaviorism If he is planning to watch a televised game played in another city and hears that it is raining there, he may not turn on his television set, but we have no reason to say that he has inferred that a game will not be played. About Behaviorism Nevertheless, finding, offering, or inventing reasons loosely defines a field which may be profitably analyzed. About Behaviorism If some- one who knows nothing about baseball is told that mining heavily, what behavioral process or processes will keep him from going to the ball park or will lead him to say that no game will be played? it is tempting to make a rough distinction between induction as the deriving of rules and deduction as the applying of rules, but this would be to overlook the fact that de- duction is often a matter of deriving new rules from old, particularly from a consideration of certain key terms, such as all, some, no, if, and or, where the discovery of rules for deriving new rules from old would seem to be an example of induction. About Behaviorism I am simply trying to suggest the kinds of behavioral proc- esses to be found in these traditional fields. About Behaviorism There is no way in which a verbal description of a setting can be absolutely true. About Behaviorism The verbal community of the scientist maintains special sanctions in an effort to guarantee validity and objectivity, but, again, there can be no absolute. About Behaviorism No deduction from a rule or Jaw can therefore be absolutely true. About Behaviorism Absolute truth can be found, if at all, only in rules derived from rules, and here it is mere tautology. About Behaviorism It is a much more explicit stage, however, and therefore more likely to be analyzed by logicians or mathematicians. About Behaviorism There is nothing to be done about this; it is ad- mittedly a difficult field. About Behaviorism Moving from verb to noun, we say that they possess knowledge, and the evidence is that they possess be- havior. About Behaviorism Kinds of Knowing One meaning of to know is simply to be in contact with, to be intimate with. About Behaviorism The behavior it mediates may or may not be visible at any given moment. About Behaviorism Pavlovs dogs have been said to know when to salivate, but they did not salivate because they knew that the bell would be followed by food. About Behaviorism A rat could be said to know when to press a lever to get food, but it does not press because it knows that food will be delivered. About Behaviorism A taxi driver could be said to know a city well, but he does not get around because he possesses a cognitive map. About Behaviorism We saw in Chapter 5 that some of Lockes successors introduced an element of belief or will into the empirical position, but knowledge about the world is due to more than contact with a given setthg, be- cause it is due to the contingencies of reinforcement of which that setting is a part. About Behaviorism The advancement or augmentation of learning proposed by Bacon was the furthering of human be- havior in the interests of the human condition, and the achievements of modern science show that he cor- reedy foresaw its character. About Behaviorism It is certainly not difficult to point to the unhappy conse- quences of many advances in science, but it is not clear how they can be corrected except through a fur- ther exercise of scientific power. About Behaviorism One need not be actively behaving in order to feel or to introspectively observe certain states normally as- sociated with behavior. About Behaviorism A response temporarily forgotten may still be claimed as knowledge, as when we say, I cant think of it at the moment but I know it as well as I know my own name. About Behaviorism When we say, I went to the meeting knowing that X would be speaking (where knowing could be replaced by believing, expecting, realizing, or understanding), we report that our behavior was af- fected by some prior indication that X would be at the meeting, but the behavior itself could not be called knowing that fact. About Behaviorism To say, I went thinking X would be there, suggests a less clear or less reliable prior indication, a distinction between thinking and knowing mentioned in Chapter 7. About Behaviorism Contemplation of this kind would be ha- ABoUT BEHAVIORISM 156 157 KnowIng possible, however, without a previous exposure to con- tingencies in which action is taken and differentiallY reinforced. About Behaviorism Thus, if we have memorized I a maxim and observed it, we may again begin to be modified by the natural consequences. About Behaviorism The understanding gained by mov- ing from rule-governed to contingency-shaped behavior is usually reinforcing, in part because the reinforcers in the latter case are less likely to be contrived and hence less likely to work in the interest of others. About Behaviorism Perceptual re- sponses which clarify stimuli and resolve puzzlement may be automatically reinforcing. About Behaviorism Verbal behavior plays a principal role in contemplative knowledge, however, because it is well adapted for automatic reinforcement: the speaker may be his own listener. About Behaviorism 11 a given situation has not evoked any very useful verbal behavior, we may be reinforced by what a writer says about it if we can then respond in the same way. About Behaviorism In the field of verbal behavior it could be applied to the sound stream of speech between speaker and listener or the marks in a letter sent from writer to reader. About Behaviorism As a form of knowledge, in- formation can be treated more effectively as a be- havioral repertoire. About Behaviorism The external world is internalized, not as a photographic or phonographic reproduction, but suf- ficiently transduced, encoded, or otherwise modified to be more plausibly regarded as stored within the body. About Behaviorism If action were determined by feelings or introspec- tively observed states of mind, it would be true, as Michael Polanyi and Percy W. Bridgman have insisted, that science is inexorably personal. About Behaviorism (The personal role of the scientist some- times seems to be emphasized because of the apparent coldness of objective knowledge, as some religious works have continued to be transmitted by word of mouth, in spite of the invention of writing and print- ing, because the written form seems devoid of feeling. About Behaviorism The ascetic is no less reinforced by delicious food, sex, and so on than others (indeed, his asceticism would scarcely be admired if he were), but his behavior is clearly under the control of other consequences-most of them probably the punitive sanctions of early Christianity. About Behaviorism The Inner World of Motivation and Emotion We have been looking at what might be called the intellectual side of the life of the mindones ex- periences in the world in which one lives, ones infer- ences about the structure of that world, ones plans for dealing with it, ones intentions, purposes, ideas, and so on. About Behaviorism To ABouT BER&vI0BI5M 164 mark this distinction the word psyche, once applied to the intellect, now tends to be reserved for the emo- tional and motivational life. About Behaviorism Another side of the life of the mind is said to be concerned with instincts, drives, needs, emotions, and impulsive or defensive activities, and it has attracted attention m~iin1y for psychotherapeutic reasons. About Behaviorism A self or personality is at best a repertoire of be- havior imparted by an organized set of contingencies. About Behaviorism When Pascal said that nature is only first habit, as habit is second nature, he could be said to have anticipated current recognition that the species acquires behavior (instincts) under conthgencies of survival while the in- ABOuT BEHAVIoRISM 166 dividual acquires behaviors (habits) under contingen- cies of reinforcement. About Behaviorism What a person is really like could mean what he would have been like if we could have seen him before his be- havior was subjected to the action of an environment We should then have known his human nature. About Behaviorism as char- acteristic of the human male as the anatomy which de- fines his sex, but a comparable universality is to be found among the social contingencies of reinforcement maintained by the kinds of families in such cultures. About Behaviorism Jungs archetypal patterns and collective unconscious can be traced to either the evolution of the species or the evolution of cultural practices. About Behaviorism The universal features said to be characteristic of all languages are the result of universal characteristics of language communities arising from the role played by language in daily life. About Behaviorism The word depth, common in psychoanalysis, of- ten makes the unwarranted suggestion that an analysis is profound, but it may also be taken to refer to certain spatial features of the mind. About Behaviorism The nineteenth-century psychologist treated consciousness as the place in which sensations could be observed, but the space occupied by the ego, superego, and id is more complex. About Behaviorism The mind has different parts inferred from different kinds of be- havior. About Behaviorism To be of two minds about something is to have different things to do about it. About Behaviorism To be beside oneself is to be, for the moment, two people. About Behaviorism Different kinds of behavior are said to be kept in different compartments of the mind. About Behaviorism Instinct is a sum of psychic energy which imparts direction to psychological processes, in the sense that innate sus- ceptibilities to reinforcement not only strengthen be- havior but give it direction by shaping and maintaining its topography. About Behaviorism The susceptibilities are to be traced to their survival value in the evolution of the species. About Behaviorism Music, to a well-known statesman, is an outlet for passionate emotion, as if opera suddenly breaks into his poll- I 169 The Inner World of Motivation and Emotion tical life and knocks down the neat compartments be- tween emotion and reason. About Behaviorism The controlling relations between behavior and genetic and environmental variables are all un- conscious so long as they are not observed, and it was Freud who emphasized that they need not be observed (that is, conscious) to be effective. About Behaviorism Alternative defini- tions may be derived from the contingencies responsible for the behavior from which the dynamisms are inferred. About Behaviorism The bodily conditions associated with compliance may not be felt if the con- ditions associated with escape or counterattack are strong. About Behaviorism The control- ling measures used by an authority make it more likely that a person will escape or counterattack, and relevant conditions may be felt as resentment; at the same time the measures may generate compliant behavior, which is why the authorities use them. About Behaviorism When feelings cannot be expressed, pres- sure is said to build up until an explosion occurs. About Behaviorism A newspaper asserts that the frightening thing about quiet people like Bremer and Sirhan and Oswald is that there must be millions of them in the United States, holding their rage inside them untillacking the safety valve most individuals havethey explode. About Behaviorism But what is hap- pening when a person holds his rage inside him, and what is the safety valve through which most people let off emotional steam? The answers are to be found in ABOUT BEH.wIoiusM About Behaviorism Similarly, when it is said that spontaneous miscarriage is due to a possibly 173 The Inner~ World of Motivation and Emotion unconscious hatred of the child or of the father, we may say instead that the condition felt as hatred is medi- cally related to miscarriage, and that it must be attrib- uted in turn to a complex social situation. About Behaviorism The other Freudian dynamisms or defense mecha- nisms may be treated in the same way. About Behaviorism Inner Causes An angry person may have a rapid pulse and a flushed face; his behavior may be strongly focused on the object of his anger and uncontrolled by other features of the environment; he may show a strong tendency to harm that object (I could have killed him) or may actually harm him. About Behaviorism He may feel much of the condition of his body at such a time and take it as the cause of his be- havior, but it is in fact part of the effect for which a cause is sought. About Behaviorism Both the behavior and the collateral conditions felt are to be explained. About Behaviorism When an antecedent incitement is not easily spotted, the felt condition is likely to be assigned a more mi- portant role. About Behaviorism There does not seem to be anything else to at- tribute it to. About Behaviorism larly hard to explain, and the mood itself is therefore said to be causally effective (although we must still look for the sources of the mood if we are to explain the behavior). About Behaviorism The conditions thus felt can scarcely be responsible for the behaviors of which they are consequences, but they are often taken to explain the behaviors which follow. About Behaviorism A politician continues to run for office because of ambition, makes shady deals be- cause of greed, opposes measures to eliminate dis- ABouT BEHAVIoRISM 176 crimination because of moral callousness, holds the support of his followers because of his leadership qualities, and so on, where no evidence of the inner causes is available except the behavior attributed to them. About Behaviorism Repertoires can be sampled and a person rated quantitatively with respect to other persons in a group. About Behaviorism Certain traits can be reduced to factors or vectors of mind, and it is then easy to suppose that something more than an invented cause has been discovered. About Behaviorism And where there is structure, developmentalism cannot be far behind. About Behaviorism When three or four, the a 177 The Inner World of Motivation and Emotion child shows autonomy versus doubt; he is now acting on the environment largely by himself and may or may not be successful. About Behaviorism Failure may be mildly punished, and mild punishment generates a condition felt as shame. About Behaviorism At four or five, the opposition is between initiative and guilt; the child moves into new contingencies, and pun- ishment for failure may be more explicit, the condition therefore being felt as guilt rather than shame. About Behaviorism According to Erlkson, rule-governed be- havior begins to be important at this point also. About Behaviorism The other four stages may be analyzed in a similar way in terms of the prevailing contingencies. About Behaviorism The child of one or two may be said to show trust versus mistrust; his behavior is reinforced mainly through the mediation of others; and consistent contingencies breed trust, while inconsistent breed mistrust. About Behaviorism A state or qual- ity inferred from the behavior of a fluid begins to be taken as a cause. About Behaviorism Some people may have been born cautious in the sense that they learn very quickly to move cautiously or become excessively cau- tious even when not excessively punished, but the be- havior at issue can usually be traced to a history of punishing consequences. About Behaviorism Consider now a behavioral paralleL When a person has been subjected to mildly punishing consequences in walking on a slippery surface, be may walk in a manner we describe as cautious. About Behaviorism The extraordinary appeal of inner causes and the accompanying neglect of environmental histories and current setting must be due to more than a linguistic practice. About Behaviorism It is the appeal of an apparently inexplicable power, in a world which seems to lie be- yond the senses and the reach of reason. About Behaviorism This is said to have had the fol- lowing effect: Covetousness and greed, restrained within the Roman community by ancient rules of be- havior, having once been let loose upon the foreigner, could no longer be restrained at home. About Behaviorism We might move from traits of character to contingencies of reinforce- ment by saying that the behavior of taking the property of others, strongly reinforced and unpunished in war- fare, became too strong to be seriously affected by the punitive sanctions implied in ancient rules of behav- ior. About Behaviorism In one analysis of the effects of a chiseler on a worker, work becomes sacrifice, which is said to be a voluntary virtue, a meaning the sacrificer has created out of the material circumstances of his life. About Behaviorism The behavior at issue can be observed in a single person: When a person is able to do so, he will speak of his good qualities in contradicting what others have said of him. About Behaviorism I must ask the reader to wait until Chapter 13 to consider whether what are felt or introspectively observed are the things which will eventually be reported and ana- lyzed by the physiologist, but some comment on the explanations they are said to supply may be appropriate here. About Behaviorism To argue that minds kill, not guns may be simply to insist that we shall not control assassins by making guns unavailable, but other means of control will be neglected so long as we accept the explanation that minds kill. About Behaviorism We need to know a great deal more about complex contingencies of rein- forcement, and it will always be hard to deal with that particular set to which any one person is exposed dur- ing his life, but at least we know how to go about find- ing out what we need to know. About Behaviorism A number of terms describing a person and his re- lation to others need to be considered. About Behaviorism Knowing Oneself in asking what a person can know about himself, we are led at once to another question: Who can know about whom? The answer is to be found in the con- tingencies which produce both a knowing self and a known. About Behaviorism Later, it becomes im- portant to the person himselffor example, in manag- ing or controlling himself in ways to be discussed shortly. About Behaviorism Questions about feelings tend to be closely associated with a sense of self or a self-image. About Behaviorism From the present point of view any change is in a repertoire, and it must be attributed to changing contingencies. About Behaviorism As the relevance of environmental history has become clearer, however, practical questions have begun to be asked, not about feelings and states of mind, but about the environment, and the answers are proving increasingly useful. About Behaviorism The shift from introspective to environmental evi- dence does not guarantee that self-knowledge will be accurate, however. About Behaviorism We should not be surprised that the more we know about the behavior of others, the better we un- derstand ourselves. About Behaviorism It was a practical interest in the be- havior of the other one which led to this new kind of self-knowledge. About Behaviorism Only those who have been psychoan- alyzed, for example, are said to know what psycho- analysis means, and the mystic claims experiences which cannot be communicated or known to others except through similar channels. About Behaviorism But it may be argued as well that only those who understand an experimental anal- ysis and its use in interpreting human behavior can understand themselves in a scientific or technological sense. About Behaviorism The observer is to become involved and, like the mathematician who is said to think intuitively be- cause he has not taken the explicit steps which lead to a conclusion, he is to intuit the feelings of others that is, to know them directly without necessarily being able to explain how he does so. About Behaviorism Knowing Another Person In asking why another person behaves as be does, we may also distinguish between what be feels or intro- spectively observes and what has happened to him. About Behaviorism Discovering how he feels, or what he thinks, is part of learning what he is or is coming to be or becoming. About Behaviorism Thus, how well the members of a training staff perceive (and hence know) their train- 1 ABouT BERAvIoBIsM 190 ces has been said to be indicated by how well they can predict how the trainees will answer a set of questions. About Behaviorism Actors were once said to be able to register joy, sorrow, and so on with facial expres sions, postures, and movements, and the audience read these expressions and hence understood the characters and their motives, presumably because it had learned to do so in real life with real people. About Behaviorism We can also be wrong when we project feelings onto other people. About Behaviorism We may be able to discover how he really feels by altering the contingencies. About Behaviorism If he is acting bravely because of prevailing social contin- gencies in which showing fear is punished, we may be able to change the contingencies so that he will act as if afraid. About Behaviorism At best the end product of communication could be said to be the fact that the listeners response is appropriate to the speakers situa- ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 192 tion. About Behaviorism A description of the bodily state felt by the speaker does not by itself produce a similar state to be felt by the listener. About Behaviorism The meaning of an expression is different for speaker and listener; the meaning for the speaker must be sought in the circumstances under which he emits a verbal response and for the listener in the response he makes to a verbal stimulus. About Behaviorism This is true of the world of ideas (it does not help much to be told that a good lecturer should com- municate being), and even more specific references to what is in the speakers mind are faulty. About Behaviorism Not all con- tingencies can be replaced with rules, and some con- tingency-shaped behavior is beyond the reach of verbal description. About Behaviorism The feelings of the mystic or the aesthete are in- effable, and there are other feelings that can be known only by passing through a relevant history. About Behaviorism (The ten- dency could be innate, since there is survival value, for example, in the behavior of a mother who feeds and cares for her young and protects them from harm and who, in doing so, provides conditions which classify as positive and negative reinforcers, but social contin- gencies of reinforcement generate comparable behav- ior.) About Behaviorism There may seem to be a more compelling reason for probing the feelings of others. About Behaviorism If it is not the behavior that counts but how a person feels about his behavior, the discovery of feelings should be the first order of business. About Behaviorism When we are helping people to act more effectively, our first task may seem to be to change how they feel and thus how they will act, but a much more effective program is to change how they act and thus, incidentally, how they feel. About Behaviorism As in other sciences, we often lack the information necessary for prediction and control and must be satisfied with interpretation, but our interpre- tations will have the support of the prediction and con- trol which have been possible under other conditions. About Behaviorism We understand other people short of taking action, and the mere perception of others must be included among our responses to them. About Behaviorism But very little self- management in this sense could be learned in one life- time. About Behaviorism Hence the value of folk wisdom, rules of thumb, proverbs, maxims, and other rules to be followed to ad- just more expediently to the contingencies they de- scribe. About Behaviorism It would be impossible to construct a table of command- ments applicable to all the things people do which af- fect others, but to discover whether a particular act is likely to be punished because it affects others aversively the individual is enjoined to examine the effect on him- self. About Behaviorism The joint Rule tells him to avoid acting if the effect would be aversive to himself and to act if the effect would be re- inforcing. About Behaviorism The artist who paints photographically is under the powerful control of his model, but if he can bring his personal history into play, his work will show a kind of generality, be- cause it will be less closely tied to one situation. About Behaviorism Fulfillment seems to be concerned with achievement, with avoiding restraints and discovering positive reinforcers. About Behaviorism These reflex mechanisms have been called involuntary, and as we saw in Chapter 4, this would seem to set them apart from operant behavior, but the conditions needed for operant conditioning can be ar- ranged. About Behaviorism Autonomic behavior is usually concerned with the internal economy, and there have been few effects on the environment which would make operant condi- tioning relevant, but a conspicuous indicator that a re- sponse is occurring can be set up, and operant contin- gencies can thus be established. About Behaviorism The direct operant control of autonomic behavior can be demonstrated only when indirect control is eliminated. About Behaviorism There are ways in which these mediating responses can be eliminated, and the pure operant control of autonomic behavior may be possible. About Behaviorism it is possible that a much more precise kind of control 199 The Self and Others may begin to be exerted by private effects, in which case the problem of privacy faced by the verbal community is surmounted. About Behaviorism We may be as un- conscious of the stimuli we use in self-management as of those we use in executing a handspring. About Behaviorism When techniques of self-management have been learned, the instructional contingencies maintained by the verbal community may no longer be needed. About Behaviorism Be- I havior resulting from good self-management is more effective and hence generously reinforced in other ways. About Behaviorism Everything we know about operant conditioning is relevant to making be- havior more or less likely to occur upon a given occa- sion. About Behaviorism This is the traditional field of rewards and punish- ments, but much sharper distinctions can be made in taking advantage of what we know about contingencies of reinforcement. About Behaviorism The child who stays out when told to come in will not only get wet, he will be punished for disobedience. About Behaviorism (The sign will be particularly effective if a punisher a policemanis visible.) About Behaviorism A person who responds because of a warning is behaving rationally, in the sense of applying a rule, and this is particularly likely to be said if, though he may have learned to re- spond because of past warnings, he does so now because he has analyzed the situation and, so to speak, warned himself. About Behaviorism A labor contract specifies among other things what a worker is to do and how much he is to be paid. About Behaviorism The worker and the child may then behave in order to be paid or treated, respectively, but the behavior may be weak. About Behaviorism The rule may have to be supplemented by additional ABoUT B~uiwoRIsM 202 contingencies, such as a supervisors threat of discharge or repeated signs of disapproval from a parent. About Behaviorism Yet the point of education can be stated in behaviorial terms: a teacher arranges contingencies under which the student acquires behavior which will be useful to 203 The Self and Others him under other contingencies later on. About Behaviorism The instruc- tional contingencies must be contrived; there is no way out of this. About Behaviorism The behaviors to be constructed in advance are as much a matter of productive thinking and creativity as of plain facts and skills. About Behaviorism The illness which is the object of therapy is called mental, and we have already examined Freuds mental apparatus and a few intrapsychic processes said to be disturbed or deranged in the mentally ill. About Behaviorism (At one time it was suggested that the psychiatrist should take LSD in order to discover what it feels like to be mentally disturbed.) About Behaviorism Measures taken to change feelingsas in develop- ing the ego or building a vital sense of selfwork by constructing contingencies of reinforcement, by ad- vising a patient where favorable contingencies are to be found, or bysupplying rules which generate behavior likely to be reinforced in his daily life. About Behaviorism Behavior therapy is often supposed to be exclusively a matter of con- triving reinforcing contingencies, but it quite properly includes giving a patient warnings, advice, instructions, and rules to be followed. About Behaviorism When a problem calling for therapy is due to a shortage of social or intimately personal reinforcers, a solution may be difficult. About Behaviorism It may be obvious that a per- son would profit from reinforcement with attention, ap- proval, or affection, but if these are not the natural consequences of his behaviorif he does not merit at- tention, approval, or affectionit may not be possible to contrive the needed contingencies. About Behaviorism The culture of the therapist should lead him to act in ways which are good for the person be is helping, and the problem of those who are concerned for therapy is to generate such a culture, not to find humane therapists. About Behaviorism (We hold him accountable in the more general sense of keeping an account of his behavior to see whether it meets specifications upon which escape from punishment may be contingent.) About Behaviorism It may be said that there is one field in which what is done is not really management, although an effect on other people is extremely im- portant. About Behaviorism The artist, the composer, or the writer of poetry or fiction produces something which seems to be justified solely by the fact that it is reinforcing, no atten- others behaved as they did, a different kind of self- tion being paid to the contingencies. About Behaviorism At best the artist, composer, or writer acts to produce something which reinforces him, and he is most likely to continue to be productive when that is the case. About Behaviorism The self-management which begins to be taught in the form of proverbs, maxims, and rules of thumb is a matter of changing the environment. About Behaviorism The control of others, learned at an early date, comes at last to be used in self-control, and eventually a full-fledged technology of behavior leads to skillful self-manage- ment. About Behaviorism We cannot prove, of course, that hu- man behavior as a whole is fully determined, but the proposition becomes more plausible as facts accumu- late, and I believe that a point has been reached at which its implications must be seriously considered. About Behaviorism They escape from the controllermoving out of range if he is an individual, or defecting from a government, be- coming an apostate from a religion, resigning, or play- ing truantor they may attack in order to weaken or destroy the controlling power, as in a revolution, a reformation, a strike, or a student protest. About Behaviorism ABouT BEHAVIORISM 210 A condition may be reached in which these opposing forces are in equilibrium, at least temporarily, but the result is seldom an optimal solution. About Behaviorism An incentive sys- tem may reconcile a conflict between management and labor, nations may maintain a balance of power, and governmental, religious, and educational practices may be effective just short of defection, apostasy, or truancy, but the results are by no means well-designed social environments. About Behaviorism The consequences responsible for benev- olent, devoted, compassionate, or public-spirited be- havior are forms of countercontrol, and when they are lacking, these much-admired features of behavior are lacking. About Behaviorism Darwin pointed to the survival value of altruistic behavior, in a passage I shall quote later, though only very special kinds of innate behavior seem to be involved. About Behaviorism We refrain from hurting others, not be- cause we know how it feels to be hurt, but (1) be- cause hurting other members of the species reduces the chances that the species will survive, and (2) when we have hurt others, we ourselves have been hurt. About Behaviorism Th classical concept of humanitas was defined as a set of virtues, but any feeling of virtue could be thought of as a by-product of conduct. About Behaviorism An important determinant of moral behavior and a major component of character development is said to be willingness to follow rules, but a person wills to follow a rule because of the consequences arranged by those who state the rule and enforce it. About Behaviorism Social behavior does not require that the contingencies which generate it should be formulated in rules or, if they have been formulated, that a person should know the rules. About Behaviorism It is extraordinarily important, however, that so- cial practices be formulated. About Behaviorism The bodily conditions known or felt may be particularly conspicuous when the sanctions are strong. About Behaviorism We sometimes say that we acted in a given way be- cause we knew it was right or felt that it was right, but what we feel when we behave morally or ethically de- pends on the contingencies responsible for our behav- ior. About Behaviorism William James fol- lowed suit in the field of emotion: We do not cry be- cause we are sad; we are sad because we cry. About Behaviorism This could only be done, he believed, if a general sense of decency per- vaded society. About Behaviorism It is not enough to cite the behavior from which we infer a sense of decency, as it was not enough to cite the be- havior from which we infer the compassion of those who have helpless people in their charge. About Behaviorism Legal behavior depends on more than an attitude of deference toward government as the role of govern- ment depends on more than an accomplished fact of power, and to say that law is an achievement that needs to be renewed by understanding the sources of its strength is to point directly to the need to understand and maintain governmental contingencies. About Behaviorism Man has been said to be superior to the other ani- mals because he has evolved a moral or ethical sense. About Behaviorism The struggle for freedom has seemed to move toward a world in which people do as they like or what they want to do, in which they enjoy the right to be left alone, in which they have been redeemed from the tyranny of gods and govern- ments by the growth of their free will into perfect strength and self-confidence. About Behaviorism It would appear to be a world in which people have fulfilled themselves, have actualized themselves, and have found themselves, in the sense in which these expressions are used in exis- tentialism, phenomenology, and Eastern mysticism. About Behaviorism ABOUT BEHAVIoRIsM 218 The fact that positive reinforcement does not breed countercontrol has not gone unnoticed by would-be controllers, who have simply shifted to positive means. About Behaviorism If it does so through taxation, its citizens must pay or be punished, and they may escape from this aversive control by putting another party in power at the next election. About Behaviorism It is hoped that in his sub- sequent speeches Mr. Jenkins will discuss the political tech- niques whereby the majority can be controlled. About Behaviorism The control of behavior is concealed or disguised in education, psychotherapy, and religion, when the role of teacher, therapist, or priest is said to be to guide, direct, or counsel, rather than to manage, and where measures which cannot be so disguised are rejected as intervention. About Behaviorism Those who defend human rights point to measures to be taken against those who in- ABoUT BEHAVIORISM 220 fringe them. About Behaviorism Man bears a solemn responsibility not to control others aversively, not to take more than a just share of goods, and not to foul the environment, in the sense that he will be criticized or punished by those who suffer if he does so. About Behaviorism By turning from rights and responsibilities to the behaviors attributed to them or said to be justified by them, and in turning to the social (usually governmental) contingencies which shape and maintain those behaviors, we escape from a centuries-old controversy and move toward possibly effective action. About Behaviorism A simple analysis of controlling practices, such as that in the preceding chapter, is likely to be attacked simply because it could be misused by controllers. About Behaviorism But in the long run any effective countercontrol leading to the liberation of the individual can be achieved only by explicit design, and this must be based upon a scien- tific analysis of human behavior. About Behaviorism All this will be possible not because those with whom he as- sociates possess morality and a sense of ethics or de- cency or compassion, but because they in turn are con- trolled by a particular kind of social environment. About Behaviorism Perhaps it would be unfair to ask more of this particular conference, but it was called to meet possibly the greatest current threat to the species, and it is clear that it made little progress because it could not accept the fact that an essential step was the restriction of cer- tain freedoms. About Behaviorism But goodness in the light of which an act may be judged is one thing; inducing peo- ple to be good or to act well for the sake of a future consequence is another. About Behaviorism If there are indeed seventy-three elements of culture common to every human society still existing or known to history, then there must be seventy-three practices or kinds of practices in every set of contin- gencies called a culture, each of which must be ex- plained in terms of conditions prevailing before the culture emerged as such. About Behaviorism Why do people develop a language? Why do they practice some kind of mar- riage? Why do they maintain moral practices and formulate them in codes? Some answers to questions of this sort are to be found in the biological characteristics of the species, others in universal features of the en- vironments in which people live. About Behaviorism Mutations may be ran- dom. About Behaviorism The practices which compose a culture are a mixed bag, and some parts may be inconsistent with others or in open conflict. About Behaviorism 225 The Question of Control The society will be cured it it can be changed in such a way that a person is generously and consistently reinforced and therefore fulfills himself by acquiring and exhibiting the most successful behavior of which be is capable. About Behaviorism Things go wrong under all three con- tingencies of selection, and they may need to be put right by explicit design. About Behaviorism Will a culture evolve in which individuals are not so much concerned with their own actualization and ful- fillment that they do not give serious attention to the future of the culture? These questions, and many others like them, are the, questions to be asked rather than who will control and to what end. About Behaviorism Will a culture evolve in which no individual will be able to accumulate vast power and use it for his own 227 The Question of Control aggrandizement in ways which are harmful to others? About Behaviorism It will not be a benevolent dictator, a compassionate therapist, a devoted teacher, or a public-spirited in- dustrialist who will design a way of life in the interests of everyone. About Behaviorism The organism be- comes a person as it acquires a repertoire of behavior under the contingencies of reinforcement to which it is exposed during its lifetime. About Behaviorism In the traditional mentalistic view, on the other hand, a person is a member of the human species who be- haves as he does because of many internal character- 229 What is in.vide About Behaviorism We cannot say that one is simpler than the other, since references to mental states and activities make distinctions which must be recast in terms of contingencies of survival or reinforcement. About Behaviorism It is possible, indeed, that a behavioral analysis will be more complex. About Behaviorism The bodily conditions felt as such can be changed surgically, dee- trically, or with drugs, but for most practical purposes AB0T.rr About Behaviorism What a person feels is a product of the contingencies of which his future behavior will also be a function, and there is therefore a useful connection between feelings and be- havior. About Behaviorism It would be foolish to rule out the knowledge a person has of his current condition or the uses to which it may be put. About Behaviorism In casual discourse the limits of accuracy noted in Chapter 2 are not necessarily seri- ous, but we can nevertheless predict behavior more ac- curately if we have direct knowledge about the history to which feelings are to be traced. About Behaviorism Attitudes, opinions, or intelligence, as states inferred from behavior, are also useless in control, but they per- mit us to predict one kind of behavior from another kind known to be associated with it, presumably be- cause of a common cause. About Behaviorism When human behavior is observed under conditions which cannot be exactly a 231 What is inside the Skin? About Behaviorism described and where histories are out of reach, very little prediction or control is possible, but a behavior- istic account is still more useful than a mentalistic one in interpreting what a person is doing or why he be- haves as he does under such circumstances. About Behaviorism It is true that we could trace human behavior not only to the physical conditions which shape and maintain it but also to the causes of those conditions and the causes of those causes, almost ad infinitum, but there is no point in going back beyond the point at which effective action can be taken. About Behaviorism That point is not to be found in the psyche, and the explanatory force of mental life has steadily declined as the promise of the environment has came to be more clearly understood. About Behaviorism A be- havioristic formulation may be said to restore the role of the individual in social science. About Behaviorism The result is not the behavioralism of political action (which, as we have seen, is a version of structuralism) but a new approach to the conditions of which economic and political be- havior are functions. About Behaviorism The puz- zling question of how a physical event causes a men- tal event, which in turn causes a physical event, re- mains to be answered or dismissed as unanswerable (a specialist in the physiology of vision has said that I the transition from the excitations in the cortex to the subjective experience defies explanation). About Behaviorism But psychology as the study of subjective phenomena, distinct from the study of objective behavior, would then not be a science and would have no reason to be. About Behaviorism In the intrapsychic life of the mind mental causes have mental effects, and among them are states of awareness or conscious- ness, and if this inner world could be observed in a 233 What I: Inside the Skin? About Behaviorism purely solipsistic way, if the student of mental life had no reason to appeal to physical action, even in com- municating with others, and if mental life played no disruptive role to be taken into account by the be- haviorist, everyone would be satisfied. About Behaviorism The problem could be avoided if we could stay within the mental or psychic stage. About Behaviorism Physiology The organism is, of course, not empty, and it cannot be adequately treated simpiy as a black box, but we must carefully distinguish between what is known about what is inside and what is merely inferred. About Behaviorism Me may lack the brains needed for his job, or his brains may be addled or in turmoil. About Behaviorism At times his nerves may be shattered, frayed, stretched to the breaking point, numb, or (possibly be- cause the word also once referred to tendons) taut or on edge. About Behaviorism A newspaper account of the Spassky-Fischer chess match read as follows: Spasskys blunder today could very well be the result of the shaking his nerves took in the earlier 74-move game. About Behaviorism A conceptual nervous system can- not, of course, be used to explain the behavior from which it is inferred. About Behaviorism Early observations of reflex action, for example, were made long before the activity of nerves could be detected. About Behaviorism Different parts of the nervous system could be isolated, but what happened in a given part could only I be inferred. About Behaviorism A similar comparison may be made of the techno- nogical uses of behavioral and physiological science. About Behaviorism It has recently been said that we may be rapidly ac- quiring the power to modify and control the capaci- ties and activities of men by direct intervention and manipulation of their bodies and minds, and that the biological human engineering that results will probably have profound social consequences. About Behaviorism There could scarcely be a better example of the dam- aging effect of the inner-directedness of physiological, as well as mentalistic, inquiry. About Behaviorism If we are to be free from war, crimes, and economic booms and depres- sions, we shall have to find a better social environ- ment. About Behaviorism To say that the only possible theoretical basis for the explanation of human behavior is to be found in the physiology of the brain and central nervous sys- tem, and that the adoption of this basis necessarily leads to the disappearance of psychology as an inde- pendent science, is also to overlook the possibility of a behavioral science and of what it has to say about feelings and introspectively observed states. About Behaviorism A simi1~ir entrapment in physiology is illustrated by the state- ment If mans life is ever to be lived along entirely rational lines, free from such disturbances as war, crimes, and economic booms and depressions, he will have to find a way of increasing the size of his brain. About Behaviorism New instruments and methods will continue to be devised, and we shall eventually know much more about the kinds of physiological processes, chemical or electrical, which take place when a person behaves. About Behaviorism The physiolo- gist of the future will tell us all that can be known about what is happening inside the behaving organism. About Behaviorism His account will be an important advance over a be- havioral analysis, because the latter is necessarily his- toricalthat is to say, it is confined to functional re- lations showing temporal gaps. About Behaviorism No matter how clearly that fact can be established, a step is missing, and we must wait for the physiologist to supply it. About Behaviorism He will be able to show how an organism is changed when exposed to contingencies of rein- forcement and why the changed organism then behaves in a different way, possibly at a much later date. About Behaviorism A severe limitation is to be seen in the organs a person uses in observing himself. About Behaviorism After all, what are the anatomy and physiology of the inner eye? So far as we know, self-observation must be con- fined to the three nervous systems described in Chapter 2an interoceptive nervous system going to the viscera, a proprioceptive nervous system going to the skeletal frame, and an exteroceptive system bringing a person mainly into contact with the world around him. About Behaviorism Introspection has had to use whatever systems were available, and they happened to be systems which made contact only with those parts of the body that played a role in its internal and external economy. About Behaviorism Trying to observe much of what is going on in ones own body is like trying to hear supersonic sounds or see electromagnetic radiation be- yond the visible range. About Behaviorism Such a model or system could apply to either the mental or physical worlds or even to both, and the problem of dualism therefore seems to be avoided. About Behaviorism Methodological behaviorism and certain versions of logical positivism could be said to ignore conscious- ness, feelings, and states of mind, but radical behavior- ism does not thus behead the organism; it does not sweep the problem of subjectivity under the rug; it does not maintain a strictly behavioristic methodology by treating reports of introspection merely as verbal behavior; and it was not designed to permit con- sciousness to atrophy. About Behaviorism (b) The ner- vous systems through which it is effective evolved be- cause of their role in the internal and external economy of the organism. About Behaviorism Nor could experience be divorced from the physical world in the way needed to make such a science possible. About Behaviorism An independent science of the subjective would be an independent science of verbal communities. About Behaviorism A few behaviorists, particularly J. R. Kantor, have minimized if not denied a genetic contribution, and in their enthusiasm for what may be done through ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 244 the environment, others have no doubt acted as if a genetic endowment were unimportant, but few would contend that behavior is endlessly malleable. About Behaviorism Watsons careless remark that he could take any healthy infant and convert him into a doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant chief, and, yes, even beggarman or thief can scarcely be responsible, because Watson himself repeatedly re- ferred to the hereditary and habit equipment of peo- ple. About Behaviorism Students are classified essentially as those who do not need to be taught and those who cannot be, and the doctrine of universal education is challenged on the grounds that some children are essentially Un- teachable. About Behaviorism But the roles of heredity and environment are to be discovered through observation, not assigned in conformity with political beliefs. About Behaviorism Species differ in the speeds with which they can be conditioned and in the nature and size of the repertoires they can main- tain, and it is probable that people show similar in- herited differences. About Behaviorism Raise one identical twin in China and the other in France and their verbal behavior will be completely different. About Behaviorism The eliciting stimulus is a particularly clear ex- ample of environmental action and probably for that reason was the first to be discovered and formulated. About Behaviorism But stimuli do not elicit operant responses; they simply modify the probability that responses will be emitted. About Behaviorism No matter how defective a behavioral account may be, we must remember that mentalistic explanations explain nothing. About Behaviorism Evolutionary theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by the human genetic endow- ment from antecedent design to subsequent selection by contingencies of survival. About Behaviorism Operant theory moved the purpose which seemed to be displayed by human action from antecedent intention or plan to subsequent selec- tion by contingencies of reinforcement. About Behaviorism If behaviorism took the line of a pure structuralism, abandoning the causal role of the mind and putting nothing in its place, it would be superficial in an objectionable sense, but that is a very superficial view of what it actually does. About Behaviorism So-called human- istic psychology also deprecates prediction or control in its concern for what a person is, here and now, apart from his past or future, and it attempts to justify itself accordingly: The theory of evolution is not a predic- tive science, yet it is highly respectable and important Hence other nonpredictive scienceshistory, hum~nis- tic psychologymay be justified. About Behaviorism But the theory of evolution is not a science at all; it is an interpretation of a very large number of facts, using several relevant sciences, among them genetics and ecology, both of which are or may be predictive and manipulative. About Behaviorism A review of a recent book by an English be- haviorist in a well-known British publication contains the comment that unlike behaviorists in America, the author works not with rats but with people. About Behaviorism Something is gained, however, since only in this way can we be sure of what is uniquely human. About Behaviorism Even with human subjects, most of the early experi- ments were done where the environment could be most easily controlled, as with psychotics and re- tardates. About Behaviorism But normal children soon began to be studied, and then normal adults. About Behaviorism Special problems naturally arise from the relation of the subject to the experimenter and from the long and complex history of the subject prior to the experiment, but enough has been done to suggest that the same basic processes occur in both an- imals and men, just as the same kind of nervous sys- tem is to be found in both. About Behaviorism It would be a remarkable person who predicted his behavior under the contingencies arranged in a mod- em laboratory. About Behaviorism If this were the case, we should have to say that we are limited in animal research to those topics which can be prescinded from human experience and projected into animals. About Behaviorism The equipment is not used be- cause it does so, even though a clinical psychologist has claimed that experimental psychologists use their gad- gets and machines to defend themselves against real involvement with their subjects. About Behaviorism Obviously we cannot predict or control human be- havior in daily life with the precision obtained in the laboratory, but we can nevertheless use results from the laboratory to interpret behavior elsewhere. About Behaviorism Those who argue that laboratory results cannot ac- count for human behavior in the world at large presum- ably believe that they know what is happening in that world, or at least that it can be known. About Behaviorism But if a statement about to be trusted in daily life than in a lab- oratory setting, we must certainly ask whether the im- pression against which it is compared is any more re- liable. About Behaviorism Those who feel that they understand what is happening in the world at large may be tested in a very simple way: let them look at the organism as it behaves in a modern experiment and tell us what they see. About Behaviorism Those familiar with laboratory research will be more likely to look for the important things and will know what other things to ask about; they will have a better understanding of what they see. About Behaviorism Anyone who tries to make ABouT BEsAvIoRIsM 254 some kind of systematic order of what is said to be taking place inside the skin will necessarily come up with an account which is far from simple. About Behaviorism But if we are to call anything oversimplified, it must be those mental- istic explanations, so readily invented on the spot, which are appealing because they seem so much simpler than the facts they are said to explain. About Behaviorism it is easier to say that a person is suffering from anxiety than from a history of sibling rivalry to which the anxiety must eventually be attributed, as it is simpler to say that mental re- tardates show reactive inhibition than to examine the defective relation between their behavior and the en- vironments to which they are exposed. About Behaviorism The complexity of mental organization that behaviorism is said to underestimate is the complexity which arises from the effort to systematize formulations that might better be abandoned. About Behaviorism When Freud called behavorism nave, he was speak- ing of an early version and comparing it with his own extremely involved account of the mental apparatus an account which some of his followers have felt to be in need of simplification. About Behaviorism But we find it much more difficult to believe that contingencies of reinforcement can really be the roots of wars, say, orat the other extremeof art, music, and literature.- About Behaviorism The reader who has reached this point will not be inclined to call a behavioristic analysis of human behavior simple (unless he blames the complex- 255 Summing Up ities he has encountered on my exposition), and I may remind him that I have kept facts and principles to a bare niinhnum. About Behaviorism The mistake is an example of structuralism: it is not what was said but why it was said that must be taken into account. About Behaviorism Very little of what is discovered in current research could be said to be f2nhiliar to anyone. About Behaviorism I doubt whether so much ABoUT BEHAVIORISM 256 gunpowder would be spent on what was obviously a nave and outmoded Liviality. About Behaviorism Perhaps the best evidence that a science of behavior has something new to offer is the success of its tech- nological applications, but we should not overlook the evidence to be found in the violence with which the position is urrently attacked. About Behaviorism to count or measure is said to be to ape the natcral scianccs. About Behaviorism behavior was ord:rly rather than capricious coulJ ~ca:czly be said to have been adopted for honorific p~r-o:es. About Behaviorism But the historian, like everyone else, is well advised to turn from wishes and intentions to environmental contingencies, and a book such as this is designed to be part of the environment of those who will continue to talk about behaviorism as a living philosophy. About Behaviorism There have been many dramatic applications of operant conditioning, but very often what is done seems in retrospect to be little more than the application of common sense. About Behaviorism it is sometimes said that they were, and isolated instances in which something very much like a modern behavioral technology can be cited. About Behaviorism ABouT BEHAVIORISM 258 The disastrous results of common sense in the man- agement of human behavior are evident in every walk of life, from international affairs to the care of a baby, and we shall continue to be inept in all these fields until a scientific analysis clarifies the advantages of a more effective technology. About Behaviorism It will then be obvious that the results are due to more than common sense. About Behaviorism It would be absurd for the behaviorist to con- tend that he is in any way exempt from his analysis. About Behaviorism He cannot step out of the causal stream and observe be- havior from some special point of vantage, perched on the epicycle of Mercury. About Behaviorism The behavior of logician, mathematician, and scien- tist is the most difficult part of the field of human be- havior and possibly the most subtle and complex phe- nomenon ever submitted to a logical mathematical, or scientific analysis, but because it has not yet been well analyzed, we should not conclude that it is a different kind of field, to be approached only with a different kind of analysis. About Behaviorism There is no reason why we cannot ask what a logician or mathematician does as he discovers how or why new rules can be derived from old or why, if the old can be said to be true, the new must be true too. About Behaviorism it is a corpus of rules for effective action, and there is a special sense in which it could be true if it yields the most effective action possible. About Behaviorism The tautological truth of the logician or mathe- matician can be proved; it is absolute. About Behaviorism Induction,- like intuition or insight, also suggests freedom, but it is the freedom from the constraints of rulegoverned- behavior and can be called freedom only until the con- trol of the environment in evoking intuitive behavior is fully recognized. About Behaviorism it is sometimes said that to speak the truth one must be free; controlled behavior is too restricted to be judged or accepted as true, and the behaviorist who in- sists that all behavior is determined evidently denies that it can therefore be true at all. About Behaviorism Behavioral scientists would probably be quite content with the degree of rigor shown by physics in spite of this apparent limitation, but there may be something about the human organism which makes indeterminacy relatively important We can discover whether or not that is an important limita- tion only by developing a science of human behavior to the point at which indeterminacy becomes apparent. About Behaviorism Certain problems concerning the limitations of human knowledge might be closer to solution if the behavior of knowing were analyzed fur- ther. About Behaviorism It has been said, for example, that science has reached a limit beyond which it cannot establish the determinacy of physical phenomena, and it has been argued that this may be the point at which freedom emerges in human behavior. About Behaviorism For example, the limits of what could be seen through the microscope were once clearly es- tablished from a consideration of the wave lengths of 261 Summing Up visible light. About Behaviorism Sometimes the implication seems to be that its picture of man is incomplete: Behavior- ism tried to build a psychology without including man in his full complexity, or, Behaviorism has omitted human phenomena which do not fit a physicalistic model. About Behaviorism (Humanistic psychology, on the other hand, is said to be a science appropriate to man as a subject matter, committed to dealing with humanness in its own right, and comprehensively human.) About Behaviorism This characterization of the species is likely to be sub- scribed to by all those members of the species who can ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 262 understand it, but it does not identify anything essen- tially human, as can be shown by applying it to another species. About Behaviorism it is often said that a behavioristic account somehow neglects something of what a person can be or do be- cause it treats him as a machine. About Behaviorism What is usually meant in saying that behaviorism de- humanizes man is that it neglects important capacities which are not to be found in machines or animals, such as the capacity to choose, have purposes, and behave creatively. About Behaviorism Many of these issues were no doubt neglected in early versions of behaviorism, and methodological be- haviorism systematically ruled some of them out of ac- count, but I know of no essentially human feature that has been shown to be beyond the reach of a scientific analysis, and I doubt whether those who charge de- humanization would wish to rest their case on the in- adequacy of a behavioral account, since the future might turn too heavily against them. About Behaviorism Eternally fettered only to a single little fragment of the whole, man fashions himself only as a fragment; ever hearing only the monotonous whirl of the wheel which he turns, he never displays the full harmony of his be- ing. About Behaviorism Nevertheless, if the posi- tion I have presented here is correct, be can remedy these mistakes and at the same time build a world in which he will feel freer than ever before and achieve greater things. About Behaviorism But be- haviorism does not move from one dimensional system to another. About Behaviorism The extra- ordinary role of the environment opens the prospect of a much more successful future, in which he will be most human and humane, and in which be will manage him- self skillfully because he will know himself accurately. About Behaviorism Even so, something in traditional formulations may seem to be missing. About Behaviorism The metaphor is probably harmless enough in casual dis- course, but it is not particularly useful to the physicist, and a person who is accustomed to quenching fires by throwing water on them will be unhappy when he is told that water simply cools or smothers a fire. About Behaviorism But it would be wrong to say that the process of quenching had been reduced to cooling and smothering. About Behaviorism The term has simply been translated into terms having a broader reference, and, as in similar instances in a be- havioral analysis, what seems to be missing is nothing to be taken seriously, nor does it justify the charge of reductionism. About Behaviorism Behaviorism could perhaps be called reductionistic ABouT BBE4vIoluSM 266 when it discusses the social sciences. About Behaviorism But that could scarcely be called a reduction of the role of the indi- vidual. About Behaviorism It would be foolish to question the interest a person takes in othersin gossip, in autobiographies, in novels, in dramas, in news reports, and so on. About Behaviorism Individ- uals are important parts of the environment, and al- though a science of behavior permits a person to in- terpret what be sees more effectively, it will never tell him the whole story about the individual case. About Behaviorism Psychotherapy is largely responsible for the humanistic psychology which complains that be- haviorism ignores the individual. About Behaviorism It is only when we ask what is to be done with knowl- 267 SummIng Up edge that we begin to examine the different forms of knowing more closely and appreciate the value of the generality. About Behaviorism Because operant conditioning is conspicuous, it is often referred to as if it were nothing more than a technique to be used in the control of others. About Behaviorism There is no doubt that it can be so used for nonscientific purposes and will be so used if the results are reinforcing. About Behaviorism Children in a classroom organized on the principles of a token economy are felt to be con- trolled, but when it proves possible to abandon explicit reinforcement and to move on to such a natural rein- forcer as successful accomplishment, the children are saidtobefree. About Behaviorism Contingencies designed for explicit purposes can be called manipulative, though it does not follow that they are exploitative; unarranged contin- gencies must be recognized as having equal power, and also possibly unhappy consequences. About Behaviorism It must not be for- gotten that exhortation, demagoguery, evangelism, and so on are also behavioral practices, as are similar prac- tices on a smaller scale in daily life. About Behaviorism A proposal to terminate behavioral research or to sequester its results on the grounds that they can be used by despots and tyrants would be a disastrous mistake, because it would undermine all the important contributions of the culture and interfere with the counter-controlling measures which keep aversive and exploitative control within bounds. About Behaviorism It can be solved by recognizing that the behavior we call moral or just is a product of 269 Summing Up special kinds of social contingencies arranged by gov- ernments, religions, economic systems, and ethical groups. About Behaviorism A common reaction to behaviorism runs as fol- lows: What you have said may all be true, but I am not interested in my behavior. About Behaviorism The same could be said, of course, about any science: I do not care about immunology, I simply want to avoid disease; I do not care about genetics, I simply want healthy children; I do not care where energy comes from, I simply want comfort and convenience. About Behaviorism It is true that a touch of mystery may be reinforcing, and we may be particularly moved by the apparently inexplicable, but if there were no offsetting gains, educators would have a good deal to explain. About Behaviorism And be insists that we shall never know why birds sing, but as poets we knownone betterhow their singing affects us and as to this datum science has not a word to say; it can only listen too. About Behaviorism It seems to be implied that to understand why birds sing would interfere with the effect of their singing upon us, and upon the poet, and upon us when we read what be has to say. About Behaviorism The ethologist would be wrong to take these effects into account in trying to discover why birds sing, but he can nevertheless enjoy bird song and also what a poet says about it. About Behaviorism The bird sings not be- cause of how it feels but because of certain contin- gencies of survival. About Behaviorism How the poet feels upon bearing it is doubly irrelevant to why it sings, but there is no reason why the poet cannot tell us bow he feels or, if be is a good poet, induce in us a condition felt in the same way. About Behaviorism The conditions generated within the body of the listener remain forever private, but the 271 Summing Up behavioral scientist may still investigate the reinforcing effects they are associated with and possibly discover how more reinforcing effects may be achieved. About Behaviorism Not only has the most ardent behaviorist feelings like everyone else; on balance he has quite possibly more enjoyable ones, because there are states of the body associated, for example, with failure, frustration, or loss which are far from enjoyable or reinforcing, and they are less likely to be experienced by those who practice scientific self-knowledge and self-management. About Behaviorism And it is hard to see how a helpful interest in, or affection for, another person could be endangered by improved un- derstanding. About Behaviorism There is no other way if a book of this kind is to be brief and readable. About Behaviorism The convenience of the lay vocabulary does not warrant its use where a tech- nical alternative would be more helpful. About Behaviorism To them should perhaps be added the charge that the behaviorist constantly violates his own principles, most obviously by his continued use of mentalistic terms. About Behaviorism I have preferred a technical term elsewhere when it could be used at no great cost. About Behaviorism Those who approach a behavioristic formulation for the first time may be surprised by the mention of self-con- trol. About Behaviorism Has be not decided to write a book? Is he not clearly responsible for it, since it would not exist if he had not written it? Does he not urge his readers to adopt a behavioristic point of view? About Behaviorism Similar ques- tions might as well be asked of the author of a book on respiration: If that is respiration, why do you go on breathing? About Behaviorism Nothing be says about human behavior seriously changes the effect of that history. About Behaviorism What survives can be put in a positive form: 1. About Behaviorism On the Positive Side Behaviorism has so often been defined in terms of its supposed shortcomingsof what it is said to ignore or neglectthat setting the record straight often appears to destroy what was meant to be saved. About Behaviorism What an organism does will eventually be seen to be due to what it is, at the moment it behaves, and the physiologist will someday give us all the details. About Behaviorism A crucial step in the argument can then be taken: what is felt or seen through introspection is only a small and relatively unimportant part of what the physiologist will eventually discover. About Behaviorism Even in a single part of the field it is unusual to find two authorities talking about precisely the same things, and although nothing could be more relevant to the problems of the world today, the actual accomplishments of behavioral science do not seem to be extensive. About Behaviorism Perhaps this diversity is healthful: different approaches could be regarded as mutations, from which a truly effective behavioral science will eventually be selected. About Behaviorism I contend that behavioral science has not made a greater contribution just because it is not very be- havioristic. About Behaviorism To assert that a thoroughgoing behaviorism could make a great difference is almost inevitably to be asked: Well, then, what do you suggest? What would you do about war, or population, or pollution, or racial dis- crimination, or the revolt of the young? Unfortu- ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 276 nately, to understand the principles involved in solving a problem is not to have the solution. About Behaviorism To know aero- dynamics is not at once to know how to design a plane, to know plate tectonics is not at once to know how to predict earthquakes, to understand the double helix is not at once to be able to create a new species. About Behaviorism The de- tails of a problem must be studied. About Behaviorism But problems can be solved, even the big ones, if those who are familiar with the details will also adopt a workable con- ception of human behavior. About Behaviorism On the contrary, it may be just what is needed to salvage the other contributions. About Behaviorism And it will not be given a fair trial until its philosophy has been clearly understood. About Behaviorism A. dis- tinguished social philosopher has said, It is only thrOugh a change of consciousness that the world will be saved. About Behaviorism But no one can begin with himself; and if he could, it would certainly not be by changing his consciousness. About Behaviorism A way of life which furthers the study of human behavior in its relation to that environment 277 Summing Up should be in the best possible position to solve its major problems. About Behaviorism In the behavioristic view, man can now control his own destiny because be knows what must be done and how to do it. About Behaviorism If it were true that an ever greater danger than nuclear war arises from within man himself in the form of smouldering fears, contagious panics, primitive needs for cruel violence, and raging suicidal destructiveness, then we should be lost. About Behaviorism It is the environment which must be changed. About Behaviorism Bibliography Although I have tried to cover the essentials of be- haviorism as the philosophy of a science, I have not de- veloped any issue as fully as the evidence would permit. About Behaviorism Further details are, of course, to be found in an extensive literature of which, unfortunately, there is no good sum- mary, and to which I shall not try to supply a key. About Behaviorism On Marx and Schiller, see David McLellan: Marx Be- /ore Marxism. About Behaviorism Feelings are ascribed to the behaving organism when it is said that the moth likes the light it ffies toward or bees the appearance and odor of the flowers they frequent. About Behaviorism Von Frischs account of the language of bees (an account which is becoming in- creasingly suspect) did not make him a Champollion, reading a Rosetta stone. About Behaviorism It limits itself to the prediction and control of behavior and misses the essential nature of being a man. About Behaviorism We are not tense in the literal sense of being stretched, or depressed in the literal sense of weighed down. About Behaviorism The difficulty is not that the patient is not being stimulated in a perfectly clear way, it is simply that he has never been exposed to instructional conditions under which he has learned to describe the stimuli adequately. About Behaviorism To tend to do something is also a metaphor, suggesting being pulled or stretched. About Behaviorism The inconsistency is explained by calling the gambler who ruins himself and his family compulsive or patho- logical, his irrational behavior thus being attributed to an illness. About Behaviorism Both reminiscing and remembering once meant being mindful of again or bringing again to mindin other words, seeing again as one once saw. About Behaviorism After hearing a piece of music several times, a person may hear it when it is not being played, though probably not as richly or as clearly. About Behaviorism Verbal responses are classified as requests, commands, per- missions, and so on, depending upon the reasons why the listener responds, the reasons often being attributed to the speakers intentions or moods. About Behaviorism Being reminded means being made likely to respond, possibly perceptually. About Behaviorism In other words, in addition to being affected by contin- gencies of reinforcement, they began to analyze them. About Behaviorism It is said that there are rules and instructions which govern the use of language and which we obey without being aware of them. About Behaviorism It was once thought of as a possession, an essence of innate ideas, granted anterior to experience, by which the absolute being of things is disclosed to us. About Behaviorism It has been said that under behaviorist assumptions, which insisted that lan- guage was behavior, such concepts as intuition were re- garded as being as unfit for scientific study as ghosts or dreams, but behaving intuitively, in the sense of behav- ing as the effect of unanalyzed contingencies, is the very starting point of a behavioristic analysis. About Behaviorism A person may discriminate between two objects with- out being able to identify the distinguishing property. About Behaviorism Then, ABOITr BEHAVIORISM 150 being a supreme mathematical technician, he could dress it up, how you will, for the purposes of exposition, but it was his intuition which was preeminently extraordinaiyso happy in his conjectures, said de Morgan as to seem to know more than he could possibly have any means of prov- ing. About Behaviorism An organism pos- ABoUT BEHAVIORJSM 152 153 Knowing sesses a system of immune reactions in the sense that it responds to invading organisms in a special way, but its responses are not in existence until it is being invaded. About Behaviorism Behavior exists only when it is being executed. About Behaviorism We also use know to mean being under the con- trol of, a condition which is not the only determiner of our behavior. About Behaviorism Knowledge is subjective in the trivial sense of being the behavior of a subject, but the environment, past or present, which determines the behavior lies out- side the behaving person. About Behaviorism and teachers, as well as when they are being active. About Behaviorism Fragmentation of a life is said to follow social disorganization in which a person has been ripped apart, fragmentation being defined as an arrange- ment consciousness makes in response to an environ- ment where respect is not forthcoming as a matter of course. About Behaviorism It was Mohammed as a person, ABOUT BinuviosisM 170 with a history responsible for his being Mohammed, not some fragmentary inner agent, to whom we must turn to explain the behavior. About Behaviorism The term came to mean having a ropy or glu- tinous consistency, and viscosity the state or quality of being ropy or glutinous. About Behaviorism To say that the central pathology of our day is a failure of will, which brought psychoanalysis into being seems more profound than to say that in the world of our day very little behavior is positively reinforced and much is punished and that psychoanalysis came into being to arrange better contingencies. About Behaviorism or we may say that a person who complains of being annoyed by his neighbors is the selfsame person who annoys others.) About Behaviorism They emphasize what a person is, his current state of being. About Behaviorism Structure is naturally emphasized in an analysis of being, and there is a related version of developmen- talism which emphasizes becoming. About Behaviorism A person being massaged says that it feels good; a person for whom a particular piece of music is being played says that he likes it. About Behaviorism After being punished, a person may resolve not to drink again. About Behaviorism In both cases the emphasis is clearly upon the here and now, on being or well-being or mo- mentary becoming. About Behaviorism Self-knowledge is then a matter of being in con- tact with oneself. About Behaviorism A man who practiced humanitas was confident in the sense of being usually ABoUT BEHAVIORISM 212 successful; he treated others well and was as a result well treated by them; he played an active part in gov- eminent; and soon. About Behaviorism Most of those who had great wealth used it ABouT BEHAVIORISM 214 without being subject to very much countercontrol until the nineteenth century. About Behaviorism Unfortunately the feeling of being free is not a reliable indication that we have reached such a world. About Behaviorism As an alternative, the government organizes a lottery, and instead of being forced to pay taxes, the citizen voluntarily buys tickets. About Behaviorism Nevertheless they are being controlled, as powerfully as by a threat of punishment, by that particularly powerful (variable- ratio) schedule of reinforcement discussed in Chapter 4, the effect of which is all too clearly shown in the behavior of the compulsive or pathological gambler. About Behaviorism Social proposals often carefully omit any reference to means: we need, for example, to make better utilization of human resources, the control in- volved in utilization not being specified. About Behaviorism The first principle begins, Man has the funda- mental right to freedom, equality, and adequate condi- tions of life, in an environment of a quality that permits a life of dignity and well-being, and he bears a solemn responsibility to protect and improve the environment for future generations. About Behaviorism It has been said that a hundred years ago there were few men alive, whether Utili- tarians or religious people, who then thought of the goodness of an act as being in the act itself or in the will that willed it; all was in the consequences, for their happiness tomorrow or the life hereafter; both were matters of future reward. About Behaviorism What is good for the individual is what promotes his well-being. About Behaviorism ABoUT BEHAVIORISM 232 Economics had its Economic Man and political science its Political Animal, but when it was recognized that the psychological properties of these creatures were ob- viously being invented precisely to explain the phe- nomena at issue, psychologism was rejected. About Behaviorism The Conceptual Nervous System The parts of the nervous system spoken of by early physiologists were, as we have seen, largely a matter of inference, the classical example being the synapse of Sherringtons The integrative Action of the Nervous System. About Behaviorism Other species are also conscious in the sense of being under stimulus control. About Behaviorism If we dismiss the pejorative meaning of super- ficial as lacking in penetration and the honorific mean- ing of deep as being profound, then there is a grain of truth in the contention that a behavioristic analysis is superficial and does not reach the depths of the mind or personality. About Behaviorism Existentialists, phenomenologists, and structural- ists frequentiy contend that, in limiting itself to predic- tion and control, a science of behavior fails to grasp the essential nature or being of man. About Behaviorism The American behaviorist I 251 Summing Up Edward C. Tolman said, in fact, that he designed his experiments with animals by expmining what he himself would do in a given situation, but the experimental analysis of behavior is far beyond the point at which introspection throws any light on the processes being studied. About Behaviorism Man is perhaps unique in being a moral animal, but not in the sense that he possesses morality; he has constructed a social environment in which he behaves with respect to himself and others in moral ways. About Behaviorism It is sometimes said that children who are being taught ver- bal behavior are acquiring it through operant condition- ing but that what they learn from a noninstructional verbal community is learned through some other proc- ess. About Behaviorism We are all so used to being controlled to our disadvantage that to call a person harmless is to imply that he is totally ineffective or feebleminded.- About Behaviorism A knowledge of medicine, genetics, and technology does not interfere with feeling well, hav- ing healthy children, or being comfortable, and no one is likely to suppose that it does, but similar statements about behavior are debated. About Behaviorism This may have been a strategic mis- take. About Behaviorism If we are asked why we have spoken sharply to a friend, we may reply, Because I felt angry. About Behaviorism Asked why we are not eating our dinner, we may say, Because I do not feel hungry. About Behaviorism Asked why we are go- ing swimming, we may reply, Because I feel like swim- ming. About Behaviorism The discovery of org~tni~ing principles in the structure of behavior such as universals in cultures or languages, arche- typal patterns in literature, or psychological types may make it possible to predict instances of behavior that have not previously occurred. About Behaviorism Or, to take still another example, if circum- stances in a white persons history generate feelings of aggression toward blacks, and if those feelings make him behave aggressively, then we may deal simply with the relation between the circumstances in his history and his aggressive behavior. About Behaviorism The remark may have been apt at the time, although it is meaningless today. About Behaviorism The verbal community uses the public information, but the child may eventually say That hurts while responding only to the private event. About Behaviorism Thus, a person who has had a stroke of luck may say, I feel as if Fd won a million dollars. About Behaviorism Keats reported what it felt like when he first looked into Chapmans translation of Homer, in the following way: Then felt I like some watcher of the skies When a new planet swims into his ken; Or like stout Cortez, when with eagle eyes He stard at the Pacific The verbal community may also circumvent the re- strictions imposed by privacy by using collateral re- sponses to the stimuli which a person is to learn to identify or describe. About Behaviorism Similarly, although the community may teach a child to say, I am hungry, because it knows that the child has not eaten for a long time, it is much more likely to take advantage of collateral behavior: it observes that the child responds quickly or eats ravenously when given food. About Behaviorism It then tells him that he is hungry, and the child ABouT BEHAVIoRISM 28 may acquire the expression I am hungry with respect to collateral private stimuli to which the verbal com- munity had no access. About Behaviorism For example, it may observe not only that a child receives a painful blow, but that he cries. About Behaviorism We may have acquired these words under cir- cumstances which have no connection with behavior or feelings. About Behaviorism topography (I am waving my hand) or may include effects on the en- vironment (I am drinking a glass of water or I am sewing a button on my shirt). About Behaviorism When something funny happens on a solemn occasion, we may report, I felt~ like laughing or, I wanted to laugh or, I could scarcely keep from laughing. About Behaviorism The verbal community may resort to instrumental amplification, as of the activity of muscles, and thus in a sense make covert behavior public, and encour- age a return to the overt level as by asking a person to think out loud, but it cannot maintain the ac- curacy of covert behavior. About Behaviorism What do you want to do? may refer to the future in the sense of asking about the proba- bility of behavior. About Behaviorism A per- son who observes that he is eating voraciously may say, I really am hungry, or, in retrospect, I was hungrier than I thought, dismissing other evidence as unreliable. About Behaviorism Thus, in reply to Why are you moving ABouT BEHAVIORISM 34 your chair?, a person may say, The light was bad or To get a better light on my book. About Behaviorism In spite of the apparent intimacy of the world within the skin, and in spite of the advantage a person enjoys as an observer of his personal history, another person may know more about why he behaves. About Behaviorism Survival may depend almost wholly on competing with the physical environment, when intel- ligent behavior is clearly favored.) About Behaviorism Meanwhile we may note the importance of insisting upon the distinction. About Behaviorism If one member of a group re- sponds to an approaching predator by flying, running, or swimming away, and the rest of the group then does the same, all may reach safety although only one has made direct contact with the predator. About Behaviorism If one observes people running down a street, one may re- spond indirectly to the same contingencies by running with them, thereby possibly escaping danger or discov- ering something interesting. About Behaviorism To speak of an instinct of imitation or an instinct of the herd is ambiguous; it may refer to contingencies of survival or contin- gencies of reinforcement. About Behaviorism An organism may defend its territory or attack others in many differ- ent ways. About Behaviorism Food and sexual contact, reinforc- ing for other reasons, may reinforce an attack on a competitor if food or a sexual partner is thus obtained. About Behaviorism An infant or child may bite, scratch, or strike if physically restrained when it could not have learned to do so. About Behaviorism A person may report that a substance tastes good, but it does not elicit salivation I because it tastes good. About Behaviorism A person may wish that he could act (I wish I could go) or he may wish for the consequences (I wish I were there). About Behaviorism The coachman does drive his horses by whipping them until they move forward, and, in the case of hunger at least, strong internal stimulation may have a similar function, but deprivation as such is not a driving force. About Behaviorism The current setting may affect the probability of a response, as we shall see in the next chapter, but it is not the only thing that does so. About Behaviorism A person may feel or otherwise observe some of the conditions associated with the probability that he will behave in a given way. About Behaviorism For example, he may say that he feels like going, that he wants to go, that he should like to go, or that he wishes to go. About Behaviorism A person who is alone may feel lonesome; the essential condition is that there is no one with whom he can talk or behave in other ways. About Behaviorism The bell has become a condi- tioned aversive stimulus, which may then have the effect of changing the probability of any positively reinforced behavior in progress. About Behaviorism Thus, a person engaged in a lively conversation may begin to speak less energetically or more erratically or may stop speaking altogether at the approach of someone who has treated him aversively. About Behaviorism If he acts to avoid further punishment, he may moderate the condition felt as shame, sin, or guilt, but he does not act because of his feelings or because his feelings are then changed; he acts because of the punishing contingencies to which he has been exposed. About Behaviorism We treat what is felt not by changing the feelings but by changing the contin- I 71 Operant Behavior genciesfor example, by evoking the behavior without punishing it, so that conditioned aversive stimuli may undergo extinction. About Behaviorism The behavior suppressed may include the behavior involved in knowing about associated bodily conditions. About Behaviorism (The fact that both processes may go on in a given situation also does not mean that they are the same process. About Behaviorism A person may well feel conditions associated with judging, anticipating, and expect- ing, but he does not need to do so. About Behaviorism It does not then elicit the response as in a reflex; it simply makes it more probable that it will occur again, and it may do so in combination with other conditions affecting probability, such as those discussed in the preceding chapter. About Behaviorism A response reinforced upon a given occasion is most likely to occur on a very similar occasion, but because of a process called generalization it may ap- pear on occasions sharing only some of the same properties. About Behaviorism Some of the history relevant to perception may have occurred during the evolution of the species. About Behaviorism The Copy Theory Those who believe that we see copies of the world may contend that we never see the world itself, but it is at least equally plausible to say that we never see any- thing else. About Behaviorism Or we may see Venice by read- ing about it if we have acquired the capacity to visualize while reading. About Behaviorism With no external support whatsoever, we may simply see Venice because we are reinforced when we do so. About Behaviorism One may construct such a map from the actual city or by seeing the city when absent from it, but visualizing a route through a city in order to describe it to a friend is seeing as (not what) one sees in going through the city. About Behaviorism Thus, we may see Venice in order to tell a friend how to find his way to a particu- lar part of the city. About Behaviorism In this sense we ask someone to mind the children, and he may complain that the chil- dren do not mind him. About Behaviorism important consequence is that the speaker also becomes a listener and may richly re- inforce his own behavior. About Behaviorism If none is available, he may ask someone to tell him the time, and the re- sponse permits him to respond effectively. About Behaviorism We may look for the meaning of a word in the dictionary, but dictionaries do not give meanings; at best they give other words having the same meanings. About Behaviorism The response is not trans- ferred from one situation to another, as the etymology ABOUT BEaLvIORISM 104 might suggest; it simply occurs because of a similarity in stimuli Having come to say explode in connection with firecrackers or bombs, a person may describe a friend who suddenly behaves in a violent manner as exploding in anger. About Behaviorism It is the listener, not the speaker, who takes practical action with respect to the stimuli controlling a verbal response, and as a re- sult the behavior of the speaker may come under the control of properties of a stimulus to which no practical response is appropriate. About Behaviorism Rather than try to identify the feeling, let alone the proposition, which is thus translated, we 107 Verbal Behavior may say simply that the music has something of the same effect as physical union. About Behaviorism Verbal behavior does not commun- icate feelings, though it may result in conditions sim- ilarly felt. About Behaviorism Thus, we may analyze the behavior of small children and discover that, for example, part of their speech consists of a small class of modifiers and a larger class of nouns. About Behaviorism A child may learn to use a new word as the effect of a single reinforcement, but it learns to do nonverbal things with comparable speed. About Behaviorism New com- binations of stimuli appear in new settings, and re- sponses which describe them may never have been made by the speaker before, or heard or read by him in the speech of others. About Behaviorism Shown an object with which we are not very familiar, we may say, I think it is a kind of wrench, where I think is clearly opposed to I know. About Behaviorism Watching a chess game, we may wonder what a player is think- ing of when he makes a move. About Behaviorism We may mean that we wonder what he will do next. About Behaviorism On a future occasion such a record can evoke behavor appropriate to an earlier occasion and may permit a person to respond more effectively. About Behaviorism Future stimuli are effective if they resemble the stimuli which have been part of earlier contingencies; an inci- dental stimulus may remind us of a person, place, or event if it has some resemblance to that person, place, or event. About Behaviorism A name may remind us of a person in the sense that we now see him. About Behaviorism Thus, if the problem is to say whether two things are the same or different, we may put them side by side to facilitate a comparison; if it is to make sure that we shall treat them as different, we separate them. About Behaviorism If we are working with external materials, verbal or otherwise, we may indeed re-view them in the sense of looking at them again. About Behaviorism The sentence is intention- ally metaphorical, of course, and mixes the mental (thoughts) with the anatomical (heads), but it makes the valid point that translations from English into French that are then read by people with very dif- ferent verbal histories may generate novel responses. About Behaviorism We may say the same thing for the growth of the mind. About Behaviorism The craftsmans rules of thumb are part of folklore and may become permanent features of a culture if they make it easier to teach or remember the behavior they describe. About Behaviorism He could 137 Causes and Reasons have learned to do so without describing his behavior, but a description may have been helpful in operating the bellows properly or in remembering how to do so after an interval. About Behaviorism Special contingencies are arranged to enforce gov- ernmental and religious laws, but uncontrived social contingencies maintained by the group may have the same effect. About Behaviorism Where a law codifies preexisting social- sanctions opposed to stealing, for example, a person may begin by obeying the commandment Thou shalt not steal, but he may eventually refrain from stealing to avoid the disapproval and criticism of his friends. About Behaviorism Spades and poles were made long for that reason, and some lore, simihif to the blacksmiths rule, may have been used to teach new workers how to choose and where to grasp spades or poles. About Behaviorism He may stop smoking because of a rule derived from a sta- tistical study of the consequences, although the conse- quences themselves are too deferred to have any re- inforcing effect. About Behaviorism A person may use the rules of a language to speak correctly when he has not been adequately exposed to a verbal community. About Behaviorism In the first case, the person feels well dis- posed; in the second, he may feel little more than a fear of punishment. About Behaviorism The planned or well-made work may suffer from the suspicion which attaches to any calculated behavior. About Behaviorism Possibly we may translate by saying that in analyzing instances we can extract rules which apply to classes of events. About Behaviorism Fortunately not occur, but something like it may occur when a per- son analyzes the circumstances in which he is living. About Behaviorism The ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 144 analysis may lead to descriptions which, as we have just seen, can evoke behavior appropriate to the contingen- cies without direct exposure to them. About Behaviorism A person may know how to operate a piece of equip- ment because he has read the instructions, or how to get about in a city because he has studied a map, or how to behave legally because he knows the law, al- though he may never have operated the equipment, visited the city, or felt the hand of the law himself. About Behaviorism Similar conditions may prevail even though a remark is not made. About Behaviorism I may do so without understanding why he says it. About Behaviorism If I throw a switch to put a piece of apparatus into opera- tion and nothing happens, I may try the switch again, but my behavior quickly undergoes extinction, and I may then look to see whether the apparatus is con- nected with the power source, or whether a fuse is blown, or whether the starting switch is broken. About Behaviorism In do- ing so, I may come to understand why it has not worked, in the sense of discovering the reasons. About Behaviorism We may speak of the power of words in affecting a listener, but the behavior of a speaker in identifying or describing something suggests a kind of knowledge divorced from practical action. About Behaviorism I have interpreted the facts to which these ex- pressions seem to refer as aspects of human behavior attributable to contingencies of reinforcementor, if I may repeat, to the subtle and complex relations among three things: the situation in which behavior occurs, the behavior itself, and its consequences. About Behaviorism The intellect is sometimes said to control needs and emotions, although it may fail to do so from time to time. About Behaviorism The two selves may exist in the same skin without conflict until the contingencies conflictas they may, for example, if his friends from the services visit him in his home. About Behaviorism Within limits, we may distinguish between the contributions of survival and reinforcement. About Behaviorism It is mainly the product of the punitive practices of a so- ciety which attempts to suppress the selfish behavior generated by biological reinforcers, and it may take the form of imitating society (serving as the vicar of society) as the injunctions of parents, teachers, and others become part of its repertoire. About Behaviorism may rip down this mental fence and permit violence to rush forth (an- other interesting mixture of matter and mind). About Behaviorism The best-known division of mind is between con- scious and unconscious; repressed wishes and fears re- side in the unconscious, but they may break into the conscious mind. About Behaviorism At best we may say that they are ways in which a person defends himself against punishment by acquiring behavior effective in the world in which he lives (as ego), reinforced in part because of suscepti- bilities to reinforcement which are part of his genetic endowment (as id), and not punished by other persons or by himself (as superego). About Behaviorism The thought may have crossed his mind as a verbal response or in some form much less easily a 175 The Inner World of Motivation and Emotion identified. About Behaviorism He may have thought it covertly as he might have sung it aloud or played it on the organ. About Behaviorism (The Latin idem means same, and when asked whether someone is really so-and-so, we may reply colloquially, The same! About Behaviorism He may even strike himself aggressively. About Behaviorism When a change is disruptive, a person may not feel that he knows him- self; he is said to experience a crisis in his identity. About Behaviorism It is difficult to maintain an identity when conditions change, but a person may conceal from himself con- ificting selves, possibly by ignoring or disguising one or more of them, or by branding one a stranger, as in cx- plaining uncharacteristic behavior by saying, I was not myself. About Behaviorism We may keep records of what has happened, as in a diary, but in general our information is sketchy. About Behaviorism When these signs of feeling are absent, we may ask or otherwise investi- gate how a person feels. About Behaviorism In exam- ining such an effect on himself (as by recalling his his- tory or generalizing from it), he may well respond to conditions of his own body rather than to the changes Aaotrr BEHAVIORISM 196 induced in his behavior. About Behaviorism This is the early and negative form of the Rule, but he may also look for reinforcing effects. About Behaviorism in both intellectual and ethical self-management he analyzes contingencies and may extract and apply rules. About Behaviorism A resolution is a kind of self-made rule, designed to extend the effect of punishment into the future, but on a later occasion the immediate reinforc- ing effect may still take over. About Behaviorism Self-management then becomes as auto- matic in its dependence on private stimuli as the skilled movements of an acrobat, but although these contin- gencies may lead to effective private self-stimulation, they do not lead to self-knowledge. About Behaviorism A stop sign may simply indicate the kind of inter- section at which drivers are likely to have trouble, as the sign Thin Ice beside a pond deters the skater without threatening punitive action by the authorities. About Behaviorism One unfortunate result is that they cannot teach themand may even say that teach- ing is wrong. About Behaviorism The human genetic endowment may include some such tendency, as parental care of the young, for example, seems to illustrate. About Behaviorism People pun- ished each other long before behavior was called bad or wrong and before rules were formulated, and a person may have been socialized by these punitive contin- gencies without benefit of rules. About Behaviorism A person who has been exposed to the promise of heaven and the threat of hell may feel stronger bodily states than one whose behavior is merely approved or censured by his fellow men. About Behaviorism We may, through an act of will, choose to submit to punishment, but only because other consequences of which there is no immediately antecedent cause make our submission voluntary. About Behaviorism Another writer has said that our culture is in convulsions owing to its state of value contradic- tion, its incorporation of opposing and conflicting val- ues, but we may say that the values, here as else- where, refer to reinforcers, and that it is the contin- gencies of which they are a part which are opposing and conificting. About Behaviorism When a devotee of mentalism confesses that we have not learned much about these problems in somewhat over two thousand years of reflective thought, we may ask why reflective thought has not sooner come under sus- picion. About Behaviorism He may say that he does what he feels like doing without asking why he feels that way, and we may ask him to tell us what he feels like do- ing and use his answer without further inquiry, as we prepare for his behavior. About Behaviorism How Far Back? When a person says that he acted because he felt like acting, we can put little faith in the because until we have explained why he had the feeling, but it has been objected that we must stop somewhere in following a causal chain into the past and may as well stop at the psychic level. About Behaviorism Obviously Spassky has not recovered, and his error today may shake his con- fidence even more. About Behaviorism It is possi- ble that we shall never directly observe what is happen- ing in the nervous system at the time a response oc- curs, because something like the Heisenberg principle may apply: any means of observing neural mediation of behavior may disturb the behavior. About Behaviorism A boxer who has been knocked un- conscious is not responding to current stimuli either within or outside his skin, and a person may continue to talk, unconscious of the effect he is having on his listeners if that effect is not exerting control over his behavior. About Behaviorism They grammars of the two languages may have certain fea- tures in common but not, as we have seen, because grammar has a genetic basis.) About Behaviorism They do so because of the contingencies of reinforce- ment in which they have played a part, and they may act in combination with other conditions, possibly but not necessarily to the point at which a response oc- curs. About Behaviorism A person dis- posed to act because he has been reinforced for acting may feel the condition of his body at such a time and call it felt purpose, but what behaviorism rejects is the causal efficacy of that feeling. About Behaviorism In the field of human behavior the possibility arises that contingencies of reinforcement may explain a work of art or the solution to a problem in mathematics or science without appealing to a dif- ferent kind of creative mind or to a trait of creativity or to the possibility that men of genius have more creative nervous energy than lesser mortals. About Behaviorism Until re- cently, species evolved because of random changes in genes or chromosomes, but the geneticist may arrange conditions under which mutations are particularly likely to occur. About Behaviorism He may become more than one person or self if he acquires more or less incompatible repertoires appropriate to different occasions. About Behaviorism Both prediction and control are inherent in operant conditioning, but the notion is always proba- bilistic, and we may deal with a probability when action is not taking place. About Behaviorism But we may still ask why these occasional instances, scat- tered throughout the centuries, have not become stan- dard practice. About Behaviorism It is possible, in fact, that a behavioral analysis may yield a new kind of attack on familiar problems, such as the paradoxes or Gdels theorem. About Behaviorism The specialist may come close to the unique event, but he never encompasses all of it. About Behaviorism As one may know the world in a sense quite different from knowing physical and biological science, so one may know people in a sense quite different from knowing behavioral science. About Behaviorism Science must balance costs and gains, and though it may bear down hard on a unique event, espe- cially in a technological application, it reaps a greater harvest from general principles. About Behaviorism It can survey the extent to which sound pat- terns are or become reinforcing, and in doing so it may contribute to an explanation of why people compose and listen to music. About Behaviorism In answering these charges I may seem to have abandoned the very basis of behaviorism, but what I have abandoned are the vestiges of early statements of the position, sub- jected to various elaborations and criticisms over a period of some sixty years. About Behaviorism The currency of mentalism in discussions of human af- fairs may explain why conferences on peace are held with such monotonous regularity year after year. About Behaviorism The reader who may wish to go a little further, using the present terminology, may find a few topics discussed in other books of my own, to which references are abbreviated as follows: SUB Science and Human Behavior (New York: Macmillan, 1953) VII Verbal Behavior (New York: Appleton- Century- Crofts, 1957) SR Schedules of Reinforcement, with Charles B. Ferster (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1957) TT The Technology of Teaching (New York: Appleton- Century-Crofts, 1968) COR Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969) BFD Beyond Freedom and Dignity (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1971) CR Cumulative Record: A Selection of Papers, 3rd edn. About Behaviorism And to bolster this claim that psychology was a science, and to fill out his textbook, he borrowed from anatomy and physiology, and Pavlov took the same line by in- sisting that his experiments on behavior were really an investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex, although neither man could point to any direct observations of the nervous system which threw light on behavior. About Behaviorism Bertrand Russell once pointed out that the ex- perimental animals studied by American behaviorists behaved like Americans, running about in an almost random fashion, while those of Germans behaved like Germans, sitting and thinking . About Behaviorism A further question, Why are you looking for your knife? might call out the answer Because I want it, which usually means more than Because it is wanting. About Behaviorism The newborn infant is so constructed that it takes in air and food and puts out wastes. About Behaviorism Did consciousness and free will too arise merely out of nat- ural processes? The question is central to the contention between those who see nothing beyond a new materialism and those who seeSomething.- About Behaviorism It has often been pointed out that competition for a mate tends to select the more skillful and powerful members of a species, but it also selects those more a 53 Operant Behavior susceptible to sexual reinforcement. About Behaviorism We say that a car needs gasoline and, much less idiom- atically, that gasoline is wanting, but to say that a per- son wants to get out suggests aversive control. About Behaviorism Thus, a person who kicks the vending machine which has failed to deliver cigarettes or bawls out his wife who has forgotten to buy them is said to do so because of frustration. About Behaviorism ABoUT BEHAVIORISM 66 tion, stubbornness, staying power, or perseverance (continuing to respond over long periods of time with- out results), (3) excitement or enthusiasm, or (4) dedication or compulsion. About Behaviorism it is often pointed out that a person who has been driven over a route as a passenger cannot find his way as well as one who has himself driven the route an equal number of times. About Behaviorism Similarly, as a modern authority has pointed out, it is as difficult to explain how we see a picture in the oc- cipital cortex of the brain as to explain how we see the outside world, which it is said to represent. About Behaviorism awake, either in or out of a relevant setting, is simpy a difference in the controlling conditions. About Behaviorism That concepts have real referents has been pointed out by saying that they are discoveries rather than inventionsthey represent re- ality. About Behaviorism Covert behavior is almost al- ways acquired in overt form, and no one has ever shown that the covert form achieves anything which is out of reach of the overt. About Behaviorism Unfortunately for the pigeon, the color washes out and becomes difficult or impos- sible to detect. About Behaviorism Radio and television are presumably re- sponsible for the current metaphor of tuning the world in or out. About Behaviorism If we are content to speak of an arithmetical concept, we shall never find out what the child has actually learned. About Behaviorism What does one do to find an object in a box of rubbish (scrutinize comes from an cx- pressign having to do with the sorting out of trash) or on the shelves of a warehouse? How does one go about finding a word on a page or finding and crossing out all theas in a column of print? The skillful searcher moves about, sorts out materials, and moves his eyes in ways which maximize the chances of finding things and mini- mize the chances of missing, and he does so because of past contingencies. About Behaviorism If, however, we are working covertly, we do not recover the facts, as if we were pulling papers out of a file; we merely see them again. About Behaviorism It is easy to overlook the behavior which actually solves a problem In one classical account, a clumpan- zee seemed to have fitted two sticks together in order to rake in a banana which was otherwise out of reach through the bars of his cage. About Behaviorism A warning usually differs from an order or command because the aversive con- sequences are not arranged by the person who issues it: Watch out! About Behaviorism it is a mistake, as I pointed out in Chapter 5, to say that the world described by science is somehow or other closer to what is really there, but it is also a mistake to say that the personal experience of artist, composer, or poet is closer to what is really there. About Behaviorism Erasmus in his In Praise of Folly pointed out that one cannot begin with reason. About Behaviorism It has of- ten been pointed out that a logical or mathematical formulation follows a great intellectual achievement rather than produces it. About Behaviorism As such it is power, as Francis Bacon pointed out in re- jecting scholasticism and its emphasis on knowing for the sake of knowing. About Behaviorism In an operant analysis, as I have :11 pointed out, we do not need to follow the stimulus through the body or to see how it becomes a response. About Behaviorism As Marx and many others have pointed out, the in- dividual is born of society~ and his indivisibility depends upon the coherence of the society which gives birth to him. About Behaviorism It is defined in Websters Third International Dictionary as a major sector of the psyche that is mostly unconscious but partly conscious, that develops out of the ego by in- ternalization or introjection in response to advice, threats, I warnings, and punishment, especially by parents but also by teachers and other authority, that reflects parental con- science and the rules of society, and that serves as an aid in character formation and as a protector for the ego against overwhelming id impulses. About Behaviorism The theater and the novel would probably not sur- vive if the dramatist and novelist stayed out of the depths. About Behaviorism The first step is to strike out such expressions as sense of, experience a need, self-affirmation, self-glorification, and belittlement. About Behaviorism But how a person feels about his behavior de- pends upon the behavior and upon the conditions of which it is a function, and we can deal with these with- out ex~tmining feelings. About Behaviorism it is not an easy assignment, because many relevant facts are out of reach, and each person is indubitably unique. About Behaviorism 217 The Question of Control As I pointed out in Chapter 4, operant behavior under positive reinforcement is distinguished by the lack of any immediately antecedent event which could plau- sibly serve as a cause, and as a result it has been said to show the inner origination called free will. About Behaviorism Five simply pointed out that ac- tion is essential, and one acknowledged a sovereign right. About Behaviorism There are, as we have seen, other kinds of values, but they eventually take second place to sur- vivaL The notion of evolution is misleadingand it misled both Herbert Spencer and Darwinwhen it suggests that the good represented by survival will naturally work itself out. About Behaviorism The great achievements of artists, composers, writers, mathema- ticians, and scientists are no doubt still beyond reach (in part, as I have pointed out, because leaders in these fields have been misled by mentalism into giving use- less reports of their activities). About Behaviorism Anything like an adequate sampling of the species of the world is out of the question, even for the field ethologist, but the ex- perimental analysis of behavior has been extended to a fairly large number of species, among them Homo sapiens. About Behaviorism We are admittedly far short, as is everyone else, of an ade- quate account of human society or the whole realm of human experience, and it is true that the arbitrary choice to use rats and pigeons to obtain data necessarily rules out human freedom and dignity; it does so by definition, since rats and pigeons are not human . About Behaviorism What is happening in interstellar space, where control is out of the question, is largely a matter of interpretation in this sense. About Behaviorism As I pointed out in Chapter help the listener responds effectively to the situation it describes. About Behaviorism But phrases like man qua man or man in his humanity tell us very little about what has been left out. About Behaviorism But the behavior from which we infer choice, intention, and:originality is within reach of a behavioral anaylsis, and it is not clear that it is wholly out of reach of other species. About Behaviorism When we stop the burning, we are said to put the fire out; we quench it in the sense of causing it to vanish. About Behaviorism It is almost literally a matter of turning the explanation of behavior inside out. About Behaviorism It has recently been pointed out that an International Congress on Peace was composed of statesmen, political scientists, historians, economists, physicists, biologistsand not a single behaviorist in the strict sense. About Behaviorism We can scarcely suppose that the iconic representations observed in dreaming are under the eyelids or in the outer ear. About Behaviorism Both the mind and the brain are not far from the ancient notion of a homunculusan inner person who behaves in precisely the ways necessary to explain the behavior of the outer person in whom he dwells. About Behaviorism Seeking or looking for something seems to have a particularly strong orientation toward the future. About Behaviorism A reflex has been described by saying that stimuli initiate a state of tension that seeks discharge, bringing about relaxation. About Behaviorism We can readily agree that a lion jumping through a hoop in a circus is not behaving qua lion, and we might elaborate in this way: The lion at his best, that is, at his most leonine, seeks to fulfill himself, individually and with those close to him, in spontaneous, unended, creative activity, in work that con- sists of the imposition of his leoninity on a recalcitrant en~ vironment. About Behaviorism He resists every force that seeks to reduce his energy, to rob him of his independence and his dignity, to kill the will, to crush everything in him that struggles for unique self-expression and reduces him to uniformity, unleoninity, monotony, and, ultimately, extinc- tion. About Behaviorism The position of the French philosopher Georges Sorel has been paraphrased in this way: Man, at his best, that is, at his most human, seeks to ful- fill himself, individually and with those close to him, in spontaneous, unended, creative activity, in work that con- sists of the imposition of his personality on a recalcitrant environment... About Behaviorism He resists every force that seeks to reduce his energy, to rob him of his independence and his dignity, to kill the will, to crush everything in him that struggles for unique self-expression and reduce him to uni- formity, impersonality, monotony, and, ultimately, extinc- tion. About Behaviorism In practice the systematic neglect of useful informa- tion has usually meant that the data supplied by the structuralist are acted upon by othersfor example, by decision-makers who in some way manage to take the causes of behavior into account. About Behaviorism In this way we repair the major damage wrought by mentalism. About Behaviorism Although the verbal community solves the problem of privacy in this way and succeeds in teaching a person I to describe many states of his body, the descriptions are never completely accurate. About Behaviorism In general the verbal community can check the ac- curacy of statements regarding inclinations and tenden- cies, at least in a statistical way, by looking at what happens, and the accuracy of the control maintained by private stimuli is thus to some extent assured. About Behaviorism Behavior usually involves the environment in a more complex way. About Behaviorism Courting, mating, building nests, and caring for young are things organisms do, and again presumably because of the way they have evolved. About Behaviorism We often mean little more in speaking of instincts in general, and there is perhaps no harm in using the word in this way, but much more is often read into the term. About Behaviorism (What is wrong, by the way, is the suggestion that pressure is exerted primarily by other species. About Behaviorism The heart of the runner does not begin to beat strongly and rapidly just before a race because of the conditioned cardiac reflex; the reflex is simply a way of identifying the fact that it begins to beat rapidly. About Behaviorism The runner has been changed when situations at the start of a race have been followed by strong exertion, and as a changed organism he behaves in a different way. About Behaviorism The distinguished scientist Vannevar Bush has put it this way: We seem, thus, to have arrived at a concept of how the physical universe about usall the life that inhabits the speck we occupy in this universehas evolved over the eons of time by simple material processes, the sort of proc- esses we examine experimentally, which we describe by equations, and call the laws of nature. About Behaviorism The change wrought by reinforcement is often spoken of as the acquisition of purpose or in- tention, and we are said to give a person a purpose by reinforcing him in a given way. About Behaviorism ABouT BEHAW0IU5M 64 Feelings Associated With Schedules of Reinforcement The probability that a person will respond in a given way because of a history of operant reinforcement changes as the contingencies change. About Behaviorism A punished person remains inclined to behave in a punis1i~ble way, but he avoids punishment by doing something else instead, possibly nothing more than stubbornly doing nothing. About Behaviorism More exactly, he feels guilty only when he behaves, or tends to behave, in a punishable way. About Behaviorism Habit formation was a structuralist principle: to acquire a habit was merely to become ac- I Asotrr BEHAvIoRIw 72 customed to behaving in a given way. About Behaviorism The patrons of a restaurant are behaving in roughly the same way with respect to their dinners, but they are not imitating each other; they are behav- ing in similar ways because they are exposed to similar 73 Operant Behavio~ contingencies. About Behaviorism We should have to translate these statements in some such way as this: The probability of behavior depends upon the kind of frequency of reinforcement in similar situa- tions in the past. About Behaviorism In both theories the environ- ment penetrated the body: in the mentalistic view, it was taken in by the perceiver; in the stimulus-response view, it battered its way in. About Behaviorism When a stimulus is weak or vague, it is often clear that other conditions are affecting the probability that a person will see a thing in a given way. About Behaviorism We can present a thing suddenly or conspicuously I or in a novel and hence surprising way, and we can point to it if our subject has learned to follow a point that is, if he has learned to behave effectively under contingencies in which a thing indicated plays an im- portant part. About Behaviorism (This is an example, by the way, of a current practice of avoiding dualism by substituting brain for mind. About Behaviorism He has simply been changed in such a ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 94 95 Perceiving way that stimuti now control pa.ticuar About Behaviorism We usualiy~ respond in a slightly dif- ferent way in escaping from the rain itself if we have had no sign of it in advance. About Behaviorism Both logician and linguist tend to create new sentences in this way, which they then treat as if they were the records of emitted verbal behavior. About Behaviorism Perhaps there is no harm in playing with sentences in this way or in analyzing the kinds of transformations which do or do not make sentences acceptable to the ordinary reader, but it is still a waste of time, particu- larly when the sentences thus generated could not have been emitted as verbal behavior. About Behaviorism (It is usually only when behavior has been emitted, by the way, that one speaks of an act of will; 115 Thinking the term suggests taking a stand and accepting the ir- revocable consequences.) About Behaviorism Techniques of learning to ob- serve in such a way that one remembers more readily are not techniques of storage but rather of generating effective perception. About Behaviorism It is a field marked by a great deal of mystery, part of it due to the way in which it has been formulated. About Behaviorism We group similar things in classes in order to treat them in~ the same way. About Behaviorism We confirm a solution by solving a problem a second time, possibly in a different way. About Behaviorism To say that the chimpan- zee showed intelligent behavior based on a perception of what was required to solve the problem: some way of overcoming the distance barrier is to make it almost impossible to discover what happened. About Behaviorism A short verse served this function: Up high, Down low, Up quick, Down slow, And thats the way to blow. About Behaviorism The blacksmith learned to operate the bellows in this way because of the reinforcing result of a steady, hot fire. About Behaviorism The reference to an impelling force suggests that a we are still a long way from a behavioral definition. About Behaviorism To say that we intuitively recognize that a sentence such as John is weak to please is ill-formed is to imply that no rule of gram- mar will permit us to call the sentence well-formed, but what we intuitively recognize is that the behavior we possess by virtue of the practices of our verbal com- munity does not include a sentence of this form, nor should we as a member of such a community respond to it in an effective way. About Behaviorism The intuitive diagnoses of a physician, the intuition with which an art critic identifies a school or artist, and the intuitive skill with which some people quickly learn to find their way about a city illustrate behaviors for 147 Causes and Reasons which no rule has yet been formulated. About Behaviorism If we can get from here to there, we are said to know the way. About Behaviorism Information is used in a very different way in de- scribing individual behavior. About Behaviorism But this is not to say that every instance of knowing involves coming to terms in some way with the subjective and phenomeno- logical. About Behaviorism The body that behaves in a considerate way most of the time is the same body that is occasionally callous or cruel; the body that behaves heterosexually most of the time is the same body that is occasionally homosexual. About Behaviorism This is simply another way of repre- ABOUT BEHAVIORISM 168 senting the probability of behavior derived from con- tingencies of survival or of reinforcement. About Behaviorism Bruckner reported the occasion of a creative musical act in the following way: One day I came home and felt very sad. About Behaviorism We do not need to say that the theme came to him because he was feeling sad; certain circumstances (news of Wagner) produced the condi- tions felt as sadness and induced him to behave musi- cally in a special way. About Behaviorism This does not bother him, how- ever, because he has never been strongly inclined to do anythin& But that is too superficial a statement for Henry James, who puts it this way: A secret hoard of indifference.. About Behaviorism To take one other example, the position of the black 181 The inner World of Motivation and Emotion minority in America has been described this way: When a once largely powerless group acquires a sense of growing power, its members experience an intensified need for self-affirmation. About Behaviorism The objection to the inner workings of the mind is not that they are not open to inspection but that they have stood in the way of the inspection of more important things. About Behaviorism The argonauts of the psyche have for centuries sailed 183 The Inner World of Motivation and Emotion the stormy seas of the mind, never in sight of their goal, revising their charts from time to time in the light of what seemed like new information, less and less sure of their way home, hopelessly lost. About Behaviorism Hence no one else will behave in precisely the same way. About Behaviorism ABoUT B~aa~vIo1usM 188 rather than, Why do you feel that way? because it is more likely to get an answer. About Behaviorism Then, as usual, we are likely to explain the inexplicable by attributing it to genetic endowmentasserting, I was born that way, or, Thats the kind of person I am. About Behaviorism We merely infer that for a time it will continue to behave in an angry way. About Behaviorism As we describe something by saying what it looks like, and thus enable the listener to respond to it as he has already responded to something else, so we can induce the listener to feel as we feel by describing a situation which creates a condition felt in the same way. About Behaviorism The managing self, on the other hand, is set up m~iinly by the social environment, which has its selfish reasons for teaching a person to alter his behavior in such a way that it becomes less aversive and possibly more rein- forcing to others. About Behaviorism The conditions felt in associa- tion with reinforcers are salient; but self-management is concerned with consequences, many of them due to ac- tion taken by others, and the rule is more exactly ap- plied if a person recoliects not what he has felt but what he has done when others have treated him in a given way. About Behaviorism He describes his own behavior and the contin- gencies responsible for it and as a result is more likely to behave in an appropriate way on future occasions. About Behaviorism Here is a sample of what is standing in the way of effective education: it is said that attitudes expressed in the structure of school systems affect the cognitive and creative potential of virtually every child, as do the feelings and personalities of teachers and their super- visors. About Behaviorism The historical priority of self-knowledge based upon introspection gave way to knowledge of environmental contingencies. About Behaviorism We cannot choose a way of life in which there is no controL We can only change the controlling conditions. About Behaviorism We might act m such a way that another person is reinforced and re- inforces us in turn. About Behaviorism In any case, the way one person treats another is determined by recip- rocal action. About Behaviorism A theological question of some antiquity is this: Is man sinful because he sins, or does he sin because he is sinful? Marx raised a similar question and answered it this way: it is not the consciousness of man that de- termines his existence; rather it is his social existence that determines his consciousness. About Behaviorism There is no way in which one can make contact with them. About Behaviorism In the same way cognitive psychologists frequently use brain and mind inter- changeably, and all languages are said to have certain invariant features because that is the way the brain is wired. About Behaviorism The science of physiology began in much the same way. About Behaviorism Another way of dealing with inference is to give it respectability by converting it into an explicit model or system. About Behaviorism In much the same way principles emerging from an experimental analysis of behavior have been applied in the design of education, psycho- therapy, incentive systems in industry, penology, and in many other fields. About Behaviorism To say that the science of behavior is a matter of how rats can learn to find their way in mazes or how dogs come to salivate when they hear the dinner bell is to speak of what is trivial or already familiar. About Behaviorism Basic research in the science of behavior is es- sentially manipulative; the experimenter arranges con- ditions under which a subject behaves in a given way, and in doing so he controls behavior. About Behaviorism Among those who have the power needed to control others in this way are govern- mental and religious authorities and men possessing a good deal of money. About Behaviorism A distinguished critic of science has expressed an opposing view in the following way: according to [ethology] Keats is all wrong: the bird is not pouring forth its soul in ecstasy, for now we know that all it is doing is serving notice on its fellows that it claims a certain territory for worm grubbing. About Behaviorism As the philosophy of a science of behavior, behav- iorism calls for probably the most drastic change ever proposed in our way of thinking about man. About Behaviorism W. Bridgman: The Way Things Are. About Behaviorism Simlb~r1y, if certain ways of teaching a person lead him to notice very small differences in his sensations, and if because he sees these differences he can classify colored objects correctly, then it should follow that we can use these ways of teaching him to classify objects correctly. About Behaviorism Some concepts previously associated with private events were formulated in other ways. About Behaviorism Questions of this sort are asked because the answers are important to the community, but, as we shall see later, they also become important to the speaker him- self and in ways which are likely to maintain their ac- curacy. About Behaviorism Im- agining or fantasying, as ways of seeing something in the absence of the thing seen, are presumably a matter of doing what one does when what is seen is present. About Behaviorism To seek help is to act in ways which have in the past led to help. About Behaviorism If past consequences have not been very explicit, we are likely to look in vague and unproductive ways. About Behaviorism They have different effects when related to behavior in other ways. About Behaviorism Feelings were repressed by other feelings and policed by a cen- sor from whom they sometimes escaped in devious ways. About Behaviorism A child acquiring operant behavior no doubt also acquires conditioned reflexes, and Pavlovs dog, though restrained by the experi- mental stand, was operantly reinforced in adventitious ways by the occasional presentation of food.) About Behaviorism Peo- ple must judge what will or will not occur if they do or do not act in certain ways. About Behaviorism We are not merely mindful of the world about us; we respond to it in idiosyncratic ways because of what has happened when we have been in contact with it. About Behaviorism Both lay- I man and scientist respondin similar or different ways, depending upon the contingenciesto the features of a given setting. About Behaviorism To argue that layman and scientist are simply look- ing at two aspects of the same thing is to miss the point, because aspect is what causes trouble: people see different things when they have been exposed to different contingencies of reinforcement Like everyone else, the scientist sees green, but he also responds in other ways to the same setting. About Behaviorism To look for something is to behave in ways which have been re- inforced when something has turned up. About Behaviorism As a result, the organism behaves in special ways under special kinds of stimulus control. About Behaviorism Those who behaved in ways injurious to others, for example, were punished by those they injured. About Behaviorism All behavior is determined, directly or indirectly, by consequences, 141 Causes and Reasons and the behaviors of both scientist and nonscientist are shaped by what is really there but in different ways. About Behaviorism Physical conditions, many of them relevant to behavior and felt in various ways, have physical (medical) effects. About Behaviorism Different communities generate different kinds and amounts of self-knowledge and different ways in which people explain themselves to themselves and others. About Behaviorism Personal history asserts itself in self-control or self- management in other ways. About Behaviorism One can control ones pulse to some extent by behav- ing in ways which affect it, speeding the heart rate by exercising violently and slowing it by relaxing. About Behaviorism A baby, for example, develops certain methods of control- ling his parents when he behaves in ways leading to certain kinds of action. About Behaviorism We have discov- ered, perhaps too rapidly, more and more effective ways of controlling our world, and we have not always used them wisely, but we can no more stop controlling na- ture than we can stop breathing or digesting food. About Behaviorism It is exerted in ways which most effectively reinforce those who exert it, and unfortunately this usually means in ways which either are immediately aversive to those controlled or exploit them in the long run. About Behaviorism To say that trade and industry arose from the workings of rational self-interest is simply to say that men discov- ered new ways of acquiring money and goods. About Behaviorism But what has evolved is a social environment in which individuals behave in ways determined in part by their effects on others. About Behaviorism But what is needed is a restoration of social environ- ments in which people behave in ways called moral. About Behaviorism Persuasion is not al- ways effective, but when it is, it breeds little or no countercontroL We persuade in part by describing po- tentially reinforcing consequences. About Behaviorism His family and his peers are part of that environment, and he will benefit if they behave in ethical ways. About Behaviorism Better ways of teaching (introduced for whatever reason, possibly only because of immediate consequences for teacher or student) will make a more effective use of the human genetic endowment. About Behaviorism Better ways of governing (introduced for whatever reason, possibly merely in the interests of governed or governor) mean less time wasted in per- sonal defense and more time for other things. About Behaviorism More in- teresting forms of art, music, and literature (created for whatever reason, possibly simply for the immediate reinforcement of those creating or enjoying them) mean fewer defections to other ways of life. About Behaviorism The point survives when the appeal to character is corrected by speaking of a nation which maintains a social environment in which its citizens behave in ways called intelligent, energetic, brave, patriotic, and benev- olent. About Behaviorism We must look instead at the conditions under which people govern, give help, teach, and ar- range incentive systems in particular ways. About Behaviorism Is a Choice Necessary? There are those who would hav it both ways and who continue to call psychology the science of behavior and mental life. About Behaviorism Far from ignoring consciousness in this sense, a science of behavior has developed new ways of study- ing it. About Behaviorism We can also discover some of the sources of new forms of behavior which undergo selectiOn by prevailing contingencies of reinforcement, and for- tunately the creative artist or thinker has other ways of introducing novelties, some of which I reviewed in Chapter 7. About Behaviorism As we have seen, those who do not use their power in aversive or exploitative ways do not refrain because they possess compassion, or a sense of ethics, or a concern for the welfare of others, but because they have been subjected to countercontrol. About Behaviorism
We asked the driver to take us, it was a night with a full moon, thanks be to Allah. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Thanks be to Allah for his blessings. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript UBL: Thanks be to Allah. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript UBL: Thanks be to Allah. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Shaykh: (Describing the trip to the meeting) They smuggled us and then I thought that we would be in different caves inside the mountains so I was surprised at the guest house and that it is very clean and comfortable. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Thanks be to Allah, we also learned that this location is safe, by Allahs blessings. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript This is only one goal; those who want people to worship the lord of the people, without following that doctrine, will be following the doctrine of Muhammad, peace be upon him. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript He said: There will be a great hit and people will go out by hundreds to Afghanistan. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript According to him, the only ones who stay behind will be the mentally impotent and the liars (hypocrites). Bin Laden Videotape Transcript we calculated in advance the number of casualties from the enemy, who would be killed based on the position of the tower. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript We calculated that the floors that would be hit would be three or four floors. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Shaykh: Allah be praised. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Shaykh: Allah be praised. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Allah is great, praise be to Allah. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript And the day will come when the symbols of Islam will rise up and it will be similar to the early days of Al-Mujahedeen and Al-Ansar (similar to the early years of Islam). Bin Laden Videotape Transcript In these days, in our times, that it will be the greatest jihad in the history of Islam and the resistance of the wicked people. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Shaykh: May Allah be blessed. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Shaykh: May Allah be blessed! Bin Laden Videotape Transcript At that point, I was worried that maybe the secret would be revealed if everyone starts seeing it in their dream. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript I told him if he sees another dream, not to tell anybody, because people will be upset with him. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript (Another persons voice can be heard recounting his dream about two planes hitting a big building). Bin Laden Videotape Transcript UBL: They were overjoyed when the first plane hit the building, so I said to them: be patient. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript They are just accepting what is being said at face value. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript May Allah bless you both at home and the camp. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript As far as Shaykh Sulayman Ulwan is concerned, he gave a beautiful fatwa, may Allah bless him. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Some people may ask: why do you want to fight us? Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Now hundreds of people are coming out to join you. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript I remembered his saying that hundreds of people will go out to Afghanistan. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Thank Allah America came out of its caves. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript Shaykh: A plane crashing into a tall building was out of anyone's imagination. Bin Laden Videotape Transcript
Based upon this and in order to obey the Almighty, we hereby give all Muslims the following judgment: The judgment to kill and fight Americans and their allies, whether civil- ians or military, is an obligation for every Muslim who is able to do so in any country.. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden We also call upon Muslim scholars, their faithful leaders, young believers, and soldiers to launch a raid on the American soldiers of Satan and their allies of the Devil.9 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He concluded: We call upon the Almighty Allah to visit His anger, disgusts and concern on the American soldiers in the Gulf, their allies the Jews in Palestine, and all those hyp- ocrites, to send who He has from the sky to kill them. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Hafeezullah pointed out that during World War II, when Afghanistan came under pressure from the Allies to hand over several hundred Germans living in the country, the request was denied. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It is safe to say that bin Laden, who has thousands, perhaps tens of thousands of allies all over the world, now has hundreds of millions of enemies as well. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Northern Alliance can field be- tween 15,000 and 30,000 troops if the United States and its allies em- bark on a land war. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Indeed, bin Ladens unedited call for holy war against the United States was deliv- ered to every corner of the globe~ The world was treated to the indeli- ble image of bin Laden sitting oti a rocky outcrop flanked by his senior aideslooking as untroubled as if he were on a camping trip, as The New York Times memorably put itwhile Tomahawk cruise missiles 232 / Afterword rained down on his terrorist training camps and the military facilities of his Taliban allies. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But the United States and its allies also have a plan of attack. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And it is only a matter of time until the cordon sanitaire which has now been thrown up around Afghanistan, not only by the United States and its European allies but also by Muslim countries such as Pakistan, tight- ens like a noose around bin Laden and his allies. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Robert Fox, Mujahideen Move in to Fly the Militant Flag in Bosnia: Izetbe- Notes / 255 govichs New Allies Are Threatening to Split Old Alliances, London Daily Tele- graph, February 18, 1995. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Nothing in this book should be construed to represent the views of CNN or any other news organization for which I have done reporting. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He would be the person guiding us to bin Laden if we got the green light to meet him. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden One had the sense that he would be very calm under fire. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Despite the years he had spent in Europe, Ali could be somewhat re- ductive in his views. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden On no account were we to use bin Prologue / 5 Ladens name, and our trip to Jalalabad, Afghanistan, where he was living, should be referred to as a trip to meet the man in Kuwait. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The correspondent would be Peter Arnett, who had won a Pulitzer Prize during his ten years of reporting in Vietnam and whose coura- geous decision to remain in Baghdad during the Gulf War had helped put CNN on the map. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Four years before our trip to meet bin Laden, I had traveled to Afghanistan with Arnett and Jouvenal at a time when the prime minis- ter, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, was staking out his claim to be perhaps the only prime minister in history to shell his own capital on a daily basis. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The em- bassy seemed to be under siege, which in some ways it was. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Testaments to this distinctive style of driving can be seen in the numerous burned-out vehicles that lie by the side of the road. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That would mean a drive along the Grand Trunk Road, where you are more likely to be killed than you are in the middle of the civil war inside neighboring Afghanistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This was the latest in a long list of what might be called Tall-bans. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Twenty-five miles to the south was the town of Darra, which might be the worlds largest outlet store for weaponry. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Before long, we arrived in Jalalabad, the compact town where we would be staying while we waited to see bin Laden. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Our lodgings would be the Spinghar Hotel, named after the snow- capped mountains that dominated the view to the south. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Just before we arrived, Taliban officials had con- vened a clerical kangaroo court in the Spinghars dining room and ruled that the hotel should be commandeered. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Occasionally the owner could be seen walking through the hotel, a dazed expression on his face. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden When I asked Khaled al-Fawwaz, bin Ladens London contact, what present regime in the world most resembled his vision of how an Islamic state should be run, he said the Taliban were getting there. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden They were working on growing theii Taliban-mandated beards, but the beards looked suspiciously well- trimmed to be truly Taliban-certified. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden When I pointed out that the Taliban had brought safety to most oJ the country, one replied, Yes, but you can be secure in a prison. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden We took it to be her way of saying: The Taliban may make me wear this getup, but they cant control my thoughts. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden To have gotten so far, and to have spent this much time and money, only to learn that the intervie~ would be sabotagedthis was rather bad news. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bin Laden feared that strangers with electronic equipment might be concealing some type of tracking device thai would give away his location. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (Mi had mentioned the example of Terry Waite, an Anglican church envoy negotiating for the release of West- ern hostages in Beirut in the 1980s, who was himself taken captive be- cause he was suspected of carrying such a device.) Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He told us we would be picked up the next day. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden After driving through a long tunnel, Mi finally broke the silence, saying almost apologetically: This is the point in the journey when guests are told if they are hiding a tracking device, tell us now and it will not be a problem. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Could I be absolutely sure neither of them had such a device? Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In places, the road seemed to be just the rock bed of a mountain stream; elsewhere, improvements had been made to the track. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Dont be afraid, said their leader, a burly Saudi, who politely asked us to get out of the car. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Peter Arnett and I had worked up a long list of questions, many more than could be answered in the hour allotted to us. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden that Muslims will be victorious in the Arabian peninsula and that Gods religion, praise and glory be to Him, will prevail in this peninsula. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It is a great hope that the revelation unto Muhammad will be used for ruling. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This was the first time that bin Laden had told members of the Western press that American civilians might be casualties in his holy war. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden With a simple look at the U.S. behaviors, we find that it judges the be- havior of the poor Palestinian children whose country was occupied: if they throw stones against the Israeli occupation, it says they are terror- ists, whereas when the Israeli pilots bombed the United Nations building in Qana, Lebanon, while it was full of children and women, the U.S. stopped any plan to condemn Israel. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden There is no light pollution or smog in Afghanistan, so the heavens can be seen in their natural state. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden After a struggle, the details of which will never be known, the jet went down southeast of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania at 10:10 A.M., killing all on board. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Until that grim morning, the average American was statistically more likely to be killed by a bolt of lightning than an act of terrorism. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In July, the State Department warned of strong indications that individuals may be planning immi- nent terrorist actions against U.S. interests in the Arabian Peninsula. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden If you dont fight, says bin Laden, you will be punished by God. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Saudi exile then outlines the solution to the problems Muslims face: They should travel to Afghanistan to be tutored in the arts of holy war. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It was attacked, he says, because it was considered to be the biggest intelligence-gathering center in East Africa. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Toward the tapes end, bin Laden implies that there will be more action against the United States: The victory of Islam is coming. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden So it should not be surprising that bin Ladens top aide is a physi- cian from an upper-class Egyptian family, or that his former media representative in London was a Saudi entrepreneur, born in Kuwait, who worked in the import-export business. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That observa- tion would prove to be prescient. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Similar adulation could be heard at a conference I attended in London in the spring of 2000: before an audience of several hundred en- thralled men and wom~n, the keynote speaker lauded bin Laden as this man who sacrificed his life for Islam. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden These reporting lapses may be explicable by the pressures of daily journalism, but books that have tried to address the bin Laden phe- nomenon at greater length have often fared no better. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Other examples of misinformation about bin Laden can be found in a tome by Yossef Bodansky; who enjoys the title of director of the Con- gressional Task Force on Terrorism. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Finally, he is libel proof: one can say pretty much anything about him and know one isnt going to be sued. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden An- other is as the ideologue for a larger group of thousands of holy warriors around the globe who may not be part of his organization, but who look to him for guidance and inspiration. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Finally, when announcing those American missile strikes, Clinton administration officials from the president down painted bin Laden as the mastermind of every conceivable ter- rorist attack in recent memory, a dastardly villain out of a James Bond moviea portrait that in the light of the events of September 11 may be almost understated. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But bin Laden is perhaps better un- derstood as the Pied Piper ofjihad; his invitation to holy war resonates among disaffected and underemployed Muslim youths from Algeria to Pakistan to California, leading them to sacrifice themselves in a con- flict that cannot be won in any conventional sense. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden They wouldnt be if I had enough money and explosives, came the reply.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He took a circuitous route to the United States, travel- While America Slept / 3 5 ing via Prague, where he met with an Iraqi intelligence agentan en- counter that might or might not be significant, since one meeting does not an al-Qaeda-Iraqi conspiracy make.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A measure of the sites global reach can be seen in the reaction to the death of a Saudi named Khallad al-Madani, who was killed in Chechnya in February 2000 while fighting under the command of a bin Laden protg. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Nothing better underlines this development than the contrast be- 38 / HOLY WAR, INC. tween the American bombing of Libyan targets in 1986, for that gov- ernments role in the killing of U.S. soldiers based in Germany, with the U.S. Navys cruise missile attacks, in 1998, on bin Laden, an indi- vidual, for his role in the African embassy bombings. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bin Laden, however, is an individual with deep enough pockets to operate largely without sponsorship, while a rapidly global- izing world, propelled by new technologies, allows his message to be taken up with a click of a mouse by holy warriors from Azerbaijan to Yemen. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The transnational character of Holy War, Inc., and its embrace of Western technologies, can also be seen in the wars that have racked Chechnya, in southern Russia, since 1994. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden While the foot soldiers of Holy War, Inc. have now gone global, dis- persed in dozens of countries around the world, the ideological roots and formative experiences of those holy warriors can generally be found in one place, Afghanistan, to which many of them were drawn during the Soviet-Afghan war. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden like Afghanistan, bin Ladens adopted home on and off over the past two decades, Hadramawt might as well be in the Middle Ages. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It is in the largest of the Hadramawt wadis, or valleys, Wadi Doan, that the bin Laden ancestral village of al-Rubat can be found. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A deal can be worth millions and millions and not a riyal will be missing, according to Nabil al-Habshi, a tour operator in the area.7 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden According to someone authorized by the family to speak to me, the bin Ladens do not consider Osamas mother to be part of their family, because she was divorced from Osamas father decades ago. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The bin Laden family is generally devout, so it must have been a source of pride to be asked in the late 1960s to help rebuild the aI-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalemthe site to which the Prophet was 44 / HOLY WAR, INC. transported in his Night Journey from Meccaafter a mentally unbal- anced Australian tourist had set the mosque on fire.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And in a further irony, in September 2001 U.S. military plan- ners said the base could be used by aircraft in strikes against bin Ladens Afghan hideouts.) Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The influence of these men on bin Laden cannot be underestimatedits as if Ronald Reagan and Milton Friedmans brother had taught him about capitalism. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden By implication, Qutb makes the case that the way to establish this Islamic order is through an offensive jihad against the enemies of Islam, whether they be non-Islamic soci- eties or Muslim societies that are not following the precepts of the Koran. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden During the Vietnam war, by contrast, a re- porter could go to the front lines in a U.S. helicopter and be back at the hotel swimming pool later the same day, sipping a cold one. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Indeed, if any conflict deserved to be called a just jihad, the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan surely was. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The machinery would be used to build rough roads, dig tunnels into the mountains for shelter, and construct rudimentary hospitals.M Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Initially the house was simply a way station for those who would be sent for train- ing with one of the Afghan factions. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Afghan Jihad: The Making of a Holy Warrior / 5 1 Having lost his deeply religious father while he was still a child, bin Laden would, throughout his life, be influenced by religiously radical older menfirst, Azzam and, to a lesser extent, the Afghan com- mander Abdul Rasool Sayyaf; later, the second-in-command in his ji- hadist organization, Ayman al-Zawahiri. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A barrel-chested man whose enormous gray beard and fiery rheto- ric made him a commanding presence, Azzam believed that jthad was an absolute necessity to restore the Khalzfa, the dream that Muslims 52 / HOLY WAR, INC. around the world could be united under one ruler. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And it was not simply from Afghanistan that the infidels had to be expelled.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This base would be used by al-Qaeda in the 1990s. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The recruits for the Afghan jihad came to be known as the Afghan Arabs. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He bought four-wheel-drive pickups and equipped every one with antitank missiles and mine detection so that each unit would be capable of dealing with any kind of situation, re- countedal-Fawwaz.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He thought we would be like heroes [back home]. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In 1989 he was approached to be- come part of al-Qaeda, which planned to continue holy wars beyond the Afghan conflict. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A source familiar with bin Ladens organization explains that bin Laden never had any relations with America or American officials, He was saying very early in the eighties that the next battle is going to be with America. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The United States wanted to be able to deny that the CIA was funding th Afghan war, so its support was funneled through Pakistans Inter Ser- vices Intelligence agency (ISI). Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Simpsons Afghan escort turned down the request, and bin Laden was to be found later on a camp bed, weeping in frustration. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Brigadier Mohammad Yousaf, who ran ISIs Afghan operation be- tween 1983 and 1987, explains with admirable clarity the relationship between the CIA and the Afghan mujahideen, or holy warriors: The foremost function of the CIA was to spend money. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden However, in one strange episode, the CIA did help an important recruiter for the Afghan Arabs, the Egyptian cleric Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, who would eventually be convicted for his role in con- spiring to blow up New York City landmarks such as the United Na- tions complex and the Holland Tunnel. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This is not to say the CIA did not make a significant tactical error during the Afghan war by allowing all the decisions about the funding and prosecution of the conflict to be made by the Pakistanis. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The CIA used Saudi and American funds to purchase weapons from China and Egypt so that no support could be traced to the United States.2 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden So the CIAs operation would be run through an all-important cutout: Pakistans ISI. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That would turn out to be a rather expen- sive mistake. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden There were questions that he might be a Soviet agent. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden 37Abu Mahaz took the position that all formerly Muslim lands, including Spain, should be returned to the fold of Islam. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (Massoud would be mortally wounded by two Arab assassins posing as television reporters on September 9, 2001, only forty-eight hours before the World Trade Center towers were destroyedan ominous portent. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Given that Hekmatyar was a disaster for American policies and Massoud would have been infinitely preferable, why did the CIA not intervene with Pakistans ISI to change the situation? The answer seems to be a combination of willful ignorance and a tendency to take the Pakistani assessment of the situation in Afghanistan at face value. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The question is: Why did the CIA be- lieve it, too? Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In a 1993 interview, Robert Gates defended the Agencys Afghan policy in the confident tone of a high school debating champion: Their approach [the Pakistanis] was that the assistance would be fun- neled to those groups that were fighting most effectively against the Soviets. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Soviet war could be taken into Pakistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He was less concerned about the technology giveaway Vince Cannistraro says there were also concerns at the Agency that the Afghans would not be able to handle the sophisticated Stinger. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And then you have to be very sure of your intended targetexactly which plane you are shooting at and who is on the plane. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The dying edict of the Prophet Muhammad had been Let there be no two religions in Arabia; now infidels of both sexes were trespassing on the holy land of the Arabian Peninsula.2 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Saudi army and his own men would be enough to defend the Kingdom, he reasoned; after all, hadnt his own troops been instrumental in driving the Russians from Afghanistan? Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Both would be used by the group. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Arriving there in April 1991, he then sent a letter to his family telling them that he would not be able to return home. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden At the same time he organized training camps at which hundreds of his followers could be tutored in paramili- tary tactics. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Al-Qaeda members bought trucks from Russia and tractors from Sb- vakia to be used for the groups companies, and went on business trips to Hungary, Croatia, China, Malaysia, and the Philippines.20 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That was a secret; to know of the groups existence you had to be a member. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The first of those troops, consisting of Navy SEALs and Marines in full battle gear, landed on the beaches of Somalia The Koran and the Katashnikov: Bin Ladens Years in Sudan / 81 during the dark early-morning hours of December 9, only to be greeted by a phalanx of photographers and video crews from the worlds press.27 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden They made Aidid the object of a massive manhunt, which would prove to be a costly mistake. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But it may never be clear who ex- actly these tribesmen were, and whether they actually fought against American soldiers. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And a simi- lar how-to terrorism book, Military Studies in the Jihad Against the Tyrants, would be seized in Manchester, England, in May 2000 in the home of Anas al-Liby, who is a fugitive charged in the bin Laden ter- ror conspiracy.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden and the American pull-out from Beirut, they will be the same method, to force the United States out of Saudi Arabia.50 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Thanks be to God, many people responded favorably to our fatwa. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Saudi government blamed the attack on Iran or the Iranian-backed Shia from the Eastern Province of the country,76 but the subsequent arrest of six hundred Afghan Arabs suggests that, at least initially, it believed bin Laden veterans might be responsible.77 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It turned out to be not an attack but an exercise de- signed to keep the new recruits on their toes. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Forcing bin Laden to leave for Afghanistan would turn out to be a lit- tle bit like the German High Command sending Lenin to Russia dur- ing World War I: while the policy might have resulted in short-term gains for the Germans, it set the stage for the creation of Germanys most implacable enemy. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden From Afghanistan bin Laden wasand isable to func- tion unimpeded, attracting Muslim militants to a country that is be- coming the modern worlds first jihadist state. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Question by federal prosecutor during the trial of four bin Laden associates convicted of conspiring to blow up two American embassies in Africa in 1998 If you study the l~fe of Prophet Muhammad, peace and bless- ings be upon him, you will see the most gentle man. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Talibans leader, Mullah Muhammad Omar, sent a delegation after his arrival to assure bin Laden that the Taliban would be honored to pro- tect him because of his role in the jihad against the Soviets.5 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I found him to be sincere, simple, not trying to impress. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The latest of these as- saults is the greatest disaster since the death of the Prophet Muham- mad (Peace be upon him)that is the occupation of the country of the two sacred mosquesthe home ground of Islam. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden At one point bin Laden, who is fond of a certain sort of morbid po- etry, addresses an unusual ode to the then U.S. secretary of defense, William Perry: 0 William, tomorrow you will be informed as to which young man will face your swaggering brother A youngster enters the midst of battle smiling, and Retreats with his spearhead stained with blood. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden They are asking you to participate with them against their enemies, who are also your enemiesthe Israelis and the Americansby causing them as much harm as can be possibly achieved. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Al-Fawwazs unequivocal statement suggests some serious ques- tions we must ask: First, according to the Koran, what are the justifica- tions for holy war? Then, can bin Ladens call for the expulsion of American troops from Arabia, his principal political goal, be justified by reference to the hadith, or sayings of the Prophet Muhammad? Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Various, sometimes conflicting, justifications for holy war can be found in the Koran. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bernard Lewis, a professor of Middle Eastern history at Princeton University, points out that one of the Prophets immediate successors, the Caliph Umar, issued a final and irreversible decree that Jews and Christians be evicted from the holy land of Hijaz, the region where the holy From the Peaks of the Hindu Kush: The DecLaration of War / 9 7 cities of Mecca and Medina are located, based on the words of the Prophet: Let there be no two religions in Arabia. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden What if I sent a jihad group into the Vatican? iS Of course, while many Muslims may be unhappy about the Ameri- can troops posted in Saudi Arabia and about U.S. policies in the Mid- dle East, only a tiny minority are committed to violence against American citizens. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Although he may be well read in the Koran, even his stoutest defenders would have to acknowledge that bin Laden is not a religious scholar and does not have the authority to deliver afatwa on his own. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Khan said that bin Laden concluded by implying there would be some sort of action by his group: This thing still bog- gles my mind, you know, he spoke of some good news in the weeks ahead. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The family now has several hundred members, and some of their businesses are intertwined with those of the al-Saud ruling family itself, which generally hides be- hind layers of nominees to disguise its interests. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden One such businessman may be Khalid bin Mahfouz, who is under house arrest in Saudi Arabia for allegedly transferring funds from the giant Na- tional Commercial Bank, owned by his family, to charities that are fronts for bin Laden.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden On a street running along the Kabul River, dozens of tiny shops do a thriving business, their proprietors sitting cross-legged be- hind vast bundles of afghanis. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It must be purely destructive. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Once in Nairobi, Fazil shared a house with Wadih el-Hage, who served as bin Ladens personal secretary when the Saudi militant was living in Sudan and would be convicted for his part in the conspiracy to bomb the African embassies. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In May 1998 Fazil rented a villa in a quiet neighborhood of Nairobi, where the bomb would be assembled. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Three months be- fore the bombing, he was finally told his mission: to be a martyr in an anti-American operation in Africa. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Al-Owhali also met the man who was to be his fellow martyr in the suicide operation, a young Saudi known as Azzam whom he had known in Afghanistan.2 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The fax said that American interests would shortly be at- tacked because of help the United States had given in extraditing a key member of the Jihad group from Albania to Egypt in June.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The bomb was set to explode the morning of Friday, August 7, be- tween 10:30 and 11 A.M., so that observant Muslims, who make up ap- proximately a third of the Kenyan population, would likely be worshipping at their mosques.24 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He could not walk and, buried under a pile of debris, he could not be rescued for two days. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden She died before she could be freed.29 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Mohamed was not called upon to go to Bosnia or Chechnya but was told to leave a contact number so he could be reached in Tanzania if he was needed. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Mohamed seems typical of the type of person al-Qaeda will recruit to be a go-fer on the ground, once a terrorist mission is under way. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Mohamed says he was not told by more senior members of al-Qaeda what the target of their attack in Tanzania might be. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden However, it defies common sense to think that Mohamed was not generally aware that the bomb would be used against an American target. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Investigation and Retaliation: The Embassy Bombings / 11 1 Being fairly low on the totem pole, Mohamed was assigned to arrange transportation of bomb components and to find housing where the bomb would be constructed, preferably a single-family house with high walls, a gate, and a compound area in a neighborhood where no one could see what was going on inside the house and yard. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The ceremony was to be held outside Rome, in the medieval village of Trevignano, which hugs the hills rising out of Lake Brac- ciano. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But how could he be so sure, so soon, that bin Laden was behind the embassy bombings? Although bin Laden had not yet achieved his cur- 114 / HOLY WAR, INC. rent infamy, he had been the subject of considerable interest to the U.S. government for years. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden His name had first surfaced in the investi- gation of the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center building where, along with approximately one hundred others, he had been named as an unindicted co-conspiratorprosecutor-speak for We dont know what to make of this guys involvement but he seems to be implicated in some way. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Groups such as the Abu Nidal Organi- zation (ANO) were highly structured and could therefore be analyzed 116 / HOLY WAR, INC. in a systematic way. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In addition, nine months before the Nairobi attack, an Egyptian named Mustafa Mahmoud Said Ahmed walked into the embassy and told intelligence officials there was a plan afoot to use stun grenades to divert the attention of embassy security guards so that a truck bomb could be driven into the underground parking garage of the embassy, precisely al-Qaedas plans for attacking the building. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Just as there had been attacks on U.S. embassies in two countries, there would be attacks against bin Laden-related targets in two countries. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (No doubt Bush administration officials have Operation Infinite Reach very much in mind as they embark on what appears at this writing to be a long-range and multifaceted plan of action in response to the events of September 11.) Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A senior Pakistani official told me that the United States gave Paki- stan no warning that its airspace would be used for the cruise missile attacks on Afghanistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden So much for the intelligence that key terrorist operatives would be in the camp on August 20. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bin Laden is a fairly shrewd operator, so after spending five years planning the attacks on the U.S. embassies, just about the last place he would be likely to hang his turban is the site from which he had told the world about his plans to attack Americans. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden At one point it seemed he Investigation and Retaliation: The Embassy Bombings / 121 might be executed, but he was saved by the intervention of a senioi Taliban official. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The young man described what it was like to be on the receiv- ing end of fifty or so Tomahawk cruise missiles: After evening prayer we were studying the Koran. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Moreover, the notion that bin Laden could somehow be intimi- dated by cruise missile attacks shows a misunderstanding of his psy- chology. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden All would turn out to be false or seriously flawed. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This appears to be a coincidence: the Sudanese business elite is very small. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden 126 / HOLY WAR, INC. CHAPTER 7 The American Connection: From Brooklyn to Seattle We have to be terrorists.... Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That would turn out to be a masterful understatement, as Mohamed was al- ready a member of Egypts terrorist Jthad group.7 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But no one ever followed up, and a Fort Bragg spokesperson says the reports cannot be 1ocated.2~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden While engaged in what appeared to be a pedestrian existence (running an import-export business), he was living a life of high intrigue. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Whatever the case, he might ultimately prove to be the best witness yet against the top man himself: Ali Mohamed links bin Laden directly to the embassy bombings. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He can be heard in a 1988 video telling a crowd of several hundred that blood and martyrdom are the only way to create a Muslim society.47 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Shalabi, a very principled guy, said we now have to consult with the people who donated the money [about what should be done with it]. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Those accusations appear to have been Shalabis death sentence: on March 1, 1991, someone entered his Coney Island, gated commu- nity (where visitors had to be buzzed in by a security guard) and his apartment (the door of which was not forced) and fatally stabbed him.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Another al-Qaeda member who hap- 134 / HOLY WAR, INC. pened to be an American citizen, el-Hage was born in Lebanon in 1960 into a Catholic family but converted to Islam before moving to the United States.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But during the eight years that it took him to finish his degree, he would be drawn to the Afghan jihad, traveling to Peshawar to work for a Saudi charity, the Muslim World League.59 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Jamal Ismail, a student at Peshawar Univer- sity, remembers el-Hage as a very quiet person, with a very thin, weak body, who didnt seem to be militant.60 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Ramzi Yousef can be traced back to Afghanistan, said Vincent Cannistraro, who ran the CIAS Counter Terrorist Center between 1988 and 1990. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Yousef would be captured a year latei by FBI agents in Islamabad, Pakistan; among his possessions was the address of a bin Laden guesthouse.84 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (Mohamed Rashed al-Owhali, the would-be suicide bomber in the Kenya embassy attack, and the Jordanian- American Raed Hijazi were also there in the late nineties.05) Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Around this time, al-Qaeda experimented with cyanide in the hope it could be introduced into the air intakes of U.S. government build- ings. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (Unsurprisingly, the dog expired within ~ At the camp, a cell of Ressams fellow Algerians agreed that, after their training, they would meet up in Canada, an agreeable base be- cause of the relative ease with which one can enter the United States from it.9 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Between mouthfuls of what may be the only Taliban-sanctioned indulgence, he sputtered, We will never hand over bin Laden. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This support can be explained on several grounds, the first of which was simple ignorance. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Pakistanis were fed up, and a return to military rule seemed to be the only option left. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Pointing to an imposing desk, he said, I used to be sitting there, but now I am sitting here, gesturing to the visitors couch. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The new leader, Gen- eral Musharraf, may be secular minded, but he too can be overthrown. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This was so typically Pakistani: the de- sire to be hospitable whatever the circumstances. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A s I flew to Islamabad I reflected on the interesting similarities be- tween Pakistan and Israel. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden security officer says any future attacks are likely to come after eleven at night, so I am probably going to have to cancel the New Years party, as it wont be much of a party if we have to shut it down at ten-thirty. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Toward the end of our chat, I asked Maulana ul-Haq whether he believed that the social policies the Taliban had introduced into Afghanistan might also be introduced into Pakistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden After that it will take ten days, maybe two weeks, to be ap- proved. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As I waited for the visa to be issued, I read a list of rules addressed to journalists planning to visit Afghanistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Then you could stay only at the Interconti- nental Hotel, in Kabul, and you had to use a government-provided guide and driver (who were to be paid in dollars, of course). Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The First Amendment did not appear to be a feature of sharia law. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden We were both eager to talk about the recent coup in Pakistan: one of the first to be arrested had been the information minister, Mushahid Hussein, who some con- sidered to be the real brains behind the now deposed government of Nawaz Sharif. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden His ease with the media could be explained by his previous job as a newspaper editor, where he had once been Rahimullahs boss. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Happy families, Tolstoy wrote, are all alike, and each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way; the same might be said of the family of nations. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Taliban called it the rule of sharia, and were convinced that once it was properly implemented Afghans would become virtu- ous and the perfect society would be created. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden While five million or so Afghans, a quarter of the population, faced serious food shortages, the Taliban were preoccupied with abstruse matters such as what sort of distinguishing clothing should be worn by the countrys minuscule Hindu population.44 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In stark contrast, the Taliban have decreed that women should neither work, nor be educated, nor even be seen by anyone outside their immediate families.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Taliban tended to regard the major cities as occupied territories, Sodoms and Gomor- rahs that needed to be punished for past transgressions, and so en- forced their edicts more harshly there. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And the shift in Taliban policy should not be exaggerated: education for girls still ended at the age of twelve. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But de Mul was op- timistic that there would be more girl students as more families reaped the benefits of change. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Taliban had come to real- ize that they could no longer both forbid that women be treated by male doctors and bar women from practicing medicine, so small numbers of female nurses and doctors were now working in city hospitals. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This house be- longed to my father and other members of the Jewish community, he said. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden If I leave, the house will be seized by the Taliban. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Despite the generally wretched conditions, none seemed to be suffer- ing from any obvious ill-treatment. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He believed that his sen- tence would likely be indefinite. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (Afghanistan would clearly not be in need of a contingency plan for the looming Y2K problem.) Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A vivid sign of the countrys poverty could be seen in the ministers office: my freezing breath. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A week be- fore he was toppled by General Musharrafs coup, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif declared: We have with us solid evidence that there exist training camps in Afghanistan which are training terrorists and sending them into Pakistan to kill our people.69 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In June 2000, Paid- stans military government gave the Taliban a list of eighteen camps believed to be training Pakistani militants, and the Taliban actually closed two camps near Kabulalthough local residents said that the militants had simply moved north to fight against the Northern Al- liance.7 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In sum, most of the Talibans military training camps continued to function despite the denials of Foreign Minister Wakil Ahmed Mut- tawakil, who told CNN in January 2000, less than accurately, We dont need any camps or any other people to be trained. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And that should be a cause for concern. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The leader of the young gunmen offered Omar Sharif his weapon as recompense, an offer declined on the grounds that the matter would then have to be taken up by their respective sheikhs and could develop into a major hassle. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Yemeni police arrested ten mili- tants, believed to be affiliated with bin Laden, who were equipped with bomb-making materials, grenades, and maps of the area sur- rounding the U.S. embassy.7 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Busi- nesses adhere to an unusual schedule, opening in the afternoon and closing as late as three A.M. I was surprised to find downtown Sana at midnight to be as lively as Manhattan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Its president since 1978, Lieutenant General Au Abdallah Salih, has instituted a fascinating type of political system The HoLy Warriors of Yemen / 1 7 1 that, for want of a better term, might be called despotic democracy. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Yemen is generally reckoned to be the most democratic of Arab countries; this is flattery of only the mildest sort. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And Yemen can genuinely claim to be an emerging democracy. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden No business could be conducted before sitting down to a vast spread of lamb, chicken, sal- ads, soups, and a dessert of Yemeni honey (supposedly an aphrodisiac) slathered over a dome of pastry, all of which the sheikh insistently heaped on my plate. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (Memo to self: in the event of a kidnapping, never be rescued by a Third World army.) Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden If this were indeed Shakespeare, Abu Hamza would be the Fool who wanders in and out of the drama making observations either absurd or pertinent or both. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He is not to be found in Yemen but thousands of miles to the north, in London, where he is the imam of the Finsbury Park Mosque, just up the road from the stadium of the legendary London soccer team Arsenal. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden What would be the approximate cost in U.S. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I cant imagine your overall spending to be more than $2,000. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Aden Eight, as they came to be known, said theyd gone on vacation to Yemen either to visit family members or to pick up some Arabic.55 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I thought, This is not going to be a normal day We didnt understand what was happening. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden We were forced to be human shields, she said. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The most pressing question remains: Was there a relationship be- tween Abu Hassan and Islamist elements in the Yemeni government? Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden 76 The solution to the mys- tery died with Abu Hassan, who was executed almost exactly a year be- fore the bombing of the U.S.S. Cole. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The religious sig- nificance would hardly have escaped the bombers: dying on this day is said to be a sign of Allahs grace. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In May 1998, he had held a press conference in Afghanistan to say that there would be good news in the coming weeks. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This time there would be no failures. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Mohammed Omar al-Harazi visited Aden be- fore the Cole attack to provide money and training; then, according to a senior Yemeni official, he left for Afghanistan after the attacks successful outcomeY He did not lack for company. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The other suicide bomber has yet to be identified but is also believed to have been a Yemeni who had settled in Saudi Arabia. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Moldering back issues of Commando magazine featuring Nazis shout- ing Surrender or die, English pig dog jostle with books on etiquette asking: For day partiesbridge or whist for exampleis it just one table of friends, or is it to be a grander affair with two or more tables? Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Fortress America approach of the investigators was indicative of the very real threat that they might be targeted by Yemeni militants. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Seven months later, in June 2001, the remaining FBI agents in the country pulled out, not only be- cause of terrorist threats but also because of continued disputes with the Yemenis about how to conduct the investigation.2 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This was about as good an arrangement as could be expected, but results were at best spotty. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Those who carried out the attack be- lieve, like bin Laden, that the presence of American infidels in the holy land of the Arabian Peninsula is a crime against God. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A Yemeni newspaper editor observed: It was clear from the start that the accessories to the attack wiuld be tried and e,~ecuted, but the peo- ple inside Yemen who financed it, and used their power to facilitate it, would never be brought to ~ It is still not clear what bin Ladens role in the Cole explosion was, but the glee he has taken in the attack is undeniable. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden U.S. official, Washington, 1998 When Ahmed Ressam, the would-be bomber of Los Angeles Inter- national Airport, stepped off the ferry from Canada at Port Ange- les, Washington, on a blustery day in December 1999, and was nabbed by alert Customs agents, U.S. investigators had little inkling that the arrest would prove a turning point in their understanding of al-Qaedas scope of the networks that stretched across three continents and a dozen or so countries. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The network was formed in the crucible of an international conflict be- tween the Soviet Union and Afghanistana war that drew in Pakista- nis, Americans, and Saudis, along with Muslims from all over the globe. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden counterterrorism official, credible threats can be signaled by suspi- cious videotaping of an embassy, intelligence gathered from telephone surveillance, the presence of a terrorist in a particular city, or informa- tion from a drop-in informant. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Fore- most is Egypt, which has played a central role in the development of The Global Network: Around the World in Eighty Jihads / 197 bin Ladens organization and which continues to be alert to his influ- enceso much so that my recent fact-finding trip almost ended at the Cairo airport. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I went on to explain that it was research material for a book I was writing and that I had no plans to hand out copies to any of bin Ladens adherentsfor whom the declaration would hardly be news, anyway. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The argument can be made that a group of Egyptian jihadists took over bin Ladens organization rather than the other way around. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Jthad must be used to establish the reign of God on earth and eliminate the reign of man. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Around the corner from his office was the Art Nouveau synagogue of Shaar ha Shamayim, built in 1905, which would not be out 202 / HOLY WAR, INC. of place in an upscale anondissement of Paris. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I asked if there would be a Sabbath service this night, and she said no: there was no rabbi so there was no service. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In Egypt they put a lot of people in jailssome people sentenced to be hanged. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I believe that an innocent construction can be put on Khaleds ac- tions. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Of course, even if these innocent explanations are true, American conspiracy laws are written so broadly that Khaled could still be judged guilty of being part of the plot to kill Americans. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden For the mo- ment, he, Eidarous, and Abdel-Bary are in British jails and might or might not be extradited to the United States. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Some wore kaffiyehs and combat jackets; others, the woolen cap that marked them as veterans, would-be or oth- erwise, of the Afghan holy war. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I told Burger he should rotate his men so that some of them could get some rest, be- cause they had grenades, and the alternative was the whole plane would blow up. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Muttawakil summoned reporters on Friday morning and said a deal had been made but that the actual release of the passengers would be an extremely delicate and potentially dangerous situation. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Those prayers were about to be answered. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Ilyas suddenly announced: Mr. Peter, sir, I have driven in snow be- fore, but never falling snow like this. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Heres the abridged version: Kashmir, a Utah-sized region split be- tween India and Pakistan, has been fought over since the two nations gained independence from Great Britain in 1947. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Over tea and cakes he told me how he came to be a Kashmiri militant. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I just know that many will be killed, many will be taken prisoner, and there will be much 102 Khattab added to his fearsome reputation when a series of bombs blew up apartment buildings across Russia in September 1999, killing nearly three hundred people, attacks which authorities blamed on him and his partner in holy war, Basayev. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden These countries are primarily offering intelli- gence but there will likely be some form of military help, too. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden 220 / HOLY WAR, INC. AFTERWORD The Endgame As to America, I say to it and its people afew words: I swear to God that America will not live in peace before peace reigns in Palestine, and before all the army of infidels depart the land of Muhammad, peace be upon him. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden If you have read this far in Holy War, Inc., then presumably the question you are hoping will be answered is: Why is bin Laden doing what he does? To attempt an answer, we have to refrain from carica- ture and instead attend to bin Ladens own statements about why he is at war with the United States. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That being said, are the attacks the opening barrage in what Har- vard professor Samuel Huntington famously predicted would be a clash of civilizations? Cultural communities are replacing Cold War blocs, he wrote, and the fault lines between civilizations are becom- ing the central lines of conflict in global politics. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Such clashes, he predicted, would be the future ruptures of history. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Ger- many under Bismarck was not a bad place to be Jewish, just as Yugoslavia under Tito was not a bad place to be Muslim. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A more accurate predictor of postCold War rivalries, then, is good old nationalism, as could be seen in Kosovo. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And their antipathy to the radical jihadist organizations that seek to overthrow them appears to be shared by their people; as support for extremist organizations declines, moderate Islamist groups that are willing to work within the existing political framework have become increasingly popular. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The journalist Genevieve Abdo argues that the roots of the moder- ate Islamist movement can be found in groups such as Egypts profes- sional unions and that the movement has already made strides towards securing power.4 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The development of Islamjst movements working within a demo- cratic framework should not be surprising. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In the past, the U.S. government has been reasonably efficient in recruiting informers: Jamal al-Fadl and LHos- sane Kherchtou have supplied a wealth of information about al-Qaedas activities in the early and mid-nineties; and bin Ladens Egyptian-American military adviser, Mi Mohamed, will be a good prosecution witness in the unlikely event that bin Laden is ever tried in an American court. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Further, the United States does not appear to have any spies within bin Ladens group who would be able to supply the information nec- essary to find him. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden An important one is ISI, Pakistans military intelligence agency, which had a role in the Talibans rise to poweralthough such information might be unreliable, as many ISI officers are broadly sym- pathetic to the Taliban. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Perhaps most disturbing, the group is armed with Stinger missiles, which would certainly be deployed against American helicopters and low-flying jets. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bin Laden has the money and motivation to buy some, and it would be wishful thinking of the first order to think that he has not at least tried to do so. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As discussed in chapter 4, during the early nineties the group made determined efforts to secure uranium of the type that could be used in a nuclear bomb. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But even radioactive waste could be an effective ter- ror weapon. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That said, al-Qaeda would be dealt a severe blow if bin Laden were ushered from this world. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A senior U.S. counterterrorism official told me something after the 1998 African embassy bombings that re- mains true today: If he [bin Laden] were to depart the scene tomor- row, there would be serious fractures in al-Qaeda a year or two later. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It remains to be seen whether the ideas espoused by al-Qaeda and bin Laden will end up in what President George W Bush has called his- torys unmarked grave of discarded lies. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden If al-Qaeda is to be buried in that unmarked grave, the most effec- tive plan beyond eliminating the leadership of the group is to shut Afterword / 233 down permanently the Afghan training camps where the foot soldiers of Holy War, Inc. learn their deadly skills. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In the meantime, we can be certain that al-Qaeda is planning an- other attack on an American target in a place no one expects. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Will it be somewhere in Israel? The Midwest? Europe? No one knows except the group of men huddled around bin Laden in some drafty cave in Afghanistanburning with desire to avenge themselves against Amer- ica for its various perceived insults to Islam. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As the great Jewish prophetrecognized by Muslims and Chris- tians alikeobserved two thousand years ago: Blessed are the peace- makers, for they shall be called the children of God. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Many people kindly gave of their time to be interviewed, and most of them are credited by name in the text. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Richard has continued to be a rich source of knowledge about the country, and a great friend. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Wrestling well over a thousand unruly footnotes into shape would turn out to be as problematic a task as meeting bin Laden. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Tif Loehnis performed major surgery on my inchoate pro- Acknowledgments / 241 posal, provided a great deal of moral and editorial support, and be- came a great friend. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Jack Kelley, U.S. Finds bin Laden an Elusive Target: Even If Hes Located, Catching Terrorist Will Be Complicated, USA Today, March 1, 2001; bin Laden interview by Al-Jazeera, June 1999. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The total number of guerrillas that would be operating on any given day would there- fore not be below 35,000 and not above 175,000. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In an interview bythe author, a Pakistani official said that the government believed there would be a meeting at the camp on the twentieth. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Further proof of the cosmopolitan makeup of the forces arriving for military training can be found among the prisoners of war captured by Massoud. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The best summary of this story can be found in a brilliant article by Rory Car- roll, Terrorists or Tourists, The Guardian (U.K.), Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden One of the hostages was told by a kidnapper that they had six friends in prison and we were to be ex- changed for them. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden John Burns, Remote Yemen May Be Key to Terrorists Past and Future, New York Times, November 5, 2000; Donna Nasr, Wartime Loyalty Rewarded in Yemen, Associated Press, October 28,2000. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Notes / 281 ABOUT THE INDEX * I The index for this book can be found at www.simon Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden 8 I Prologue The week before our trip the Taliban had decreed it was against Islam to film or photograph any living being, which would pose a bit of a problem for our project. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Smoking furtively (cigarettes being another vice discouraged by the Taliban), they explained in hushed voices that the religious warriors policies might suit the al- most medieval villages of the countryside, but that for more urbanized Afghans they were utterly foreign. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden By being loyal to the U.S. regime, the Saudi regime has committed an act against Islam, he said. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden We all remem- bered the grisly television images of the mutilated body of a U.S. serv- iceman being dragged through the streets of Mogadishu. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden On the tape, bin Laden and his closest advisers make impassioned speeches about Muslims being attacked in Chechnya, Kashmir, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Indonesia, and Egyptspeeches that are laid over graphic footage of Muslims being killed, beaten, and imprisoned. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden When bin Laden declared war on Americans in 1996, he described U.S. soldiers stationed in the Middle East as the Crusaders, as if the crusades of the Middle Ages were still being fought, and signed his declaration from the peaks of the Hindu Kush mountains of Afghanistan, a place barely touched by the modern world. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In an interview a few months before the September 11 attacks, General Pervez Musharaf, the military ruler of Pakistans 140 million Muslims, aptly summarized bin Ladens appeal: The Western demo- nization of OBL, as he is known in Pakistan, made him a cult figure among Muslims who resent everything from the decline in moral val- ues as conveyed by Hollywood movies and TV serials to Americas lack of support for Palestinians being killed by Israeli occupation forces, to what Russia is doing to Muslims in Chechnya, [to] what the West did to Muslims in Bosnia and Kosovo, [to] Indias oppression of Muslims in Kashmir. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Journalists who went into Afghanistan had to endure weeks of walking over some of the most difficult terrain in the world, in constant fear of being attacked by helicopter gunships, eating rice if they were lucky, and exposing themselves to a wide range of unpleasant diseases. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden One of the photographs in the book shows bin Laden getting a shot after being exposed to poisonous gas. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden There was simply no point in the CIA and the Afghan Arabs being in contact with each other. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Before September 11, 2001, U.S. officials had been concerned about the possibility of a Stinger being employed against American troop transport planes in Saudi Arabia.53 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In the next sequence, the cameraman overtook a U.S. army truck driven by a female soldier, who glanced nervously at the camera when she realized she was being videotaped. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Fazil, now at large, is described by U.S. prosecutors as being very good with computers and fluent in Swahili, Arabic, French, and English. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Afghan camps were indeed being used by al-Qaeda for train- ing, and had been for years.6 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden After being discharged from the Egyptian army in 1984, Mohamed engaged in what American political operatives call opposition re- searcha job in the counterterrorism department of Egyptair.8 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Anderson recalled being particularly struck by a conversation with Mohamed about the Egyptian president Anwar Sadat, who had been assassinated in 1981 for making a peace deal with Israel. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In September, 1998 All Mohameds double life came to an abrupt halt when he was arrested on suspicion of being part of al-Qaedas con- spiracy to kill Americans.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And the man who might have been behind Shalabis murder, Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, who is affiliated with al-Qaeda, was con- victed of being a part of the conspiracy to bomb the Trade Center. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I think his answer is that America is being unfair to us. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden People are being crushed under this corrupt system. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden After they had unceremoniously jumped into our vehicle, we drove east for dozens of miles, a journey through barren, rock-strewn hills where we saw not another living being. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden At the time of our meeting he wai in the midst of an eight- een-month dispute with another tribea dispute that was being setfied with mortars, rockets, and a variety of cannons. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In his office at the North London mosque, Abu Hamza told me he spent the mid-nineties going back and forth to Bosnia to aid the Mus- lims being slaughtered in the tens of thousands by Serbs hoping to create an ethnically pure Yugoslavia. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He told us that we were being kidnapped because the Yemeni government had arrested some of their English comrades. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Almost exactly twenty-four hours after we had been kidnapped, we suddenly realized we were being rescued, she said. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (The diplomats presumably would have discouraged the effort, being aware that such operations are not a spe- cialty of the Yemeni army) The scale, it turned out, had been large: more than two hundred Yemeni troops in an all-out assault on the kidnappers hideout. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden His contact with al-Qaeda was a consequence of being bin Ladens unofficial media spokesperson, and its a slippery slope when you start prosecuting the messengers. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden If bin Laden and his network posed one of the gravest threats to that security, then Americans could rest easy at night: statistically, they had a better chance of being killed by a snake than by a terrorist. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Yemen Times, November 13, 2000, reported that in 1998 a document was circulated by opponents of the U.S. military in Yemen saying a Marine base was being built in Aden. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Stephen Kinzer, Jordan Links Terrorist Plot to bin Laden, New York Times, February 4, 2000; Bin Laden Supporter Detained in France, Agence France- Presse, March 3, 1999; Katherine Ellison, Terrorism May Wear Normal Face, Houston Chronicle, February 19, 1999; Australians Being Recruited for bin Laden Jthad, Court Told, Associated Press, April 29, 1999. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I resisted the impulse to tell Ali that it was the two most powerful men in WashingtonBill Clinton and Al Gorewho drove Washingtons un- doubtedly pro-Israel policy. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Asked what message he would send President Clinton, bin Laden answered: Mentioning the name of Clinton or that of the American government provokes disgust and revulsion. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This is because the name of the American government and the name of Clinton and Bush di- rectly reflect in our minds. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He rages over pictures of dying children in Iraq, saying, More than a million [Iraqis] die because they are Muslims, and refers to President Clinton as a slaughterer. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The measures are no more likely to succeed than those taken by President Clinton three years earlier, following the embassy bombing attacks in Africa. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden One of Rubins close friends, Jordan Tamagni, then a speechwriter for President Clinton, remembers there was immediately much spec- ulation during the wedding celebrations that bin Laden was behind the bombings, but also talk of the difficulty of getting him, if indeed he was the culprit. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He was in some respects an unusual choice for an appointee in the Clinton ad- ministration: a Republican and a retired Army lieutenant colonel, who had served in Panama as a Special Forces team leader.45 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden President Clinton had three days earlier given his evasive testimony in the Monica Lewinsky case, and had apologized, sort of, to the American people for misleading them about his relation- ship with the young intern. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The big story was done, and now Clinton was on the Vineyard for his summer break. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Around two, a solemn Clinton an- nounced to the assembled reporters that cruise missiles had been launched at bin Laden targets in Afghanistan and Sudan in retaliation for his role in the bombings of the two embassies in Africa.55 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Clinton ad- ministration had previously launched attacks against places associated with Saddam Hussein and Slobodan Milosevic, but these were leaders of countries more or less at war with the United States. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Clinton, the official said, knew he was going to take criticism of the Wag the Dog variety, but decided to go ahead anyway. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A senior U.S. official described the Clinton administrations actions during the days leading up to the strikes. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Sudanese Information Minister had no problems quickly making connections of the Wag the Dog variety, going on television to de- nounce Clinton as a proven liar and a man with more than a hun- dred girlfriends.69 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden We want to tell Albright, Clinton, and Cohen you are jeopardizing your future interests in this region. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I opted for the full Clinton: I have talked to him on the phone, I said. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As a group of men set up video equipment to screen scenes from Russias bloody blitzkrieg in Chechnya, a young man showed me pam- phlets with titles such as Jihad in America? On the walls of the hall, posters announced CLINTON: THE MOST WANTED TERRORIST and JEW- ISH OCCUPIERS: KILL THEM WHEN YOU SEE THEM. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And this: Some Westerners, including Presi- dent Bill Clinton, have argued that the West does not have problems with Islam but only with violent Islam extremists. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Laurie Mifflin, U.S. Fury on Two Continents: What a Difference the News Makes: Clinton as Commander in Chief, New York Times, August 21,2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Andrew Marshall, Clinton Was Angry, His White House Advisers Were Mad: They Wanted to Fight Back at the Terrorists Whod Bombed Two American Embassies, The Independent (U.K.), Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden At about one P.M., Clintons spokesman, Mike McCurry, inter- rupted the journalists to say the president was going to make a na- 118 / HOLY WAR, INC. tional security announcement. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Presi- dent Clintons advisers told him that they had cracked the case and that he had a few alternativesto continue pursuing a legal case against the Saudi militant, to retaliate militarily, or to proceed down both tracks. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He was referring to the fact that, by May 1996, an estimated 500,000 Iraqi children had died as a result of U.N. sanctions imposed on Iraq in 1990, for its continued violations of U.N. reso!utions.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden If there is a message that I may send through you, then it is a message I address to the mothers of the American troops who came here with their military uniforms walking proudly up and down our land. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden During the next weeks we wrote and edited the script for our pro- file, which was broadcast on May 12, 1997, in the United States and over a hundred other countries. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Take the respectable Janes Intelligence Review, which re- ported that bin Laden may have obtained an engineering degree in the United States and was financed by the CIA during the 1980s war against the Soviets in Afghanistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden On May 18, 2000, Atta applied for an American visa at the U.S. em- bassy in Berlin. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden While he was living in the United States, he was wired as much as $100,000 from Pakistanmoney that he distributed to other plotters and that may have paid for his flying lessons. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The frankincense and myrrh that the Three Wise Men brought as gifts to the Christ child may have come from the trees of Hadramawt.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden These families did business with one another, intermarried, and brought with them from Hadramawt a distinctive culture that may ex- plain both their worldly success and their piety. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden During the next decade Afghan Arabs would hijack commercial air- liners and use them to destroy the World Trade Center in Manhattan and attack the Pentagon; they would kidnap Western tourists in Yemen, kill tourists in Egypt, foment terrorism in the Philippines, bomb two U.S. embassies in Africa, blow up an American military post in Saudi Arabia, train Somalis who may have killed American troops in Mogadishu, and tear Algeria apart in a brutal civil war. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden If backing Hekmatyar was a disaster, the decision in 1986 to pro- vide the mujahideen with American Stinger missiles turned the tide of the war against the Soviets (although the long-term consequences of that decision may prove less salutary to American interests). Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In May of that year bin Laden paid the travel expenses for at least three hundred of them to join him in Sudan.93 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Answer by the Muslim cleric Imam Siraj Wahhaj, of Brooklyn, New York When bin Laden arrived in Afghanistan in May 1996, accompa- nied by his three wives and many of his children, he was in a sense coming home. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Something may have been lost in the translation, but one gets the gen- eral drift. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (Of course, that restraint may also have had something to do with the fact that before the discovery of oil Arabia was largely an inhospitable desert inhabited by warring tribes.) Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Back in Afghanistan, on May 14, following tests by the Indian gov- ernment of several nuclear devices, bin Laden issued a call for a Mus- lim nuclear weapon, Dangers and Signs of the Indian Nuclear Explosion. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden On May 26 bin Laden held a press conference in Afghanistan at al Badr, his camp named after a key battle fought by the Prophet Muhammad.23 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden May Allah torture them by your hands.25 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Finally, bin Laden has benefited, and may con- 102 / HOLY WAR, INC. tinue to benefit, from money sent to Muslim humanitarian organiza- tions, some of which is diverted to him.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Certain family members may still provide him with money that rightfully belongs to him, from the estate of his father. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden On May 28 bin Laden gave an interview to ABC News in Af- ghanistan in which he made it clear that, because of the American mil- itary presence in Arabia, he was calling for the deaths of all Americans. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He attended the May 26 press conference in Afghanistan, at which bin Laden spoke of good news in coming weeks. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Over the course of several meetings, Post came away with the following insights into Mohamedinsights that may well apply to many of al-Qaedas less sophisticated recruits: I saw this guy as extremely deferential to religious authority and someone who had a rather empty life outside of the mosque. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He had very publicly given a press confer- ence at the Khost camp on May 26 and an extensive interview to ABC News in the same location two days later, nine weeks before the embassy bombings. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Indeed, as early as May 16 he told a Pakistani journalist that he had information that Americans are planning to hit my bases so I am very careful. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And the Pakistani journalist Hamid Mir was introduced to two African- Americans when he visited bin Laden in Afghanistan in May 1998. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden His arrest may have averted a catastrophic bombing of Los Angeles busiest air- port during the Christmas tourist season. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But in May 1999, I was arrested and beaten for practicing sorcery, he told me. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden You may have encountered a cosmocrat in your travels: the management consultant who thinks nothing of going to a meeting in Baku and then, the next day, a wedding in Oxford; or the English World Bank executive, mar- ried to a Russian, who spends six months a year shuttling between Poland and Colombia. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In May 1999 a combined force of Pakistani soldiers and several hundred Kashmiri militantsincluding members of HUMseized strategic mountain positions in the Kargil region in Indian-held Kash- mir and fought off Indian assaults for two months. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden While such statements may provide psychological satisfaction to those who make them, they shed more heat than light on the motivations of bin Laden and his followers. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden If we may judge his silence, bin Laden cares little about such cul- tural issues. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Leaders of Muslim nations did not want Iraq to become the strong man of the Middle East, whatever rhetoric they may have employed to disguise the truth that they preferred the United States in that role. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden To help answer that question, let us consider the history of an anal- ogous group: the Assassins, a radical Muslim sect of the eleventh and twelfth centuries that may have been the first group in history to use terrorism systematically as a means of destroying its enemies. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (Some more senior Special Forces officers may have attended at least one or two of Mi Mohameds lectures on Afghanistan at Special Forces headquar- ters in Fort Bragg in 1989. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden While he may not have been privy to the details of that operation, he certainly would have known that something spectacular was coming. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In this sense, the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks may well have served as a giantand ominouscome-on. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Newsline, Pakistan, May 1993; John Ward Anderson, Fortress Fit for King, or Trafficker: Accused Pakistani Drug Baron Flaunts Enclave Near Khyber Pass, Washington Post, April 29, 1993. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Reuters Newswire, Israelis Deliberately Shelled Post, UN Says, May 4, 1996; Marjorie Miller, U.N. Report Disputes Israel on Shelling, Los Angeles Times, May 8, 1996. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden interview with CNN, Afghanistan, aired May 10, 1997. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Ahmed Ressam, Case # CR 99-666-JCC, testimony of Jean Louis Brugiere, April 2, 2001: John F. Burns and Craig Pyes, Radical Islamic Net- work May Have Come to U.S., New York Times, Deceiflber 31, 1999. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden, CNN interview, Afghanistan, aired May 10, 1997. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Hamid Mir, interview by author, Islamabad, Pakistan, September 1998; bin Laden interview by author and Amett, May 1997. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden All, interview by author, Afghanistan, March 1997; Khaled al-Fawwaz, interview by author, Lon- don, March 1997; Essam Deraz, interview with author, Cairo, Egypt, Decem- ber 2000; bin Laden interview by author and Arnett, May 1997. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bin Laden interview by author and Arnett, May 1997. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden, interview by author and Peter Arnett for CNN, aired May 10, 1997. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Usama bin Laden, Summation of Jamal al-Fad testimony, May 1, 2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Usama bin Ldden, Summation, May 8, 2001, and Tes- timony of Jamal al-Fad, February 6,2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Testimony of LHossaine I~herchtou, February 26,2001, and Summation of Patrick Fitzgerald, May 8, 2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden May 8, 2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden John Lancaster, Saudis Shocked That Bomb Suspe~ts Are Local, Washington Post, May 26, 1996. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Lancaster, May 26, 1996, p. 3. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bin Laden interview by author and Arnett, May 1997. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Usama bin Laden, Summation of Ken Kar~, May 1, 2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden 1023 (SDNY), Summation of Patrick Fitzgerald, May 1,2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Usama bin Laden, Summation of Patrick Fitzgerald, May 9,2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden May 6, 1999. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Pat Milton, Wife of Accused Terrorist Waits Patienfly for Verdict, Associated Press, May 21,2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Phil Hirschkorn, Trial may conclude weeks earlier than expected, www.cnn.com/ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Osama bin Laden, interview by John Miller, ABC News, May 28, 1998. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Charles P. Wallace, Weaving a Wide Web of Terror: The Plan, Officials Say, Was to Blow Up 11 U.S. Airliners in One Day, Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1995. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Terry McCarthy, An Invasion of Paradise, Time magazine, May 8, 2000. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Usama bin Laden, Summation by Ken Karas, May 1,2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Usama bin Laden, Summation by Ken Karas, May 1 and 3, 2001; Tes- timonyofEssam al Ridi, February 14,2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Karas summation, May 1,2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Andrew Duffy, Ressam Part of Terror Cell, Expert Testifies: Montreal Ring Forged and Smuggled Passports, Says French Judge, Ottawa Citizen, April 3, 2001; Bomb Plot Focused on Los Angeles International Airport, Associated Press, May 30,2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Amir Zia, Pakistani Admirers of Afghan Islamist Movement Gaining Influ- ence, Associated Press, May 30, 2000; Ahmed Rashid, The Taliban: Exporting Extremism, Foreign Affairs, November/December 1999, pp. 22+. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Retreat from Fundamentalism, The Economist, May 1, 1999. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Usama bin Laden, Summation by Patrick Fitzgerald, May 3, 2001. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden To me there was always an unresolved quality to the U.S. govern- ments investigation of the first attempt to destroy the World Trade Center, which was also the first time international terrorists had suc- cessfully carried out a bombing operation on American soil. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The gov- ernment had convicted the actual bombers, but who was the mastermind of the operation? Who had bankrolled two of the bombers to fly from Pakistan to New York to carry out the attack? Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I pointed out that CNNs programs were shown in over a hundred countries, while CBS was broadcast only in the United States. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden After filling the form out in triplicate, I really did need a drink. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden To straighten out such matters as videotaping and visas, I decided to pay a visit to the Taliban consulate in Peshawar. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden There I was greeted by a group of ragged teenagers who seemed to have stepped out of a Hgarth print. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden When I said that I was looking for the consul, they mimed that he was out. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I wasnt quite sure what was happening, but I wasnt going to stay to find out. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And then, suddenly, stretched out before us was Afghanistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In my imagination it has always seemed like something out of Tolkiens Lord of the Rings. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden According to the Pakistani journalist Rahimullah Yusufzai, the Arabs would pitch white tents out in the open in the hopes of attract- ing Soviet fire, hoping for martyrdom. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Soviets had destroyed thousands of such villages, creating five million refugees and killing at least a million Afghans, out of a prewar population of fifteen million or so. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Someone explained to me that this was a trick of local merchants, who laid out the carpets so that passing cars and trucks would roll over them and give them the authentic aged look prized by gullible Western buyers. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The women in town, following Taliban edicts, were covered from head to foot in the burqa, an all-enveloping garment out of which one can barely see. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Out of Prologue I 13 Despite the improvements in public security, many Afghans found the Talibans social policies anathema. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As she drew nearer I saw a pair of bright red shoes pok- ing out below the hem of her garments. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden After a few minutes we arrived at a small plateau and were told to get out. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Suddenly a man leaped out of the darkness, pointing an RPG, or rocket propelled grenade, at our vehicle. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Finally, a group of about half a dozen men appeared and signaled us to get out of the ve- hicle. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden We 18 / Prologue were not going to find out, Barbara Waltersstyle, what kind of tree bin Laden thought he was. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden What was not known at the time was the possible involvement of bin Ladens or- ganization in training the Somalis who carried out the operation. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden They worked out at gyms, ordered in pizza, and booked their flights on the Internet. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden However, an exhaustive two- year investigation by the National Transportation Safety Board and the FBI ruled out terrorism in the TWA 800 crash. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden For his sympathizers, bin Laden has become a turbaned Robin Hood, hiding out not in the forests of Nottingham during the Middle Ages, but in the mountains of almost medieval Afghanistan, gathering around him his band of unmerry men, armed not with crossbows but While America Slept / 33 with rocket-propelled grenades and C4 explosives, tweaking the noses of the great powers of the West. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Most important, while the state-sponsored Arab terrorist groups of the 1980s are now largely out of business, bin Ladens al-Qaeda and its affiliates are constantly planning new operations. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Muntazir had just been checking out a Web site maintained by Chechen rebels for whom Lashkar helps raise money for their war against the Rus- sians. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (Between 1979 and 1980, Bath would help also out his old pal George, with whom he had served in the Texas Air National Guard, by investing fifty thousand dollars in his first venture into the energy business, a company named ArbustoSpanish for bush or, more precisely, shrubtaking a 5 percent share in the company.32 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As the historian Robert D. Kaplan has pointed out, at least ten times more people died in Afghanistan than in the civil wars that started in Lebanon in 1975, yet Afghanistan, which on the scale of suffering vastly overshadowed any other military conflict of the 1980s was, quite simply, almost uncon- sciously ignored.49 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Soviet ground forces, now reinforced by specialized com- mando units, have carried out even larger indiscriminate massacres. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The population rose up under the banner of Islam to drive the infidels out. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The complex was spread out over a five-kilometer radius. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden While she was prime min- ister one of her brothers was killed outside her Karachi mansion in a shoot-out with police. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The international Islamist movement [that emerged out of the Afghan war] saw Paldstan as its base, she explained. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden To find out why the United States had subsidized Hekmatyar to such an extent, I went to see Graham Fuller, who was the Agencys bureau chief in Kabul until 1978 and then took charge of the CIAS long-range forecasting. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden By 1990 a State Department report singled out Hekmatyar for killing fel- low Afghans.32 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As a sen- ior U.S. official points out, it is one thing to possess a Stinger in Afghanistan, quite another to use it against a target outside the coun- try: From a logistical point of view they are difficult to conceal, diffi- cult to get through Customs. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In his study he pulled out a videotape and popped it into his VCR. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He used his family connections with King Fahd to convince the government that he 78 / HOLY WAR, INC. needed to leave the country to sort out some business matters in Paki- stan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I saw them making leather jackets for export to Italy out of goatskin and sheepskin. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden that the youth who work in Somalia and who are followers of the Sheikh [bin Laden] are the ones who have carried out the operations to hit the Americans in Somalia.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden dropped out of the negotiations and never found out if the group made the purchase. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He founded the Advice and Reformation Committee (ARC), which the U.S. government portrays as an extension of his al-Qaeda paramilitary operation but which seems more likely a legitimate out- growth of a gathering opposition movement to the Saudi regime.8 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Because the announcement of the inauguration of the World Is- lamic Front is the key text that set the stage for al-Qaedas terrorist at- tacks, it is worth quoting at some length: Since Allah spread out the Arabian Peninsula, created its desert, and drew its seas, no such disaster has ever struck as when those Christian legions spread like pest, crowded its land, ate its re- sources, eradicated its nature, and humiliated its leaders. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A CIA analysis pointed out: These fatwas are the first from these groups that explicitly justify attacks on American civilians anywhere in the ~ A few months after the issuance of the fatwa I met with Khaled al-Fawwaz, bin Ladens London representative. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Then Osama came out of the car, and the moment he stepped out there was shooting, you know, frenzied shooting. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That rules out about 99.9 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bin Laden does, however, use banks that operate according to Is- lamic principles, such as the Dubai Islamic Bank, in the United Arab Emirates, one of the first banks in the modern world to operate with- out charging interest.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As they approached the se- curity guard, al-Owhali leaped out of the vehicle but forgot his pistol. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He looked out the window and could see some people running and hear what sounded like firecrackersin fact, the grenades that al-Owhali had just thrown. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I looked down and I saw bone sticking out of my shirt. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bushnell had cabled Washington on December 24, 1997, pointing out the threat of terrorism and the embassys extreme vulner- ability because of its location and the lack of setback from the street.3 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Mohamed rode the bomb vehicle, a refrigerator truck used to transport meat, some way to the embassy and then got out, letting Ahmed drive it the rest of the way. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Mohamed Odeh had taken a flight out of Nairobi the day before, changing planes in Dubai and fly- ing on to Karachi. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The journalists expected nothing more than a quiet day, during which the Duffer-in-Chief might hit the links and later hang out with some of his celebrity friendshis usual vacation routine. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Earlier today, the United States carried out simultaneous strikes against terrorist facilities and infrastructure in Afghanistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden When we went out of the mosque we saw a missile attacking the camp. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden One of the visitors was Peter Cockburn, a British industrialist, who had stopped in several times in the months before the bombing and noticed noth- ing out of the ordinary. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Yet Ali Mohamed, it turns out, was an indis- pensable player in al-Qaeda. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In 1993, using his leather import-export business as a cover, Mohamed went tO Kenya, where he scoped out the U.S. embassy in Nairobi and reported back to bin Laden. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The woman who owned his apartment described him as unfail- ingly polite, with nothing about him that was out of the ordinary. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden During phone calls with an FBI agent in August 1998, Mohamed said he knew who had carried out the embassy bomb- ings in Kenya and Tanzania but would not provide their names. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Although apparently a member of bin Ladens inner circle, he was not, as it turned out, sufficiently zealous to martyr himself for the cause, opting for a plea agreement rather than a life in prison protecting al-Qaedas secrets. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden With smoke pouring out of his apartment, he was forced to flee, leaving behind his com- puterfrom which experts who decrypted its hard drive were sur- prised to learn of detailed plans to blow up eleven passenger jets and assassinate Pope John Paul 11.83 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Ressam got out of his car and began running away from customs agents, unsuccessfully trying to commandeer another vehicleY~ The agents found 130 pounds of explosives in his car. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As Ressams car rolled out, U.S. Customs Inspector Diana Dean pulled him over and The American Connection: From Brooklyn to Seattle / 139 noticed that in spite of the December chill his hands were shaking and he was sweating.97 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Ressam spent much of November and early December 1999 in Vancouver, holed up in a hotel, constructing four timing devices from Casio watchesmultiple backups in case any of them shorted out. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The U.S. has made a monster out of one man. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It was truly an indigenous band of religious students who, seemingly out of nowhere, seized the southern city of Kandahar in 1994. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It had been an old-school coup straight out of some fifties CIA handbook. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Rahimullah was the first college graduate from his village, and on Fri- days he would return to hear petitions or sort out disputes. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Rahimullah eased his lanky frame out from behind his cluttered desk and greeted me with his customary warmth. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Mullah Omar has a box in his room; he takes a key out of his pocket, opens the box, and takes out wads of money, which he then distributed to whoever needed it. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Other observers of the Taliban pointed out that there have been splits between the hardliners and the moderates, who want more contacts with the West and for whom bin Laden is a headache.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This has generated a small-time industry for boys and old men, who shovel heaps of gravel into the potholes in the expectation of small tips thrown out the windows of passing cars. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Taliban reminded me a little of the Khmer Rouge, which had emerged, largely unheralded, out of the forests of Cambodia in 1975 in the aftermath of a devastating proxy war between the Soviet Union and the United States and had imposed on the Cambodians its Maoist version of paradise. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (That reality was under- scored in late September 2001 by reports filtering out of Afghanistan that many Afghans were simply ignoring Taliban policies, anticipating that the international coalition gathering against the movement would weaken or perhaps even destroy them.) Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Carved out of cliffs in central Afghanistan, the Buddhas dated from the third and fifth centuries and were one of the countrys premier tourist attractions in the 1970s. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A battered orange pickup screeched to a halt beside us 168 / HOLY WAR, INC. and out jumped three hard-faced young men, weapons drawn. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That is, until two shots rang out above our heads. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Bin Shajeas lead gunman, a dead ringer for Omar Sharif circa Lawrence of Arabia, leaped out of our van, his well-oiled Kalashnikov at the ready. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Because of terrorist threats in June 2001, FBI agents investigating the The HoLy Warriors of Yemen / 1 6 9 Cole attack were pulled out of Yemen and the American embassy was closed for all but essential purposes. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A day after the Cole attack, a bomb went off at the British embassy, knocking down an exterior wall and blowing out windows. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden At one in the morning, the band in my hotel restaurant cranked out the hits. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The victorious northern Yemen government was grateful to the holy warriors and doled out government jobs in the newly reunified coun- try.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As we talked, an unveiled young woman walked in and out of his officeto me, the most telling sign that Islah had traveled a long way from the neo-fundamentalism of the jihadists. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden His manner was thoughtful as he pointed out that Islah (Reform) did not have the word Islam in its name: Yemen is a Muslim nation, and no one can claim it is the sole party of Islam. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In 1997, bin Laden even seriously contemplated moving his base of operations from Afghanistan to his ancestral homeland, sending en- voys to a gathering of powerful tribal leaders to work out the specifics. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Sitting with us were perhaps twenty or so of the sheikhs retainers and bodyguards, smartly turned out in gray pin- striped jackets, white robes, and red-and-white checkered head- dresses, who set aside their various weapons before tucking into the feast that broke their Ramadan fast. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I am important here, the sheikh was quick to point out, and The Holy Warriors of Yemen / 175 the president is important in Sana. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden All had set out for a vaca- tion over the Christmas holidays.36 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I grabbed the barrel of the gun of one of the kidnappers, who had been shot, and we had a tug-of-war over his AK-47 and I ripped it out of his arms. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden During the shoot-out, Abu Hassan told his lieutenant, Osama al-Masri, a member of Egypts Jthad groupby now effectively part of al-Qaedato kill a woman, any woman.69 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Tantalizing glimpses of such collusion came out during the kidnapping trial, among them the testimony of a driver employed by the tour com- pany He testified that Abu Hassan had made a satellite phone call to General All Muhsin al-Ahmer, a relative of President Salih who is re- ported to have met with bin Laden in Afghanistan in the eighties.~~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Why would Abu Hassan take time out from his kidnapping efforts to chat with a member of the presidents family? Another of the drivers testified that Abu Hassan used his satellite phone to call an unidenti- fied personpresumably in charge of the operationto say, We got the goods that were ordered: sixteen hundred cartons marked British and American, a not very coded reference to the sixteen tourists. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The bombers used the quiet, out-of-the-way Little Aden to build their bombs and conduct tests on the motor for the boat. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In a photograph Khamri used to regist~r the boat that would deliver the bomb he stares out unsmilingly from behind glasses and a heavy beard.98 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The shock wave from the Cole explosion blew out the windows in Hakims solid stone Victorian building. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden One of the assembled hacks shouted out: You meana bomb on a boat, to general hilarity.hbo Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden How had the U.S. government let things get so out of hand? After all, the deal to refuel in Yemen was inked after the United States had heard from a highly credible source that an attack on a warship in the area was in the works. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden We checked out the security situation in Aden and the problems were lower than in other possible refueling places like Jeddah and Djibouti. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He shuns publicity; he gave his only interview to an English-language weekly, The Yemen Times, in July 2000, taking pains to point out: We do not intend to fight any reli- gion. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Out in the fields, women harvest crops while completely swathed in black, wearing distinctive conical hats made of straw. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden While bin Laden declaims poetry extolling the Cole explosion, al-Rabats amiable mullah, who runs a school out of the old bin Laden family compound, told me, We are against this holy war. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden For the last quarter-century, the Egyptian Jihad group has been engaged in an all- out war on the state. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Once out of jail, al-Zawahiri relaunched Jthad as the Vanguards of Conquest, a nom de guene it has continued to employ on occasion.36 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The first thing al-Zayyat did for me was to clarify the terms of the 1998 cease-fire agreement, spelling out that it was a not a peace agreement but simply a cease of armed operations. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And HUM is just one of the dozen or so Pakistani Kashmiri groups who seek to push India out of Kash- mir. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It would have been a bloodbath, as the Taliban do not have units like the U.S. Delta Force or the British SAS, which are capable of carrying out surgical hostage rescues. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In an elaborately choreographed operation, the hijackers stepped out of the plane and, assured that their comrades were indeed at Kandahar, allowed the hostages to board four passenger buses standing by to take them to a jet headed back to New Delhi. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Singh ignored him and, with his entourage, swept grandly out. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden We took the road out of Islamabad toward the compact hill town of Muree, which the British had used as a retreat from the burning heat of Indias summers. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Victorian Holy Trinity church that graces Murees main street would not look out of place in Sussex. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I told Ilyas not to worry, Id pay for the damage, and we gingerly proceeded, past the entrance to the Muree Golf Club, which loomed incongruously out of what was now a blinding blizzard. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A bus lumbered by and a group of Kashmin men leaped out and pushed us back into the middle of the road. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden After a quick bite at our hotel, we immediately struck out for HUM, which had its base of operations in white-walled villa in a suburban neighborhood. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The latest flare-up began in the late eightiespartly out of frus- 214 / HOLY WAR, INC. tration over Indian-rigged elections and partly because the end of the war against the Soviets in Afghanistan freed up a cadre of holy warriors for another jihad.8 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In February 2000, Azhar announced the formation of a HUM splinter group, Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM), which has subsequently attempted to assassinate senior Indian officials and carried out several bombing attacks in Indian Kashmir. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Huntington singled out Islam itself as the Dark Force in tomor- rows world. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden That bin Laden has thought out his next move is also clear from the videotape that surfaced on October 7, 2001the very night the United States first launched crui~inissile attacks ~nd bombing raids on Taliban and al-Qaeda targets. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But I hate to focus on bin Laden, there are a lot of people out there. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Without the training camps, al-Qaedas recruits cannot easily learn how to construct devastating bombs or create disciplined cells capable of carrying out complex op- erations such as the September 11 attacks. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As we have seen, the training camps are easily rebuilt after they have been bombed, but constant aerial reconnaissance of likely camp locations followed by air strikes will eventuallyforce them out of busi- ness, as will a change of regime in Afghanistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In New York City the air was filled with an acrid haze: the vital arteries into and out of Manhattan were shut down; the streetseven in Times Squarewere strangely silent. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Except that the word ALIVE had been qrossed out. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I apologize to anyone I have inadvertently left out. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden My sister Katherine put me up in London on numerous occasions while I was reporting there and was always ready to help me out. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden pp. 8283; Truck Bomb Kills 19 U.S. Troops in Saudi Arabia; Moslem Militants Suspected; U.S. Vows to Seek Out Perpetrators, Facts on File, June 27, 1996, p. 441 (Al). Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Once in Pakistan he spent most of his time hanging out in mosques, after which he traveled to Afghanistan and re- ceived six months of military training, going to fight against the Northern Al- liance. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Michael Becket, Yemen Hostage Shoot-Out, Daily Telegraph (U.K.), Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden John Burns, Ship Attack Suspects Seemed Out of Place, New York Times, Oc- tober 31,2000. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Seeking some relief from the noise and pollution, I paid a visit to the leafy graveyard where dozens of British officers and soldiers were buried. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Tribesmen milled about seeking redress for their various grievances. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (This was a reference to April 18, 1996, when Israeli forces seeking to attack Hezbollah guerril- las shelled a U.N. building in Qana, Lebanon, killing 102 Lebanese civilians. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Later Hadramis plied the worlds oceans seeking their fortunes in the Middle and Far East. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Curiously, the U.S. government showed a marked lack of enthusiasm for a possible U.N. investigation into whether the al-Shifa plant was producing chemical weapons at the same time that it was en- thusiastically bombing Iraq for not cooperating fully with U.N. inspec- tors seeking to determine Iraqs chemical weapons capacity.82 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Instead, it was the recruitment hub for U.S.-based Muslims seeking to fight the Soviets. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden During this period, Ressam was also the point person for Algerians in Montreal seeking training in bin Ladens camps in Afghanistan; his contact was al-Qaedas Abu Doha, an Alger- ian living in London.3 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But the Afghanistan argu- ment, once launched, turned into a hot-air-seeking missile that would circle back to blow up his own theory. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He was not referring to reform in the nineteenth-century liberal sense, but to a literal reformation that sought to take Islam in Arabia back to the way it was practiced at the time of the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden On the way in to the embassy I passed through two bulletproof checkpoints. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A couple of days later we loaded up our van to make our way to Pe- shawar, the jumping-off point for Afghanistan. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Another inscription re- called the way of life the British imported wholesale to remind them of their green and pleasant land: Lt. Colonel Walter Irvine, who lost his life in the Nagoroman River when leading the Peshawar Vale Hunt, of which he was the Master. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Alexander the Greats soldiers came this way during his campaign to conquer India.7 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As we made our way over the border crossing I noticed that it was festooned with long black strings of audiotapethe remains of music cassettes that the guards had confiscated from heed- less travelers. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Here is where I took part in fighting the Russians, Mi said, as the mountainous terrain gave way to a lunar landscape. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It transgressed all bounds and behaved in a way not witnessed before by any power or any imperialist power in the world. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And bin Laden represented a shift in the way terrorists operated, a shift made possible by the changing rules of the New World Order. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden With sev- eral of bin Ladens guards still present, there was no way to stop him. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It was the perfect morning to take a dog for a walk, to stop for a coffee and bagel on the way to work. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I am asking you to lighten the way. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden It is not surprising then that Mohammed, a stern taskmaster, brought his children up in a strict way that combined piety and respect for the family business. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Salem acted as a sort of court jester for King Fahd, who like many others found him amusing and original; Fahd sent many lucrative contracts his way. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden True Muslims must free themselves from the clutches of jahili society, and the only way to do that is byjihad. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Qutb says those who make this argument diminish the greatness of the Islamic way of life.46 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He wanted to make it clear from the start of our meeting that he hated bin Ladens way, and that his past association with the Saudi exile had caused him to endure years of harassment by the Egyptian security forces. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden On the way he pleaded for death, crying, I am fed up with this worldly life. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The historian Henry Bradsher charges: His party was Leninist in both its dictatorial nature and its ruthless drive to achieve power in whatever amoral way was expedient. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The tape was poorly shot, but fascinating in a voyeuristic way. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden According to al-Fawwaz, bin Laden continued to live without the creature comforts of a typical multimillionaire: When I observed his house and his way of living, I couldnt believe my eyes. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Salaries for al-Qaeda members ranged from $500 to a top rate of $1,200 a month, money that went a long way in one of the poorest countries in the world.22 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Fisk re- counts how Sudanese villagers lined up to meet bin Laden, stylishly dressed in a gold-fringed robe, to thank him for building a new high- way from Khartoum to Port Sudan on the Red Sea, a distance of twelve hundred kilometers on the old road that was now shortened to eight hundred kilometers.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden U.N. and Ameri- can commanders determined that attacking Mohamed Aidid, the most powerful clan leader, was the best way to establish peace. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In the definitive account of the Mogadishu battle, Black Hawk Down, the journalist Mark Bowden reports that Aidids men were indeed trained by Arabs who had fought against the Soviets in Afghanistan and who taught the Somalis that the most effective way to shoot down a heli- copter with an RPG was to hit the vulnerable tail rotor.32 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Ac- cording to its London constitution, ARC was to promote peaceful and constructive reform with regard to the way Arabia is governed using only legitimate means.82 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden His quarters were built in an amateurish way with the branches of trees. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden He reiterated his calls for attacks on U.S. soldiers and said that 94 / HOLY WAR, INC. he could not guarantee the safety of American civilians should they get in the way of those attacks. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Of course, a little bit of money goes a very long way in Afghanistan, which is so poor the World Bank no longer registers its economic indi- cators. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Nor can money buy the disci- pline exhibited by the men who attacked the United States on Sep- tember 11; none of them bragged about their plans in such a way that they got caught and none were arrested for petty crimes that might have gotten them deported. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden She pulled her- self up to walk into the stairwell, where she found many frightened people making their long and uncertain way down to the ground floor. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In the old days I could have a drink with a secular terroristthere is no way with the bin Laden guys. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden T he easiest way into Afghanistan is via neighboring Pakistan, one of only three countries in the world that initially chose to recognize the holy warriors who control most of the country. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden For Pakistani magazines, a cover story on bin Laden is a surefire way to sell copies. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The leading modern au- thority on Afghanistan defines the obligation of nanawati this way: to fight to the death for a person who has taken refuge with me no matter what his lineage.M Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden In these parts, major hassles are settled with artillery It seemed a fitting way to start my trip to the interior of Yemen, a country with a rich history of kidnappings and terrorism. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden As noted ear- her, about a hundred American servicemen were billeted there on their way to Operation Restore Hope, the doomed American mission to feed starving Somalis that was interpreted by al-Qaeda as part of a U.S. scheme to increase its military presence in Muslim nations.4 Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden One of the Yemeni tribal leaders consulted about bin Ladens arrival was Sheikh bin Shajea, whom I was on my way to interview. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The rocky track gave way to flat, white desert that abruptly turned into the orange- tinged dunes of the Empty Quarter. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The kidnap- pers, about twenty in all, could see the convoy of Toyota Land Cruisers making its way along the open plain on the road toward Aden.~ Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Abu Hassan was certainly running up his satellite phone charges: he also called Abu Hamza in London to tell him that he did not expect the Yemeni government to deal with this matter in the same way it deals with other kidnappings. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden But the U.S. bears a great de- gree of responsibility for the incident for the way the U.S. deals with issues in the Middle East. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden And the inhabitants of al-Rubat, despite their abject poverty and deeply conservative way of life, reject bin Ladens brand of zealotry. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The thrust of Qutbs writing was plain: Egyptian officials were infi- dels and the only way to remove them was with action, not words. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden A hush fell over the room as Sheikh Bakri, charismatic with his walking stick and well-pressed black clerics garb, made his way to the stage. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The Talibans foreign minister, Wakil Almad Mut- tawakil, told them via radio that a high-level delegation from Delhi was on its way to Kandahar, and he emphasized that if any of the pas- sengers was harmed he would order his troops to storm the plane. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Whatever the case, the openness with which these groups operate makes it certain that Pakistan is not standing in their way. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden The airwaves quickly filled with blathering bloviators, who called this an attack on the American way of life, on the very idea of the United States and its culture. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden One can only hope that will pave the way not only for a more moderate Afghanistan but also for a new era of reconciliation between the great civilizations of the West and the Muslim world. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Both author and publisher will donate a portion of their proceeds from this book to United Ways September 11th fund. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden Authoritative accounts of the Afghan war amplify the point that Hek- matyar was power mad and a creature of Pakistan, which has al- ways sought to support sympathetic Afghans aligned with the Pathan tribal group that straddles the Afghan-Pakistan border. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden On sale at my local bookshop were Western magazines with leg- ends like Oral Sex: How to Really Enjoy it and Seven Ways to Give True Believers: The Taliban and bin Laden / 147 r Your Man More Pleasure, My television featured Asian MTV, which played a heavy rotation of a simpering Indian V.J. who read letters from her teen fans about how much they adored her, as well as cable channels showing films starring Pamela Anderson and her decolletage. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden I was al- 152 / HOLY WAR, INC. ways puzzled as to when he got work done, but his output was prodi- gious. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden These in- junctions are put into practice in many different ways across the Mus- urn world, from the simple veils of many Pakistani women to the all-enveloping robes worn by the women of rural Yemen. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden This was confirmed in numerous small ways during my trip. Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden
Surveillance: What Pnce Security? by Sharon Begley THE BATTLE GROUND Peace Movement:VoicesofDissentAmid Calls for War 60 Tallban: Inside the Mullahs Mind 'Between the Lines: The New Shape of Patriotism by Jeffrey Bartholet 30 by Jonathan Alter 63 Pakistan: A Military Dictator and His Armys CO M M UNITY 'World View': The Arab Allies Who Created Out Foes 33 Town Portrait: Local Heroes of Sept. 11 by Jerry Adler by Fareed Zakaria 34 DEPARTMENTS This Week Online 4 Perspectives THETERRORISTS 6 The Last Word The Cover: The 10-Year Hunt for bin Laden My Turn 9 by George F. Will by Evan Thomas and the NEWSWEEK investigative team 38 Letters 12 COVER: Photograph by AFP. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Besides allies, Bush going dangers without creating said, America would needand and average citizens sought to find a new balance between se- alarm and irrational fear. Newsweek October 1, 2001 When you say Why didnt you go not dispose of Saddam, who NewYork digs out; among Arabs, a senior Arab ty ofthe Afghans, says a source involved in thanks to Gen. Pervez Musharrafs public broader [than Afghanistan] at the begin- has slowly won new allies with sailing toward a League official said simply: All U.S. military planning. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Among Army offi- quently, they result from mass unrest and to the seemingly Westernized allies in neighboring Afghanistan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 izing and became the first Pak- hIm in retaliation With ZAHID Hussain in lslamabad DONATELLA LORCH in Washington, and THE ALLIES WHO MADE OUR FOES How the Arab states we call our friends sow ______________________ seeds ofterrorand whatwe should do about it By F A R E E D Z A K A R I A T HERE ISADEBATE RAGING tion overwhatto do afterit strikesAfghanistan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Soarehis Egyptian allies, who exulted as they stabbed foreign tourists to death at Luxor . Newsweek October 1, 2001 One bic paper Al-Hayat met Osama bin Laden six months ago and said ofthem must be political pressure on our closest Arab allies to thatthe aidesandbodyguardswho surroundedhim, almost 200 peo- change theirways and actively fight the virulent currents that are ple,wereallSaudis. Newsweek October 1, 2001 >> Dozens ofsuicidebombings inthepastyear have given rise to a raft ofmeasures in Israel that, un- til last week, would be unthinkable to mostAmeri- cans. Newsweek October 1, 2001 American popular DAVID ANSEN Special We Shall Not Be Intimidated Edition The CW doesntwant to trivialize the astonishing heroism of down arrow encompass the unspeakable evil ofthe mass the firefighters, cops and rescue teams with arrows. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But its going to health experts expect minor located under the plaza linking be tremendously costly and medical fallout, like emphy- the buildings. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Believed to be still would never be able to work Americans have to be ed- intact, this bathtub seems for an establishment corpo- ucated about the history of to be containing the disaster. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I dont believe that our investigatorswillhaveto sift all members ofsociety, versus capitalism, en ofevery shape and size, race and religion, leaders should be callous or bomb already throughahugenumberof which values the self-interests of business lyingonthebeach,playingwith theirchil- ravaged countries like Afghanistan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 ourownfaultforgettinginvolved inevery- Perhaps the most potent threat -w body elses business and This is because apartment, dumbfounded, as the second we support Israel, and we shouldnt be do- is dioxin, a powerful carcino- I God Bless America would make me plane barreled into the South Tower. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Just days be- erednodefinitiveevidencelink- Europeansecurities regu- foretheattack, an unusually ingterroriststothetrading.The Newsweek October 1, 2001 lators began investigating large number of short sales were hunt will be made more difficult hetherterroristsmay placedinEuropeandtheUnited by the fact that global markets have profiteered bytradingthe States, many ofthem involving were alreadyvolatile in the days stocks of companies likely to be industries hard hit by the attack, hurtbythe Sept. 11 attackon likeairlinesandinsurancecom- America. Newsweek October 1, 2001 It saddened me to see the look ofterror on the faces ofmany people in New I York, and to see the big empty space that used to be the two huge World Trade Cen- ter buildings. Newsweek October 1, 2001 SEPT. 11, 2001, WILL BE REMEMBERED Firemen hoist Old Glory at ground zero as a very dark day by all Americans. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I have wondered what the icon ofthis eventwould be and am pleased with your choice. Newsweek October 1, 2001 It will be Americas terrible beauty?WeareallnowNewYorkers. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Visit flag in the rubble, has to be the photo that imize the impact ofyour ties that include the Amerl- twintowersjobs.org Newsweek October 1, 2001 I believe that America has ever carried out this atrocious act had to be neither the moral authority nor the legal jus- insane and must be punished. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But I was also afraid, and I had every right to be afraid. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Be wary oforganiza- Center Relief Fund and NewYork Board of Educa- tions that are interested AmericasSecond Harvest. Newsweek October 1, 2001 how ashamed Muslims must feel about be- Richard Burdett Let us be grateful that the First ingassociatedwithOsamabinLaden. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Following the horrific attacks in New J York and the Washington, D.C., area, it now religion from seems probable that terrorists from the Mid- die East may be responsible for these ac- gaining tions. Newsweek October 1, 2001 11, it should be that the presidents nals who committed these horrendous acts. Newsweek October 1, 2001 unilateralism in foreign policy and attempt They must not be made into scapegoats. Newsweek October 1, 2001 to build a national defense around a missile Sikhs actually come from India, and their shield is a course to be quickly abandoned. Newsweek October 1, 2001 mutually benefit all nations and their con- KULTEJ SINGH SAWHNEY cerns, and building a strong defense to IRVINE, CALIF. fight terrorists, are the course we must Un- SENSATIONALISM MUST BE TEMPERED by discretion, of which it appears NEWS- WEEK had a lapse. Newsweek October 1, 2001 And al- though whoever it is may always be an unidentified victim ofthe tragedy in a fatal fall with the burning of the North Tower in the background, he or she deserves pri- vacy and our respect. Newsweek October 1, 2001 CARIN LARSON In fact, homicides, which rose slightly in ARLINGTON, VA. 2000, are down 11 percent in 2001 and 68 AS WE WATCH FOOTAGE OF THE TA- liban in Mghanistan, let us be grateful that the United States Constitutions First Amendment prevents any one religion from gaining ascendancy over all others. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Secretary ofDefense Donald Rumsteld, on ways to winthe war IfI see someone come in and hes got a diaper on his head and a fan belt around that diaper on his head, that guy needs to be pulled over and checked. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Osamawill be the last person to leave Afghanistan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Writer Todd Hanson, on how thesatiricalnewspaper The Onion will attempt to address the attacks this week Sleepingwould be aluxury. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Bernadette Artus, an employee oftheNew York CityLandmarksPreservation Commission, on thegap where the World Thide Center usedto be These terrorists dont function in a vacuum. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Move in here next to me, said Bush, motioning to emp- may be, Bush portrayed it as and facing numerous bankrupt- tychairs on either side ofhim. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Things way of being the way they are sup- to be, he told Rove with a shrug. Newsweek October 1, 2001 You understand what I am port terrorism will be regarded The threat to the countrys facing he said. Newsweek October 1, 2001 A package oftough new law-enforcement measures, put one, he said, according to that God is not neutral be- notes and recollections of several clergy. Newsweek October 1, 2001 forward by Attorney General John Ash- freighted with significance could be more terriblebiological, chemi- cused and feeling confident Flawlessly delivering a speech croft, sparked debate in Congress and for the country and the free cal or plutonium. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The battle would be the focus dence, he said, but I have enough evi- But he needed divine help, hit US, Bush warned bored on all week, Bush ap- dence.' Newsweek October 1, 2001 Pray for wisdom, In a prayer meeting peared in the well ofthe House Office of Homeland Security to oversee against terrorism, at home of his presidency, said that Bush was speaking in general of strength, clear thinking, he prior to his speech at a time of peril as severe as border patrols, immigration, public-health and abroad, now would be Bush told his team possible threats.) Newsweek October 1, 2001 cheering Congress, George Bush defiantly ton for briefings and to sit in the Gallery be- dent pleaded for tolerance, especially for said another adviser. Newsweek October 1, 2001 His vehicle would be a meticu- crafted, carefully worded speech. Newsweek October 1, 2001 would be no freelancing of the kind had led him to describe the task at as a crusadea word with an unfor- tunately specific historical and theological meaning that had outraged Muslims when he used it. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Thereafter, no day would be complete without oneand national-security adviser Condoleezza Rice would always be in them. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Mr. President, I think thatwill be difficult, if not impossible, counselor Karen Hughes told him. Newsweek October 1, 2001 We haveto be patientm 'he told one. Newsweek October 1, 2001 sought counseling, surfed antiterror Web N SEPT. II, COLIN POWELL SEEMED TO BE, NOT FOR time Cohn Powell was out of touch with Powellis holdingoffa slew ofhard-liners sites. Newsweek October 1, 2001 There might be time for that, too. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The aim would be to pool Evans, to join him at Camp David for the has happened After the hijackers sliced into the second tower and fire, the quintessential crisis manager, Powell intelligence on terrorists with global reach weekend. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Despite his dead-or-alive rhetoric, the president seems to be in Powells corner for the moment. Newsweek October 1, 2001 In calls to more than 80 nations, Powell has helped to extract dozens ofpledges that might be more diffi- cult to get months from now, when the worldwide sympathy for America may have waned. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Among the promises : to share intel- ligence, crack down on terrorist front or- ganizations and allow borders to be crossed, possibly even for small, quiet raids on terror cellsbyU.S. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Administration sources portray a smooth- ly operating team that first clicked at a day- only kill many Iraqis, enrage leed, will be watching. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Whatthe Ironically, even Pakistani intelligence long series ofmeetings at Camp David on the Arab world and probably why bin Laden finds sympathy West shouldnt underestimate is the feroci- may not be able to help find bin Laden, Sept. 15. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Their ability to be declaration ofunity with Washington. Newsweek October 1, 2001 In coordination with ficial, Musharrafbasically went on TV and there had to be a first base, says a senior volved,' Egyptian President deck of the carrier inghimfamous. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Imagine ifyou the airstrikes, Special Forces could be sent said, Oh, Osama! Newsweek October 1, 2001 Bin Laden is nowlooking around at his But in which direction? NEWSWEEK has no wish to unleash the wrath of the U.S. ships and planes to the region, that may be several U.S. transport planes landed last own people and saying, I have to make dif- learned that at a two-day meeting of the Even Britain has hinted that it might not itsdeepest fear. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Those moves into bordering na- ferent calculations about who I trust, be- Pentagons Defense Policy Board, which is support militaryaction against Iraq. Newsweek October 1, 2001 closeits 1,500-mileborderandsupplyintel- CIA officials who have worked in the re- nent conservatives including Henry Kissin- credibility will be damaged if the United of U.S. military planners seems to be that ligence, could help tighten the noose gion say Pakistani intelligence can catch ger, James Schlesinger, Dan Quayle and States gets bogged down in Afghanistan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 There is a recognition that it will be bans militias to overthrow the ruling mul- Northern Alliance will be, since its charis- ington is plying Musharrafwho took be more than 6,000 people, there has to be verytough to getbin Laden in the rocky and lahs. Newsweek October 1, 2001 terrorists when it wants toit handed over Newt Gingrich reached a consensus that also believes that Saddams weapons ofmass that would either coerce the Taliban into Bin Laden, however, may just as easily to the FBI Ramzi Yousef, the 1993 World Iraq should be targeted quickly after Af- destruction could be used against America handingbin Laden over orprovoke the Tali- slip away. Newsweek October 1, 2001 been all but ruled out, not least because the tary headquarters, training camps and on gimes might eventually have to be ended, a troop positions and movements. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The world, in- cupies a small section ofAfghanistan and broad support, could be called upon to unite free up IMF money. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The lone exception is that we have said all along that its going to be very hard to have a relation- ship with the Iraqi regime: Asked if that meant Iraq was next, the source said, Im notgoingto go there: For Powell, as for Bush, maintaining worldwide support while striking effectively will be the test ofa lifetime. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Afghans who convert forbidding women to go to capital in 1996, establishing an to Christianity can be executed, school, requiring men to grow Islamic emirate: Mullah Mo- and foreign reliefworkers, in- beards, outlawing neckties. Newsweek October 1, 2001 They will be looking for according to a Pakistani general who was I sanctions imposed earlier this year to pres- I food, a political solution to their problems, present. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But if Mullah man with a dark beard and oversize black turban during a Omar had his way, there would be no such rally in Kandahar, Afghanistan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 He doesnt allow himself to be photographed, believing that graven holy warrior. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Roughly 48 hours be- ZaheerAbbasiplotted acoup. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Healsohadtowatchoutfor the officers considerthemselves fndamen- Military fundamentalists appear to be as an American soldier places a the reaction offtmdamentalists in the ranks talist Muslims. Newsweek October 1, 2001 We will almost certainly attack Afghanistan (as we must, be- None ofthese regimes are democracieselections in the Middle causetheTalibanhas sheltered Al Qaeda), butitisworth remem- EastwouldsimplybringmoreTalibans into powerbuttheyhave bering that not a single Afghan has been directly tied to anyterrorist openedup a little political and civil space and tried to showthat Is- attackagainsttheWest. Newsweek October 1, 2001 TheeditoroftheinternationalAra- that the war against terrorism will be fought on many fronts. Newsweek October 1, 2001 If be among Afghanistan is the target, the burden of the thefirst to fighting willlikely fall on several elite forces. Newsweek October 1, 2001 0-2 spy planes: Flying continual reconnaissance mis- from a safe distance, sions, they could be they can also be used to key to locating bin carpet-bomb the camps Laden. Newsweek October 1, 2001 also be called in. Newsweek October 1, 2001 17, U.S. immigration au- askedto be trained on a 747flightsimulator. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Nosairs footsoldiers andlieutenants will not be enough to stop tioned the Pentagon or the World Trade Center. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Mydaughter, who is a doctor, used to gethim medicine be- Germany, police were searching for a pair of men be- fore everyjourney, to make him combat the cramps and vomiting he lieved to be directly involved in the hijackingplot. Newsweek October 1, 2001 According to a top government source, it p immigrationcharges,butinvestigatorswerelookingformassmur- included this prayer: Be prepared to meet your God. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Be ready for derers. Newsweek October 1, 2001 another hijacking target? Boston was jittery over threats of an at- The ultimate ringleader may be somewhere in the mountains of tack last Saturday. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The nations top to see how monstrous the threat of Islamic extremism could be. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But there is a word used can be recalled as a tedious bureaucratic struggleall those re- by old CIA hands to describe covert actions that backfire: blow- ports on Homeland Defense piling up unread on the shelves of back: In the coming weeks, ifand when American Special Forces congressmen, droning government officials trying to fatten their helicopters try to land in the mountains ofMghanistan to flush out budgets with scare stories relegated to the back pages ofthe news- bin Laden, theyriskbeing shotdown by Stinger surface-to-air mis- paper. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Or it can be relivedas it truly wasas a race to the Gates siles provided to the Afghan rebels by the CIA. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Before the world finds out what horrors lie beyond, its ofblowback would be a mere coda to along and twisted tragedy of worthwhile retracing a decadelong trail ofterror to see how Airier- unanticipated consequences. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The escape plan was ama- trate; that for every snake beheaded two more will crawl out ofthe teur hour: Nosairs buddy Abouhalima was supposed to drive the swamp; that swamps can never be drained in land that drips with getaway car, a taxicab, but the overexcited Nosair jumped in the the blood of martyrs ; that even the most persuasive interroga- wrong cab and was apprehended. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But the cyanide was harmlessly burned up in the blast, the buildings didnt fail and the bombers seemed to be hapless. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The Blind Sheiks shady past should have been of great interest to the Fedshe had been linked to the plot to assassinate Egyptian President Anwar Instead, the Saudi rulers chose to be defended by Sadat in 1981. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Though he talked to Iraqi intelligence sort ofTerror Central ofspirituai, financial and logistical support and stayed in a safe house that was later linked to bin Al Qaeda (the Base)bin Laden went public, in 1996 telling every Laden, Yousef at the time appeared to be a kind of terror free- Muslim that their dutywas to kill Americans (at first thefatwa was p lancer. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Plotting From his home in Sudan, bin Laden seemed to be inspiring and with Yousef, Murad had been at work making bombs to assassi- helping to fund a broad if shadowy network of terrorist cells. Newsweek October 1, 2001 At the time, FBI officials Afghanistan, where he would be welcomed by extremist Taliban thought the plans were grandiose and farfetched. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Mu- the rationale that no nation should be allowed to harbor terrorists, rads arrest in January 1995 led investigators to capture Yousefin the State Department in the mid-90s pressured the government of Pakistan, where he was hiding out. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Bin Laden was said to be bitter because the Saudi royal family had rebuffed his offer to rally freedom fighters to protect the kingdom against the threat of Saddam Hussein after the Iraqi strongman invaded Kuwait in 1990. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The cians for more and better informants may be easier to preach than agency tried for at least two years to hunt down bin Laden, work- practice. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Now the CIA has be- warnings. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But the threat was field can still hire sleazy or dangerous not deemed to be imminent. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Bin Laden characters by asking permission from was generally believed to be aiming at their bosses in Langley. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Shortly before the 2000 New Year, an obscure Algerian refugee named I HE WEAKNESSES OF THE CIAS DIREC- NSAs rveillance Ahmed Ressam was caught by a wary U.S. Customs in- torate of Operations, once called the De- failed to detect the spector trying to slip into the United States from Cana- partment of Dirty Tricks, can be overstat- binLadendlrected da with the makings ofa bomb. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The G-men became apprehensive about their own security and demanded that they be allowed to carry assault rifles. Newsweek October 1, 2001 It now appears that the same men who masterminded the Cole bombing may be tied to the devastating Sept. 11 assault on the United States. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Ziad SamirJarrahi, a could be moved in small denominations among trusted agents. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Still, Al Qaeda is reputed to be expert at money laundering. Newsweek October 1, 2001 counter Jarrahi and his newly The money trail led investi- honed fighting skills? gators last week to a suspect whose background and motives could be the stuff of night- T dence suggests a HE AVAILABLE EVI- mares. Newsweek October 1, 2001 While polite, he also could be Marwan al-Shehhi, up to the moment they parted ways at Logan haughty. Newsweek October 1, 2001 He is an intriguing figure, both be- telligence official. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But presses a button, he will stroll through the Gates of Paradise, Mustafa could be the key to bin Ladens finances. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Were taking a where he will be bedded by virgins. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Dr. Arthur Rousseau, a wreckage ofthe 1995 Oklahoma Citybomb- while some who watched the helped light the way will be substantial. Newsweek October 1, 2001 PTSD rates hover the disaster, the more cases you expect to These reactions are normal in the after- around 5 percent among people who sur- see: People far beyond the East Coast may experience several weeks of insomnia, night- 80% of Americans think the attacks Thompson observes, The biggest impact will make the country stronger; will be on the first responders, and on the 14% think our way of life is threatened children and families that lostloved ones: At Manhattans Saint Vincent Catholic Center attack, Dr. Gail Saltzs of the New degree or another, but they can also give us Medical Centers, counselors and psychia- York Psychoanalytic Institute walked into newperspective. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Nothing her local fire department with a cup of cof- ter, San Francisco psychiatrist Fred Parris can prepare you for what weve experienced, fee and announced that she was available to has seen a number ofpatients suddenly be- says Dr. Spencer Eth, the hospitals medical talk. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I worry most about the ones the foreground says Harvard psychiatrist Can the fallout be contained? No one who havent started processing the event, Michael Craig Miller. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Both will be essential doubts that talking and sharing can help says John Draper, the director of Lifenet, aswestrivetoputthis experience behind us. Newsweek October 1, 2001 11 will haunt us all to one JuLIE SCELFO in New York and bureau reports Warning Signs and Ways to Help Major disasters cause psychic injuries as well as physical ones, and the consequences can be serious. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Rose managed to escape be- Its no accident that we respond to life- fore the buildings collapsed. Newsweek October 1, 2001 When we perceive immediate from anytype ofplace where I know alot of danger, our bodies institute what Stanford , people are going to be: he says. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I wont neuroscientist Robert Sapoisky describes enter the train station unless I see the police as a triage economy Adrenaline and or the National Guard: cortisol speed the heart and dilate the Who could blame him? Disasters cause bronchial tubes while slowing nonessential psychic wounds as well as physical ones, functions such as digestion and tissue re- and the consequences can be serious. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Provides social support and dreams elicit the prevent the condition, helps people with PTSD realizc same terror as the but it can be managed theyre not alone. Newsweek October 1, 2001 ITS SUPPOSED TO S be a surprise. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Theyd board a plane and be hangin with Mickey by nightfall. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I dont want to be near a plane says Terri. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I dontwantto be awayfromhome.Andpartof Newsweek October 1, 2001 Its a sentiment that cant be overstated: amid unimaginable bloodshed, its hard to feel too upset about red ink. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Car dealerships have be- more, and most airlines will cut schedules by burst ofjob-cutting from one industry thats quarter results could be the worst its seen in lectively. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Investors watching the market swoon may be more interested in painidilers. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The new moves, which could include cuts in capital- gains and payroll taxes, would be in addi- tion to the $40 billion aid package already passed by Congress. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Nobody said it will be easyjust ask the folks in the Sears Tower, who spontaneously evacuated last Thurs- day when (false) rumors spread of another plane hijacking. Newsweek October 1, 2001 In the months ahead, there may be no sound more patriotic than a ringing cash register. Newsweek October 1, 2001 In its second wave, you fear for your liveli- the terrorist attack, itwas possible to be- its phones, which connect over hood and your future. Newsweek October 1, 2001 suddenly in hot demand be- travel and recreation. Newsweek October 1, 2001 And that could be chicken feed. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Thousands ofpeople put goingto memorial services and staring at the skywhere friends of- in small patriotic buy orders when stocks first reopened for trad- fices used to be. Newsweek October 1, 2001 President Lincoln suspended the right of To coordinate antiterrorism efforts, the habeas corpus duringthe Civil WarorPres- president last week created the cabinet- ident Roosevelt rounded up 110,000 Japa- level Office of Homeland Security, to be nese-Americans for preventive detention headed by Pennsylvania Gov. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The accused have no right to be in- liberties advocates call the proposals un- be successful in the short term by taking formed of the evidence against them. Newsweek October 1, 2001 It would be nice if we Garfield ofthe International Centre for Se- to repeal at least that part of the law: as a were able to accord extensive due process curity Analysis in London. Newsweek October 1, 2001 And for younger A New Peace_Movement, Too Trying to voice dissent without seeming unpatriotic BY ARIAN CAMPO-FLORES T HESE SEEM TO BE Birkenstock-and-beads set. Newsweek October 1, 2001 As OldGloryprolif- erates across the country and rhetoric grows more bellicose bythe day, America appears to be marchinginexorablyto- wardwar. Newsweek October 1, 2001 'Whatw we're saying now is that the objective has to be justice and not vengeful retaliation,' The anti-globalization crowd has had to shift gears. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Activists have quickly neous memorial blossomed dissentwithoutseemingto mobilized behind several into a monument to peace be- minimize the horror ofthe at- causes: averting war against fore it was taken down by the tacks and the obvious need for the already afflicted people of Parks Department. Newsweek October 1, 2001 It remains to be seen whether more traditional peace groups will find new strength. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Its not going to be 60s peace and love: says Lynch. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I think the younger generation is going to be coming at it from a more pragmatic point of view. Newsweek October 1, 2001 If I see someone come in thats got a diaper on his head and a fan belt [wrapped] around [it], that guy needs to be pulled over and checked: Louisiana Rep. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Secu- the assaults on and even murders of Sikh someone buys a ticket, explains Defense rity guards scanned her toothpaste, made Americans and Arab-Americans after the Ministry spokesman (and former El Al her take a photo with her camera to be terror attacks, crude profiling is largely in- guard) Shlomo Dror, the security service sure it was real and strip-searched her. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Turningthe Unit- ed States into a near-police state would surely be terror- isms greatest triumph. Newsweek October 1, 2001 If we allow our free- The Senate also approved an doms to be undermined, says expansion of the governments power to Internet surveillance by allowing the Anthony Romero, executive director of the obtain, from Internet service providers government to collect that information ACLU, the terrorists will have won? As (ISPs), information about e-mail that their through Carnivore without a warrant or America launches its domestic counterat- subscribers send and receive. Newsweek October 1, 2001 tack on terrorism, the challenge will be to technology once named Carnivore (and Customers privacy is also being sacri- tighten security without strangling the very now sanitized to DCS 1000) is attached to ficed to the demands of security. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The bumper sticker There will be strong political differences again ingpatriotic meant a generation ago. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Patri- England football players that the concept al- otism means communityan ethic ofservice be- most turned to kitsch. Newsweek October 1, 2001 History has proven that thinking to be disas- on math and science education and the interstate highway system. Newsweek October 1, 2001 (LearningArabic would be an especiallypatriotic act). Newsweek October 1, 2001 Or cludes the freedom to be offensive and naive. Newsweek October 1, 2001 government needs to be held accountable to make it work better. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Ifit be- says Larry Ponemon, CEO of the consult- in New York, Joanna CHEN in Jerusalem and comes law, the Senate bill would extend ing firm Privacy Council. Newsweek October 1, 2001 When he became a fill-fledged volun- teer he joined three different companies before settling on nearby Hempstead, which had 26 fires last year, because: says his mother, Pat, God for- bid youd be in a town where nothing was burning. Newsweek October 1, 2001 devotion and asked if hed considered be- bationary tour, which would have been South Tower, disappeared up the stairs and days most families knew deep down that The others were mostly office workers in coming a priest, but Kiefer had replied: Ill over in October. Newsweek October 1, 2001 their loved ones would not be coming the Twin Towers ; school officials say that tell you what, Father, you save the souls, Ill at his firehouse in Crown Heights, Brook- And now his picture is on the door ofhis home alive, and its grown increasingly 80 percent of the students have fathers save the bodies? Kiefer joined the FDNY lyn, when the World Trade Center fire went house, on a street filled with flags, as many likely that many wont be brought home at who commute to Manhattan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 For days she clung to a diminishing hope that he would be pulled out alive, until she made thejourney down to ground zero to look at the rubble herself. Newsweek October 1, 2001 To just describe their hometowns as a certain be on the jobi.e., Newsweek October 1, 2001 For 60 miles around fa- thers and mothers went off to work in the World Trade Center on Sept. 11 and never came home, their cars left ominously be- hind in commuter parking lots, their last words murmured to loved ones on crack- ling cell phones or left forlornly on answer- ing machines. Newsweek October 1, 2001 And, to be sure, they are mourned no less because death found them unwrapping a bagel at their desk rather than charging up a flight of stairs with 75 pounds of equipment. Newsweek October 1, 2001 It is ny on it, said Dan Spitaliere, a town where people cared about Kiefer 15, who sang with his youth group choir at this defeat not just because he was a hero, but be- the firehouse service last week. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I just have to be there as a parent to back him up, says Bonnie Morello, whose son, Mat, 17, is a captain in the Ex- plorers. Newsweek October 1, 2001 This suggests J oseph Biden, now chairman ofthe Foreign Relations Com- an eagerness to be involved, and may be a mittee, and Carl Levin, now chairman ofthe Armed Services harbinger ofunusually intense interest in Will the trauma ofterrorism tend to freeze the competitive balance between the parties? Newsweek October 1, 2001 Given the nature ofthetwilightwar obliterated both parties plans by scrambling what political opera- Bushhasannounced, 2002 could be a discouraging year, oratleast fives call the issue matrix For the first time in 10 years, foreign one intensely frustrating to this famously impatient nation. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Camuss novel ThePlague, the l947 parable about a city ravaged Republicans may now be largely immunized against blame for by an epidemic. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The coming infusion ofpublic money into the air- America, whose birth was midwived by a war and whose his- transportation system will not be the only way in which a Republi- tory has been punctuated by many more, is the bearer of great can administration is going to preside over a further blurring of responsibilities and the focus ofmyriad resentments. Newsweek October 1, 2001 That may be particularly disorient- Ahugeimponderableis how, andforhowlong,this trauma, and ing to Democrats, who have prospered when stressing domestic what promises to be a long, often shadowywar against what Rud- issues. Newsweek October 1, 2001 ingAmericans in harm's waywould not be well received. Newsweek October 1, 2001 And All people, but particularly todays Americans, who are inildin there probablywill be diminished political mileage in portraying temperamentandamnesiacintendency, resistthe moral ofAlbert the president as a syntactically challenged bumpkin. Newsweek October 1, 2001 In showing the flag being raised out ofthe rubble, you have chosen a positive imagethe strength and resilience of Americans, and the specific bravery ofthose members ofthe NYPD and FDNY who risked and sometimes lost their lives in the hope ofsaving others. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I dont have direct evi- without being Pollyannaish? Another crisis could that he and his aides had la- brought assurances of compromise from world. Newsweek October 1, 2001 On an organizational 1ev- el, the still-murky war is also being prose- cuted with the kind of steely clarity and message control favored by the secretary of State. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Most of them were being held for minor who left a last testament. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The Canadian Security Intelligence Service tical plant in Sudan hired a top Washington lobbying firm to heap is believed to have fatfiles on the GIA, but like many secret services, scorn on the notion that his plant was being used for chemical the CSIS does not share its secrets readily with other services, at weapons. Newsweek October 1, 2001 This was done by the University, called Atta a dear human being. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Massage, deep breathing and meditation can restore a sense of calm and well-being. Newsweek October 1, 2001 It also asked for new powers Yet detaining large masses of people the Oklahoma City bombing, authorized a to detain immigrants on the vague charge can backfire, as Britain learned when it new INS court to conduct deportation pro- of being a risk to national security, and to put Irish Republican Army suspects into ceedings against aliens suspected ofterror- limit their court appeals. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I scan the list of 14 missing out of42 from names like Singh are being attacked in parts ofthe United States this company, and Larsens name is among them. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Here, many ofthe pictures in the win- honored state here, like being a military of- dows are offirefighters or cops. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Bill Clinton, on the war against terrorism It hurts to even look in that direction. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Says ning, I think everybody understoodand promises of oil deals since possible war zone, this military buildup for one absolutely cruel is in a sense what is foreign a former senior Clinton-administration of- therewasabsolutelyno divisiononthisthat 1991. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The do away with rules that restrict the Clinton Cassandras emphasized the agency from hiring agents and informers growing risk thatterrorists would obtain with a record of crimes or abusing hu- weapons ofmass destructionchemical, man rights. Newsweek October 1, 2001 During the Reagan By the finalyear ofthe Clinton admin- years,- the agency was beefed up, but a istration, top officials were very worried series ofscandals in the late 80s and the about the terrorist threat. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Only after he The Clinton administration never stopped trying to kill bin had pleaded guiltyto conspiracyin 1999 did he disclose thathe had Laden. Newsweek October 1, 2001 In 1998, pointed to where the truck could go as a suicide bomber: President Clinton signed a lethal finding: in effect holding the The story of Ali Mohamed suggests thatthe calls by some politi- CIA harmless if bin Laden was killed in a covert operation. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Ressam later told investigators thathe hadjust returned from one of The Clinton administration was later mocked for this showy but bin Ladens Afghan training camps, where he learned such skills as meaningless response. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Tony Lake, President Bill Clintons national-securi- ty adviser, does not recall one single defining moment O NE WORLD TRADE CENTER PLOTTER WHO DID when bin Laden became Public Enemy No. 1. Newsweek October 1, 2001 At the time, Clintons national- tingto blowup the two embassies, U.S. intelligence was security adviser was too preoccupied with U.S. involvement in tappingtheirphones. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Clintons credibility was not high: he was feedingpoison gas through the airvents ofoffice buildings. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But Clintons national-security adviser at the time, Sandy home or abroad. Newsweek October 1, 2001 At burned freon may have con- The list ofsuspected con- greater risk: the frontline vested to another toxin, phos- MONEY TRAIL Did the Terrorists Try to Cash In on the Mayhem They Caused? Newsweek October 1, 2001 Even desktop computers By RA C H E L N E WM AN may become toxic if burned. Newsweek October 1, 2001 When I fi- Americans may want peace, but terrorists taking the freedoms I have here forgranted. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Wereterroristsusingthe wayintheUnitedStates, Britain, Wests own capital markets to Germany, France, Italy, Switzer- fundtheirnefarious activities? land, the Netherlands andJapan So far, the Securities and Ex- center primarilyon atype of change Com- transaction known as short sell- mission and ___________ ing, inwhich an investorbor- European Wall Street, rows shares and sells them, ex- regulators again open for pectingto buythem back alter have uncov- business Day The World gene used by the Nazis as a very quickly that people were strongly anti- The that tore through the buildings may also have created toxic h I am not a violent person I usually avoid conflict ofany kind. Newsweek October 1, 2001 My concern is that Sikhs, who look similar to Muslims because of their beards and turbans but have no relation to them at may no terrorist attack bring it down. Newsweek October 1, 2001 When the U.S. loses what may next. Newsweek October 1, 2001 A asked for information on possible targets, Powell may have to concede ground on Iraq. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Yet in recent months, I that seems, providing the simple require- I ments of life may do more to destroy the Despite support for a strike, most people I Taliban than all the bullets and bombs the say intelligence (69%) and freezing assets (64%) are the best ways to prevent attacks I lytizing and the destruction of the rock-hewn Buddhas of Bamiyan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 In an interview Such is the elusive nature of the enemy Muslims around the world and plunge the some years ago with a BBCjournalist, Mul- that Amenica may soon face in battle. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Intolerant and suspicious ofthe outside world, the Laden may have also put sui- Hood. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The Terrorists and guerrillas may Laden and expressed little, if any, regret chief of staff. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But the roots may lie country, its alliance with America and its own corruption by sup- much closer, in our association with dysfunctional Arab regimes porting and spreading an uncompromising religious dogma. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Waiting for the Call Green President Bush has ordered U.S. servicemen Berets may and women to get ready for war. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Listening in: Bin itored bin Ladens Laden may use movements by pick- encryption technolo- ing up the signal gy to bury secret from his cell phone. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Ten days may seemlike a was sittingin the Sherburne CountyJailwhen some leisurelypace for investigators racing against time other pilot trainees drove their than alittle suspi- hijacked airliners into the cious. Newsweek October 1, 2001 he suddenlyquitin how manyofthese people there are, says mid-May, before showingup atanother atop U.S. official. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Now he has CHRISTOPHER DICKEY in Paris, ANDREW Murr, JOSEPH CONTRERAS stirred Americas wrath and may soon see Americas vengeance. Newsweek October 1, 2001 tions may not crack a suspect who is willing to die. Newsweek October 1, 2001 It moment, Nosair and Abouhalima may have had an epiphany: back was a failure of imagination. Newsweek October 1, 2001 In retrospect, that may have been a sent by the Devil: Murad had taken pilot lessons, and the two mistake. Newsweek October 1, 2001 When the CIA suspected that the lot to bomb U S em- trooper in what may have been a much bigger plot to Sudanese government was helping bin plot to in Kenya and attack the Los Angeles airport and possibly other tar- Laden obtain chemical weapons, a CIA Tanzania in 1998 gets with a high symbolic value. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But that answer may gloss said that afewbin Laden lieutenants were over a more significant pointthat case probably operating in the United States, officers, made cautious by scandal, no but no one seriously expected a major at- longer dare to launch operations that tack, atleastrightaway. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The controllers tried to theWorld Trade may have exchanged phone calls with at least two of raise the captain but received no response. Newsweek October 1, 2001 He may have had a backup plan: NEWSWEEK has , Atta family has a vacation home on the Mediterranean coast. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Ofthe tens ofthousands who survived the Sept. 11 attacks, a third may experience post-traumatic stress disorder. Newsweek October 1, 2001 overwhelming trauma can distort the stress Countless others will experience weeks of response, causing symptoms that may per- grief, shock, fear and even despair as they re- sist for months or even years. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Experience suggests that one in three survivors ofthe recent attacks may suffer lingering problems. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Anyone surviving a catastrophe may experience several weeks ofacute traumatic stress. Newsweek October 1, 2001 COGNITIVE THERAPY Some therapists concentrate oi gethng victims to recognize th What are the signs of post A sudden noise may trigger traumas theyve experienced as traumatic stress disorder? panic or aggression. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Symptoms that persist for more WITHDRAWAL EXPOSURE THERAPY than a month may signal the By shying away from situations Ifa situation causes panic, the onset ofPTSD. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Although Americans may find it hard to follow President George W. Bushs order to go about business as usual, many are doing the best they can. Newsweek October 1, 2001 flew to Chicago on business and may buy 1,000 shares of Cisco as a show ofsupport for the market. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The airlines may get $15 billion. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Consumer and business spending may re- characteristicslikefingerprints. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The New War on Terror As America digs out and prepares to strike back, NEWSWEEK goes inside Osama bin Ladens network and charts the decadelong trail ofdeath and missed clues that led to the terror of Sept. 11. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But as we set out to piece together the trail that led to Sept. 11, we were able to draw on the expertise of NEWSWEEK joumalists who have specialized in covering U.S. intelli- gence and terrorism for more than a decade. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Among New Yorkers almost certainly seeped out of ology, public health and the only fleetingly exposed to it, the seven massive compressors environment. Newsweek October 1, 2001 C Changes, I Did, Too , , my fellow students saying that they did not residue out of ordinary office materials: a full acre of car- peting, thousands of desks, radiation-filled medical equip- ____________________ want to fight back despite the terrorists di- . Newsweek October 1, 2001 In ingthat because they took thatland from gen formed by burning PVC, NEVERTHOUGHT LISTENINGTO cry, but l guess crisis brings out parts of that moment, the world as I had known it the people it belonged to. Newsweek October 1, 2001 After I learned that my first class had the words ofMotherJones, what we need to nected to the financing ofthe at- I hadjust stepped out ofthe shower been canceled for a campus forum with the do now is pray for the dead and fight like tacks on the United States, and when the firstplane crashed into the North university president, I sat in the courtyard hell for the living. Newsweek October 1, 2001 looking out the window ofmy Brooklyn traught students. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The pictures in your latest magazine made me stop to think about how lucky I was and whatjust a few people could do to hurt so many others out ofpure hate. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The news reached the president ofthe Redskins, who decided not to inform all the fans about the attack, pointing out that it could lead to a great sadness. Newsweek October 1, 2001 My heart goes out to New York. Newsweek October 1, 2001 I my- afraid to go out in public for fear of LIKE MOST AMERICANS, I WISH TO SEE becoming a victim ofa hate crime. Newsweek October 1, 2001 ONE SET OF HEROES IN THIS TRAGEDY has not been praised enough: the rescue dogs that are out there, climbing in the rub- ble, getting broken legs, cuts and heat ex- haustion, and inhaling smoke. Newsweek October 1, 2001 BY HOWARD FINEMAN AND MARTHA BRANT At home, the shock of the plane-bomb gulf war and Trumans YE Day high of 87% attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon gave way to a mounting toll of country seemed determined to meet of complex items, practically barking out death, economic damage and anxiety about themand eager to embrace the disci- orders the long-term impact on psyches and civil plined and confident leadership Bush dis- lonely. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Inside who would stay largely out of sight and oversee the campaign. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But the president himselfwas deter- the first time, out ofsync with his boss. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Then again, it was Evans who, long ago players who once seemed ideological foes another key ally, national-security adviser in west Texas, introduced Bush to Bible for 10 long hours he was out oftouch with President Bush, who especially Vice President Dick Cheney, a gulf- Condoleezza Rice, believe is atleast as criti- study. Newsweek October 1, 2001 To quell any doubts, NEWSWEEK has learned, U.S. intelligence and law-enforcement agencies are preparing a public white paper laying out evidence ofbin Ladens involvement in the Sept. 11 andprevious attacks. Newsweek October 1, 2001 the Taliban are, in the administrations new tions, coupled with Pakistans pledge to cause they sold me out chaired by hard-liner Richard Perle, cmi- The strike-Iraqcontingent fears American favorite word, evolving: But the consensus. Newsweek October 1, 2001 LIBYA wouldnt rule out Iraq. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Mullah self-styled supreme leader ofthe Muslim faithful, is Omar appears instead like an apparition grainy, out offocus and more than five years old. Newsweek October 1, 2001 If large-scale rioting dend: the Bush administration said last hedin fight Soviet invaders in the SOs, then were to break out in Pakistan as a result of week itwouldwaive economic sanctions im- supporting the Taliban movement. Newsweek October 1, 2001 His successor at with Washington what bin Laden and his friends staked out his ground, and it wasnt in the ISI, Gen.Jarvid Nasser, under- against the Tailban, could do with Pakistans small middlehe was a modern man. Newsweek October 1, 2001 box cutters stuffed into the seat ofa Sept. 11 flight out of Boston cial. Newsweek October 1, 2001 He has no throne, no armies, not even coming Boston tea party on Sept. 22: It turned out that some anyrealterritory, asidefromthe rockywastes ofAfghanistan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Murad and Yousefwere a duo Sudan to kick out bin Laden. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Op- clear to intelligence analysts that extremists all over the Middle erating under a dozen aliases, Yousefwas a frightening East viewed bin Laden as a modern-day Saladin, the Islamic war- new figure, seemingly stateless and sinister, a global rior who drove out the Crusaders a millennium ago. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Yousefs luck ran out when the apartment ofan old child- limited to U.S. soldiers, then broadened in 1998 to all Americans). Newsweek October 1, 2001 And Egyptianswhose security serv- no amount of good will or ice is particularly ruthlessto money could bridge a funda- root out cells ofbin Ladens men mental divide between intelli- from their hiding places in gence and law enforcement. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The fail- out to fight the war on drugs. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Another was Khalid al-Midhar, who was traveling with an associate, Nawaf al-Hazmi, on a trip arranged by an organization known to U.S. intelligence as a logistical center and Threat Committee of national- security specialists that meets twice a week in the White House complex to monitor alerts sent out so many warnings that they began to blur together. Newsweek October 1, 2001 One was Fahad al-Quso, who, itlater turned out, was assigned to videotape the suicide attack on the Cole (not all of Al Qaeda's men arejames Bond: al-auso botched thejob when he overslept). Newsweek October 1, 2001 I know Im not filled with notations in Arabic about the American base in going to get out of this. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The FBI arrested the men, but al-Marabh was at cockpit voice recorder picked up someone, apparently a hijacker, the time getting a duplicate drivers license at the state department screaming Get out of here! Get out of here! Then grunting, ofmotor vehicles. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But now investigators are groping with turned out, two ofhis housemates had also been going to school to uncertainty, asking: Who else is still out there? And will they strike learn howto drive large trucks. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Some investigators were trying to follow the roomed together in Florida and were tossed out ofJones Flying money. Newsweek October 1, 2001 He was never CIA asked the INS to keep a touching woman, so how can watch out for al-Midhar. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Most of those now pulling falling North Tower psychic toll of the attacks on out physically reliving it. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Well find out how pervasive that feeling is when researchers release the new con- sumer-confidence surveys this week. Newsweek October 1, 2001 11 1 1 11 1 about gradually moving 401(k) money into workers actually corn- ____________________ Waii Streets nigntmare weeK, a Iaiiout from me stocks, not out of them. Newsweek October 1, 2001 guard business data, orthatprovide alterna- Meanwhile, Ralph Sheridan, CEO ofAS&E, Moneyflowed out ofequitymutual funds lastweek, although not Stocks could turn around fast ifwe see an early success. Newsweek October 1, 2001 What Price H ERE IS WHY PROFILING IS SO ALLURING: OF THE suspected skyjackers responsible for upwards of 6,000 deaths on Sept. 11, 19 out of 19 were Arab. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Inthesetimes of first few days out of respect, protecting U.S. Arabs and patrioticfervorwheneven says ScottMcLarty,43, ofthe and D.C. Statehood Green Party. Newsweek October 1, 2001 civil-rights and government- judicial oversight out of the Muslims 500,000 2 million +25 watchdog groups is also urging process? AMER-ARAB ANTI-DISCRIMINATION, ARAB AMERI. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Inside the red zone of wreckage, I see one plastered O F on the backofa hard hat and rememberwhatbe- didnt buy in, you were out. Newsweek October 1, 2001 so out ofshape, patriotically speaking, that : I pass Wall Street, with its chilling view of the many didnt seem to know the words to ruins. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Perhaps true patriotism demands a broad national commitment to something that needs At Union Square, the lefties are out in force, organizing to stop fixing. Newsweek October 1, 2001 who put out Manhattans fires do not, as a rule, live there themselves. Newsweek October 1, 2001 This is a town where flags sold out so fast after the disaster that Sean DiBona, 19, people in Franidin Square. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The Air France seeking to steer fresh troops to the mujahedin. Newsweek October 1, 2001 best way to ensure our countrys safety. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The horror that took place on Sept. 11 way, while you destroyed one symbol of was a tragedy that I had hoped Jordan Americas power and damaged another, an additional emblem of our financial might, would never witness. Newsweek October 1, 2001 They are in no way related to the crimi- ofSept. Newsweek October 1, 2001 margin, approved of the way he was han- ways ofall faiths. Newsweek October 1, 2001 But elections often are not the way passports and spoke fluent decision to give full support to American He wanted to draw legitimacy from the governments are made in Pakistan. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Nor has bin Laden been in any world away, peoplewho understood the feroci- way ignored. Newsweek October 1, 2001 Atta in no way matches that hard look at him.' Newsweek October 1, 2001 They suffer recurring nightmares and PTSD typically a void activities that trigger it, people vary widely in resilien- his way through the Its too early to assess the an inability to recall the experience with- andthatresponsecanturnthem into prison- cy. Newsweek October 1, 2001 She returned threatening events the way we do. Newsweek October 1, 2001 The 29th became the stock the way they do business, says former Securities and Exchange markets blackest day. Newsweek October 1, 2001 You look at that pile and you know theres no way a human could survive that: she says. Newsweek October 1, 2001 a member of New exit number on the Long Island Express- York Citys unifonned civil serviceis an way. Newsweek October 1, 2001 was blowing and we could see town and all the way to the city. Newsweek October 1, 2001 FRANCE ways, such as pro- . Newsweek October 1, 2001 Ifa regime changes its ways, then theres no problem . Newsweek October 1, 2001 But in Washing- ton, policymakers are working to devise ways to offset that weakening. Newsweek October 1, 2001
First, agreed to U.S. calls thinks he can hide from the (right) remains in Laden issued a statement Pakistani intelligence has a for cooperation United States and our allies, he Americas sights denying any connection with bassador to Pakistan, Abdul Salam Zaeef, reiterated an offer the Americans have already re- ftisedto send bin Laden to an Islamic country.) Newsweek September 24, 2001 U that are nominally American allies, espe- time, its Article 5, which defines an attack on one as an attack on all its 19 members. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Dad had the son returned to the pew, his father pat- the Allies in World War II. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But insisting that they become allies, as Bush is doing, could open them to de- stabilization by fundamentalists, who see America as satanic. Newsweek September 24, 2001 moneywill be used for families ofdeceased firefighters. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Craig Chester, a volunteer rescue worker I dont want to be at work because I dont feel completely safe . Newsweek September 24, 2001 I dont knowwhat the gates ofhelllooklike, but its got to be like this? John Maloney, asecuritydirectorforanlnternetfirm in the World Thide Center, on thedevastation in downtown Manhattan He was my angel. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Its that kind of by would-be donors, even though it sadly turned nental Airlines gate attendant Susan Golden strength that America is all about. Newsweek September 24, 2001 ing down the terrorists, and NATO for the first Margaret Thatcher signed, too, adding, Free- time in its history invoked Article 5, which states dom, Justice and Democracy will prevail? that an attack on any member will be construed Last weeks attack was also the most deadly as an attack on all. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Bushs rhetorical skills are For George W Bush, a critical part ofthe test limited (though he rose to the occasion with a he faces will be to channel the nations spirit of moving address at a National Cathedral prayer defiance. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But his actions will have to be shadowy effort, in which victories may not be very carefully chosen, so as not to sacrifice the easy to pinpoint or to celebrate. Newsweek September 24, 2001 In the immediate aftermath of struck by airliners, hope to be part ofthe rebuilding the athcks there were scattered reports burn darkly in the There will be a major test ofthe of tauntings, even beatings, ofArab- clear morning SkY economy. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Hossam Mohamad, a 30-year-old the financial system, and the government will computer consultant from Egypt, e-mailed be fueling a major rebuilding effort that could friends, urging them to go. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The grim fact is that Griefand love, rage and vengeftilness, pride many ofthose killed in New York or Washing- and defiancea volatile set ofemotions was ton may never be found. Newsweek September 24, 2001 They can be crushing collapse ofthe buildings have obliter- dangerous, but they can also be constructive. Newsweek September 24, 2001 That may not be a major flaw, crusade to root out terrorists, and punish those because the country doesnt require words so who harbor them, promises to be a long and much as action. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Walls and lampposts in downtown New who perished would be the achievement ofa York were pasted with pictures ofthe missing. Newsweek September 24, 2001 A half air-traffic controller, or risk getting shot At the White House on that beautifW government officials really be- (above) are suspects hourlater when the third plane, downbytheU.S.AirForce. Newsweek September 24, 2001 In late August, the agency had asked and Twin Thwers), tracking the suspected the FBI to find two ofthe men, one ofwhom 19 suicide bombers and their backers was believed to be connected to a suspect in around the nation and abroad. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But the fin- the threat was real, or if America was ger-pointing may miss a darker and more gripped with the sort offrenzy that seized troubling truth about the shocking attack the nation after thejapanese bombed Pearl It is very difficult for a free and open soci- Harborand many citizens assumed that ety to defend against terrorists who are at Japanese troops would soon be marching once patient, smart and willing to die. Newsweek September 24, 2001 And bomb scares be- pear to be all three. Newsweek September 24, 2001 So itwas uncharac- teristic for MohamedAtta to be running alittle behind when he boardedAmericanAirlines Flight 11 on Thesday shortlybefore 8 a.m. Newsweek September 24, 2001 That feat, while awesome, could be Mohamed Atta Flight 93 crashed Delray Beach, Fla. Newsweek September 24, 2001 They do not appear to be poor, or desperate or down on their luck, like the stereotype of a young Arab HOLLYWOOD Two of the man drawn to the false promise of enter- ing Paradise through martyrdom. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Atta and several friends were regu- da attracts many international retaliation, calling flight students, especially Osama bin Laden lars at a venice bar called the from the Middle East; back- prime suspect 44th Aero Squadron, decorat- ground checks are said to be ed in the motif of a bomber- minimal.) Newsweek September 24, 2001 They didnt little strange that all theywanted to do was want to be bothered, but didnt drink heav- turns, Henry George, who runs SimCen- ily and flirt with the waitresses, like some ter, Inc., at Opa-Locka Airport, told The ofthe other flight students. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Most people who come be the leader. Newsweek September 24, 2001 For car needed to be serviced. Newsweek September 24, 2001 cabdriver named Ihab Mi was indicted for refusingto answer questions about his ties to the bin Laden or- ganization, including his pilot training in Oklahoma according to court ing that Kamfar may be tot- papers. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Three weeks ago therewas anotherwarningthat a terrorist strike might be imminent. Newsweek September 24, 2001 10, NEwswEEKhaslearned, agroup oftop under examination would be a (left) and Gov. Newsweek September 24, 2001 plans for the next morning, apparently be- cause ofsecurityconcerns. Newsweek September 24, 2001 database, it found that al-Midhar was al- One ofthe most intriguing suspects may be ready inside the United States. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Barr, at the airport security flee of Legal Counsel, got the idea after U U time chief ofthe Justice Departments Of- learning that his office was used during liners would be hijacked and plunged into World War II to tryin secretGerman targets in New York and Washington. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Kashmir to lie low, according to Indian in- For Bush, the best news in a week of The first regime on the list? Afghanistan, will be sorely mistaken. Newsweek September 24, 2001 They Thliban, are known to be harboring Ameri- sown the rhetoric of war, Bush must reap terms. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Such an operation would be along the lines of Bill Clintons swift but ineffective attacks on Afghanistan and Sudan in the wake of the 1998 embassy bombings. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The latter might be the favored option, since carrier strikeswouldtake several nights and lose the element of surprise. Newsweek September 24, 2001 strategy is to move deliberately: put togeth- sanctions imposed after Pakistans 1998 for what may be the single deadliest day Though the president has more high- er an international coalition and present nuclear tests, Islamabad would share intel- in American history. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The that meant a high likelihood of civilian en- vious wartime presidents have had: a clear Laden be turned over, and then to author- price is that it must be done through the sualties. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Con: bin Laden doesnt depend on sophisticated military instal- lations, so the real impact on his operations would be minimal. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Im not ready to be sup- be a nightmarish operation, almost certain- Taliban into handing him over, National Guardsmen porting the Marines going ly requiring a U.S. base inside the border. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Bush administration is talking seriously probably more important, seizing computer diers in the campswhich could be done not yet, at any rateabout bombing these disks that would lay bare the operations of his by airisnt enough. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Con: itwould tious operation involving ground troops its list of culprits, the thinner its support- be close to a suicide mission. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The secret in- would be high risk with little return. Newsweek September 24, 2001 A good example is sertion offorces would be hard. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Iran is the single largest source of fi- from the Afghan wilderness after a gun battle pensity for risk among politicians and nance and material for terrorism, says one would be next to impossible. Newsweek September 24, 2001 legislature actually appropriates money Ladens whereaboutswhich even the Paid- Americans will be willing to see more U.S. for this thing? Yet few nations, especially stanis, nowcooperatingwiththeAmericans, soldiers die in an attack. Newsweek September 24, 2001 already encountering some resistance to sanction a bombardment or invasion of Iran (though militarily it would be easier Going forward, 69% believe more intelligence . Newsweek September 24, 2001 agents infiltrating terrorist groups would be bin Ladens funds have also ledto countries very effective in preventing future attacks cially in the case of a tangle of bank . Newsweek September 24, 2001 The Pan Am Flight 103 case is a model; coor- counts in Saudi Arabia and on what may be the most ef- dinated international pressure on Libyas the gulf states. Newsweek September 24, 2001 At the same time, private funding ofvio- Youre either with us or against us? (It may be, oddly enough, cold-war-era con- lent Islamic groups has poured out ofSaudi should be noted that this, while it may be tainment. Newsweek September 24, 2001 He would also be solid against religion? Could the culprits might only demonstrate anew knows that a coalition is critical for a mili- the new war against terrorism become an- the United States impotence against terror- tary response and for America to win coop- other cold war? At this point it may be as ism. Newsweek September 24, 2001 What used to be cations. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Only a few would be trained, Bosnia, Russians in Chechnya, Hindus in They trained with weapons and ammuni- get the money to carry out an operation in A eventually, toblowthemselvesto bits in sui- Kashmir or Israelis in Palestine. Newsweek September 24, 2001 His mission was to screen would-be recruits arrived. Newsweek September 24, 2001 True believers, they imag- the U.S.-Canadian border a few days before could be placed near the air intakes ofoffice of terrorist activities in France this year holy warriors before assigning them to the ined themselves at the vanguard of their own. Newsweek September 24, 2001 They may convince will be reduced. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Others might be besieged, humiliated and annihilated bers of Ressams family Ressams arrest good guns or at mak- around the globe, whether by Serbs in told NEWSWEEK last at the border, The Making of a Holy Warrior 6 Sow the seed: Joins a cell of four or five Osama bin Ladens networks span more than 50 countries and are estimated to comprise some other militants to 3,000 militants. Newsweek September 24, 2001 America is much weaker than it seems? At one point, bin Laden seems to be grooming his followers for suicide missions: You will not die needlessly, he counsels them. Newsweek September 24, 2001 miles space, are believed to be destroyed or damaged. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The tricky part will be winning backing (or forbearance) from the worlds Islamic states. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Butwill that resolve last if our losses mountor, worse, if our actions provoke new terrorist attacks? For in the new world war, civilians are combat- ants, whethertheywantto be or not. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Providing a state-of-the-art homeland defenseWashingtons new buzz term will be costly. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Hardening the transpor- tation, communications and energy infra- structure could cost a half-trillion dollars; ongoing personnel costs could be stagger- ing. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Instead ofmoving back- sweata total violation ofthe stewed- ftsgoingto be OK, he told a distraught ward, many, including the senior men, tomato-and-fruit diet he had strictly ob- woman. Newsweek September 24, 2001 There has telling her, Its going to be OK.' Newsweek September 24, 2001 He was his skills might be better served managingthe infiltration ofter- sensitive and tough and totally on top of everything from DNA on rorist organizations the way he once busted the Mafia. Newsweek September 24, 2001 With higher security costs, impact could be surprisingly mild. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But the calm may be deceptive. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Bill Thomas, chairman ofthe House The powers that be decidedwisely, I thinkthat it was un- Ways and Means Committee, said that a capital-gains tax cutan seemly, ifnot unsafe, to allow 75,000 stock-market workers item offaith in certain quartersisjustwhatthe nation needs right to pour into downtown Manhattan at a time it was closed to al- nowto help us recover. Newsweek September 24, 2001 No air- port can be made totally secure, says Boyd. Newsweek September 24, 2001 planes but seems to be de- ceramic knives (like one ETERNAL VIGILANCE Video at Miami airport shows gun- andknife ban (left), a mother in Florida takes her son from school early about $26 billion. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Checked baggage, like carry-ons, should be X-rayed. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Under CAPPS (Computer- At airport check-in, document inspec- Assisted Passenger Prescreening System), lion should be handled by trained security security personnel look for suspicious pur- personnel, not the lady who asks if you chasing patterns (gleaned from credit-card prefer aisle or window. Newsweek September 24, 2001 security is likely to be introduced in Con- ic irony if[in the name ofsecurity] we gave from free and open to closed and paranoid? tectors, X-ray inspection ofparcels and bio- airports. Newsweek September 24, 2001 each other by computerthere is no central trading floor to be im- Its not a time to try to profiteer. Newsweek September 24, 2001 A ban on We Ever Be curbside check-in is only the beginning. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The FAA wont would be the ultimate victory for terrorists if standard landscaping for many public new ways and new targets, so antiterrorism You wont be able to take much if anything reveal numbers, but it reportedly has only a they succeed in transforming our society buildings. Newsweek September 24, 2001 What can be done: database of mug shots. Newsweek September 24, 2001 vented last weeks tragedies, Extend security cargo that ground ID checks, parcel Border Control he says, and would be in- make this Fortress America is to live in a workers and errant valuable at sporting events fools paradise. Newsweek September 24, 2001 personal information, face recognition systems can personnel conduct Put armed marshals in plain Consider nofly tncludrng hand or retina be fooled by beards, glasses, extensive questioning scanswhich you d have heavy makeup and other dis- clothes aboard random flights. Newsweek September 24, 2001 To enforce such a policy, you need to be ready to scramblejets to intercept, or bring down, violators. Newsweek September 24, 2001 A plane that a CIA team identified as a possible drug-traf- fickingflight and shot down in Peru in April turned out to be carrying an innocent mis- sionary family. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Now you think, Whoa, maybe thats not so bad? Whatever changes come, however, to believe that we can tries cannot eliminate terrorism, we have to be realistic that an open democratic so- ciety cant either, says Bruce Hoffman of Rand Corp. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Here are some ways to answer their questions: Be calm, but honest. Newsweek September 24, 2001 At ton South High School in Massachusetts, more girl, who did not want to be identified, classroom as the Twin Towers imploded. Newsweek September 24, 2001 On Thursday, might be buried in rubble. Newsweek September 24, 2001 However, experts say when young children ask these questions, they may actually be expressing concern about their own safety. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Anger can also be a sign ofanxiety. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Despite what must be hundreds and York and Pennsylvania, the networks hundreds of corpses in Washington, New rightfully kept the grisliest images from a ception: the seemingly endless video of someone plunging from the World Trade Center, which CBS, Fox News and CNN showed repeatedly, though NBC wisely aired it only once. Newsweek September 24, 2001 NBC considered removing an airport- security joke from an episode of Will & Grace? And images of the World Trade Center are being almost universally erased, whether its from a scene in Friends or the opening credits of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire and Law & Order: SVU? Were all just trying to do the right thing: said Fox entertainment president Gail Berman. Newsweek September 24, 2001 And then, almost be- large part, that may have been because so fore we can comprehend what were seeing, many journalists found themselves in the scenes almost as terrifying: the Pentagon middle ofthe tragedy as it unfolded. Newsweek September 24, 2001 can be used against us How bad will it get? ofworkers, just in time factories rely By STEVEN LEVY controllersmanagehundredsofplanesat F ROM AMERICAN FLIGHT 77, EN ate torrents of disruption and pain. Newsweek September 24, 2001 They can also be voices. Newsweek September 24, 2001 While refusing to think the Unthinkable, we create the cir- Communications could also be shroudedwith steganography cumstances that allow it to occur. Newsweek September 24, 2001 (hiding messages between pixels of a graphica reputed bin Laden Should we be giving the Unthinkable more consideration as we technique) or anonymizers (which make e-mail untraceable). Newsweek September 24, 2001 Yet it tools are lionized by freedom-loving cypherpunks, who have almost goes without sayingthat any saIguards we institute wont shrugged off potential dark-side usage as a reasonable trade-off for be perfect. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Like other religions, Islam perfect Muslim society has yet to be creat- vast majority of Muslims, Arab and non- has its divisions and sects. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The violence that explod- ed over New York City be- gan in the back alleys of Beirut, Cairo, Jerusalem wherever Muslim extrem- ists discerned the power of the United States behind their more immediate ene- mies. Newsweek September 24, 2001 If the Quran is to be believed, Allah Himself re- Islamic radicals also see the United . Newsweek September 24, 2001 a be little match-for todays gitimatejournalistshavevent- liberties, says Faisil Gill, ofthe manwearingawhite rubber equally evolved high-tech edrage. Newsweek September 24, 2001 He may even be under its protection. Newsweek September 24, 2001 This is surely the End of the End ofHistorythe notion that after the cold war, ideological or political tus- sles were dead and life would be spent managing the economy and worrying Sharing Americas grief, people in London about consumerism. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But the this war will be won or lost on these political grounds. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Ifother countries be- bookthe provision ofsecurity. Newsweek September 24, 2001 And this order can be truly secure onlywhen all was a matter ofchoice, not necessity. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But that price would be greater still ifweget Even more importantly, the real war thought. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The first is crucial: just as the nuclear buildup and proxy battles were at the cen- ter ofthe cold ware SO military strikes and covert operations will be at the core of this one. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Around 10 oclock, though, as he made his way toward the subway station below the World Trade CenterNew Yorkers regard the subways as a distinct geographic realm, in which a fire up on the 80th floor might as well be on the moona boom echoed through the streets, the sky darkened overhead and he was swept up in a panicky stampede going the other way. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Engineers later con- centerforfamilies was the second tower to be complicated the rescue and firefighting cluded that the thousand-de- with missing persons attacked, it fell first, just be- efforts in the building that was already gree heat of the burning jet fore 10 oclock. Newsweek September 24, 2001 fuel weakened the buildings structures shared a firehouse with Engine 16, which The one great tragic miscalculation of until they could no longer support the had the relative good fortune to be as- the weekthe establishment of the fire weight ofthe floors above. Newsweek September 24, 2001 In hushed awe at the magnitude of the disaster, NewYorkerswho in more normal times can become completely unhinged at the presence of a single dead pigeon with West Nile virusgathered around their be- leaguered city. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Please least in the first few days after the unspeak- tell the children I love them, he said, be- able horror of Tuesday, it had passed its first fore the connection went dead. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Wtth SUZANNE SMALLEY, GRETEL C. KOVACH, ADAM could be alive, said McCormicks husband, PLORE,DEVINGORDON,JULIESCELFO,ERIKA Todd. Newsweek September 24, 2001 There could be air pockets. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Last week Mayor Rudolph Giuliani was quick to say that the World Trade Center must be rebuilt, though hedidntsuggestitbe replicated. Newsweek September 24, 2001 World Trade Center isnt likely to be as tall. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Andthere arethosewho believethe site should be left va- cant. Newsweek September 24, 2001 He always had words that put things in wreckage killed thousands more, and perspective: Last weeks horrors would have test- hundreds ofrescuers themselves be- ed even FatherJudges powers to comfort the came victims. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But we know hes going to be walking out of the rubble. Newsweek September 24, 2001 She had Its not as If youre never going Grandcolas with her husband way out ofthe building, but he to be at work at 7:30 in the to see me again. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Adds Gordon: I dont He was only 25, but Shawn want to speak in the past Nassaney had already done spent a semester in London were really trying to do is on public-health issues that he ' Please be happy. Newsweek September 24, 2001 blood atthe Red Cross, aman railed against the Palestinians be- It seems as though each one ofus had something that made us cause hed seen television footage ofmen, women and children tremble: the airplane cell-phone call from husbandtowife, saying dancingforjoyatthethousands ofAmericandead. Newsweek September 24, 2001 They left behind, not so much a monumental mass of rubble, executives, the waiters, the lawyers, the police officers, the father, but tricycles, sweater drawers, love letters, flower beds, books, video the mother, the 2-year-old girl offon an adventure, sitting safe be- cameras, unpaidbills, untidy kitchens, mothers, fathers, uncles, tween them, takingwing. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Instead l was struck by the idea of them, of what it feels like Amazing, isntit, the sort of plotting and scheming and careful to be a mother, a father, to travel with your husband, yourwife, with planning that the blazing belief in violence to underscore dema- your 2-year-old daughter in the seat between you. Newsweek September 24, 2001 They use the tech- among its unyielding mountains niques ofcredit-card fraud and petty theft and let the bees fly where they theylearned in the camps, or they get pay- will. Newsweek September 24, 2001 At Atlantas Hartsfield airport, Conti- ing care and being together. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The idea Some officials complain that the intelli- was rejected, but its being revived on the gence community has been too focused theory that terrorists are de facto military on terrorists obtaining weapons of mass combatants who dont deserve the full destructionbiological, chemical and run of constitutional rights. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Despite their inevitable collapse, the towers stood for more than an hour after being hit, allowing numerous tenants to escape. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But after several ing will drop in 2002 after being remain unchanged? At a minimum, travel index immediately dropped about 12 year. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The places and see guys in flakjackets holding suspicious planes detectors $30,000 system, being test- machine guns, and you think, Whoa, this weapons and explosives. Newsweek September 24, 2001 I dont care about frisking and baggage checks and my so-called rights being potentially violated? JeffChristian, CEO of an execu- tive search firm, says, You go to some is scary. Newsweek September 24, 2001 She told a New York and Washington did something dramatic tale of being engulfed in a cloud that seemed nearly impossible after the dis- of debris so thick that she had to kick astrous coverage ofelection night 2000 and in two glass doors to an apartment build- the Gary Condit feeding frenzy. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The 43-year- promises them extra protec- being agood Muslim and a ism. Newsweek September 24, 2001 ca. She is equally As America reels from last sickened when weeks deadly terrorist at- she hears of her tacks, Muslims and Arab- Arab neighbors Americans are experiencing being spit on. Newsweek September 24, 2001 I was sure I was going to die he said after being treated at NYU Downtown Hospital. Newsweek September 24, 2001 I had a hard time being happy. Newsweek September 24, 2001 We havent being hijacked, and he joined oth- love you, honey. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Con: it smacks of Clinton- ism. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Thats about where Roosevelts rating tically unanimous use-of-force authori- With his father and former presidents Ford, Carter and Clinton on hand, Bush was eloquent at the National Cathedral zation, $40 billion for home defense and and agitation for more is sure to mount. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Hillary Clinton into a warm, breathtaking scope. Newsweek September 24, 2001 New York, the city and the country have found that most elusive Hillary Clinton says it dwarfs anything she has seen on her ofall democratic treasuresreal leadership. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Simone Mitchell is looking for the father of her 9yearold son, Julian, Port Authority police officer Clinton Davis, 38. Newsweek September 24, 2001 So societallywe may respond with some : Theattackhasbuiltsomeconnections ofthe symptoms for post-traumatic : betweenusthatdidntexiston Monday. Newsweek September 24, 2001 God may show you mercy. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Muslims have made may hinge on the consumer: will she act shell- shocked and cautious, or will she people live on in a limbo ofdesperate choose to defy the terrorists with her New York skylines hope. Newsweek September 24, 2001 A sen- ior European intelligence official told NEWSWEEK that some of the hijackers VthU BEACH FBI agents have HAMBURG Two ofthe suspects may have had Swiss bank accounts, which VENICE Investigators collected searched several homes with may have operated out of have now been frozen by Swiss authori- evidence from Huffman Aviation, possible links to the hijackers. Newsweek September 24, 2001 NEWS- WEEK has learned that the Pentagon has referred to the FBI reports that three of the hijackers may have received help from Uncle Samas trainees at Pensacola Naval Air Station in Florida; two others may have studied atAir Force facilities. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Bin Laden may not have a vast personal fortune, at least not the $300 million ascribed to him, but he is able to secure funds from nefari- ous sources. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Atta, 33, may have had a shadowy past. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Accord- ing to law-enforcement authorities, he may have begun casing Logan Airport in Boston more than six months ago. Newsweek September 24, 2001 the terrorism trial in NewYork Donald Rumsfeld Two ofthe suicide bombers for the August 1998 bombings Huoh Shelton and may have just slipped out of oftwo U.S. embassies inAfrica other leaders discuss the federal governments offer a wealth of information milita o tions at grasp. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Although investigators now suspect that Attn may been the leader ofhis cell, it is not clear if and when he was, in effect, trig- gered? The pattern ofbin Ladens terrorism is to insert operatives into a country where they are sleepers burrowed deep into the local culture, leading normal lives while awaitingorders. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Intelligencesourcesbelieve that one or two control agents run by bin Ladens Qaeda may have slipped into the United States in the last couple ofweeks to activate the airliner plot. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The idea ofusing suicide pilots may have been germinating for a very long time. Newsweek September 24, 2001 nuclearwhile overlooking low-tech Civil libertarians may balk, but never threatslike the use ofpenknives and box underestimate the desire for revenge. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Even his whereabouts in real time, the key obstacle friends in the Taliban may not know where in previous efforts to grab or kill him. Newsweek September 24, 2001 If eral approach, says a former Pentagon to bomb, you may wind up bombing some Bush moves too slowly and diplomatically, planner. Newsweek September 24, 2001 They may depending on the country they came from. Newsweek September 24, 2001 He Ressam and Kamel and perhaps a half- But insane as these acts may seem, the learn to operate. Newsweek September 24, 2001 may promise them a quick trip to Paradise. Newsweek September 24, 2001 With HOSENBALL Washington and Scott Johnson in Paris Targeting the Harbors President Bush says hell show no mercy for countries that may support terrorists. Newsweek September 24, 2001 In 1986, bin Laden helped build he believes are corrupting and oppressing ZAHID Hussain in lslamabad Tearing a Hole Design of the Building In the Skyline The organization of interior columns columns may have supported core contributed to the way of building. Newsweek September 24, 2001 With business already sputtering, the attack may nudge an anxious country into a recession. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Before the at- ruptcies, although Congress may provide I gradually move on, and when all the usually more than recovers. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Typically, the stock market declines Arab oil embailo second quarter) and Europe slowing dra- the airline industrys losses could easily J pie may view this like a natural disaster, right after unexpected crisesKennedys 1974 Nixon resigns -15:5 matically. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Processing a $25 Billion Claim among Wall Street profes- with the European bank so it had dollars to volved will likely cause premi- I umstoriseandsomeinsurers may stop writing terrorism poli- I ciesaltogether. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Some ofthis, un- othersseem to have informally agreed symbol of a heady market, rivals worked fortunately, may change as a result of the asaneventthatresultsin not to ghoulishly exploit the tragedy by together to get the system in shape attack. Newsweek September 24, 2001 At cially evolved messages may Death to ragheads.' Newsweek September 24, 2001 This may not please camust recognize that the world they have gotten used to will civillibertarians and human-rights activists, but itwill not matter. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Hisnightmare scenario was ofan acci- dent, butlastweeks terrible tragedy may now make planners think aboutthe unthinkable.Anew Newsweek September 24, 2001 It turned out they wanted flags. Newsweek September 24, 2001 out that there was not that much demand for looked out at thousands ofpassengers strand- A similar spirit of solidarity broke out abroad. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Last week saw a sad It hardly seems possible, or even fitting, to procession ofsupplicants going from hospital to I imagine that some good could come out of hospital, seeking their loved ones among the in- such horror. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Get out your security know are out the window. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Thinking out of the women to shed their high-heeled shoes so not suspect that a hijacking had occurred U.S. Air Force fighter planes did not ar- box, as Clemmer put it, he asked forand they could run faster. Newsweek September 24, 2001 And it is not out ofreach. Newsweek September 24, 2001 He wrote a $10,000 check to take ffight lessons at one The threat isnt going away: 82% say more attacks on cities, buildings or landmarks are at least somewhat likelysoon of Floridas many flight out of the ordinary, Warrick schools. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Last week Atta and two of his buddies When he turned in his rent-a-car in Porn- seem to have gone out for a farewell bender pano Beach, Fla., Newsweek September 24, 2001 Last week Florida Ever since the Customs Service foiled an cops put out an all-points bulletin, warn- apparent bomb plot on the eve ofthe mil- In the postmortem, 30% say FBI and CIA intelligence failures are mostly at fault, but 57% blame poor lennium, U.S. intelligence has been very edgy about an attack on America. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Afghanistans modem history ofslaughter, of skewered hubris, goes back to 1842, when 16,500 British soldiers and civil- ians were killed in a winter retreat from istans plains, And the women come out to Kabul; only one escaped. Newsweek September 24, 2001 In the 1980s, sup- cut up what remains, Jest roll to your rifle plied with U.S. Stinger missiles, mujahedin and blow out your brains. Newsweek September 24, 2001 fensive in the Panjshir Valley, taking out If Americans thought they had a hard Moscows helicopters and planes. Newsweek September 24, 2001 You can time rooting the enemy from hooches in easily go inside Afghanistan, but you will Vietnam, they have only begun to grapple not come out easily, Maj. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Gen. Hamid Gul, with the problem of wiping out terrorist the former head of Pakistani intelligence, cells in the first war ofthe 21st century, said to a NEWSWEEK reporter last week. Newsweek September 24, 2001 And now, having laying out possible strategies in the vaguest American demands for cooperation. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Bush administration officials insist the president has ruled out what one called demonstration strikes like this. Newsweek September 24, 2001 (On Friday, Afghanistans am- continued to answer the call says that bin Ladens corn- working out the strategylate rhetorically. Newsweek September 24, 2001 JDAMs, the bombs that guide themselves to designat- ed geographical coordinates through GPS signals, could take out clusters of buildings and minimize innocent casualties. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The Boston fective option in the long run: Muammar Kaddafi isolated his regime, re- Globe reported last week that Bush choppers into workingfor months andyears to duced the Libyan threat and ultimately there is evidence at least five New York last week, bmld consensus among the na- forced him to turn over the key libyan sus- of the Boston hijackersone declaring the nation's tions ofthe world to stamp out pects for trial, says Yoram Schweitzer, a or more with a Saudi pass- duto 'to answer these terror networks where they have former Israeli Anny officer. Newsweek September 24, 2001 He said he was taught sur- escape if they were not carrying out sui- horrendous attacks on New York and give a clear picture ofhow these young men themselves that they are personified agents veiiiance techniques and shown how to dis- cide missions. Newsweek September 24, 2001 were all to carry out bank robberies and then have been given seed money by the Saudi FGHANISTAN IS FAMOUS FOR ing bombs. Newsweek September 24, 2001 1 Motivate: Rhetoric from bin Laden supporters 3 TraIn: at local mosques 8 Get out: If not about worldwide Once approved, part of suicide persecution of recruit attends mission, escape Muslims piques training camp in countiy ASAP. Newsweek September 24, 2001 out of caves, perhaps in the dry hills near first he provided logistical help, including Bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia as a Kandahar; others believe that he has cash and construction equipmentmaking kind of cult hero in 1989. Newsweek September 24, 2001 By midnight wearing a gas mask, was led running through a smoke-filled base- Giuliani had slipped quietly back downtown to the ruins, where ment maze and out the other side, where the soot theyre now his people worked all night under the floodlights, trying to find calling gray snow was a foot deep. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The doomed were jumping Stripping offthe gas mask, Giuliani and a small group set off the slightest trace oftheir friends and co-workers, now the na- out ofthe remaining tower before the mayors eyes. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But in this cataclysm, than it looks on TV a landscape out ofDante. Newsweek September 24, 2001 insurance money and government aid there are some signs thateconomi- The larger threat is a further erosion of comes, it actuallyjogs the economy out of callyAmericans are taking the crisis _ NED DAVIS RESEARCH INC. in stride. Newsweek September 24, 2001 dozen small companies out of Usingthatdefinition,tbisattack business, but Andrews liabili- equaled 1,000 catastrophes. Newsweek September 24, 2001 UnitedAirlines re- the claims Is Trade Centerten- researchedwhether this exclu- In or out of court, it will take sponsible?When expected to take antswhohadfa- sion would apply. Newsweek September 24, 2001 out of action, and theres nowhere near enough empty space in Many big securities firms could have resumed trading last week Manhattan to accommodate the survivors. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Thomas saidinan interview Fri- extract the dead and restore power, telephone and other services daythathewastaken out ofcontext and that he certainlyisnttrying to the stricken area. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Put the word out, said an unguarded plane is a cinch as federal agents another: twodaysaftertheterrorattacks, the Federal Aviation Administration was still letting caterers onthe aircraftwithout going Besides plugging that hole, airports should fingerprint ground workers and checks, say security experts. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Because the Nasdaq time for every purpose under the heaven? When theyre still is totally computerizedtraders from all over the world dealwith pullingbodies out ofbuildings on Wall Street, its a time to mourn. Newsweek September 24, 2001 I was about to say, Its probably nothing,'' Welsh recalls, when a kid looked out the win- dow and saw a dark cloud of smoke.' Newsweek September 24, 2001 A masked kidnap- ears at New York since the assassination of perwaving a gun out awindow Citys harrowing President Kennedy that the at the Munich Olympics. Newsweek September 24, 2001 ABCs smashed like a fallen souffl, terrified em- John McWethy was at work in the Penta- ployees sprinting out of the White House, gon when the plane crashed. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Others on the stolen planes, as well as dozens trapped in the World Trade Center towers, pulled out their cells to speak one more time to a wife or parent and say I love you? The recipients ofthose calls, whilejustiflably inconsolable, are undoubtedlygrateftil In crisis times, our cell phones and the for the final opportunity to hear those lnbrnet are Invaluable. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Afghanistan let the genie of lim governments have sys- the United States because of jihad out of the bottle, says Kepel, and there is no way Muslims can put it back tematically repressed. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Virginia college student Faiza An American Di emma Mohammed has avoided going out in public since a police officer asked her last week to take off her head scarf-which, Arab -Americans wony about a world ofhate to a devout Muslim woman, is BY LYNETTE CLEMETSON government fueled ethnic ha- houseforhate. Newsweek September 24, 2001 In his brilliant essay, observe a Europewide three minutes of Francis Fukuyama actually considered the silent tribute to the victims of the assault threat ofradical Islam but pointed out correctly that, unlike communism, it has no ideological appeal the start, America realized one ofits chiefmissions was to discred- beyond the borders ofthe Muslim world. Newsweek September 24, 2001 We can do this is various ways out it takes only one side to restart History. Newsweek September 24, 2001 From The bombing rippled out to touch all New Yorkers, who responded Ground Zero with bravery, generosity and a deep sense of community. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Miller looked out at the burning building and South Tower who had put their faith in saw peoplejumping from windows a The North Tower the mistaken all-clear. Newsweek September 24, 2001 No, but sheand the rest of the world would soon find out how many thousands of men and women did not go home to their loved ones last ihesday. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The first five or seven were dropping right out of the building, almost as if they were trying to hold onto it, he recalls. Newsweek September 24, 2001 And in a matter ofhours, the effects rip- pled out to touch virtually everyone in the city, or, for that matter, the world. Newsweek September 24, 2001 I dont know what it ChelseaPiers, saidWayne Roimisher, avol- said? The city put out a call to unteer EMT from suburban Rockland the federal government for Posters bearing the County. Newsweek September 24, 2001 She told him her name And the collapse ofthe two great towers that morning, who had been out on an- wasJosephine. Newsweek September 24, 2001 He ordered his men out, but he seenand sometime after 1 p.m. Kross stayed behind with an officer from Engine crawled out triumphantly onto a heap of One to help the woman down the stairs, rubble. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Somehow, he had land- burned-out shell, he said wearily. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Even The New York Times had were actually turning around and going coming out in pieces. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Dr. David Capiola, a to admit that the crisis brought out the back up, said Garth Williams, who made surgical resident at a midtown hospital, bi- best in the notoriously contentious Giu- it safely down from the 69th floor. Newsweek September 24, 2001 makeshift dust masks for the killing hundreds of Then, postponing their hon- rescue workers and handed out his colleagues eymoon in Vancouver water and cookies. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Hardly anyone was brought the twisted remnants with cranes, so the out alive after the first 24 hours, except for rescuers could probe deeper into the rub- rescuers who themselves were hurt or mo- ble. Newsweek September 24, 2001 plangent symbol ofthis particular catastro- But they also know the other truth, after phe was not the yellow ribbon or the bou- spending four hours filling out forms and quet but the walls covered with homemade submitting dental records and DNA-test- fliers seeking information about people ing information. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Itwasnt my building? could; in fact, it happened at least twice, Just get out of there, Ramon ordered, to two Port Authority officers. Newsweek September 24, 2001 when the call went still waiting, and wondering how long he out from the site for a surgeon. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Rescue could keep reassuring his two youngest workers had found a man trapped in the sons, who are 6 and 8, that their mother rubble and feared they would have to was stuck in the city because the roads amputate his leg to get him out, but after were blocked. Newsweek September 24, 2001 ergy, says grandson Nate We had to keep explaining studentwas one ofthree out- streets and nurture hislove of Ufe at Fiduciary Trust left standinglocal sixth graders books. Newsweek September 24, 2001 He died alongwith his CrossleyWilliams Jr. dissatis- call as soon as he got out, says Its a close-knit clan: in addi- Wahistrom, 24. Newsweek September 24, 2001 When his wife, Shirley, came down- stairs early Tuesday morning, Willcher was rushing out the doorwith a suitjacket in his hand. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Their deaths aboard ting out for a newlife. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Last Tuesdays plan Fitz who was on those high fornia that he set two alarm for adventure: a trip to Hawaii floors and made it out, so we clocks to make sure he wouldnt vith his college sweetheart, could talk to them and find out miss his early-morning flight BRIAN SWEENEY, 38, a United Airlines passenger, leavingaphone message for his wife, Julia tEFT: PHOTOORAPHY I but he doesnt I told him his IS the bravest mom in the world.5 Newsweek September 24, 2001 When my mother died, still holds out hope. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The Islamic Cultural Centerablock away ing out of the building holding hands, a woman whispered at day- fromherehas apoliceofficerstandingguard; in the middle ofthe break, walking her dog. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Crazy, perhaps, butwith a crater of knew much about them; I found out from news reports only that the tumbled steel where two of the worlds most iconographic buildings three ofthem were going to visit family on the United flight from once stood, the people muttering conspiracies to themselves on the Boston to Los Angeles, the second plane to hit the World Trade street have overnight come to seem like seers. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The end ofthe world of white lights out the window, looking for the bombs bursting in air. Newsweek September 24, 2001 But Americansat most times carefree, pleasure- seeking and willfully independenthave a way most disasters, here the injured were touched by their plight. Newsweek September 24, 2001 The administration is seeking to tar- serviceyet. Newsweek September 24, 2001 working for an hour and a halfthey man- Most ofthe people seeking relatives, af- aged to extricate him in one piece. Newsweek September 24, 2001 United Way: The United Way of New York and the New York Community Trust have created a fund specifically for victims and their families. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Mail your check or money orderto United Way ofNewYork City, 2 ParkAvenue, NewYork, N.Y. 10016. Newsweek September 24, 2001 So people are comingto- remain the way it washas been shaken. Newsweek September 24, 2001 theACLU, People for theAmerican Way, all of them who have tried to seculatizeAmerica, I pointthe finger in their face and say, You helped this happen? TelevangelistJerrj Faiwell ImArab, butiftheArabs dlidit, then Imashamed. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Norma Hesslc, who worked her way down from an 82d-floor WTC office after thefirstplane hit. Newsweek September 24, 2001 At least thats the way it - - - - - - World Trade Center, the most seemed to the pilot, David visible symbol of capitalism, Clemmer, a Vietnam combat killing thousands in lower Man- veteran who received a warning hattan, and come so close to de- as he flew the nations chief law- on hair-trigger alert. Newsweek September 24, 2001 Flight 11 crashed into The Death Squads mass against him, Islamic terrorists have the North Tower of the found a diabolically clever way to flip the World frade Center Great Satan on his back. Newsweek September 24, 2001 To fight and break international terror in a lasting way, you must do more than act militarily. Newsweek September 24, 2001 riled up, and slowly draw away its young faces a political dilemma with global impli- Whichever way he goes, Bush has lost with promises offreedom. Newsweek September 24, 2001 They watched their trainers kill a dog in a nessman with blow-dried hair, immacu- bin Ladens closest aides traveled to the their way to him. Newsweek S